WorldWideScience

Sample records for birthday world wide

  1. Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

  2. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  3. Pharmamarketing im World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Luce, Rembert

    1997-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has experienced great growth as a value-added service of the internet during the last years. Itis used by many companies as a medium for marketingpurposes. Electronical marketing allows many possibilities: These areillustrated in the following paper. It also differs greatly in comparison to marketing in the traditional media.Pharma-marketing has many special aspects which are particular to this branch. In comparison to other industrial branchesthere are many legal asp...

  4. Innovation in Science Education - World-Wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Albert V.

    The purpose of this book is to promote improvements in science education, world-wide, but particularly in developing countries. It is addressed to those in positions to make effective contributions to the improvement of science education. The world-wide role of science education, the goals of innovative activities, past experience in efforts to…

  5. Emergency Medicine for medical students world wide!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perinpam, Larshan; Thi Huynh, Anh-Nhi

    2015-01-01

    A guest blog from Larshan Perinpam (President of ISAEM) and Anh-Nhi Thi Huynh (Vice president of external affairs, ISAEM) - http://blogs.bmj.com/emj/2015/04/17/emergency-medicine-for-medical-students-world-wide/......A guest blog from Larshan Perinpam (President of ISAEM) and Anh-Nhi Thi Huynh (Vice president of external affairs, ISAEM) - http://blogs.bmj.com/emj/2015/04/17/emergency-medicine-for-medical-students-world-wide/...

  6. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable and...... consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how to...... improve the eectiveness of the specication by including additional properties of the information. We show how to eciently verify a specication of information in data stores underlying large-scale web sites. Finally we have surveyed the evaluation data used in approaches on extracting information from the...

  7. Copyright and the World-Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Bradford; Hoadley, Michael R.

    This paper discusses the aspects of copyright law pertinent to World Wide Web users. Topics addressed include: the purpose of copyright law; what can be copyrighted, including categories that do not qualify for copyright protection; notice of copyright; copyright infringement; and the factors that determine fair use, (purpose and character of use,…

  8. WorldWide Web: Hypertext from CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Gord

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of software tools for accessing information on the Internet focuses on the WorldWideWeb (WWW) system, which was developed at the European Particle Physics Laboratory (CERN) in Switzerland to build a worldwide network of hypertext links using available networking technology. Its potential for use with multimedia documents is also…

  9. Publishing Mathematics on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Mirek

    1999-01-01

    Shows how mathematical concepts can be displayed on World Wide Web pages. Discusses HTML; embedding mathematical formulae into text as pictures; the use of word-processing tools; MathML, a version of HTML for math; IBM Techexplorer, a browser plug-in; and Java applets. (Author/LRW)

  10. Welcome to the World-Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip

    1995-01-01

    World Wide Web (WWW) is a multimedia, globally distributed, client/server information system based on hypertext. WWW browser software (Mosaic, Cello, and Samba) allows users to navigate hypertext documents via the Internet. Libraries are taking advantage of the fact that hypertext linked documents can be easily and inexpensively shared. (JMV)

  11. World Wide Web Robots: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Tham Yoke

    1999-01-01

    Traces the development of World Wide Web Robots and provides an overview of their main functions and workings. The focus is on search robots. Illustrations are drawn from two major search engines: AltaVista and Excite. Concludes with an examination of problems associated with the use of Web Robots and their implications for electronic publishing.…

  12. Evolutionary Dynamics of the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo A. Huberman; Adamic, Lada A.

    1999-01-01

    We present a theory for the growth dynamics of the World Wide Web that takes into account the wide range of stochastic growth rates in the number of pages per site, as well as the fact that new sites are created at different times. This leads to the prediction of a universal power law in the distribution of the number of pages per site which we confirm experimentally by analyzing data from large crawls made by the search engines Alexa and Infoseek. The existence of this power law not only imp...

  13. Promoting and supporting PBL interests world wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Kolmos, Anette; Moesby, Egon

    2006-01-01

    of projects world wide focusing on institutional change toward a more student centred, project organised, and problem based approach to learning. The Centre is also establishing a UCPBL Global Network on Problem Based Learning in order to facilitate better access to and co-operation within the PBL......-Based Learning (PBL) in Engineering Education, an increasing number of universities and engineering schools throughout the world are seeking consultancy and cooperation with Aalborg University. The establishment of UCPBL is therefore a timely opportunity to merge the efforts into one organisational structure...... aiming to promote and support PBL interests worldwide. This paper presents the UCPBL profile and plan of action. This includes a wide range of activities such as promoting research and development within the various PBL models and their implementation; Education and training in PBL through offering a...

  14. CERN World-Wide Web Days

    CERN Document Server

    Llewellyn Smith, Christopher Hubert; Breen, J; Brunner, B; Bruno, F; Cailliau, Robert; Elliott, B; Hardy, T; Hunt, D; Innocente, Vincenzo; Isberg, G; Ludvigsen, B; Trudel, P; Williams, D; CERN. Geneva

    1994-01-01

    Switching on a World-Wide Web server in Liverpool. WhAt is the Internet? What is the Web?A potted history How do I connect up to the Web?What will it cost? How do I get my own server onto the Web? Why we are on the Web Legal implications Who controls the Internet?- unsuitable material on the Web Will the Web continue to grow?

  15. World-Wide Web the information universe

    CERN Document Server

    Berners-Lee, Tim; Groff, Jean-Francois; Pollermann, Bernd

    1992-01-01

    Purpose - The World-Wide Web (W-3) initiative is a practical project designed to bring a global information universe into existence using available technology. This paper seeks to describe the aims, data model, and protocols needed to implement the "web" and to compare them with various contemporary systems. Design/methodology/approach - Since Vannevar Bush's article, men have dreamed of extending their intellect by making their collective knowledge available to each individual by using machines. Computers provide us two practical techniques for human-knowledge interface. One is hypertext, in which links between pieces of text (or other media) mimic human association of ideas. The other is text retrieval, which allows associations to be deduced from the content of text. The W-3 ideal world allows both operations and provides access from any browsing platform. Findings - Various server gateways to other information systems have been produced, and the total amount of information available on the web is...

  16. Crawling on the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Edward A Fox

    2002-01-01

    As the World Wide Web grows rapidly, a web search engine is needed for people to search through the Web. The crawler is an important module of a web search engine. The quality of a crawler directly affects the searching quality of such web search engines. Given some seed URLs, the crawler should retrieve the web pages of those URLs, parse the HTML files, add new URLs into its buffer and go back to the first phase of this cycle. The crawler also can retrieve some other information from the HTM...

  17. Golden Jubilee Photos: World Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 1980s, the Internet was already a valuable tool to scientists, allowing them to exchange e-mails and to access powerful computers remotely. A more simple means of sharing information was needed, however, and CERN, with its long tradition of informatics and networking, was the ideal place to find it. Moreover, hundreds of scientists from all over the world were starting to work together on preparations for the experiments at the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider. In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee (see photo), a young scientist working at CERN, drafted a proposal for an information-management system combining the internet, personal computers and computer-aided document consultation, known as hypertext. In 1990 he was joined by Robert Cailliau and the weaving of the World Wide Web began in earnest, even though only two CERN computers were allocated to the task at the time. The Web subsequently underwent a steady expansion to include the world's main particle physics institutes. The Web was not the...

  18. Developing Basic Space Science World Wide

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, H J

    2004-01-01

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international co-operation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanated from the first four workshops was that small astronomical facilities should be established in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level and that such facilities should be networked. Subsequently, material for teaching and observing programmes for small optical telescopes were developed or recommended and astronomical telescope facilities have been inaugurated at UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science in Sri Lanka (1995), Honduras (1997), and Jordan (1999). UN/ESA Workshops on Bas...

  19. World Wide Web voted most wonderful wonder by web-wide world

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    The results are in, and the winner is...the World Wide Web! An online survey conducted by the CNN news group ranks the World Wide Web-invented at CERN--as the most wonderful of the seven modern wonders of the world. (See Bulletin No. 49/2006.) There is currently no speculation about whether they would have had the same results had they distributed the survey by post. The World Wide Web won with a whopping 50 per cent of the votes (3,665 votes). The runner up was CERN again, with 16 per cent of voters (1130 votes) casting the ballot in favour of the CERN particle accelerator. Stepping into place behind CERN and CERN is 'None of the Above' with 8 per cent of the votes (611 votes), followed by the development of Dubai (7%), the bionic arm (7%), China's Three Gorges Damn (5%), The Channel Tunnel (4%), and France's Millau viaduct (3%). Thanks to everyone from CERN who voted. You can view the results on http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2006/modern.wonders/

  20. Geomorphology and the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroder, John F.; Bishop, Michael P.; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Craiger, J. Philip

    2002-10-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web have brought many dimensions of new technology to education and research in geomorphology. As with other disciplines on the Web, Web-based geomorphology has become an eclectic mix of whatever material an individual deems worthy of presentation, and in many cases is without quality control. Nevertheless, new electronic media can facilitate education and research in geomorphology. For example, virtual field trips can be developed and accessed to reinforce concepts in class. Techniques for evaluating Internet references helps students to write traditional term papers, but professional presentations can also involve student papers that are published on the Web. Faculty can also address plagiarism issues by using search engines. Because of the lack of peer review of much of the content on the Web, care must be exercised in using it for reference searches. Today, however, refereed journals are going online and can be accessed through subscription or payment per article viewed. Library reference desks regularly use the Web for searches of refereed articles. Research on the Web ranges from communication between investigators, data acquisition, scientific visualization, or comprehensive searches of refereed sources, to interactive analyses of remote data sets. The Nanga Parbat and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) Projects are two examples of geomorphologic research that are achieving full potential through use of the Web. Teaching and research in geomorphology are undergoing a beneficial, but sometimes problematic, transition with the new technology. The learning curve is steep for some users but the view from the top is bright. Geomorphology can only prosper from the benefits offered by computer technologies.

  1. World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    `Astronomy On-Line' will connect students all over Europe Astronomy On-Line is a major, all-European project that will take place in conjunction with the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture later this year. It is based on intensive use of the World-Wide-Web (WWW) and represents the first large-scale attempt in the world to bring together pupils and their teachers all over one continent to explore challenging scientific questions, using modern communication tools, both for obtaining and for communicating information. The programme will be carried out in a collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) [1] and the European Southern Observatory, and together with the European Commission (EC). The active phase of Astronomy On-Line will start on October 1 and reach a climax on November 18 - 22, 1996 . What is `Astronomy On-Line'? In this project, a large number of students and their teachers at schools all over Europe, together with professional and amateur astronomers and others interested in astronomy, will become associated in a unique experience that makes intensive use of the vast possibilities of the World-Wide-Web (WWW). Although the exact number of participants will not be known until the beginning of October, it is expected to run into thousands, possibly many more. The unusual size and scope of Astronomy On-Line will contribute to make it an important all-European media event. The central idea is that the participants, through the WWW, will `meet' in a `marketplace' where a number of different `shops' will be available, each of which will tempt them with a number of exciting and educational `events', carefully prepared to cater for different age groups, from 12 years upwards. The events will cover a wide spectrum of activities, some of which will be timed to ensure the proper progression of this very complex project through its main phases. The benefits In fact, Astronomy On-Line will be the first

  2. Birthday Traditions in Different Countries%生日怎么过?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Some traditions are quite similar in many parts of the world; birthday candles which carry wishes up to God, birthday games which gauge how much more a child can do versus last year,and birthday pinches or taps which ensure good luck for the coming year. Some traditions are more specific to certain countries.

  3. Birthday TRADITIONS in Different Countries%不同国家的生日传统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Some traditions are quite similar in many parts of the world; birthday candles which carry wishes up to God, birthday games which gauge how much more a child can do versus last year, and birthday pinches or taps which ensure good luck for the coming year. Some traditions are more specific to certain countries.

  4. World Wide Web Astronomy 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, M.; Gay, P. L.

    2008-11-01

    The Internet has changed astronomy. It's changed research, outreach and education and it's changed how people consume astronomy as enthusiasts. People have new ways to talk to each other and new ways to participate. Coined ``Web 2.0,'' technologies such as blogs, social networks, wikis, photo and video sharing sites, podcasts and micro-blogging have been adopted by the astronomy community and exciting things are happening as a result. The International Year of Astronomy's New Media Task Force has been working to harness the excitement of ``Web 2.0'' to make the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) highly visible on the Internet around the world.

  5. Wildfire contribution to world-wide desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, D.; Wittenberg, L.; Bautista, S.; Ffolliott, P.

    2009-04-01

    Wildfire is a natural phenomenon that began with the development of terrestrial vegetation in a lightning-filled atmosphere. Sediments from the Carboniferous Period (307-359 million years before the present) contain evidence of charcoal from post-fire ash slurry flows. As human populations developed in the Pleistocene and Holocene epochs, mankind transformed fire into one of its oldest tools. Human and natural ignited fires from lightning altered and steered the trajectories of ecosystem development in most parts of the world. Humans are now the primary source of forest and grass fire ignitions throughout the world. As human populations have increased and industrialized in the past two centuries, fire ignitions and burned areas have increased due to both sheer numbers of people and anthropogenic changes in the global climate. Recent scientific findings have bolstered the hypothesis that climate change is resulting in fire seasons starting earlier, lasting longer, burning greater areas, and being more severe Computer models point to the Western U.S., Mediterranean nations and Brazil as "hot spots" that will get extremes at their worst. The climatic change to drier and warmer conditions has the potential to aggravate wildfire conditions, resulting in burning over longer seasons, larger areas of vegetation conflagration, and higher fire severities. Wildfire is now driving desertification in some of the forest lands in the western United States. The areas of wildfire in the Southwest USA have increased dramatically in the past two decades from climate change, excessive fuel loads, and increased ignition sources have produced the perfect conditions for fire-induced desertification. Portugal suffered the worst and second worst wildfire seasons in a three-year period (2003 - 2005). In 2005, 338,262 ha of forest land burned. This was a 77% increase over the 10-year burn average of 189,500 ha. Desertification is about the loss of the land's proper hydrologic function

  6. World-Wide Experience with SRF Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The speaker will review and analyze the performance of existing SRF facilities in the world, addressing issues of usage and availability for different customers (HEP research, material sciences, ADS). Lessons learned should be summarized for proposed future facilities (ILC, Project X, Muon Collider). The first use of superconducting cavities for accelerating beams was at HEPL, Stanford University in the early sixties. Rather quickly, other laboratories followed suit, notably the University of Illinois at Champagne, Urbana and Cornell University. There were two main uses, which still persist today. The first is to provide accelerated particles as an injector or for fixed target experiments. The second is to maintain circulating beams, either for synchrotron light sources or for colliding beam experiments. Given the differing requirements, these two uses led to rather different implementations and, in particular, different average operating gradients. A second difference in the implementation is the speed of the particle being accelerated. Electrons are sufficiently relativistic at low beam energies (> ∼ 5 MeV) that cavities designed for relativistic beams can also function acceptably at low energy. This is not the case for protons or ion accelerators so, until recently, copper cavities were used to cover the first ∼ 100 MeV. Superconducting cavities are now also being proposed to cover this energy range as well using a series of superconducting cavities, each of which is matched to the particle velocity.

  7. WorldWideScience.org: Bringing Light to Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    WorldWideScience.org and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...

  8. Vergleichende Evaluierung von Such- und Metasuchmaschinen im World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag befasst sich mit der Informationssuche im World Wide Web und ihrer Evaluierung. Ausgehend von einer Zusammenschau der wesentlichen Merkmale des World Wide Web als heterogener Dokumentkollektion (Kap. 1) werden Aufbau und Merkmale von Suchmaschinen und Metasuchmaschinen eingeführt sowie die Problematik der Evaluierung von Suchmaschinen und eine Übersicht bisheriger Ergebnisse diskutiert (Kap. 2). In Kap. 3 werden Aufbau, Durchführung und Ergebnisse einer Vergleichstudie...

  9. Playing with the internet through world wide web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes how to use the internet with world wide web. It is divided into six chapters, which are Let's go to the internet ocean, the internet in information superhighway are, connecting the world with a telephone wire such as link with the internet cable and telephone modem, internet service providers, text mode connection, Domain and IP address, the principle and use of world wide web ; business, music, fashion, movie and photo, internet news and e-mail, making internet map with web language, and from installation to application of base program such as TCP/IP, SLIP/PPP 3270 Emulator, Finger and NCSA Mosaic.

  10. The bosonic birthday paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipov, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We motivate and prove a version of the birthday paradox for $k$ identical bosons in $n$ possible modes. If the bosons are in the uniform mixed state, also called the maximally mixed quantum state, then we need $k \\sim \\sqrt{n}$ bosons to expect two in the same state, which is smaller by a factor of $\\sqrt{2}$ than in the case of distinguishable objects (boltzmannons). While the core result is elementary, we generalize the hypothesis and strengthen the conclusion in several ways. One side result is that boltzmannons with a randomly chosen multinomial distribution have the same birthday statistics as bosons. This last result is interesting as a quantum proof of a classical probability theorem; we also give a classical proof.

  11. Happy Birthday Viki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CERN auditorium was packed on the 19th and 20th of September when friends and colleagues of Viktor Weisskopf gathered to celebrate the 80th birthday one of the best known and most admired personalities in the particle physics community. A galaxy of scientists was lined up to speak at an international colloquium on 'Science, Culture and Peace', organized by CERN and the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture

  12. Gender and Communication Styles on the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe, Tami

    1998-01-01

    Certain human communication traits have historically been identified as gender-specific. The purpose of this paper is to collect and compare the most widely-indexed, gender-specific World Wide Web sites from five given interest areas, and to then determine which, if any, traditionally gender-based communication patterns were present within these sites. Using qualitative and quantitative analysis, this study found that in many cases: * Female-oriented sites in this study emphasized communality...

  13. 65 Year Birthday Celebration's Prof. John Ellis.

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Jeannet

    2011-01-01

    On 13 September, physicists from around the world joined John Ellis at a colloquium to celebrate his 65th birthday, and as he ended his long career as a distinguished CERN staff member and joins King’s College London. Here he is in the audience with fellow theorists, Nobel laureate Gerard ’t Hooft and Chris Llewellyn Smith, former director-general of CERN.

  14. WorldWideScience.org: the global science gateway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2009-10-01

    WorldWideScience.org is a Web-based global gateway connecting users to both national and international scientific databases and portals. This column will provide background information on the resource as well as introduce basic searching practices for users. PMID:20183035

  15. Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web inventor

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The "Internet, Web, What's next?" conference on 26 June 1998 at CERN: Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web and Director of the W3C, explains how the Web came to be and gave his views on the future.

  16. World Wide Web of JAERI Nuclear Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Data Center at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is distributing the information on nuclear data by using World Wide Web. Available are various types of evaluated nuclear data (graphs, tables, numerical data files), a chart of nuclides, and information on published papers, Japanese Nuclear Data Committee. (author)

  17. Wikinews interviews World Wide Web co-inventor Robert Cailliau

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The name Robert Caillau may not ring a bell to the general pbulic, but his invention is the reason why you are reading this: Dr. Cailliau together with his colleague Sir Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, making the internet accessible so it could grow from an academic tool to a mass communication medium." (9 pages)

  18. Time Series Data Visualization in World Wide Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J.

    WorldWide Telescope provides a rich set of timer series visualization for both archival and real time data. WWT consists of both interactive desktop tools for interactive immersive visualization and HTML5 web based controls that can be utilized in customized web pages. WWT supports a range of display options including full dome, power walls, stereo and virtual reality headsets.

  19. Is the "Grid" the successor to the World Wide Web?

    CERN Multimedia

    Walsh, Michael

    2003-01-01

    "The notion of the World Wide Web was born at the CERN particle physics lab just outside Geneva in Switzerland, to send experimental data between different computers. The idea of the Grid is to use a global computer network not just for data, but for computing power itself" (0.5 page)

  20. Surfing the Net. Creativity on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sandra

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses how the World Wide Web can empower students to think creatively, especially the gifted. It profiles 3 Web sites that discuss techniques, games, and strategies for enhancing creative thinking and 13 Web sites that contain information on inventors and inventions to stimulate gifted students. (Contains one reference.) (CR)

  1. Using the World Wide Web To Teach Francophone Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Deborah Berg; Van Ells, Paula Hartwig

    2002-01-01

    Examined use of the World Wide Web to teach Francophone culture. Suggests that bolstering reading comprehension in the foreign language and increased proficiency in navigating the Web are potential secondary benefits gained from the cultural Web-based activities proposed in the study.(Author/VWL)

  2. Perspectives for Electronic Books in the World Wide Web Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry, Francois; Kraus, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the World Wide Web and the lack of use of electronic books and suggests that specialized contents and device independence can make Web-based books compete with print. Topics include enhancing the hypertext model of XML; client-side adaptation, including browsers and navigation; and semantic modeling. (Author/LRW)

  3. Facilitating Designer-Customer Communication in the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuikka, Tuomo; Salmela, Marko

    1998-01-01

    Presents WebShaman, an application built to demonstrate how a distributed virtual prototyping system with a client/server architecture, could support geographically distant designer/customer communication. Provides an overview of smart virtual prototyping; discusses implementation of synchronous collaboration via the World Wide Web; and assesses…

  4. International organizations to enable world-wide mobile satellite services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Richard L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Numbers of systems exist or have been proposed to provide world-wide mobile satellite services (MSS). Developers of these systems have formulated institutional structures they consider most appropriate for profitable delivery of these services. MSS systems provide niche services and complement traditional telecommunications networks; they are not integrated into world-wide networks. To be successful, MSS system operators must be able to provide an integrated suite of services to support the increasing globalization, interconnectivity, and mobility of business. The critical issue to enabling 'universal roaming' is securing authority to provide MSS in all of the nations of the world. Such authority must be secured in the context of evolving trends in international telecommunications, and must specifically address issues of standardization, regulation and organization. Today, only one existing organization has such world-wide authority. The question is how proponents of new MSS systems and services can gain similar authority. Securing the appropriate authorizations requires that these new organizations reflect the objectives of the nations in which services are to be delivered.

  5. A directed network model for World-Wide Web

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J G; Wang, Z T; Zhou, T; Dang, Yan-Zhong; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Zhong-Tuo; Zhou, Tao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a directed network model for world-wide web is presented. The out-degree of the added nodes are supposed to be scale-free and its mean value is $m$. This model exhibits small-world effect, which means the corresponding networks are of very short average distance and highly large clustering coefficient. More interesting, the in-degree distribution obeys the power-law form with the exponent $\\gamma=2+1/m$, depending on the average out-degree. This finding is supported by the empirical data, which has not been emphasized by the previous studies on directed networks.

  6. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialised and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author)

  7. Component-Based Software Reuse on the World Wide Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Component-based software reuse (CBSR) has been widely used in software developing practice and has an even more brilliant future with the rapid extension of the Internet, because World Wide Web (WWW) makes the large scale of component resources from different vendors become available to software developers. In this paper, an abstract component model suitable for representing components on WWW isproposed, which plays important roles both in achieving interoperability among components and amongreusable component libraries (RCLs). Some necessary changes to many aspects of component management brought by WWW are also discussed, such as the classification of components and the corresponding searching methods, and the certification of components.

  8. WIRED — World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coperchio, M. C.; Dönszelmann, M.; de Groot, N.; Gunnarsson, P.; Litmaath, M.; McNally, D.; Smirnov, N.

    1998-05-01

    WIRED (World-Wide Web Interactive Remote Event Display) is a framework, written in the Java™ language, for building High Energy Physics event displays. An event display based on the WIRED framework enables users of a HEP collaboration to visualise and analyse events remotely using ordinary WWW browsers, on any type of machine. In addition, event displays using WIRED may provide the general public with access to the research of high energy physics. The recent introduction of the object-oriented Java™ language enables the transfer of machine independent code across the Internet, to be safely executed by a Java enhanced WWW browser. We have employed this technology to create a remote event display in WWW. The combined Java-WWW technology hence assures a world wide availability of such an event display, an always up-to-date program and a platform independent implementation, which is easy to use and to install.

  9. World-wide online monitoring interface of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kolos, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Mineev, M; Hauser, R; Salnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration accounts for more than 3000 members located all over the world. The efficiency of the experiment can be improved allowing system experts not present on site to follow the ATLAS operations in real-time, spotting potential problems which otherwise may remain unattended for a non-negligible time. Taking into account the wide geographical spread of the ATLAS collaboration, the solution of this problem is to have all monitoring information with minimal access latency available world-wide. We have implemented a framework which defines a standard approach for retrieving arbitrary monitoring information from the ATLAS private network via HTTP. An information request is made by specifying one of the predefined URLs with some optional parameters refining data which has to be shipped back in XML format. The framework takes care of receiving, parsing and forwarding such requests to the appropriate plugins. The plugins retrieve the requested data and convert it to XML (or optionally to JSON) format...

  10. Guide to the Internet. The world wide web.

    OpenAIRE

    Pallen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The world wide web provides a uniform, user friendly interface to the Internet. Web pages can contain text and pictures and are interconnected by hypertext links. The addresses of web pages are recorded as uniform resource locators (URLs), transmitted by hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP), and written in hypertext markup language (HTML). Programs that allow you to use the web are available for most operating systems. Powerful on line search engines make it relatively easy to find information ...

  11. Role of Librarian in Internet and World Wide Web Environment

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nageswara Rao; KH Babu

    2001-01-01

    The transition of traditional library collections to digital or virtual collections presented the librarian with new opportunities. The Internet, Web en-vironment and associated sophisticated tools have given the librarian a new dynamic role to play and serve the new information based society in bet-ter ways than hitherto. Because of the powerful features of Web i.e. distributed, heterogeneous, collaborative, multimedia, multi-protocol, hyperme-dia-oriented architecture, World Wide Web has re...

  12. For a Free World-Wide Science Library

    OpenAIRE

    Borgès Da Silva Ge; Hurstel J-F

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the year 2000, a few thousand researchers from 140 different countries, some of whom are Nobel prize laureates, have signed a petition asking editors the make scientific articles available on Internet without charge. Following this initiative, PubMed Central (Medline) has decided to limit their world-wide bibliography files solely to scientific articles which become available without charge on Internet during the year following their publication. The prerogatives and function...

  13. Information Retrieval Issues on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ali

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web (Web is the largest information repository containing billions of interconnected documents (called the web pages which are authored by billions of people and organizations. The Web is huge, diverse, unstructured or semi structured, dynamic contents, and multilingual nature; make the effectively and efficiently searching information on the Web a challenging research problem. In this paper we briefly explore the issues related to finding relevant information on the Web such as crawling, indexing and ranking the Web.

  14. Information Retrieval Issues on the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Ali; Dr. Israr Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The World Wide Web (Web) is the largest information repository containing billions of interconnected documents (called the web pages) which are authored by billions of people and organizations. The Web is huge, diverse, unstructured or semi structured, dynamic contents, and multilingual nature; make the effectively and efficiently searching information on the Web a challenging research problem. In this paper we briefly explore the issues related to finding relevant information on the Web such...

  15. Finding Emotional-Laden Resources on the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Diane Rasmussen Neal; Stefanie Schmidt; Tobias Siebenlist; Stock, Wolfgang G.; Kathrin Knautz

    2011-01-01

    Some content in multimedia resources can depict or evoke certain emotions in users. The aim of Emotional Information Retrieval (EmIR) and of our research is to identify knowledge about emotional-laden documents and to use these findings in a new kind of World Wide Web information service that allows users to search and browse by emotion. Our prototype, called Media EMOtion SEarch (MEMOSE), is largely based on the results of research regarding emotive music pieces, images and videos. In order ...

  16. Sources of Militaria on the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Walker

    2012-01-01

    Having an interest in military-type topics is one thing, finding information on the web to quench your thirst for knowledge is another. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a universal electronic library that contains millions of web pages. As well as being fun, it is an addictive tool on which to search for information. To prevent hours of useless wandering around the WWW, the following sources of general information have been compiled on military institutions, museums and battlefields for the milita...

  17. Developing Basic Space Science World Wide: Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    Haubold, H. J.; Wamsteker, W.

    2004-01-01

    The UN/ESA Workshops on Basic Space Science is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and regional and international co-operation in this field on a world wide basis, particularly in developing nations. The first four workshops in this series (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, and Egypt 1994) addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia, respectively. One major recommendation that emanat...

  18. Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web inventor

    CERN Multimedia

    1994-01-01

    Former physicist, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web as an essential tool for high energy physics at CERN from 1989 to 1994. Together with a small team he conceived HTML, http, URLs, and put up the first server and the first 'what you see is what you get' browser and html editor. Tim is now Director of the Web Consortium W3C, the International Web standards body based at INRIA, MIT and Keio University.

  19. The world-wide economy and sharpen up technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zuloaga Abril, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Market ecconomies have been using science and research as a main production factor, mediated by technology. The changes in world-wide economy that appeared in the eigthies have origirmted disart-iculat-ions in countries that ordinary supply raw materials (in general, developing countries), and have been left out on their own possibilities to compete in the intemational market with their ad vantages, which are no longer in the primary sector nor based on cheap labor force, but with technologic...

  20. [The search for medical information on the World Wide Web].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappeliez, O; Ranschaert, E; Peetrons, P; Struyven, J

    1999-12-01

    The internet has experienced tremendous growth over the past few years and has currently many resources in the field of medicine. However, many physicians remain unaware of how to gain access to this powerful tool. This article briefly describes the World Wide Web and its potential applications for physicians. The basics of web search engines and medical directories, as well as the use of advanced search with boolean operators are explained. PMID:10672776

  1. A World Wide Web Region-Based Image Search Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Strintzis, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the development of an intelligent image content-based search engine for the World Wide Web is presented. This system will offer a new form of media representation and access of content available in WWW. Information Web Crawlers continuously traverse the Internet and collect images....../region boundary information. These features along with additional information such as the URL location and the date of index procedure are stored in a database. The user can access and search this indexed content through the Web with an advanced and user friendly interface. The output of the system is a set of...

  2. WorldWide Telescope in Research and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Fay, Jonathan; Muench, August A.; Pepe, Alberto; Udompraseret, Patricia; Wong, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope computer program, released to researchers and the public as a free resource in 2008 by Microsoft Research, has changed the way the ever-growing Universe of online astronomical data is viewed and understood. The WWT program can be thought of as a scriptable, interactive, richly visual browser of the multi-wavelength Sky as we see it from Earth, and of the Universe as we would travel within it. In its web API format, WWT is being used as a service to display professional...

  3. Automatic Discovery of Information Resources on the World Wide Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guo-jin; CHEN Jia-xun

    2002-01-01

    A basis for automatic discovery of information resources on the World Wide Web is characterized by three underlying equations. With these equations, the information universe on the Web is divided into three associated spaces. This model differs from the hypertext employed by the Web, in that the former supports the notion of automatic resource discovery. A private library, which is able to gather automatically from the Web the information useful to the library owner, is envisaged to illustrate that the basic equations and their derivations can be applied to Web automation, including crawling and classifying.

  4. Weighted fair queueing scheduling for World Wide Web proxy servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abdouni Khayari, Rachid; Sadre, Ramin; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.; Zoschke, Norman

    2002-07-01

    Current world-wide web servers as well as proxy servers rely for their scheduling on services provided by the underlying operating system. In practice, this means that some form of first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling is utilised. Although FCFS is a reasonable scheduling strategy for job sequences that do not show much variance, in the world-wide web (WWW), however, it has been shown that the typical object sizes requested do exhibit heavy tails. This means that the probability to observe very long jobs (very large objects) is much higher than typically predicted using an exponential model. Under these circumstances, job scheduling on the basis of shortest-job first (SJF) has been shown to perform much better, in fact, to minimise the total average waiting time, simply by avoiding situations in which short jobs have to wait for very long one. However, SJF has as disadvantage that long jobs might suffer from starvation. In order to avoid the problems of both FCFS and SJF we present in this paper a new scheduling algorithm called class-based interleaving weighted fair queueing (CI-WFQ). This algorithm uses the specific characteristics of the job stream being served, that is, the distribution of the sizes of the objects being requested, to set its parameters such that good mean reponse times are obtained and starvation does not occur. In the paper, the new scheduling approach is introduced and compared, using trace-driven simulations, with existing scheduling approaches.

  5. Remote sensing education and Internet/World Wide Web technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.

  6. WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors, a Year 3 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, A. A.; Wong, C.

    2013-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope Ambassadors (WWTA) Program has a track record of inspiring middle school students and getting them excited about science. The WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is a stunningly beautiful and freely available data visualization environment developed by Microsoft Research in collaboration with professional astronomers. Trained volunteer Ambassadors show teachers and students how to use WWT in their classrooms to explore and learn about our Universe. Our initial study has shown that WWT increases student understanding of astrophysical concepts and interest in astronomy and science. As an example of how excited students feel about learning astronomy with WWT, one middle school boy exclaimed, “This is way cooler than Call of Duty!” Our vision is to capitalize on the demonstrated inspirational and educational potential of WWT to increase the number of students who express interest in STEM fields. In this oral presentation, we provide a status update on the WWTA program, including ongoing results from our work with over 700 middle school students to date, and preliminary results from a new NSF-funded study comparing learning and interest gains for students studying Moon phases with WWT vs with the 2-dimensional simulator activity that accompanies their textbook. More information is available at wwtambassadors.org

  7. Happy birthday, Jack Steinberger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2016-01-01

    Even if he’s recently stopped coming to CERN on his bike, Jack Steinberger and his piercing blue eyes are still regular visitors to our corridors. As he celebrates his 95th birthday, we pay tribute to one of CERN’s greatest scientists.   Jack Steinberger in 2008, pictured on the occasion of the "Accelerating Nobel" exhibition. (Image: Claudia Marcelloni/CERN) Jack emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1934 to escape the persecution of the Jews. He later went on to study under Enrico Fermi in Chicago and in the 1950s, he contributed to the development of bubble chambers. Using this new detection apparatus, he was involved in the myriad discoveries and results that led to the construction of the Standard Model. In 1961, while at Columbia University (New York), he took part in the first experiment with a high-energy neutrino beam, which gave rise to the discovery of the muon neutrino. This discovery was awarded the&a...

  8. An information filtering system prototype for world wide web; Prototipo di sistema di information filtering per world wide web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordoni, L. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Funzione Centrale Studi

    1999-07-01

    In this report the architecture of an information filtering system for world wide web, developed by the Rome Third University (Italy) for ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment), is described. This prototype allows for selecting documents in text/HTML format from the web according to the interests of users. A user modeling shell allows ro build a model of user's interests, obtained during the interaction. The experimental results support the choice of embedding methods for this kind of application. [Italian] In questo rapporto viene descritta l'architettura di un sistema adattivo di information filtering su world wide web, sviluppato dall'universita' di Roma III in collaborazione con l'ENEA. Il prototipo descritto e' in grado di selezionare documenti in formato testo/html, raccolti dal web, in accordo con le caratteristiche e gli interessi degli utenti. Una shell di modellazione utente consente di costruire un modello degli interessi dell'utente, ottenuto nel corso dell'interazione. I risultati sperimentali rafforzano la scelta di usare metodi di modellazione utente per questo genere di applicazioni.

  9. Sources of Militaria on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Walker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Having an interest in military-type topics is one thing, finding information on the web to quench your thirst for knowledge is another. The World Wide Web (WWW is a universal electronic library that contains millions of web pages. As well as being fun, it is an addictive tool on which to search for information. To prevent hours of useless wandering around the WWW, the following sources of general information have been compiled on military institutions, museums and battlefields for the military enthusiast out in cyberspace. Please be warned that sites are prone to move once in a while or are still under construction and this could cause difficulty in accessing them.

  10. World wide web implementation of the Langley technical report server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    On January 14, 1993, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) made approximately 130 formal, 'unclassified, unlimited' technical reports available via the anonymous FTP Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS). LaRC was the first organization to provide a significant number of aerospace technical reports for open electronic dissemination. LTRS has been successful in its first 18 months of operation, with over 11,000 reports distributed and has helped lay the foundation for electronic document distribution for NASA. The availability of World Wide Web (WWW) technology has revolutionized the Internet-based information community. This paper describes the transition of LTRS from a centralized FTP site to a distributed data model using the WWW, and suggests how the general model for LTRS can be applied to other similar systems.

  11. Affordable Digital Planetariums with WorldWide Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfield, Philip; Fay, Jonathan; Carey, Larry; Sayres, Conor; Tofflemire, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Digital planetariums can provide a broader range of educational experiences than the more classical planetariums that use star-balls. This is because of their ability to project images, content from current research and the 3D distribution of the stars and galaxies. While there are hundreds of planetariums in the country the reason that few of these are full digital is the cost. In collaboration with Microsoft Research (MSR) we have developed a way to digitize existing planetariums for approximately \\$40,000 using software freely available. We describe here how off the shelf equipment, together with MSR's WorldWide Telescope client can provide a rich and truly interactive experience. This will enable students and the public to pan though multi-wavelength full-sky scientific data sets, explore 3d visualizations of our Solar System (including trajectories of millions of minor planets), near-by stars, and the SDSS galaxy catalog.

  12. Affordable Digital Planetariums with WorldWide Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, P.; Connolly, A.; Fay, J.; Sayres, C.; Tofflemire, B.

    2011-09-01

    Digital planetariums can provide a broader range of educational experiences than the more classical planetariums that use star-balls. This is because of their ability to project images, content from current research, and the 3-D distribution of the stars and galaxies. While there are hundreds of planetariums in the country, the reason that few of these are fully digital is the cost. In collaboration with Microsoft Research (MSR), we have developed a way to digitize existing planetariums for approximately $40,000 using freely available software. We describe here how off the shelf equipment, together with a WorldWide Telescope client, can provide a rich and truly interactive experience. This will enable students and the public to pan though multi-wavelength full-sky scientific data sets, explore 3-D visualizations of our Solar System (including trajectories of millions of minor planets), near-by stars, and the SDSS galaxy catalog.

  13. Distributed and Cooperative Information Retrieval on the World Wide Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继成; 金翔宇; 杨晓江; 张福炎

    2000-01-01

    A mass of heterogeneous, distributed and dynamic information on the World Wide Web (the Web) has resulted in "information overload". It's an important and urgent research issue to provide users with effective information retrieval service on the Web. Web search engines attempt to solve this problem, yet their effect is far from satisfying. In this paper, a distributed and cooperative strategy for information retrieval on the Web is proposed to substitute the centralized mode adopted by the current search engines. Then a new information retrieval system model IRSM is presented, which supports the retrieval of metadata about Web documents and uses Z39.50 standard protocol to unify the heterogeneous interfaces of different systems. Based on that, a distributed and cooperative information retrieval framework, called DCIRF, is designed to help users in fast and effective information retrieval on the Web.

  14. Role of Librarian in Internet and World Wide Web Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nageswara Rao

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition of traditional library collections to digital or virtual collections presented the librarian with new opportunities. The Internet, Web en-vironment and associated sophisticated tools have given the librarian a new dynamic role to play and serve the new information based society in bet-ter ways than hitherto. Because of the powerful features of Web i.e. distributed, heterogeneous, collaborative, multimedia, multi-protocol, hyperme-dia-oriented architecture, World Wide Web has revolutionized the way people access information, and has opened up new possibilities in areas such as digital libraries, virtual libraries, scientific information retrieval and dissemination. Not only the world is becoming interconnected, but also the use of Internet and Web has changed the fundamental roles, paradigms, and organizational culture of libraries and librarians as well. The article describes the limitless scope of Internet and Web, the existence of the librarian in the changing environment, parallelism between information sci-ence and information technology, librarians and intelligent agents, working of intelligent agents, strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities in-volved in the relationship between librarians and the Web. The role of librarian in Internet and Web environment especially as intermediary, facilita-tor, end-user trainer, Web site builder, researcher, interface designer, knowledge manager and sifter of information resources is also described.

  15. Geological problems in radioactive waste isolation - A world wide review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    The problem of isolating radioactive wastes from the biosphere presents specialists in the earth sciences with some of the most complicated problems they have ever encountered. This is especially true for high-level waste (HLW), which must be isolated in the underground and away from the biosphere for thousands of years. The most widely accepted method of doing this is to seal the radioactive materials in metal canisters that are enclosed by a protective sheath and placed underground in a repository that has been carefully constructed in an appropriate rock formation. Much new technology is being developed to solve the problems that have been raised, and there is a continuing need to publish the results of new developments for the benefit of all concerned. Table 1 presents a summary of the various formations under investigation according to the reports submitted for this world wide review. It can be seen that in those countries that are searching for repository sites, granitic and metamorphic rocks are the prevalent rock type under investigation. Six countries have developed underground research facilities that are currently in use. All of these investigations are in saturated systems below the water table, except the United States project, which is in the unsaturated zone of a fractured tuff.

  16. Business use of the World-Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cockburn

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were employed in this study of the use of the World Wide Web by business: first, a sample of 300 businesses with Web sites, across a wide range of industry types, was examined, by selecting (rather than sampling companies from the Yahoo! directory. The sites were investigated in relation to several areas - the purpose of the Web site, the use being made of electronic mail and the extent to which multi-media was being utilised. In addition, any other aspects of the site which were designed to make it more interesting to potential customers were also noted. Secondly, an electronic-mail questionnaire was sent to 222 of the 300 companies surveyed: that is, those that provided an e-mail address for contact. 14 were returned immediately due to unknown addresses or technical problems. Of the remaining 208, 102 replies were received, five of which were of no relevance, leaving 97 completed questionnaires to examine; a response rate of 47%, which is surprisingly good for a survey of this kind.

  17. Documentation of the AMIP models on the World Wide Web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    The intercomparison of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments of a similar type has become an increasingly popular methodology for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of climate simulations. In such endeavors, attempts to attribute differences among the simulations to specific model properties require, as a minimum prerequisite, the accurate and comprehensive documentation of these features. Regrettably however, atmospheric model documentation typically is fragmentary and scattered across numerous publications. It is also often inaccurate, in the sense that the pace of model development and the proliferation of new model versions usually outstrip their recorded descriptions. More often than not, the detailed configuration of a model for a particular experiment also is undocumented. In addition, there may be much unevenness in the descriptions of different facets of models. This incompleteness usually is replicated in published results of an intercomparison experiment, in that participating models` features often are summarized only perfunctorily. Summary documentation of the numerics, dynamics, and physics of models participating in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) is now available on the Internet`s World Wide Web. This paper describes the principal attributes of the electronic model documentation and provides instructions on how to access it.

  18. WorldWide Telescope in Research and Education

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Alyssa; Muench, August; Pepe, Alberto; Udomprasert, Patricia; Wong, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    The WorldWide Telescope computer program, released to researchers and the public as a free resource in 2008 by Microsoft Research, has changed the way the ever-growing Universe of online astronomical data is viewed and understood. The WWT program can be thought of as a scriptable, interactive, richly visual browser of the multi-wavelength Sky as we see it from Earth, and of the Universe as we would travel within it. In its web API format, WWT is being used as a service to display professional research data. In its desktop format, WWT works in concert (thanks to SAMP and other IVOA standards) with more traditional research applications such as ds9, Aladin and TOPCAT. The WWT Ambassadors Program (founded in 2009) recruits and trains astrophysically-literate volunteers (including retirees) who use WWT as a teaching tool in online, classroom, and informal educational settings. Early quantitative studies of WWTA indicate that student experiences with WWT enhance science learning dramatically. Thanks to the wealth ...

  19. A data set of world-wide glacier length fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Leclercq

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Glacier fluctuations contribute to variations in sea level and historical glacier length fluctuations are natural indicators of climate change. To study these subjects, long-term information of glacier change is needed. In this paper we present a~data set of global long-term glacier length fluctuations. The data set is a compilation of available information on changes in glacier length world-wide, including both measured and reconstructed glacier length fluctuations. All 471 length series start before 1950 and cover at least four decades. The longest record starts in 1534, but the majority of time series start after 1850. The number of available records decreases again after 1962. The data set has global coverage including records from all continents. However, the Canadian Arctic is not represented in the data set. The glacier length series show relatively small fluctuations until the mid-19th century followed by a global retreat that was strongest in the first half of the 20th century, although large variability in the length change of the different glaciers is observed. During the 20th century, calving glaciers retreated more than land terminating glaciers, but their relative length change was approximately equal. Besides calving, the glacier slope is the most important glacier property determining length change: steep glaciers have retreated less than glaciers with a gentle slope.

  20. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant. PMID:23254366

  1. WorldWide Telescope in Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A.; Fay, J.; Muench, A.; Pepe, A.; Udompraseret, P.; Wong, C.

    2012-09-01

    The WorldWide Telescope computer program, released to researchers and the public as a free resource in 2008 by Microsoft Research, has changed the way the ever-growing Universe of online astronomical data is viewed and understood. The WWT program can be thought of as a scriptable, interactive, richly visual browser of the multi-wavelength Sky as we see it from Earth, and of the Universe as we would travel within it. In its web API format, WWT is being used as a service to display professional research data. In its desktop format, WWT works in concert (thanks to SAMP and other IVOA standards) with more traditional research applications such as ds9, Aladin and TOPCAT. The WWT Ambassadors Program (founded in 2009) recruits and trains astrophysically-literate volunteers (including retirees) who use WWT as a teaching tool in online, classroom, and informal educational settings. Early quantitative studies of WWTA indicate that student experiences with WWT enhance science learning dramatically. Thanks to the wealth of data it can access, and the growing number of services to which it connects, WWT is now a key linking technology in the Seamless Astronomy environment we seek to offer researchers, teachers, and students alike.

  2. World-Wide Effort Bringing ALMA Telescope Into Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    In the thin, dry air of northern Chile's Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 16,500 feet, an amazing new telescope system is taking shape, on schedule to provide the world's astronomers with unprecedented views of the origins of stars, galaxies, and planets. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will open an entirely new "window" on the Universe, allowing scientists to unravel longstanding and important astronomical mysteries. ALMA Artist's Concept Artist's Concept of Completed ALMA CREDIT: ALMA/ESO/NRAO/NAOJ Click on image for high-resolution file (182 KB) "Most of the photons in the Universe are in the wavelength range that ALMA will receive, and ALMA will give us our first high-resolution views at these wavelengths. This will be a tremendous advancement for astronomy and open one of our science's last frontiers," Anneila Sargent, a Caltech professor and ALMA Board member, told the American Association for the Advancement of Science at its meeting in Boston, Mass. The millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range lies between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared waves. ALMA, a system using up to 66 high-precision dish antennas working together, will provide astronomers with dramatically greater sensitivity, the ability to detect faint objects, and resolving power, the ability to see fine detail, than has ever before been available in this range. "This ambitious project is the product of an international collaboration that spans the globe," Sargent said. "ALMA truly will enable transformational science and providing this capability has required a massive, world-wide effort," she added. The ALMA project is a partnership between Europe, Japan and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by ESO, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the

  3. Finding Emotional-Laden Resources on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Rasmussen Neal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some content in multimedia resources can depict or evoke certain emotions in users. The aim of Emotional Information Retrieval (EmIR and of our research is to identify knowledge about emotional-laden documents and to use these findings in a new kind of World Wide Web information service that allows users to search and browse by emotion. Our prototype, called Media EMOtion SEarch (MEMOSE, is largely based on the results of research regarding emotive music pieces, images and videos. In order to index both evoked and depicted emotions in these three media types and to make them searchable, we work with a controlled vocabulary, slide controls to adjust the emotions’ intensities, and broad folksonomies to identify and separate the correct resource-specific emotions. This separation of so-called power tags is based on a tag distribution which follows either an inverse power law (only one emotion was recognized or an inverse-logistical shape (two or three emotions were recognized. Both distributions are well known in information science. MEMOSE consists of a tool for tagging basic emotions with the help of slide controls, a processing device to separate power tags, a retrieval component consisting of a search interface (for any topic in combination with one or more emotions and a results screen. The latter shows two separately ranked lists of items for each media type (depicted and felt emotions, displaying thumbnails of resources, ranked by the mean values of intensity. In the evaluation of the MEMOSE prototype, study participants described our EmIR system as an enjoyable Web 2.0 service.

  4. The World Wide Web for the development of rural areas in the Appennines, Italy; Il World Wide Web per lo sviluppo delle zone rurali dell`Appennino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappelloni, Raoul [ARS, Parco Tecnologico Agroalimentare dell`Umbria (Italy)

    1997-05-01

    The World Wide Web could be very helpful tool to the develop the Appennines areas and break the isolation of the mountain villages as well. One of the resources of the Appennines is the great variety of the environment and food produce. The World Wide Web could furnish a valid help for exploitation of these resources and help create new enterprises and new employments in disadvantaged areas. There are three possibilities for the World Wide Web based programs: i) organize and advertise initiatives of rural tourism; ii) organize and advertise the existing resources; iii) introduce telework in mountains areas.

  5. World-Wide Effort Produces Dramatic "Movie" of Cosmic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Astronomers using a world-wide collection of radio telescopes, including the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), have made a dramatic "movie" of a voracious, superdense neutron star repeatedly spitting out subatomic particles at nearly the speed of light into two narrow jets as it pulls material from a companion star. The movie shows these jets ejecting clouds of hot plasma that are then "zapped" by pulses of energy in the jets as they move away from the neutron star. Frame from Radio-Telescope 'Movie' of Scorpius X-1 "We have directly measured the speed of energy flow in a cosmic jet for the first time," said Ed Fomalont, an astronomer at the NRAO in Charlottesville, Virginia. Fomalont worked with Barry Geldzahler and Charles Bradshaw of George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. The astronomers used the VLBA, the NSF's Very Large Array (VLA) and the Green Bank 140-foot telescope, along with radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network, Australia, Japan and South Africa to record the double-star system's eruptions continuously for 56 hours. "This study is going to be extremely valuable in helping us understand a phenomenon that we see throughout the universe," Fomalont said. Cosmic jets of superfast particles are ejected from the cores of numerous galaxies. On a smaller scale, similar jets are ejected from binary-star systems closer to home, in our own Milky Way Galaxy. While the jets from galaxy cores are thought to be powered by supermassive black holes millions of times more massive than the Sun, the closer "microquasars" are powered by much smaller black holes or by neutron stars only a few times more massive than the sun. "Studying one of the closer, smaller examples will help us understand how they all work, including the bigger ones," Geldzahler said. "The jets coming from distant galaxies are harder to study because of their much greater distance and the slowness of their

  6. A Birthday Attack on Roulette

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for playing the game of roulette is presented in this paper. The strategy is based on the same probabilistic argument that leads to the well-known Birthday Paradox in Probability theory. Following the strategy, a player will have a positive expected gain per spin as well as in the long run despite the fact that the pay-off ratios in roulette favor the House.

  7. Progressive-Era Resources on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howenstein, Amanda

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of Progressive-era websites with the address and a detailed description of each of the websites. Includes topics such as the womens suffrage movement, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the Prohibition, labor-management conflicts, the Hull House, the Chicago fire, Emma Goldman, Progressive-era entertainment, and the Worlds Fair.…

  8. World Wide Web Resources on Obstetrical and Gynecological Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Athanasiou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern information and communications technology has provided medical students and practitioners around the world with a new, valuable, and easy-to-use way to retrieve potentially useful information. Using previously described by our research group methodology, we generated a list of 50 Internet resources in the field of obstetrical and gynecological infections. We believe that the availability of such a list will help in the education of students and clinicians interested in obstetrical and gynecological infections.

  9. Consistency in the World Wide Web:Specification, Verification, and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    2013-01-01

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents ofhumans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract,and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A steptowards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting thisinformation in a reliable and consistent way. In this dissertationwe study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for thespecication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistencyof information in the World Wide Web.We show...

  10. Reactor Engineering Division Material for World Wide Web Pages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the home page of the Reactor Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory. This WWW site describes the activities of the Division, an introduction to its wide variety of programs and samples of the results of research by people in the division

  11. Migratory animals couple biodiversity and ecosystem functioning world-wide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, S.; Hoye, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Animal migrations span the globe, involving immense numbers of individuals from a wide range of taxa. Migrants transport nutrients, energy, and other organisms as they forage and are preyed upon throughout their journeys. These highly predictable, pulsed movements across large spatial scales render

  12. Combining Real World Experiences with WorldWide Telescope Visualization to Build a Better Parallax Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, E. F.; Gingrich, E. C.; Nottis, K. E. K.; Udomprasert, P.; Goodman, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    We present a lab activity designed to help students understand the concept of parallax in both astronomical and non-astronomical contexts. In an outdoor setting, students learn the methodology of distance determination via parallax. They identify a distant landmark to establish a reference of direction, and then measure the change in apparent direction for more nearby objects as they change position in a 2 meter radius “orbit” around the “Sun.” This hands-on activity involves large, visually-discernable angles so that students can internalize the concept of parallax from everyday experience. However, students often have difficulty transferring this experience to the astronomical realm, so we pair this hands-on activity with a more explicitly astronomically-based activity using the WorldWide Telescope visualization environment. Students apply the same methodology in this environment and learn how the apparent motion of stars is related to their distance from Earth. The combination of hands-on activity and computer-aided visualization is designed to produce a deeper understanding of parallax in the astronomical environment, and an improved understanding of the inherently three-dimensional distribution of objects in our universe. More formal assessment is underway.

  13. 25 years - Happy Birthday!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    The nasty PC virus turned twenty-five years this month. The very first computer virus ever was created in January 1986. Dubbed "©Brain", this virus was aiming to infect DOS-based PCs. While this instance was relatively harmless and their creators claim sincere intentions, the world has changed since then. Today's viruses and worms are malign and aim for making profit. They attack now everything connected to a network: Windows PCs, but also Linux PCs and Macs; iPhones and other mobile devices; directly the operating system, but also applications like Adobe Reader (PDF), Firefox, ... Thus, protect your computers from viruses and malware. Any unprotected computer connected to the Internet is likely to be infected within minutes! Keep your system up to date. Enable the regular automatic installation of updates/patches. If you can, use operating systems managed by CERN’s IT department; Use anti-virus software. The CERN anti-virus solution is even free for your home an...

  14. World Wide Web Usage Mining Systems and Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chen Hu

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining is used to discover interesting user navigation patterns and can be applied to many real-world problems, such as improving Web sites/pages, making additional topic or product recommendations, user/customer behavior studies, etc. This article provides a survey and analysis of current Web usage mining systems and technologies. A Web usage mining system performs five major tasks: i data gathering, ii data preparation, iii navigation pattern discovery, iv pattern analysis and visualization, and v pattern applications. Each task is explained in detail and its related technologies are introduced. A list of major research systems and projects concerning Web usage mining is also presented, and a summary of Web usage mining is given in the last section.

  15. Status and Trends of Nuclear Power World-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliable and adequate supply of energy, especially electricity, is necessary not only for economic development but to enhance the quality of life. Nuclear power is a proven technology which already supplies about 17% of the world''s electricity generation. In 1995, seven countries produce more than 40% of their electricity from nuclear power plants: Lithuanian, France, Belgium, Sweden, Bulgaria, Slovak and Hungary. It is quite clear that many countries are heavily reliant on nuclear power and are well beyond the point where nuclear power could be replaced by some other source, so, nuclear power remains one of the few technologically proven, economically promising and environmentally benign energy sources. An important factor in the continued development of nuclear power is the extent to which nuclear generated electricity remains economically competitive. Factors such as plant availability, standardisation of systems, components and equipment, as well as the cost of equipment to meet safety and environmental regulations play also an important role in determining the relative competitiveness of nuclear power plants. Many operating organizations have already impressive results in the reduction of plant unavailability. The number of nuclear power plants currently operating with annual availability factor exceeding 85% is increasing. Good performance of some operators should establish performance targets for operators everywhere. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the only international and almost complete information system, the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) with nuclear power plant status and performance data. This paper presents the current status of nuclear power plants, according to information contained in the IAEA. It discusses the plant performance indicators available in PRIS and the improvement trend in the performance of nuclear power plants based on these indicators. It also presents the future trends of nuclear power focusing

  16. Taras Krokhmalskii's 60th birthday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Taras Krokhmalskii, a senior research fellow of the Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (ICMP, a renowned specialist in the field of condensed matter physics celebrated his sixtieth birthday on February 6, 2013. The editorial board of the "Condensed Matter Physics" joins numerous congratulations to him and wish him to stay in good health, implement his creative ideas, gain new achievements in science, and - last but not least - in his own peculiar way to grasp the Nature and tell us the tale.

  17. Rotorcraft Aeromechanics Branch Home Page on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall L.; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The tilt rotor aircraft holds great promise for improving air travel in the future. It's benefits include vertical take off and landing combined with airspeeds comparable to propeller driven aircraft. However, the noise from a tilt rotor during approach to a landing is potentially a significant barrier to widespread acceptance of these aircraft. This approach noise is primarily caused by Blade Vortex Interactions (BVI), which are created when the blade passes near or through the vortex trailed by preceding blades. The XV- 15 Aeroacoustic test will measure the noise from a tilt rotor during descent conditions and demonstrate several possible techniques to reduce the noise. The XV- 15 Aeroacoustic test at NASA Ames Research Center will measure acoustics and performance for a full-scale XV-15 rotor. A single XV-15 rotor will be mounted on the Ames Rotor Test Apparatus (RTA) in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. The test will be conducted in helicopter mode with forward flight speeds up to 100 knots and tip path plane angles up to +/- 15 degrees. These operating conditions correspond to a wide range of tilt rotor descent and transition to forward flight cases. Rotor performance measurements will be made with the RTA rotor balance, while acoustic measurements will be made using an acoustic traverse and four fixed microphones. The acoustic traverse will provide limited directionality measurements on the advancing side of the rotor, where BVI noise is expected to be the highest. Baseline acoustics and performance measurements for the three-bladed rotor will be obtained over the entire test envelope. Acoustic measurements will also be obtained for correlation with the XV-15 aircraft Inflight Rotor Aeroacoustic Program (IRAP) recently conducted by Ames. Several techniques will be studied in an attempt to reduce the highest measured BVI noise conditions. The first of these techniques will use sub-wings mounted on the blade tips. These subwings are expected to alter the size

  18. Beyond Piñatas, Fortune Cookies, and Wooden Shoes: Using the World Wide Web to Help Children Explore the Whole Wide World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Donna; Shulsky, Debra; Willis, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The advent of technology and access to the internet through the World Wide Web have stretched the traditional ways of teaching social studies beyond classroom boundaries. This article explores how teachers can create authentic and contextualized cultural studies experiences for young children by integrating social studies and technology. To…

  19. Discrete Mathematics - Special Issue: Graph Theory - dedicated to Carsten Thomassen on his 60th birthday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carsten Thomassen belongs to the worlds's absolute top graph theorists, and to the world's top mathematicians in general. The special issue is a rather somewhat random collection of good papers in graph theory, by many different authors, dedicated to Carsten Thomassen on his 60th birthday. Guest...

  20. Integrating Mathematics, Science, and Language Arts Instruction Using the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kenneth; Hosticka, Alice; Kent, Judi; Browne, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Addresses issues of access to World Wide Web sites, mathematics and science content-resources available on the Web, and methods for integrating mathematics, science, and language arts instruction. (Author/ASK)

  1. Histology on the World Wide Web: A Digest of Resources for Students and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, John R.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a list of 37 World Wide Web sites that are devoted to instruction in histology and include electronic manuals, syllabi, atlases, image galleries, and quizzes. Reviews the topics, content, and highlights of these Web sites. (DDR)

  2. Celebrate Klubb Rouge’s First Birthday

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To celebrate its first birthday,Klubb Rouge is holding "experience night- life at Klubb Rouge" promotion in Beijing.To reward its patrons,Klubb Rouge will partner with various retailers in offering a one-month discount

  3. Radiation protection and environmental radioactivity. A voyage to the World Wide Web for beginners; Strahlenschutz und Umweltradioaktivitaet im Internet. Eine Reise in das World Wide Web fuer Anfaenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, S. [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Referat ' ' Umweltradioaktivitaet, Strahlenschutz' ' (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    According to the enormous growth of the Internet service 'World Wide Web' there is also a big growth in the number of web sites in connection with radiation protection. An introduction is given of some practical basis of the WWW. The structure of WWW addresses and navigating through the web with hyperlinks is explained. Further some search engines are presented. The paper lists a number of WWW addresses of interesting sites with radiological protection informations. (orig.) [German] Mit dem rasanten Wachstum des Internet-Dienstes 'World Wide Web' ist auch das Angebot von Web-Seiten im Bereich Strahlenschutz stark gewachsen. Es wird eine Einfuehrung in die wichtigsten praktischen Grundlagen des WWW gegeben. Es wird der Aufbau der WWW-Adressen erklaert und das Navigieren mit Hyperlinks. Ausserdem werden einige Suchmaschinen vorgestellt. Der Beitrag stellt eine groessere Zahl an WWW-Adressen zu interessanten Seiten mit Strahlenschutzinformationen zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  4. Collecting and serving information on the World Wide Web within a large organization

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-Vega, S

    1996-01-01

    A good use of World Wide Web within a large organization requires a specific knowledge of how data can be collected and distributed over the network. Among the characteristics of large organizations is the wide range of possible information providers. Potentially any employee is a provider, and therefore, may like to run his own WWW server. We will study the different models of WWW servers, from a model where each provider runs his own server to a central server which offers services to the providers. Examples are mainly based on our experience in the very first organization to use the World Wide Web: CERN.

  5. Anatolij Svidzynskyj's 85th birthday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This year a prominent Ukrainian theoretical physicist and public leader Anatolij Svidzynskyj marks his 85th birthday. Anatolij Svidzynskyj was born on 1 March 1929 in Mohyliv-Podilskyy (Ukraine to a family of a physics teacher and an economist. Since 1939 and to the end of WWII Svidzynskyj's family lived in Kiev. In 1945 they moved to Lviv, where A. Svidzynskyj graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of the Lviv State University. Vasyl Milyanchuk was his first supervisor. Due to his advice A. Svidzynskyj moved to Moscow State University where Mykola Boholiubov worked at the time. Under Bogoliubov's supervision the PhD thesis ``On the method of functional averaging in the theory of Green's function'' was written, which was defended in 1956 at Lviv State University. One of the most important results obtained in the thesis is an exact solution of Bloch-Nordsieck model that describes an infrared asymptotic of the electron Green's function in a realistic theory - quantum electrodynamics. In this way, a non-analytical dependence of this function on a coupling constant was obtained, and the nature of infrared divergences in quantum electrodynamics was clarified.

  6. The PEP-II/BaBar Project-Wide Database using World Wide Web and Oracle*Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PEP-II/BaBar Project Database is a tool for monitoring the technical and documentation aspects of the accelerator and detector construction. It holds the PEP-II/BaBar design specifications, fabrication and installation data in one integrated system. Key pieces of the database include the machine parameter list, components fabrication and calibration data, survey and alignment data, property control, CAD drawings, publications and documentation. This central Oracle database on a UNIX server is built using Oracle*Case tools. Users at the collaborating laboratories mainly access the data using World Wide Web (WWW). The Project Database is being extended to link to legacy databases required for the operations phase

  7. World Wide Webs: Crossing the Digital Divide through Promotion of Public Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Liezl

    “As Bill Gates and Steve Case proclaim the global omnipresence of the Internet, the majority of non-Western nations and 97 per cent of the world's population remain unconnected to the net for lack of money, access, or knowledge. This exclusion of so vast a share of the global population from the Internet sharply contradicts the claims of those who posit the World Wide Web as a ‘universal' medium of egalitarian communication.” (Trend 2001:2)

  8. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Riedy; Jade Herriman

    2011-01-01

    On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews). WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15) in December 2009. In this paper, we examine t...

  9. Symposium Festschrift Hughes (Vernon W) to Celebrate his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The contents of this book are derived from a celebration of the 70th birthday of Vernon W Hughes. Professor Hughes' career has touched on several areas in modern physics ranging from precision measurements of the fundamental properties of atoms to measurements of spin structure functions of the proton via deep inelastic muon scattering at the world's highest energy fixed target machines. This observance of his 70th birthday brings together experimental and theoretical physicists who are leaders of the many fields in which he has made contributions.

  10. A Simulation of the Structure of the World-Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Moses Boudourides; Gerasimos Antypas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we are presenting a simple simulation of the Internet World-Wide Web, where one observes the appearance of web pages belonging to different web sites, covering a number of different thematic topics and possessing links to other web pages. The goal of our simulation is to reproduce the form of the observed World-Wide Web and of its growth, using a small number of simple assumptions. In our simulation, existing web pages may generate new ones as follows: First, each web page is eq...

  11. Venomics of New World pit vipers: Genus-wide comparisons of venom proteomes across Agkistrodon

    OpenAIRE

    Lomonte, Bruno; Tsai, Wan-Chih; Ureña-Diaz, Juan Manuel; Sanz, Libia; Mora-Obando, Diana; Sánchez, Elda E.; Fry, Bryan G.; Gutiérrez, José María; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Sovic, Michael G.; Calvete, Juan J

    2013-01-01

    We report a genus-wide comparison of venom proteome variation across New World pit vipers in the genus Agkistrodon. Despite the wide variety of habitats occupied by this genus and that all its taxa feed on diverse species of vertebrates and invertebrate prey, the venom proteomes of copperheads, cottonmouths, and cantils are remarkably similar, both in the type and relative abundance of their different toxin families. The venoms from all the eleven species and subspecies sampled showed relativ...

  12. How Students Evaluate Information and Sources when Searching the World Wide Web for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Amber; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) has become the biggest information source for students while solving information problems for school projects. Since anyone can post anything on the WWW, information is often unreliable or incomplete, and it is important to evaluate sources and information before using them. Earlier research has shown that students have…

  13. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  14. Gender Equity in Advertising on the World-Wide Web: Can it be Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kevin M.; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    Recent attention to gender equity in computer environments, as well as in print-based and televised advertising for technological products, suggests that gender bias in the computer environment continues. This study examined gender messages within World Wide Web advertisements, specifically the type and number of visual images used in Web banner…

  15. Integrating Temporal Media and Open Hypermedia on the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouvin, Niels Olof; Schade, René

    1999-01-01

    The World Wide Web has since its beginning provided linking to and from text documents encoded in HTML. The Web has evolved and most Web browsers now support a rich set of media types either by default or by the use of specialised content handlers, known as plug-ins. The limitations of the Web...

  16. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer;

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked to...

  17. Informetric Analyses on the World Wide Web: Methodological Approaches to "WEBOMETRICS."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almind, Tomas C.; Ingwersen, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the application of informetric methods to the World Wide Web (Webometrics). Presents a case study comparing the number of specific informetric analysis parameters of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway on the Web. Concludes that problems with data collection occur because current tools are inadequate and because collection methods, manual and…

  18. Bibliometrics of the World Wide Web: An Exploratory Analysis of the Intellectual Structure of Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Ray R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the bibliometrics of the World Wide Web based on analysis of Web pages collected by the Inktomi "Web Crawler" and on the use of the DEC AltaVista search engine for cocitation analysis of a set of Earth Science related Web sites. Looks at the statistical characteristics of Web documents and their hypertext links, and the characteristics of…

  19. El creador de World Wide Web gana premio Millennium de tecnologia

    CERN Multimedia

    Galan, J

    2004-01-01

    "El creador de la World Wide Web (WWW), el fisico britanico Tim Berners-Lee, gano hoy la primera edicion del Millennium Technology Prize, un galardon internacional creado por una fundacion finlandesa y dotado con un millon de euros" (1/2 page)

  20. Safety Net: Student Exchange Learning and Supervision on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiwane, Abraham

    2001-01-01

    Six U.S. nursing students studied community health in Finland and communicated with U.S. instructors via the World Wide Web. The immersion program effectively developed cultural competence; information technology played a significant role in fostering learning exchange. (SK)

  1. From theater to the world wide web--a new online era for surgical education.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D Peter

    2012-07-01

    Traditionally, surgical education has been confined to operating and lecture theaters. Access to the World Wide Web and services, such as YouTube and iTunes has expanded enormously. Each week throughout Ireland, nonconsultant hospital doctors work hard to create presentations for surgical teaching. Once presented, these valuable presentations are often never used again.

  2. Suicides and accidents on birthdays: Evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Ueda, Michiko

    2016-06-01

    This study examined whether people have a higher risk of death on and around their birthday using a large national mortality data. We examined 2,073,656 death records of individuals who died in Japan from major external causes between 1974 and 2014. Poisson regression analysis showed that people were more likely to die on their birthday than on any other calendar day by means of suicide, traffic accidents, accidental falls, drowning, and choking. For suicide cases in particular, people are 50% more likely to die on their birthday compared to any other dates. Excess deaths on birthdays were observed regardless of gender, marital status, and age-at-death subgroups. For suicide deaths, our results provided strong support for the "birthday blues" hypothesis that predicts excess deaths on birthdays. With regards to traffic accidents and other unintentional accidents, however, our results suggest that excess deaths on birthdays may be related to birthday celebrations. For the elderly population, our analysis indicates that special activities associated with birthday celebrations, which often involves going out to consume festive food and drinks, may be contributors to a sudden increase in the number of accidental deaths on their birthday. In contrast, a notably sharp increase in the number of motor vehicle accidents was observed for individuals in the 20s on their birthday, which may be attributable to birthday celebrations that involved both driving and drinking. PMID:27173742

  3. A review of images of nurses and smoking on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of the World Wide Web, historic images previously having limited distributions are now widely available. As tobacco use has evolved, so have images of nurses related to smoking. Using a systematic search, the purpose of this article is to describe types of images of nurses and smoking available on the World Wide Web. Approximately 10,000 images of nurses and smoking published over the past century were identified through search engines and digital archives. Seven major themes were identified: nurses smoking, cigarette advertisements, helping patients smoke, "naughty" nurse, teaching women to smoke, smoking in and outside of health care facilities, and antitobacco images. The use of nursing images to market cigarettes was known but the extent of the use of these images has not been reported previously. Digital archives can be used to explore the past, provide a perspective for understanding the present, and suggest directions for the future in confronting negative images of nursing. PMID:23036793

  4. 70th birthday of Reinhard Folk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On April 29, 2015 Reinhard Folk - member of the Editorial Board of "Condensed Matter Physics", renowned expert in the fields of condensed matter physics, phase transitions and critical phenomena - celebrated his 70th birthday. Reinhard Folk was born in Neuendettelsau, Germany. He studied at the University of Vienna, where in 1973 he defended his doctoral thesis "Hydrodynamic Equations of Dielectric Crystals" (under supervision of Franz Schwabl. In the same year he started working at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Kepler University in Linz, at first as assistant, later as an associate professor, then as extraordinary professor, and finally as Director of the research group "Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena". His research interests cover various fields of condensed matter physics. In particular, he obtained important results in the theory of ferroelectrics, quantum liquids, critical phenomena in magnets and random systems, spin liquids, superconductors, and neural networks. Reinhard Folk and his collaborators performed a series of studies that became the basis for understanding and quantitative description of phenomena occurring in many systems. Included amongst these are the description of the thermodynamic properties of matter in the vicinity of Lifshitz points, the description of critical dynamics in systems with different types of conservation laws, the analysis of effective (non-asymptotic critical behaviour, and generalized hydrodynamics of many-particle systems. Computing algorithms, resummation methods of asymptotic perturbation series proposed by Reinhard Folk and his collaborators, cover a wide range of applications. In 1982 (together with Volker Dohm he was awarded the Walter Schottky Prize of the German Physical Society for his studies of the critical dynamics of helium-4 . Those of us who were fortunate to know Reinhard Folk closer, are aware of his interests in the history of culture and the history of

  5. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide: Database summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results complied in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author). 4 refs, 17 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Pigeons, Facebook and the Birthday Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The unexpectedness of the birthday problem has long been used by teachers of statistics in discussing basic probability calculation. An activity is described that engages students in understanding probability and sampling using the popular Facebook social networking site. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  7. The World-Wide Web past present and future, and its application to medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Sendall, D M

    1997-01-01

    The World-Wide Web was first developed as a tool for collaboration in the high energy physics community. From there it spread rapidly to other fields, and grew to its present impressive size. As an easy way to access information, it has been a great success, and a huge number of medical applications have taken advantage of it. But there is another side to the Web, its potential as a tool for collaboration between people. Medical examples include telemedicine and teaching. New technical developments offer still greater potential in medical and other fields. This paper gives some background to the early development of the World-Wide Web, a brief overview of its present state with some examples relevant to medicine, and a look at the future.

  8. Radiation protection and environmental radioactivity. A voyage to the World Wide Web for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the enormous growth of the Internet service 'World Wide Web' there is also a big growth in the number of web sites in connection with radiation protection. An introduction is given of some practical basis of the WWW. The structure of WWW addresses and navigating through the web with hyperlinks is explained. Further some search engines are presented. The paper lists a number of WWW addresses of interesting sites with radiological protection informations. (orig.)

  9. Learning from the World Wide Web: Using Organizational Profiles in Information Searches

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Scime

    2000-01-01

    The World Wide Web provides access to a great deal of information on a vast array of subjects. Individuals search the Web as part of their organizational responsibilities to keep informed and to help solve business problems. These searches for information are accomplished by selecting a Web search engine and developing a keyword query. Keyword queries tend to return many irrelevant hits and typically each search is conducted independently of queries preformed at an earlier date or queries pre...

  10. Do We Need to Impose More Regulation Upon the World Wide Web? -A Metasystem Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. van Gigch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Every day a new problem attributable to the World Wide Web's lack of formal structure and/or organization is made public. What arguably could be represented as one of its main strengths is rapidly turning out to be one of its most flagrant weaknesses. The intent of this article is to show the need to establish a more formal organization than presently exists over the World Wide Web. (This article will use the terms the Internet and Cyberspace interchangeably. It is proposed that this formal organization take the form of a metacontrol system--to be explained-- and rely, at least in part, for this control to self-regulate. The so-called metasystem system would be responsible for preventing some of the unanticipated situations that take place in cyberspace and that, due to the web's lack of maturity, have not been encountered heretofore. Some activities, such as the denial-of-service (DoS attacks, may well be illicit. Others, like the question of establishing a world-wide democratic board to administer the Internet's address system, are so new that there are no technical, legal or political precedents to ensure its design will succeed. What is needed is a formal, over-arching control system, i.e. a "metasystem," to arbitrate over controversies, decide on the legality of new policies and, in general, act as a metalevel controller over the activities of the virtual community called Cyberspace. The World Wide Web Consortium has emerged as a possible candidate for this role.This paper uses control theory to define both the problem and the proposed solution. Cyberspace lacks a metacontroller that can be used to resolve the many problems that arise when a new organizational configuration, such as the Internet, is created and when questions surface about the extent to which new activities interfere with individual or corporate freedoms.

  11. The World Wide Web and Libraries: From Search Interface to Bibliographic Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyche, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The World Wide Web is rapidly being adopted by libraries and database vendors as a front end for bibliographic databases, reflecting the fact that the Web browser is becoming a universal tool. When the Web is also used for bibliographic instruction about these Web-based resources, it is possible to build tutorials incorporating actual screens from a database. The result is a realistic, highly interactive simulation of database search­ing that can provide a very detailed level of instruction.

  12. A World-Wide repository: the technical challenge of E-LIS

    OpenAIRE

    Tajoli, Zeno

    2007-01-01

    E-LIS is the largest world-wide disciplinary repository for Library and Information Science. It stores and delivers metadata and digital papers in different Unicode scripts (Latin, Chinese, Greek and others). Contributions come from more than 80 countries in all continents. At present it contains around 4,500 full-text documents. The presentation describes the technical improvements implemented in order to manage linguistic differences in uploading, searching and disseminating contents, and t...

  13. Jswitch/Jsat: Real-time and Offiine World Wide Web Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Maury, Abigail; Critchfield, Anna; Langston, Jim; Adams, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    The Java-based spacecraft web interface to telemetry and command handling, Jswitch, is a prototype, platform-independent user interface to a spacecraft command and control system that uses Java technology, readily available security software, standard World Wide Web protocols, and commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The Java-based science analysis and trending tool, Jsat, is a major element in Jswitch. Jsat is an inexpensive, Web-based, information-on-demand science data trend analysis ...

  14. Sciencebase (Sm) for the World Wide Web: Scientific Information for Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Haron, Jay

    2012-01-01

    KR ScienceBase is a World Wide Web-based searching tool that allows scientists and knowledge workers to access high-quality databases. It is targeted at chemists and biologists, but physicians, other health care professionals, and people in related disciplines can also benefit from its use. By designing a product that automatically selects databases, and formulates a search utilizing state-of-the-art search strategies, a scientist can easily obtain answers to questions that they come across i...

  15. On the World Wide Web: Cost Effective Solutions to Database Searching

    OpenAIRE

    Decastro, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In a recent questionnaire survey of Cambridge Scientific subscribers, over 90% expressed preference for the delivery of abstracting/indexing services through the Internet. This fact has been the rationale for Cambridge Scientific's Internet initiative. Thirty-six of Cambridge Scientific's databases, previously available in print and CD-ROM, are now searchable through the World Wide Web. More recently, these databases have been clustered into eight sets, each with a unified index, covering cri...

  16. Consécration pour les Inventeurs du World-Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Nearly seven years after it was invented at CERN, the World-Wide Web has woven its way into every corner of the Internet. On Saturday, 17 February, the inventors of the Web, Tim Berners-Lee, now at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Robert Cailliau of CERN's Electronics and Computing for Physics (ECP) Division, will be honoured with one of computing's highest distinctions: the Association for Computing (ACM) Software System Award 1995.

  17. Multi-dimensional effects of color on the world wide web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jill

    2002-06-01

    Color is the most powerful building material of visual imagery on the World Wide Web. It must function successfully as it has done historically in traditional two-dimensional media, as well as address new challenges presented by this electronic medium. The psychological, physiological, technical and aesthetic effects of color have been redefined by the unique requirements of the electronic transmission of text and images on the Web. Color simultaneously addresses each of these dimensions in this electronic medium.

  18. Location accuracy of VLF World-Wide Lightning Location (WWLL) network: Post-algorithm upgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Rodger, C. J.; Brundell, J. B.; Dowden, R. L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental VLF World-Wide Lightning Location (WWLL) network has been developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The aim of the WWLL is to provide global real-time locations of lightning discharges, with >50% CG flash detection efficiency and mean location accuracy of <10km. While these goals are essentially arbitrary, they do define a point where the WWLL network development can be judged a success, providing a breakpoint for a more stable...

  19. Publishing biomedical journals on the World-Wide Web using an open architecture model.

    OpenAIRE

    Shareck, E. P.; Greenes, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many respects, biomedical publications are ideally suited for distribution via the World-Wide Web, but economic concerns have prevented the rapid adoption of an on-line publishing model. PURPOSE: We report on our experiences with assisting biomedical journals in developing an online presence, issues that were encountered, and methods used to address these issues. Our approach is based on an open architecture that fosters adaptation and interconnection of biomedical resources. M...

  20. Embedded Web Technology: Applying World Wide Web Standards to Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponyik, Joseph G.; York, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Embedded Systems have traditionally been developed in a highly customized manner. The user interface hardware and software along with the interface to the embedded system are typically unique to the system for which they are built, resulting in extra cost to the system in terms of development time and maintenance effort. World Wide Web standards have been developed in the passed ten years with the goal of allowing servers and clients to intemperate seamlessly. The client and server systems can consist of differing hardware and software platforms but the World Wide Web standards allow them to interface without knowing about the details of system at the other end of the interface. Embedded Web Technology is the merging of Embedded Systems with the World Wide Web. Embedded Web Technology decreases the cost of developing and maintaining the user interface by allowing the user to interface to the embedded system through a web browser running on a standard personal computer. Embedded Web Technology can also be used to simplify an Embedded System's internal network.

  1. Hidden Tree Structure is a Key to the Emergence of Scaling in the World Wide Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bo-Jin; WANG Jian-Min; CHEN Gui-Sheng; JIANG Jian; SHEN Xian-Jun

    2011-01-01

    Preferential attachment is the most popular explanation for the emergence of scaling behavior in the World Wide Web, but this explanation has been challenged by the global information hypothesis, the existence of linear preference and the emergence of new big internet companies in the real world. We notice that most websites have an obvious feature that their pages are organized as a tree (namely hidden tree) and hence propose a new model that introduces a hidden tree structure into the Erd(o)s-Rényi model by adding a new rule: when one node connects to another, it should also connect to all nodes in the path between these two nodes in the hidden tree. The experimental results show that the degree distribution of the generated graphs would obey power law distributions and have variable high clustering coefficients and variable small average lengths of shortest paths. The proposed model provides an alternative explanation to the emergence of scaling in the World Wide Web without the above-mentioned difficulties, and also explains the "preferential attachment" phenomenon.

  2. Alternatives to animal testing: information resources via the Internet and World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkinen, P J Bert; Green, Dianne K

    2002-04-25

    Many countries, including the United States, Canada, European Union member states, and others, require that a comprehensive search for possible alternatives be completed before beginning some or all research involving animals. Completing comprehensive alternatives searches and keeping current with information associated with alternatives to animal testing is a challenge that will be made easier as people throughout the world gain access to the Internet and World Wide Web. Numerous Internet and World Wide Web resources are available to provide guidance and other information on in vitro and other alternatives to animal testing. A comprehensive Web site is Alternatives to Animal Testing on the Web (Altweb), which serves as an online clearinghouse for resources, information, and news about alternatives to animal testing. Examples of other important Web sites include the joint one for the (US) Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM) and the Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives (The NORINA database). Internet mailing lists and online access to bulletin boards, discussion areas, newsletters, and journals are other ways to access and share information to stay current with alternatives to animal testing. PMID:11955681

  3. The International Energy Agency`s role in world-wide wind energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangi, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Ancona, D. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Wind energy is now being deployed world-wide at a rapidly increasing rate and the International Energy Agency (IEA) has a changing role in its growth. IEA was founded in 1974 within the framework of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to collaborate on comprehensive international energy programs. IEA membership consists of eighteen parties from sixteen countries and the European Commission. Recently there has been increasing interest in IEA participation from both OECD and non-OECD countries. Non-OECD countries participating in various IEA Agreements include: China, India, Israel, Korea, and Russia. Because of its diverse international makeup, the IEA is viewed as a source of reliable technical and economic information. The World Bank has approached the Executive Committee for Wind Energy R & D, through the IEA Renewable Energy Working Party, to assist in the expansion of wind deployment. In addition, IEA is moving from R & D programs to include tracking of implementation incentives offered by its members.

  4. Introducing chinese treatment experience of Budd-Chiari syndrome to world wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the latest 20 years, the crucial progress has been made in the field of treatment for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS)in China with therapeutic methods transferring from surgical to interventional and achieving successful rate of 96%. Our unique contribution to the BCS interventional therapy should have made ourselves proud for being as a superior world position on account of large number of cases, abundant therapeutic contents and consummate skills. What a pity is that our achievement was not appreciated by international colleagues because of only a few papers published in SCI journals. So that, Chinese scholars ought to have doing more necessarily through diligently learning English, doing long term follow-up and performing more basic researches and actively joining international academic exchanges, let our good experiences of treatment for BCS be introduced to the world-wide. (authors)

  5. Implementation of a World Wide Web server for the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gas and Oil Technology Exchange and Communication Highway (GO-TECH) provides an electronic information system for the petroleum community for exchanging ideas, data, and technology. The PC-based system fosters communication and discussion by linking the oil and gas producers with resource centers, government agencies, consulting firms, service companies, national laboratories, academic research groups, and universities throughout the world. The oil and gas producers can access the GO-TECH World Wide Web (WWW) home page through modem links, as well as through the Internet. Future GO-TECH applications will include the establishment of virtual corporations consisting of consortia of small companies, consultants, and service companies linked by electronic information systems. These virtual corporations will have the resources and expertise previously found only in major corporations

  6. Developing as new search engine and browser for libraries to search and organize the World Wide Web library resources

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasulu, V.

    2000-01-01

    Internet Granthalaya urges world wide advocates and targets at the task of creating a new search engine and dedicated browseer. Internet Granthalaya may be the ultimate search engine exclusively dedicated for every library use to search and organize the world wide web libary resources

  7. Première conférence internationale sur le système World-Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1994-01-01

    World-Wide Web is the world's most powerful networked information system. It was originally conceived and developed at CERN, where large high-energy physics collaborations created a demand for instantaneous information sharing between physicists working in different universities and institutes all over the world. Now it has millions of academic and commercial users.

  8. Global Deliberative Democracy and Climate Change: Insights from World Wide Views on Global Warming in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Riedy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On 26 September 2009, approximately 4,000 citizens in 38 countries participated in World Wide Views on Global Warming (WWViews. WWViews was an ambitious first attempt to convene a deliberative mini-public at a global scale, giving people from around the world an opportunity to deliberate on international climate policy and to make recommendations to the decision-makers meeting at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15 in December 2009. In this paper, we examine the role that deliberative mini-publics can play in facilitating the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response. We pursue this intent through a reflective evaluation of the Australian component of the World Wide Views on Global Warming project (WWViews. Our evaluation of WWViews is mixed. The Australian event was delivered with integrity and feedback from Australian participants was almost universally positive. Globally, WWViews demonstrated that it is feasible to convene a global mini-public to deliberate on issues of global relevance, such as climate change. On the other hand, the contribution of WWViews towards the emergence of a global deliberative system for climate change response was limited and it achieved little influence on global climate change policy. We identify lessons for future global mini-publics, including the need to prioritise the quality of deliberation and provide flexibility to respond to cultural and political contexts in different parts of the world. Future global mini-publics may be more influential if they seek to represent discourse diversity in addition to demographic profiles, use designs that maximise the potential for transmission from public to empowered space, run over longer time periods to build momentum for change and experiment with ways of bringing global citizens together in a single process instead of discrete national events.

  9. What is WorldWide Telescope, and Why Should Researchers Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    As of 2015, about 20 million people have downloaded the computer program called "WorldWide Telescope," and even more have accessed it via the web, at http://worldwidetelescope.org. But, the vast majority of these millions are not professional astronomers. This talk will explain why WorldWide Telescope (WWT) is also a powerful tool for research astronomers. I will focus on how WWT can be, and is, being built-in to Journals, and into day-to-day research environments. By way of example, I will show how WWT already: allows users to display images, including those in Journals, in the context of multi-wavelength full-sky imagery; allows for the display of which parts of the Sky have been studied, when, how, and for what reason (see http://adsass.org); allows, via right-click, immediate access to ADS, SIMBAD, and other professional research tools. I will also highlight new work, currently in development, that is using WWT as a tool for observation planning, and as a display mode for advanced high-dimensional data visualization tools, like glue (see http://glueviz.org). WWT is now well-known in the education community (see http://wwtambassadors.org), so the explicit goal of this talk will be to make researchers more aware of its full power. I will explain how WWT transitioned, over 8 years, from a Microsoft Research project to its current open-source state (see https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope), and I will conclude with comments on the future of WWT, and its relationship to how research should be carried out in the future (see http://tinyurl.com/aas-potf).

  10. Working towards Usable Forms on the World Wide Web: Optimizing Date Entry Input Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Bargas-Avila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When an interactive form in the world wide web requires users to fill in exact dates, this can be implemented in several ways. This paper discusses an empirical online study with n = 172 participants which compared six different versions to design input fields for date entries. The results revealed that using a drop-down menu is best when format errors must be avoided, whereas using only one input field and placing the format requirements left or inside the text box led to faster completion time and higher user satisfaction.

  11. A Case Study of Search Engine on World Wide Web for Chemical Fiber Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利; 邵世煌; 曾献辉; 尹美华

    2001-01-01

    Search engine is an effective approach to promote the service quality of the World Wide Web. On terms of the analysis of search engines at home and abroad, the developing principle of search engines is given according to the requirement of Web information for chemical fiber engineering. The implementation method for the communication and dynamic refreshment of information on home page of the search engines are elaborated by using programming technology of Active Server Page 3.0 (ASP3.0). The query of chemical fiber information and automatic linking of chemical fiber Web sites can be easily realized by the developed search engine under Internet environment according to users' requirement.

  12. World wide web and virtual reality in developing and using environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of World wide web as an active component of environmental decision support system is still largely unexplored. Environmental problems are distributed in nature, both from the physical and from the social point of view; the Web is thus an ideal tool to share concepts and decisions among multiple interested parties. Also Virtual Reality (VR) that has not find, up to know, a large application in the development and teaching of environmental models. The paper shows some recent applications that highlight the potential of these tools

  13. Working towards Usable Forms on the World Wide Web: Optimizing Date Entry Input Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Opwis; Sandra P. Roth; Alexandre N. Tuch; Olivia Brenzikofer; Bargas-Avila, Javier A.

    2011-01-01

    When an interactive form in the world wide web requires users to fill in exact dates, this can be implemented in several ways. This paper discusses an empirical online study with n = 172 participants which compared six different versions to design input fields for date entries. The results revealed that using a drop-down menu is best when format errors must be avoided, whereas using only one input field and placing the format requirements left or inside the text box led to faster completion t...

  14. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 2, No. 1. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a key focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  15. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 4, No. 2. Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor); Kabashkin, Igor (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. The goal of the Journal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  16. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 3, No. 1. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  17. EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB: FROM WEB 1.0 TO WEB 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Aghaei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web as the largest information construct has had much progress since its advent. Thispaper provides a background of the evolution of the web from web 1.0 to web 4.0. Web 1.0 as a web ofinformation connections, Web 2.0 as a web of people connections, Web 3.0 as a web of knowledgeconnections and web 4.0 as a web of intelligence connections are described as four generations of the webin the paper.

  18. Journal of Air Transportation World Wide, Volume 5, No. 2. Volume 5, No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browen, Brent D.

    2000-01-01

    The Journal of Air Transportation World Wide's (JATWW) mission is to provide the global community immediate key resource information in all areas of air transportation. Our goal is to be recognized as the preeminent scholarly journal in the aeronautical aspects of transportation. As an international and interdisciplinary journal, the JATWW will provide a forum for peer-reviewed articles in all areas of aviation and space transportation research, policy, theory, case study, practice, and issues. While maintaining a broad scope, a focal point of the journal will be in the area of aviation administration and policy.

  19. EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB: FROM WEB 1.0 TO WEB 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Aghaei; Mohammad Ali Nematbakhsh; Hadi Khosravi Farsani

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web as the largest information construct has had much progress since its advent. Thispaper provides a background of the evolution of the web from web 1.0 to web 4.0. Web 1.0 as a web ofinformation connections, Web 2.0 as a web of people connections, Web 3.0 as a web of knowledgeconnections and web 4.0 as a web of intelligence connections are described as four generations of the webin the paper.

  20. Statistical Analysis with Webstat, a Java applet for the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Webster West; Todd Ogden

    1997-01-01

    The Java programming language has added a new tool for delivering computing applications over the World Wide Web (WWW). WebStat is a new computing environment for basic statistical analysis which is delivered in the form of a Java applet. Anyone with WWW access and a Java capable browser can access this new analysis environment. Along with an overall introduction of the environment, the main features of this package are illustrated, and the prospect of using basic WebStat components for more ...

  1. Statistical Analysis with Webstat, a Java applet for the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster West

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The Java programming language has added a new tool for delivering computing applications over the World Wide Web (WWW. WebStat is a new computing environment for basic statistical analysis which is delivered in the form of a Java applet. Anyone with WWW access and a Java capable browser can access this new analysis environment. Along with an overall introduction of the environment, the main features of this package are illustrated, and the prospect of using basic WebStat components for more advanced applications is discussed.

  2. Recent world-wide advances in irradiation of food and its identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation (ionizing radiation) of various foods is growing in popularity internationally. For example, it is used as a substitute for the use of post-harvest pesticides. This trend has served to intensify research on the identification of irradiated foods. The first Research Co-ordinated Meeting on Analytical Detection Method for Irradiated Foods was held in Poland under the sponsorship of FAO/IAEA in 1990 in order to solve problems related to the international trade of irradiated foods and to ensure their correct labelling in the market. In this review, the world-wide advances in the irradiation of food and its identification are introduced and discussed. (author)

  3. Birthday and the Year of Birth in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QOIGYIZHOLMA

    2004-01-01

    Iknew nothing about birthday celebration in my childhood, nor even of the concept of “birthday” itself.Though I did hear that some aged people would hold a celebration for their 80th birthday, I was completely ignorant about the meaning behind this. Holding birthday celebrations seemed to be more common for me after I embarked on my career, as people around me always did celebrate for themselves and especially for their children. When my kids made a request, I celebrated their birthday the way other people did.

  4. The World Wide Web as a Medium of Instruction: What Works and What Doesn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marianne; Grabowski, Barbara; Hernandez, Angel; Koszalka, Tiffany; Duke, Lee

    1997-01-01

    A conference was held on March 18-20, 1997 to investigate the lessons learned by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Projects with regard to the most effective strategies for developing instruction for the World Wide Web. The conference was a collaboration among the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Centers (Ames, Dryden, Langley, and Lewis), NASA Headquarters, the University of Idaho and The Pennsylvania State University. The conference consisted of presentations by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement Teams, the University of Idaho, and working sessions in which the participants addressed teacher training and support, technology, evaluation and pedagogy. The conference was also undertaken as part of the Dryden Learning Technologies Project which is a collaboration between the Dryden Education Office and The Pennsylvania State University. The DFRC Learning Technology Project goals relevant to the conference are as follows: conducting an analysis of current teacher needs, classroom infrastructure and exemplary instructional World Wide Web sites, and developing models for Web-enhanced learning environments that optimize teaching practices and student learning.

  5. VNR of the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2009-01-01

    Geneva, 13 March 2009. Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee returned to the birthplace of his invention today, 20 years after submitting his paper ‘Information Management: A Proposal’ to his boss Mike Sendall. By writing the words ‘Vague, but exciting’ on the document’s cover, and giving Berners-Lee the go-ahead to continue, Sendall was signing into existence the information revolution of our times: the World Wide Web. In September of the following year, Berners-Lee took delivery of a computer called a NeXT cube, and by December the Web was up and running, albeit between just a couple of computers at CERN1. Today’s event takes a look back at some of the early history, and pre-history, of the World Wide Web at CERN, includes a keynote speech from Tim Berners-Lee, and concludes with a series of talks from some of today’s Web pioneers. “It’s a pleasure to be back at CERN today,” said Berners-Lee. “CERN has come a long way since 1989, and so has the Web, but its roots will always be here.” The Wo...

  6. A chemical status predictor. A methodology based on World-Wide sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredilla, A; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, S; de Diego, A; Arana, G; Stoichev, T; Amigo, J M; Wasserman, J C; Botello, A V; Sarkar, S K; Schäfer, J; Moreno, C; de la Guardia, M; Madariaga, J M

    2015-09-15

    As a consequence of the limited resources of underdeveloped countries and the limited interest of the developed ones, the assessment of the chemical quality of entire water bodies around the world is a utopia in the near future. The methodology described here may serve as a first approach for the fast identification of water bodies that do not meet the good chemical status demanded by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). It also allows estimating the natural background (or reference values of concentration) of the areas under study using a simple criterion. The starting point is the calculation the World-Wide Natural Background Levels (WWNBLs) and World-Wide Threshold Values (WWTVs), two indexes that depend on the concentration of seven elements present in sediments. These elements, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, have been selected taking into account the recommendations of the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) and USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), that describe them as elements of concern with respect to environmental toxicity. The methodology has been exemplified in a case study that includes 134 sediment samples collected in 11 transitional water bodies from 7 different countries and 4 different continents. Six of the water bodies considered met the good chemical status demanded by the WFD. The rest of them exceeded the reference WWTVs, at least for one of the elements. The estuaries of the Nerbioi-Ibaizabal (Basque Country) and Cavado (Portugal), the sea inlet of Río San Pedro (Spain), the Sepetiba Bay (Brazil) and the Yucateco lagoon (Mexico) belong to that group. PMID:26143082

  7. WorldWide Telescope: A Newly Open Source Astronomy Visualization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Jonathan; Roberts, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    After eight years of development by Microsoft Research, WorldWide Telescope (WWT) was made an open source project at the end of June 2015. WWT was motivated by the desire to put new surveys of objects, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in the context of the night sky. The development of WWT under Microsoft started with the creation of a Windows desktop client that is widely used in various education, outreach and research projects. Using this, users can explore the data built into WWT as well as data that is loaded in. Beyond exploration, WWT can be used to create tours that present various datasets a narrative format.In the past two years, the team developed a collection of web controls, including an HTML5 web client, which contains much of the functionality of the Windows desktop client. The project under Microsoft has deep connections with several user communities such as education through the WWT Ambassadors program, http://wwtambassadors.org/ and with planetariums and museums such as the Adler Planetarium. WWT can also support research, including using WWT to visualize the Bones of the Milky Way and rich connections between WWT and the Astrophysical Data Systems (ADS, http://labs.adsabs.harvard.edu/adsabs/). One important new research connection is the use of WWT to create dynamic and potentially interactive supplements to journal articles, which have been created in 2015.Now WWT is an open source community lead project. The source code is available in GitHub (https://github.com/WorldWideTelescope). There is significant developer documentation on the website (http://worldwidetelescope.org/Developers/) and an extensive developer workshops (http://wwtworkshops.org/?tribe_events=wwt-developer-workshop) has taken place in the fall of 2015.Now that WWT is open source anyone who has the interest in the project can be a contributor. As important as helping out with coding, the project needs people interested in documentation, testing, training and other roles.

  8. Distributed nuclear medicine applications using World Wide Web and Java technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, medical applications applying World Wide Web (WWW) technology are mainly used to view static images and to retrieve some information. The Java platform is a relative new way of computing, especially designed for network computing and distributed applications which enables interactive connection between user and information via the WWW. The Java 2 Software Development Kit (SDK) including Java2D API, Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) technology, Object Serialization and the Java Advanced Imaging (JAI) extension was used to achieve a robust, platform independent and network centric solution. Medical image processing software based on this technology is presented and adequate performance capability of Java is demonstrated by an iterative reconstruction algorithm for single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). (orig.)

  9. Remote monitoring using technologies from the Internet and World Wide Web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, J.M.; Burczyk, L.

    1997-11-01

    Recent developments in Internet technologies are changing and enhancing how one processes and exchanges information. These developments include software and hardware in support of multimedia applications on the World Wide Web. In this paper the authors describe these technologies as they have applied them to remote monitoring and show how they will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to efficiently review and analyze remote monitoring data for verification of material movements. The authors have developed demonstration software that illustrates several safeguards data systems using the resources of the Internet and Web to access and review data. This Web demo allows the user to directly observe sensor data, to analyze simulated safeguards data, and to view simulated on-line inventory data. Future activities include addressing the technical and security issues associated with using the Web to interface with existing and planned monitoring systems at nuclear facilities. Some of these issues are authentication, encryption, transmission of large quantities of data, and data compression.

  10. Maintaining a catalog of manually-indexed, clinically-oriented World Wide Web content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, W; Ball, A; Day, B; Masterson, M; Zhang, L; Sacherek, L

    1999-01-01

    With no quality controls and a highly distributed means of posting information, finding high-quality, clinically-oriented content on the World Wide Web can be difficult. Maintaining a catalog of such information can be equally challenging. CliniWeb is a catalog of quality-filtered and clinically-oriented content on the Web designed to enhance access to such information. This paper describes a group of semi-automated tools have been developed to maintain the CliniWeb database. One allows easier identification of content by utilizing Web crawling techniques from high-level pages. Another allows easier selection of content for inclusion and its indexing. A final one checks links to help keep the database current. These are augmented by general plans to adopt more detailed metadata and linkages into the medical literature. PMID:10566468

  11. Growth and structure of the World Wide Web: Towards realistic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka

    2002-08-01

    We simulate evolution of the World Wide Web from the dynamic rules incorporating growth, bias attachment, and rewiring. We show that the emergent double-hierarchical structure with distinct distributions of out- and in-links is comparable with the observed empirical data when the control parameter (average graph flexibility β) is kept in the range β=3-4. We then explore the Web graph by simulating (a) Web crawling to determine size and depth of connected components, and (b) a random walker that discovers the structure of connected subgraphs with dominant attractor and promoter nodes. A random walker that adapts its move strategy to mimic local node linking preferences is shown to have a short access time to "important" nodes on the Web graph.

  12. World-Wide Benchmarking of ITER Nb3Sn Strand Test Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Jewell, MC; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Shikov, Alexander; Devred, Arnaud; Vostner, Alexander; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yu; Jewell, Matthew C; Boutboul, Thierry; Bessette, Denis; Park, Soo-Hyeon; Isono, Takaaki; Vorobieva, Alexandra; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Seo, Kazutaka

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide procurement of Nb3Sn and NbTi for the ITER superconducting magnet systems will involve eight to ten strand suppliers from six Domestic Agencies (DAs) on three continents. To ensure accurate and consistent measurement of the physical and superconducting properties of the composite strand, a strand test facility benchmarking effort was initiated in August 2008. The objectives of this effort are to assess and improve the superconducting strand test and sample preparation technologies at each DA and supplier, in preparation for the more than ten thousand samples that will be tested during ITER procurement. The present benchmarking includes tests for critical current (I-c), n-index, hysteresis loss (Q(hys)), residual resistivity ratio (RRR), strand diameter, Cu fraction, twist pitch, twist direction, and metal plating thickness (Cr or Ni). Nineteen participants from six parties (China, EU, Japan, South Korea, Russia, and the United States) have participated in the benchmarking. This round, conducted...

  13. Software Project Management and Measurement on the World-Wide-Web (WWW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John; Ramakrishnan, Sudhaka

    1996-01-01

    We briefly describe a system for forms-based, work-flow management that helps members of a software development team overcome geographical barriers to collaboration. Our system, called the Web Integrated Software Environment (WISE), is implemented as a World-Wide-Web service that allows for management and measurement of software development projects based on dynamic analysis of change activity in the workflow. WISE tracks issues in a software development process, provides informal communication between the users with different roles, supports to-do lists, and helps in software process improvement. WISE minimizes the time devoted to metrics collection and analysis by providing implicit delivery of messages between users based on the content of project documents. The use of a database in WISE is hidden from the users who view WISE as maintaining a personal 'to-do list' of tasks related to the many projects on which they may play different roles.

  14. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  15. Remote monitoring using technologies from the Internet and World Wide Web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in Internet technologies are changing and enhancing how one processes and exchanges information. These developments include software and hardware in support of multimedia applications on the World Wide Web. In this paper the authors describe these technologies as they have applied them to remote monitoring and show how they will allow the International Atomic Energy Agency to efficiently review and analyze remote monitoring data for verification of material movements. The authors have developed demonstration software that illustrates several safeguards data systems using the resources of the Internet and Web to access and review data. This Web demo allows the user to directly observe sensor data, to analyze simulated safeguards data, and to view simulated on-line inventory data. Future activities include addressing the technical and security issues associated with using the Web to interface with existing and planned monitoring systems at nuclear facilities. Some of these issues are authentication, encryption, transmission of large quantities of data, and data compression

  16. Clear-sky classification procedures and models using a world-wide data-base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear-sky data need to be extracted from all-sky measured solar-irradiance dataset, often by using algorithms that rely on other measured meteorological parameters. Current procedures for clear-sky data extraction have been examined and compared with each other to determine their reliability and location dependency. New clear-sky determination algorithms are proposed that are based on a combination of clearness index, diffuse ratio, cloud cover and Linke's turbidity limits. Various researchers have proposed clear-sky irradiance models that rely on synoptic parameters; four of these models, MRM, PRM, YRM and REST2 have been compared for six world-wide-locations. Based on a previously-developed comprehensive accuracy scoring method, the models MRM, REST2 and YRM were found to be of satisfactory performance in decreasing order. The so-called Page radiation model (PRM) was found to underestimate solar radiation, even though local turbidity data were provided for its operation

  17. Using the World Wide Web to Connect Research and Professional Practice: Towards Evidence-Based Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Moody

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In most professional (applied disciplines, research findings take a long time to filter into practice, if they ever do at all. The result of this is under-utilisation of research results and sub-optimal practices. There are a number of reasons for the lack of knowledge transfer. On the "demand side", people working in professional practice have little time available to keep up with the latest research in their field. In addition, the volume of research published each year means that the average practitioner would not have time to read all the research articles in their area of interest even if they devoted all their time to it. From the "supply side", academic research is primarily focused on the production rather than distribution of knowledge. While they have highly developed mechanisms for transferring knowledge among themselves, there is little investment in the distribution of research results be-yond research communities. The World Wide Web provides a potential solution to this problem, as it provides a global information infrastructure for connecting those who produce knowledge (researchers and those who need to apply this knowledge (practitioners. This paper describes two projects which use the World Wide Web to make research results directly available to support decision making in the workplace. The first is a successful knowledge management project in a health department which provides medical staff with on-line access to the latest medical research at the point of care. The second is a project currently in progress to implement a similar system to support decision making in IS practice. Finally, we draw some general lessons about how to improve transfers of knowledge from research and practice, which could be applied in any discipline.

  18. Role of Halden Reactor Project for world-wide nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M.A.; Volkov, B.

    2011-07-01

    The great interest for utilization of nuclear materials to produce energy in the middle of last century needed special investigations using first class research facilities. Common problems in the area of nuclear fuel development motivated the establishment of joint research efforts. The OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a good example of such a cooperative research effort, which has been performing for more than 50 years. During that time, the Halden Reactor evolved from a prototype heavy water reactor envisaged as a power source for different applications to a research reactor that is able to simulate in-core conditions of modern commercial power reactors. The adaptability of the Halden Reactor enables the HRP to be an important international test facility for nuclear fuels and materials development. The long-term international cooperation is based on the flexible HRP organizational structure which also provides the continued success. [1,2] This paper gives a brief history of the Halden Reactor Project and its contribution to world-wide nuclear energy development. Recent expansion of the Project to the East and Asian countries may also assist and stimulate the development of a nuclear industry within these countries. The achievements of the HRP rely on the versatility of the research carried out in the reactor with reliable testing techniques and in-pile instrumentation. Diversification of scientific activity in the areas of development of alternative energy resources and man-machine technology also provide the HRP with a stable position as one of the leaders in the world scientific community. All of these aspects are described in this paper together with current experimental works, including the investigation of ULBA (Kazakhstan) production fuel in comparison with other world fuel suppliers, as well as other future and prospective plans of the Project.(Author)

  19. Role of Halden Reactor Project for world-wide nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The great interest for utilization of nuclear materials to produce energy in the middle of last century needed special investigations using first class research facilities. Common problems in the area of nuclear fuel development motivated the establishment of joint research efforts. The OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a good example of such a cooperative research effort, which has been performing for more than 50 years. During that time, the Halden Reactor evolved from a prototype heavy water reactor envisaged as a power source for different applications to a research reactor that is able to simulate in-core conditions of modern commercial power reactors. The adaptability of the Halden Reactor enables the HRP to be an important international test facility for nuclear fuels and materials development. The long-term international cooperation is based on the flexible HRP organizational structure which also provides the continued success. [1,2] This paper gives a brief history of the Halden Reactor Project and its contribution to world-wide nuclear energy development. Recent expansion of the Project to the East and Asian countries may also assist and stimulate the development of a nuclear industry within these countries. The achievements of the HRP rely on the versatility of the research carried out in the reactor with reliable testing techniques and in-pile instrumentation. Diversification of scientific activity in the areas of development of alternative energy resources and man-machine technology also provide the HRP with a stable position as one of the leaders in the world scientific community. All of these aspects are described in this paper together with current experimental works, including the investigation of ULBA (Kazakhstan) production fuel in comparison with other world fuel suppliers, as well as other future and prospective plans of the Project.(Author)

  20. Optimal Paths in Complex Networks with Correlated Weights: The World-wide Airport Network

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Colizza, V; Cohen, R; Havlin, S; Stanley, H E; Wu, Zhenhua; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Colizza, Vittoria; Cohen, Reuven; Havlin, Shlomo

    2006-01-01

    We study complex networks with weights, $w_{ij}$, associated with each link connecting node $i$ and $j$. The weights are chosen to be correlated with the network topology in the form found in two real world examples, (a) the world-wide airport network, and (b) the {\\it E. Coli} metabolic network. Here $w_{ij} \\sim x_{ij} (k_i k_j)^\\alpha$, where $k_i$ and $k_j$ are the degrees of nodes $i$ and $j$, $x_{ij}$ is a random number and $\\alpha$ represents the strength of the correlations. The case $\\alpha > 0$ represents correlation between weights and degree, while $\\alpha < 0$ represents anti-correlation and the case $\\alpha = 0$ reduces to the case of no correlations. We study the scaling of the lengths of the optimal paths, $\\ell_{\\rm opt}$, with the system size $N$ in strong disorder for scale-free networks for different $\\alpha$. We calculate the robustness of correlated scale-free networks with different $\\alpha$, and find the networks with $\\alpha < 0$ to be the most robust networks when compared to t...

  1. Human health risk assessment: selected Internet and world wide web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jacqueline; Hakkinen, P J Bert; Wullenweber, Andrea E

    2002-04-25

    The world wide web (WWW) has become a valuable source of 24 hour-a-day access to information needed by human health risk assessors. Various web sites and other Internet resources provide information needed for human hazard identification, dose-response evaluation, exposure assessment, risk characterization, and risk management. Information on risk communication is also available. Substantial collections of information on multiple aspects of risk assessment are found in sites sponsored by RiskWorld, the (US) EPA's National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA), the (US) National Library of Medicine's TOXNET, the (US) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Also valuable are various web sites providing information on the physical and chemical properties of chemicals, the environmental fate and transport of chemicals, government regulations, and guidance and training for performing risk assessments. Several professional societies and other organizations have web sites addressing risk assessment issues and information, and there are Internet mailing lists for online help and for sharing information and perspectives. We classify selected web sites according to user needs and provide the reader with a collection of selected sites that can serve as entry points to risk assessment-related web resources. PMID:11955689

  2. Starry Nights: Five Years of The Great World Wide Star Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D.; Johnson, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Great World Wide Star Count is an international citizen science event encouraging everyone, astronomers and non-astronomers alike, to measure their local light pollution and report their observations online. This project is designed to raise awareness about light pollution as well as encourage learning in astronomy. Utilizing the international networking capabilities of Windows to the Universe, Star Count has engaged over 40,000 individuals from 64 countries and all 7 continents in its first five years. Data collection and online reporting is simple and user-friendly for citizen scientists of all ages. The collected data is available online in a variety of formats for use by students, teachers and scientists worldwide to assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world. This session will share our results and demonstrate how students and scientists worldwide can explore and analyze the results from the first five years of the project. We will discuss how our team planned and executed the project in such a way that non-astronomers were able to make valid and useful contributions.

  3. Influenza H1N1 and the world wide economic crisis--a model of coherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, W; Biermann, T

    2009-11-01

    A recent published model described the phenomenon of a global panic reaction (GPR) on the stock markets based on two remarkable stock market crashes in the months of January and March [Sperling W, Bleich S, Reulbach U, Black Monday on stock markets throughout the world - a new phenomenon of collective panic disorder? A psychiatric approach. Med Hypotheses; 2008]. This model was completed by a therapeutic approach following typical elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) [Sperling W, Biermann T, Maler JM, Global panic reaction - a therapeutic approach to a world-wide economic crisis. Med Hypotheses; 2009]. The phenomenon of a global panic reaction due to economic crises seems to have even larger implications on human health as well. It is well known that acute and chronic distress is competent to suppress the immune system by various mechanisms that are discussed in detail. This global panic reaction - that has also been observed in former times - might therefore be responsible for the new variation of recent influenza pandemic coming from Mexico. PMID:19515500

  4. Technical Evaluation Report 60: The World-Wide Inaccessible Web, Part 1: Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batchuluun Batpurev

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Two studies are reported, comparing the browser loading times of webpages created using common Web development techniques. The loading speeds were estimated in 12 Asian countries by members of the PANdora network, funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC to conduct collaborative research in the development of effective distance education (DE practices. An online survey tool with stopwatch-type counter was used. Responses were obtained from Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Mongolia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. In most of the survey conditions, browser loading times were noted up to four times slower than commonly prescribed as acceptable. Failure of pages to load at all was frequent. The speediest loading times were observed when the online material was hosted locally, and was created either in the Docebo learning management system (LMS, or in the HTML option provided by the Moodle LMS. It is recommended that formative evaluation of this type should become standard practice in the selection and use of online programming techniques, in order to preserve the accessibility of the World-Wide-Web across large geographical distances, as for DE in the developing world.

  5. A Hierarchy of 21st Birthday Drinking Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21st birthday drinking. In recent years, 21st birthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…

  6. Energy levels of light nuclei, A = 3-20. Available on the World Wide Web and in print from TUNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) Nuclear Data Evaluation Project are summarized, with a special focus on new features. Products available through the World Wide Web (http://www.tunl.duke.edu/nucldata) are listed. (author)

  7. Landscaping climate change: a mapping technique for understanding science and technology debates on the world wide web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Rogers; N. Marres

    2000-01-01

    New World Wide Web (web) mapping techniques may inform and ultimately facilitate meaningful participation in current science and technology debates. The technique described here "landscapes" a debate by displaying key "webby" relationships between organizations. "Debate-scaping" plots two organizati

  8. The Culture-Transmission Motive in Immigrants: A World-Wide Internet Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Mchitarjan

    Full Text Available A world-wide internet survey was conducted to test central assumptions of a recent theory of cultural transmission in minorities proposed by the authors. 844 1st to 2nd generation immigrants from a wide variety of countries recruited on a microjob platform completed a questionnaire designed to test eight hypotheses derived from the theory. Support was obtained for all hypotheses. In particular, evidence was obtained for the continued presence, in the immigrants, of the culture-transmission motive postulated by the theory: the desire to maintain the culture of origin and transmit it to the next generation. Support was also obtained for the hypothesized anchoring of the culture-transmission motive in more basic motives fulfilled by cultural groups, the relative intra- and intergenerational stability of the culture-transmission motive, and its motivating effects for action tendencies and desires that support cultural transmission under the difficult conditions of migration. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the assumption that people have a culture-transmission motive belongs to the folk psychology of sociocultural groups, and that immigrants regard the fulfillment of this desire as a moral right.

  9. Web information seeking by pages. World Wide Web, Information seeking, Personal development, Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarkko Kari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to look at how the World Wide Web is used in looking for information in the domain of personal development. The theoretical aim of the paper is to elaborate conceptual tools for understanding better the content of Web pages, as well as navigation through the Web. To obtain detailed and valid data, totally free-form Web searches by 15 individuals were observed and videotaped. The 1,812 pages visited by the informants, along with their actions therein, were examined and coded. The study explores the subject, language and content type of the viewed pages, as well as the tactics, strategies, interfaces and revisitation in moving from one page to another. Correlations between the variables are also analysed. One of the most interesting discoveries was the wide variety of different tactics for moving around the Web, albeit that only clicking on links and pushing the Back button stood out from the rest. The paper ends by presenting sundry theoretical, methodological and practical contributions of the research to the field of Web searching.

  10. The Study of the World Wide Web for Academic Purposes%The Study of the World Wide Web for Academic Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹悦

    2011-01-01

    This assignment mainly examines some of the implications of the Web for the English for Academic Purposes context. It explores how we provide the skills to navigate the world of information and also how we might provide with strategies to exploit those re

  11. Accounting Essays by Professor William W. Cooper: Revisiting in Commemoration of his Ninety‐Fifth Birthday

    OpenAIRE

    YUJI IJIRI; TOSHIYUKI SUEYOSHI

    2010-01-01

    Over a career extending back to the late 1930s Professor William W. Cooper has published books and articles in the field of accounting, mathematics, operations research, management science, engineering, economics, public policy and the behavioural sciences, reflecting wide interdisciplinary scholarship. To commemorate his ninety-fifth birthday in 2009, we publish excerpts from twelve of his accounting essays, together with postscripts adding to their historical context. We also publish Thomas...

  12. Detection efficiency of the VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN: initial case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental Very Low Frequency (VLF World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN has been developed through collaborations with research institutions across the world, providing global real-time locations of lightning discharges. As of April 2006, the network included 25 stations providing coverage for much of the Earth. In this paper we examine the detection efficiency of the WWLLN by comparing the locations from this network with lightning location data purchased from a commercial lightning location network operating in New Zealand. Our analysis confirms that WWLLN favours high peak current return stroke lightning discharges, and that discharges with larger currents are observed by more stations across the global network. We then construct a first principles detection efficiency model to describe the WWLLN, combining calibration information for each station with theoretical modelling to describe the expected amplitudes of the VLF sferics observed by the network. This detection efficiency model allows the prediction of the global variation in WWLLN lightning detection, and an estimate of the minimum CG return stroke peak current required to trigger the network. There are strong spatial variations across the globe, primarily due to station density and sensitivity.

    The WWLLN is currently best suited to study the occurrence and impacts of high peak-current lightning. For example, in 2005 about 12% of the global elve-producing lightning will have been located by the network. Since the lightning-EMP which produce elves has a high mean rate (210 per minute it has the potential to significantly influence the ionosphere on regional scales.

  13. Two virtual astro refresher courses on the world-wide-web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: The Internet offers a novel venue for providing educational material to radiation oncologists. This exhibit demonstrates its utility for providing the complete content of two past ASTRO refresher courses. Materials and Methods: The audio recording, handout and slides from the 1995 ASTRO refresher course entitled 'Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Brain Tumors; Standards of Care, Current Clinical Trials and New Directions' and the 1996 ASTRO refresher course entitled 'Internet-based communications in Radiation Oncology' were digitized and placed on an Internet World-Wide-Web site. The Web address was posted on the refresher course handout and in the meeting book ('http://goldwein 1.xrt.upenn.edu/brain95.html' and 'http://goldwein 1.xrt.upenn.edu/astro96/'). The computer distributing this material is an Intel-based 486 DEC50 personal computer with a 50 Mhz processor running Windows NT 3.51 workstation. Software utilized to distribute the material is in the public domain and includes EWMAC's 'httpd', and Progressive Network's 'RealAudio Server' and 'Encoder'. The University's dedicated Internet connection is used to 'serve' this material. Results: The two approximately 100 minute lectures have been encoded into several 'RealAudio' files totaling 10 Megabytes in size. These files are accessible with moderate to excellent quality and speed utilizing as little as a 14.4k modem connection to the Internet. Use of 'streaming' technology provides a means for playing the audio files over the Internet after downloading only a small portion of the files. The time required to digitize the material has been approximately 40 hours, with most time related to digitizing slides from a Powerpoint presentation. Not all slides have been digitized as of this time. To date, approximately 400 accesses to this resource have been logged on the system. Seven electronic comment forms for the second course have all rated it as 'superior'. Pitfalls include the difficulty

  14. Fast 3D Net Expeditions: Tools for Effective Scientific Collaboration on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Val; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Two new technologies, the FASTexpedition and Remote FAST, have been developed that provide remote, 3D (three dimensional), high resolution, dynamic, interactive viewing of scientific data. The FASTexpedition permits one to access scientific data from the World Wide Web, take guided expeditions through the data, and continue with self controlled expeditions through the data. Remote FAST permits collaborators at remote sites to simultaneously view an analysis of scientific data being controlled by one of the collaborators. Control can be transferred between sites. These technologies are now being used for remote collaboration in joint university, industry, and NASA projects. Also, NASA Ames Research Center has initiated a project to make scientific data and guided expeditions through the data available as FASTexpeditions on the World Wide Web for educational purposes. Previously, remote visualization of dynamic data was done using video format (transmitting pixel information) such as video conferencing or MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) movies on the Internet. The concept for this new technology is to send the raw data (e.g., grids, vectors, and scalars) along with viewing scripts over the Internet and have the pixels generated by a visualization tool running on the viewers local workstation. The visualization tool that is currently used is FAST (Flow Analysis Software Toolkit). The advantages of this new technology over using video format are: (1) The visual is much higher in resolution (1280x1024 pixels with 24 bits of color) than typical video format transmitted over the network. (2) The form of the visualization can be controlled interactively (because the viewer is interactively controlling the visualization tool running on his workstation). (3) A rich variety of guided expeditions through the data can be included easily. (4) A capability is provided for other sites to see a visual analysis of one site as the analysis is interactively performed. Control of

  15. World-Wide and Regional Examination of Substrates Facilitating Timberline Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Upward advance of timberlines, associated with climate warming, is occurring in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as well as many other mountainous regions of the world. Examination of seedling establishment and survival of sensitive seedlings, rather than examination of older resilient trees, may give a clearer understanding of current climatic factors affecting potential expansion of timberline. Our investigation of seedling establishment along timberline edges in the PNW indicates that trees often germinate on small landforms known as microsites. Microsites include small convexities or concavities on the soil surface having a scale of centimeters to meters, but also include associations with slope, aspect, rocks or plants, or substrates dominated by mineral soil or wood. Growing on favorable microsites helps seedlings cope with some of the stresses that exist at high elevation sites including wind, cold temperatures, high radiation, drought, animal predation, and infestation by fungal pathogens found in snow and soil. Microsites, by providing warmer substrates, adequate moisture, and shelter, allow plants to function more affectively in mountain environments. Our summary of microsite type and associated timberline advance in a world-wide context indicates that factors such as snow accumulation, summer rainfall, and availability of microsites, will control timberline advance. In windswept timberline locations, rocks and plants provide shelter from wind and reduce the likelihood of night frost. In arid climates, concave microsites aid in snow deposition providing needed moisture to seedlings during periods of drought. In contrast, convex microsites and wood substrates, typical sites of regeneration in the PNW where precipitation typically exceeds 150 cm per year, facilitate early snow melt, thereby increasing growing season. Large trees at the edge of timberline fall into alpine meadows, decay, and provide sites for seedling establishment. These sites commonly called

  16. The World Wide Web and Technology Transfer at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) began using the World Wide Web (WWW) in the summer of 1993, becoming the first NASA installation to provide a Center-wide home page. This coincided with a reorganization of LaRC to provide a more concentrated focus on technology transfer to both aerospace and non-aerospace industry. Use of the WWW and NCSA Mosaic not only provides automated information dissemination, but also allows for the implementation, evolution and integration of many technology transfer applications. This paper describes several of these innovative applications, including the on-line presentation of the entire Technology Opportunities Showcase (TOPS), an industrial partnering showcase that exists on the Web long after the actual 3-day event ended. During its first year on the Web, LaRC also developed several WWW-based information repositories. The Langley Technical Report Server (LTRS), a technical paper delivery system with integrated searching and retrieval, has proved to be quite popular. The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), an outgrowth of LTRS, provides uniform access to many logically similar, yet physically distributed NASA report servers. WWW is also the foundation of the Langley Software Server (LSS), an experimental software distribution system which will distribute LaRC-developed software with the possible phase-out of NASA's COSMIC program. In addition to the more formal technology distribution projects, WWW has been successful in connecting people with technologies and people with other people. With the completion of the LaRC reorganization, the Technology Applications Group, charged with interfacing with non-aerospace companies, opened for business with a popular home page.

  17. World wide web for database of Japanese translation on international nuclear event scale reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means designed for providing prompt, clear and consistent information related to nuclear events, that occurred at nuclear facilities, and facilitating communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public. The INES is jointly operated by the IAEA and the OECD-NEA. Nuclear events reported are rated by the Scale', a consistent safety significance indicator. The scale runs from level 0, for events with no safety significance, to level 7 for a major accident with widespread health and environmental effects. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been promptly translating the INES reports into Japanese and developing a world-wide-web database for the Japanese translation, aiming at more efficient utilization of the INES information inside Japan. The present paper briefly introduces the definitions of INES rating levels and the scope of the Scale, and describes the outlines of the database (the information stored in the database, its functions and how to use it). As well, technical use of the INES reports and the availability/ effectiveness of the database are discussed. (author)

  18. World-wide French experience in research reactor fuel cycle transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1963 Transnucleaire has safely performed a large number of national and international transports of radioactive material. Transnucleaire has also designed and supplied suitable packagings for all types of nuclear fuel cycle radioactive material from front-end and back-end products and for power or for research reactors. Transportation of the nuclear fuel material for power reactors is made on a regular and industrial basis. The transportation of material for the research reactor fuel cycle is quite different due to the small quantities involved, the categorisation of material and the numerous places of delivery world-wide. Adapted solutions exist, which require a reactive organisation dealing with all the transportation issues for LEU and HEU products as metal, oxide, fresh fuel elements, spent fuel elements including supply of necessary transport packaging and equipment. This presentation will: - explain the choices made by Transnucleaire and its associates to provide and optimise the corresponding services, - demonstrate the capability to achieve, through reliable partnership, transport operations involving new routes, specific equipment and new political constraints while respecting sophisticated safety and security regulations. (author)

  19. Antifungal prophylaxis in lung transplantation--a world-wide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, C F; Snell, G I; Kotsimbos, T; Levvey, B; Morrissey, C O; Slavin, M A; Stewart, K; Kong, D C M

    2011-02-01

    While variations in antifungal prophylaxis have been previously reported in lung transplant (LTx) recipients, recent clinical practice is unknown. Our aim was to determine current antifungal prophylactic practice in LTx centers world-wide. One nominated LTx clinician from each active center was invited by e-mail to participate in a web-based survey between September 2009 and January 2010. Fifty-seven percent (58/102) responded. The majority of responses were from medical directors of LTx centers (72.4%), and from the United States (44.8%). Within the first 6 months post-LTx, most centers (58.6%) employed universal prophylaxis, with 97.1% targeting Aspergillus species. Voriconazole alone, and in combination with inhaled amphotericin B (AmB), were the preferred first-line agents. Intolerance to side effects of voriconazole (69.2%) was the main reason for switching to alternatives. Beyond 6 months post-LTx, most (51.8%) did not employ antifungal prophylaxis. Fifteen centers (26.0%) conducted routine antifungal therapeutic drug monitoring during prophylactic period. There are differences in strategies employed between U.S. and European centers. Most respondents indicated a need for antifungal prophylactic guidelines. In comparison to earlier findings, there was a major shift toward prophylaxis with voriconazole and an increased use of echinocandins, posaconazole and inhaled lipid formulation AmB. PMID:21272239

  20. Compact Optical Discs and the World Wide Web: Two Mediums in Digitized Information Delivery Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyu Lin

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:40-52

    Compact optical discs (CDs and the World Wide Web (the Web are two mechanisms that contemporary libraries extensively use for digitized information storage, dissemination, and retrieval. The Web features an unparalleled global accessibility free from many previously known temporal and spatial restrictions. Its real-time update capability is impossible for CDs. Web-based information delivery can reduce the cost in hardware and software ownership and management of a local library, and provide one-to-one zcustomization to better serve library's clients. The current limitations of the Web include inadequate speed in data transmission, particularly for multimedia applications, and its insufficient reliability, search capabilities, and security. In comparison, speed, quality, portability, and reliability are the current advantages of CDs over the Web. These features, together with the trend in the PC industry and market, suggest that CDs will exist and continue to develop. CD/Web hybrids can combine the best of both developing mechanisms and offer optimal results. Through a comparison of CDs and the Web, it is argued that the functionality and unique features of a technology determine its future.

  1. INTERNET and information about nuclear sciences. The world wide web virtual library: nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work author proposes to constitute new virtual library which should centralize the information from nuclear disciplines on the INTERNET, in order to them to give first and foremost the connection on the most important links in set nuclear sciences. The author has entitled this new virtual library The World Wide Web Library: Nuclear Sciences. By constitution of this virtual library next basic principles were chosen: home pages of international organizations important from point of view of nuclear disciplines; home pages of the National Nuclear Commissions and governments; home pages of nuclear scientific societies; web-pages specialized on nuclear problematic, in general; periodical tables of elements and isotopes; web-pages aimed on Chernobyl crash and consequences; web-pages with antinuclear aim. Now continue the links grouped on web-pages according to single nuclear areas: nuclear arsenals; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear aspects of biology (radiobiology); nuclear chemistry; nuclear company; nuclear data centres; nuclear energy; nuclear energy, environmental aspects of (radioecology); nuclear energy info centres; nuclear engineering; nuclear industries; nuclear magnetic resonance; nuclear material monitoring; nuclear medicine and radiology; nuclear physics; nuclear power (plants); nuclear reactors; nuclear risk; nuclear technologies and defence; nuclear testing; nuclear tourism; nuclear wastes; nuclear wastes. In these single groups web-links will be concentrated into following groups: virtual libraries and specialized servers; science; nuclear societies; nuclear departments of the academic institutes; nuclear research institutes and laboratories; centres, info links

  2. Migrating the facility profile information management system into the world wide web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kero, R.E.; Swietlik, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy - Office of Special Projects and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), along with the Department of Energy - office of Scientific and Technical Information have previously designed and implemented the Environment, Safety and Health Facility Profile Information Management System (FPIMS) to facilitate greater efficiency in searching, analyzing and disseminating information found within environment, safety and health oversight documents. This information retrieval based system serves as a central repository for full-text electronic oversight documents, as well as a management planning and decision making tool that can assist in trend and root cause analyses. Continuous improvement of environment, safety and health programs are currently aided through this personal computer-based system by providing a means for the open communication of lessons learned across the department. Overall benefits have included reductions in costs and improvements in past information management capabilities. Access to the FPIMS has been possible historically through a headquarters-based local area network equipped with modems. Continued demand for greater accessibility of the system by remote DOE field offices and sites, in conjunction with the Secretary of Energy` s call for greater public accessibility to Department of Energy (DOE) information resources, has been the impetus to expand access through the use of Internet technologies. Therefore, the following paper will discuss reasons for migrating the FPIMS system into the World Wide Web (Web), various lessons learned from the FPIMS migration effort, as well as future plans for enhancing the Web-based FPIMS.

  3. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Kulesz, James J [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  4. ETDEWEB versus the World-Wide-Web: a specific database/web comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.

    2010-06-28

    A study was performed comparing user search results from the specialized scientific database on energy-related information, ETDEWEB, with search results from the internet search engines Google and Google Scholar. The primary objective of the study was to determine if ETDEWEB (the Energy Technology Data Exchange – World Energy Base) continues to bring the user search results that are not being found by Google and Google Scholar. As a multilateral information exchange initiative, ETDE’s member countries and partners contribute cost- and task-sharing resources to build the largest database of energy-related information in the world. As of early 2010, the ETDEWEB database has 4.3 million citations to world-wide energy literature. One of ETDEWEB’s strengths is its focused scientific content and direct access to full text for its grey literature (over 300,000 documents in PDF available for viewing from the ETDE site and over a million additional links to where the documents can be found at research organizations and major publishers globally). Google and Google Scholar are well-known for the wide breadth of the information they search, with Google bringing in news, factual and opinion-related information, and Google Scholar also emphasizing scientific content across many disciplines. The analysis compared the results of 15 energy-related queries performed on all three systems using identical words/phrases. A variety of subjects was chosen, although the topics were mostly in renewable energy areas due to broad international interest. Over 40,000 search result records from the three sources were evaluated. The study concluded that ETDEWEB is a significant resource to energy experts for discovering relevant energy information. For the 15 topics in this study, ETDEWEB was shown to bring the user unique results not shown by Google or Google Scholar 86.7% of the time. Much was learned from the study beyond just metric comparisons. Observations about the strengths of each

  5. Test and Calibration of the Digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon; Hutt, Charles R.

    1982-01-01

    BACKGROUND During the past decade there has been steady progress in the modernization of the global seismograph network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN) has been augmented by new stations with advanced instrumentation, including the Seismic Research Observatories (SRO) and the modified High-Gain Long-Period (ASRO) stations. One goal in the modernization effort has been to improve signal resolution in the long-period band. A second goal has been to generate a global digital data base to support contemporary computer-based analysis and research. In 1976, a Panel on Seismograph Networks was established by the Committee on Seismology of the National Academy of Sciences to review progress in network seismology and recommend actions that would lead to an improved global data base for seismology. One recommendation in the Panel report (Engdahl, 1977) called for upgrading selected WWSSN stations by the installation of digital recorders. This was viewed as an economical way of expanding the digital network, which had proven itself to be a very promising new tool for earthquake and explosion research. Funds for the development and assembly of 15 digital recorders were provided to the USGS by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and an ad hoc panel of scientists was convened by the Committee on Seismology to advise the USGS on the selection of stations to be upgraded and on data recording requirements. A total of 19 digital World-Wide Standardized Seismograph (DWWSS) systems will be operational when all are installed. The additional systems were made available through purchase by the USGS and other organizations; for example, the University of Bergen purchased and installed a DWWSS-type recorder and agreed to furnish the USGS with the data. A list of operational and planned DWWSS network stations is given in Table 1.1. As one might expect, the digital recorder turned out to be somewhat more

  6. Global Cooling: Increasing World-Wide Urban Albedos to Offset CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Menon, Surabi; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2008-01-14

    Modification of urban albedos reduces summertime urban temperatures, resulting in a better urban air quality and building air-conditioning savings. Furthermore, increasing urban albedos has the added benefit of reflecting some of the incoming global solar radiation and countering to some extent the effects of global warming. In many urban areas, pavements and roofs constitute over 60% of urban surfaces (roof 20-25%, pavements about 40%). Using reflective materials, both roof and the pavement albedos can be increased by about 0.25 and 0.10, respectively, resulting in a net albedo increase for urban areas of about 0.1. Many studies have demonstrated building cooling-energy savings in excess of 20% upon raising roof reflectivity from an existing 10-20% to about 60% (a U.S. potential savings in excess of $1 billion (B) per year in net annual energy bills). On a global basis, our preliminary estimate is that increasing the world-wide albedos of urban roofs and paved surfaces will induce a negative radiative forcing on the earth equivalent to removing {approx} 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. Since, 55% of the emitted CO{sub 2} remains in the atmosphere, removal of 22-40 Gt of CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere is equivalent to reducing global CO{sub 2} emissions by 40-73 Gt. At {approx} $25/tonne of CO{sub 2}, a 40-73 Gt CO{sub 2} emission reduction from changing the albedo of roofs and paved surfaces is worth about $1,000B to 1800B. These estimated savings are dependent on assumptions used in this study, but nevertheless demonstrate considerable benefits that may be obtained from cooler roofs and pavements.

  7. Online data collection with special populations over the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, M M; Falls, A L

    2001-10-01

    The quick ascendance of the World Wide Web as the dominant vehicle for internet communication has recently made experimentation in a multimedia environment feasible on the Internet. Although web sites containing online psychology demonstrations and experiments for non-handicapped individuals have appeared in recent years (especially in the areas of cognitive and social psychology), there appear to have been few attempts to conduct online experimentation with special populations. We recently completed two online pilot studies of families with Down syndrome or Williams syndrome members: a) A survey that asks (via Likert rating scales, adjective checklists, multiple-choice style questions, and text-entry boxes) about family background, computer use, and temperament of the special needs family member; and b) An experiment (completed by an individual with special needs) that includes auditory and visual digit span tasks and a memory-for-orientation task in which responses are entered via mouse clicks. Recruiting began with e-mail announcements to representative Down syndrome and Williams syndrome discussion groups, listserves, and bulletin boards, and submission of the project's URL (http://www.cofc.edu/~marcellm/testaw.htm) and key indexing terms to selected search engines. This paper reviews technical aspects of developing the online programmes as well as the strengths and weaknesses of online vs. traditional laboratory-based research in relation to issues such as experimental control, delivery of instructions, experimenter bias, participant recruitment, sample heterogeneity, generalization, attrition, privacy, financial costs, data integrity, and ethics. We conclude by offering our thoughts on two ways of implementing online experimentation with special populations: a) Using a remote parent 'helper' as a proxy to work with the target individual; and b) Collaborating with professional colleagues in Web-based projects conducted in traditional laboratory settings. PMID

  8. Towards a global service registry for the world-wide LHC computing grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages

  9. Location accuracy of VLF World-Wide Lightning Location (WWLL network: Post-algorithm upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental VLF World-Wide Lightning Location (WWLL network has been developed through collaborations with research institutions across the globe. The aim of the WWLL is to provide global real-time locations of lightning discharges, with >50% CG flash detection efficiency and mean location accuracy of <10km. While these goals are essentially arbitrary, they do define a point where the WWLL network development can be judged a success, providing a breakpoint for a more stable operational mode. The current network includes 18 stations which cover much of the globe. As part of the initial testing phase of the WWLL the network operated in a simple mode, sending the station trigger times into a central processing point rather than making use of the sferic Time of Group Arrival (TOGA. In this paper the location accuracy of the post-TOGA algorithm WWLL network (after 1 August 2003 is characterised, providing estimates of the globally varying location accuracy for this network configuration which range over 1.9-19km, with the global median being 2.9km, and the global mean 3.4km. The introduction of the TOGA algorithm has significantly improved the location accuracies.

    The detection efficiency of the WWLL is also considered. In the selected region the WWLL detected ~13% of the total lightning, suggesting a ~26% CG detection efficiency and a ~10% IC detection efficiency. Based on a comparison between all WWLL good lightning locations in February-April 2004, and the activity levels expected from satellite observations we estimate that the WWLL is currently detecting ~2% of the global total lightning, providing good locations for ~5% of global CG activity. The existing WWLL network is capable of providing real-time positions of global thunderstorm locations in its current form.

  10. Towards a Global Service Registry for the World-Wide LHC Computing Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Laurence; Alandes Pradillo, Maria; Di Girolamo, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The World-Wide LHC Computing Grid encompasses a set of heterogeneous information systems; from central portals such as the Open Science Grid's Information Management System and the Grid Operations Centre Database, to the WLCG information system, where the information sources are the Grid services themselves. Providing a consistent view of the information, which involves synchronising all these informations systems, is a challenging activity that has lead the LHC virtual organisations to create their own configuration databases. This experience, whereby each virtual organisation's configuration database interfaces with multiple information systems, has resulted in the duplication of effort, especially relating to the use of manual checks for the handling of inconsistencies. The Global Service Registry aims to address this issue by providing a centralised service that aggregates information from multiple information systems. It shows both information on registered resources (i.e. what should be there) and available resources (i.e. what is there). The main purpose is to simplify the synchronisation of the virtual organisation's own configuration databases, which are used for job submission and data management, through the provision of a single interface for obtaining all the information. By centralising the information, automated consistency and validation checks can be performed to improve the overall quality of information provided. Although internally the GLUE 2.0 information model is used for the purpose of integration, the Global Service Registry in not dependent on any particular information model for ingestion or dissemination. The intention is to allow the virtual organisation's configuration databases to be decoupled from the underlying information systems in a transparent way and hence simplify any possible future migration due to the evolution of those systems. This paper presents the Global Service Registry architecture, its advantages compared to the

  11. Dynamic ranking with n + 1 dimensional vector space models: An alternative search mechanism for world wide web

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshminarayana, S.

    Letters to the Editor Dynamic Ranking with n H11001 1 Dimensional Vector Space Models: An Alternative Search Mechanism for World Wide Web Sir: The World Wide Web (WWW) has grown both in depth and width of technology typically giving scope for new databases.../links based on the algo- rithm characteristics. To optimize the results we need to apply dynamically extendable vector based ranking techniques because of the properties that depend for ranking a page are growing and not finite. Kleinberg (1998) classified...

  12. World-wide making and kind of competition on the the great markets of energy raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the world-wide making impacts on the petroleum coal and gas industry market. For the petroleum industry, the world-wide making increases. The geopolitical aspects remain important and the innovation is a primordial competition factor. The natural gas industry development is the result of an industry that the geographical and technical specialization contributed to the international cooperation. The competition calls the gas industry a constant research in the efficiency. In the same time the coal industry succeeds its development by opening out to the competition. (A.L.B.)

  13. CONGRATULATIONS TO ACADEMICIAN LIN QUN ON HIS 70th BIRTHDAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Institute of Computational Mathematics; Scientific/Engineering Computing

    2006-01-01

    @@ This special issue of the Journal of Computational Mathematics is dedicated to Professor Qun Lin, an outstanding mathematician and a Member of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), on the occasion of his seventieth birthday.

  14. Enhanced photosynthetic efficiency in trees world-wide by rising atmospheric CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Wieloch, Thomas; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Robertson, Iain; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    signals is a fundamental advantage of isotopomer ratios (Augusti et al., Chem. Geol 2008). These results demonstrate that increasing [CO2] has reduced the ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis on a global scale. Photorespiration is a side reaction that decreases the C gain of plants; the suppression of photorespiration in all analyzed trees indicates that increasing atmospheric [CO2] is enhancing the photosynthetic efficiency of trees world-wide. The consensus response of the trees agrees with the response of annual plants in greenhouse experiments, with three important conclusions. First, the generality of the isotopomer shift confirms that the CO2 response reflects the ratio of photosynthesis to photorespiration, and that it creates a robust signal in tree rings. Second, the agreement between greenhouse-grown plants and trees indicates that there has not been an acclimation response of the trees during the past centuries. Third, the results show that the regulation of tree gas exchange has during past centuries been governed by the same rules as observed in manipulative experiments, in contradiction to recent reports (Keenan et al., Nature 2013).

  15. Exploratory Analysis of the Effect of Consultants on the Use of World Wide Web Sites in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigi Goode

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little published research on the role of consultants in technology adoption. Given the increasing popularity of the World Wide Web in commercial environments and the number of consultants now offering web development services, some analysis into the effects of their engagement would be of benefit. In an extension of an ongoing study, an existing sample of 113 World Wide Web adopters was used to examine the nature of World Wide Web site use with respect to consultant and Internet Service Provider (ISP engagement. Analysis was also conducted into the use of consultants and ISPs as developers and maintainers of these sites. This preliminary research finds a number of interesting outcomes. No significant relationship is found between consultant or ISP engagement and World Wide Web site use, regardless of whether the consultant was engaged as site developer or site maintainer. The study raises a number of additional findings that are of interest but are not directly related to this study. These findings merit further research.

  16. Publishing on the WWW. Part 5 - A brief history of the Internet and the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    GRECH, V.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on the history of the Internet and the World Wide Web, the media that in recent years have created the concept of objects existing ‘on-line’ in a virtual computer environment. These objects naturally include on-line journals such as Images in Paediatric Cardiology.

  17. Publishing on the WWW : part 5 : a brief history of the internet and the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Victor E.

    2001-01-01

    This article focuses on the history of the Internet and the World Wide Web, the media that in recent years have created the concept of objects existing ‘on-line’ in a virtual computer environment. These objects naturally include online journals such as Images in Paediatric Cardiology.

  18. AAS Publishing: What Can WorldWide Telescope Do for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    During the 227th American Astronomical Society meeting last week in Kissimmee, the AAS announced the exciting news that it will become the new institutional home of Microsofts WorldWide Telescope (WWT) astronomy software.WWT is a scriptable and interactive way of browsing the multi-wavelength sky as it is seen from Earth, and the universe as we would travel within it. WWT can be run either as a desktop app or from within an internet browser. And of interest to researchers especially its an incredibly useful way to visualize and contextualize astronomical data.What does WWTs transition to the AAS as its new host mean? WWT was open-sourced by Microsoft Research last year, and hosting by the AAS will permit broad community involvement in the form of contribution of both code and guidance in WWTs further development.All of this begs the question: why might YOU want to use WWT? That depends on whether your goal is to use it for research, education, or just for fun.WWT for ResearchIfyou thought WWT was just for education and outreach, think again! Here are just a few things you can do with WWT to advance your astronomical research1:1) Put surveys into context, on top of more than 40 different all-sky images, spanning the electromagnetic spectrum.2) Perform literature searches from the sky.3) Compare images and catalogs at different wavelengths, on-the-fly in seconds.4) Show your own online data to the world, in an API that allows users to see it on the sky in their browsers.5) Communicate to colleagues and learners about the sky using interactive tours of your data and ideas.An example of WWT used to perform astronomy research is the recently highlighted work on the bones of the Milky Way, in which the authors used WWT to overlay multiple data sets and visually identify and then search for infrared dark clouds along the predicted positions of Milky Way spiral arms.An example of WWT used to communicate research is given in this paper, wherein a link in the caption of a

  19. Physics technology - cost of the new facilities - a world-wide round-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account of the status of 18 of the electron accelerator projects around the world is presented. The survey is restricted to those projects which are aimed mainly at studies of nuclear physics and which aspire to the development of CW beams

  20. The Global Inventor Gap: Distribution and Equality of World-Wide Inventive Effort, 1990–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Toivanen, Hannes; Suominen, Arho

    2015-01-01

    Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two majo...

  1. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Cherinka; Joe Prezzama

    2014-01-01

    Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" enviro...

  2. RD51, a world-wide collaboration for the development of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Chefdeville, M.

    2010-01-01

    Originally introduced to improve the rate capability of traditional wire chambers, Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) actually demonstrate many more benefits. Be it for medical and industry imaging, collider experiments or more interestingly in the framework of this conference for the search of rare events, they are the subject of constant research and development in several laboratories over the world. The RD51 collaboration has been coordinating this work since April 2008 and is meant t...

  3. The living legacy of the Harvard Pigeon Lab: quantitative analysis in the wide world.

    OpenAIRE

    Logue, A. W.

    2002-01-01

    From the Harvard Pigeon Lab of the 1960s arose a behavior-analytic approach that was quantitative and rigorous, rooted in Herrnstein's matching law. Researchers modified the matching law to describe choice behavior in a variety of different settings and examined its relations with other quantitative models. Beginning in the early 1970s, researchers began using the Harvard Pigeon Lab's quantitative framework to study in the laboratory specific aspects of the world outside the laboratory. Much ...

  4. Diabetic kidney disease: world wide difference of prevalence and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gheith Osama; Farouk Nashwa; Nampoory Narayanan; Halim Medhat A; Al-Otaibi Torki

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease – which is defined by elevated urine albumin excretion or reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or both – is a serious complication that occurs in 20% to 40% of all diabetics. In this review we try to highlight the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy which is not uncommon complication of diabetes all over the world. The prevalence of diabetes worldwide has extended epidemic magnitudes and is expected to affect more than 350 million people by the year 2035. There is m...

  5. Special issue on Laser Biophotonics, dedicated to the seventieth birthday of V.V. Tuchin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priezzhev, A. V.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    Prominent Researcher and Educator, Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation, Professor Valery V. Tuchin celebrated his seventieth birthday this year. V.V. Tuchin heads the Department of Optics and Biophotonics at N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University and the Laboratory of Laser Diagnostics of Technical and Living Systems at the Institute of Precise Mechanics and Control of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He is a Vice-President of the Russian Photobiology Society. V.V. Tuchin is widely known for his achievements in optics of biological tissues, in developing methods of optical and laser measurements in biomedicine and nanobiophotonics, and in many other fields.

  6. Gross α/β analysis of spiked qater for IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gross α/β analysis of the IAEA 2008 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of natural radionuclides in spiked water was conducted. The Sample 03, Sample 04 and Sample 05 were tested for the gross α/β radioactivity according to the requirement of IAEA. The feedback statistics showed that the values of gross α/β of all of the three samples fell in the acceptable range of IAEA. (authors)

  7. The Wide and Wild World of Words: Interview with Averil Coxhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Adeline Shi Hui; Yeo, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Averil Coxhead is widely known for developing the Academic Word List, a list of 570 word families associated with great frequency in academic texts. This list has been particularly useful to teachers of English as a Second Language as well as independent learners in tertiary education. She has also developed a Science-based word list (Coxhead and…

  8. Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC): a world wide web resource for radiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Liang; Lim, C C Tchoyoson

    2006-08-01

    Radiology education is heavily dependent on visual images, and case-based teaching files comprising medical images can be an important tool for teaching diagnostic radiology. Currently, hardcopy film is being rapidly replaced by digital radiological images in teaching hospitals, and an electronic teaching file (ETF) library would be desirable. Furthermore, a repository of ETFs deployed on the World Wide Web has the potential for e-learning applications to benefit a larger community of learners. In this paper, we describe a Singapore National Medical Image Resource Centre (SN.MIRC) that can serve as a World Wide Web resource for teaching diagnostic radiology. On SN.MIRC, ETFs can be created using a variety of mechanisms including file upload and online form-filling, and users can search for cases using the Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) query schema developed by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). The system can be improved with future enhancements, including multimedia interactive teaching files and distance learning for continuing professional development. However, significant challenges exist when exploring the potential of using the World Wide Web for radiology education. PMID:17006584

  9. Automated generation of a World Wide Web-based data entry and check program for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, T; Kaihara, S

    1997-02-01

    The World Wide Web-based form is a promising method for the construction of an on-line data collection system for clinical and epidemiological research. It is, however, laborious to prepare a common gateway interface (CGI) program for each project, which the World Wide Web server needs to handle the submitted data. In medicine, it is even more laborious because the CGI program must check deficits, type, ranges, and logical errors (bad combination of data) of entered data for quality assurance as well as data length and meta-characters of the entered data to enhance the security of the server. We have extended the specification of the hypertext markup language (HTML) form to accommodate information necessary for such data checking and we have developed software named AUTOFORM for this purpose. The software automatically analyzes the extended HTML form and generates the corresponding ordinary HTML form, 'Makefile', and C source of CGI programs. The resultant CGI program checks the entered data through the HTML form, records them in a computer, and returns them to the end-user. AUTOFORM drastically reduces the burden of development of the World Wide Web-based data entry system and allows the CGI programs to be more securely and reliably prepared than had they been written from scratch. PMID:9034677

  10. Casting a Wide Net for Innovation: Bringing Interdisciplinary Collaboration to Real World Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cherinka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Federal agencies are seeking new ways to innovate, procure and enhance enterprise capabilities. Competitions are one tool that federal agencies can use to drive innovation and solve mission-centric problems—whether technical, scientific, or creative. In this paper we present an examination of several approaches to foster open innovation through challenges and competitions in support of key business operations in the workforce. We highlight specific examples of their use in "real world" environments and provide an assessment of applicability, benefits and challenges for implementation in large organizations.

  11. Frédéric Hemmer: Serving a world-wide community

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    CERN’s IT Department provides a variety of services to the Organization, its users and hundreds of institutes around the world. It plays a vital role in the operation of the LHC and its experiments. This week we meet the new IT Department Head, who tells us about the challenges his teams will face over the coming years. In this period leading up to the first data being produced at the LHC and processed via the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the IT Department is focussing on service for users and the new Computing Centre which should be built on the Prévessin site. As Frédéric Hemmer, the new IT Department Head, explains, "we are here to serve CERN, its associated institutes and its industrial partners. The Grid is the best illustration of this, but we do have other informatics products that we share with a large number of users across the world, such as INDICO (conference management system) and INVENIO (archiving system used...

  12. Chemoinformatics and the world wide web : an interview with Professor Peter Willett

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdan Mansourian

    2006-01-01

    Information science is an interdisciplinary area of study which has strong links with a wide range of subjects. As a consequence of these interactions, a couple of branches have been emerged in information science during the past few decades. For example, development of bioinformatics is the result of collaborative research on common grounds between biologists and information science experts. Similarly, Chemoinformatics is an area of research and practice which has roots in chemistry and info...

  13. The Global Inventor Gap: Distribution and Equality of World-Wide Inventive Effort, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Hannes; Suominen, Arho

    2015-01-01

    Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy. PMID:25849202

  14. The global inventor gap: distribution and equality of world-wide inventive effort, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, Hannes; Suominen, Arho

    2015-01-01

    Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy. PMID:25849202

  15. The global inventor gap: distribution and equality of world-wide inventive effort, 1990-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Toivanen

    Full Text Available Applying distance-to-frontier analysis, we have used 2.9 million patents and population data to assess whether the relative capacity of world countries and major regions to create new knowledge and technology has become globally more equal or less equal between 1990 and 2010. We show with the Gini coefficient that the global distribution of inventors has become more equal between major countries and regions. However, this trend has been largely due to the improved performance of only two major countries, China and India. The worst performing regions, totalling a population of almost 2 billion, are actually falling behind. Our results suggest that substantial parts of the global population have fallen further behind countries at the global frontier in their ability to create new knowledge and inventions, and that the catch-up among the least developed and middle-income countries is highly uneven, prompting questions about the nature and future of the global knowledge economy.

  16. Standards-based Materials for World-Wide Distribution in the IHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    The National Science Education standards and related science literacy efforts are a vital tool for improving STEM education and for guiding development of both formal and informal science education products. The space physics community is in a position to develop excellent curricula and materials that are most effective when they are designed to meet these standards. This presentation will highlight materials and projects from the Stanford Solar Center and how clear links were made between the space physics concepts being taught and the basic science education standards they support. We will primarily focus on our Space Weather Monitor project, in which we distribute, through the International Heliophysical Year, scientific instruments and educational materials for use in high schools around the world. Although the US standards do not technically apply, we have found them valuable when designing materials for broad distribution.

  17. RD51, a world-wide collaboration for the development of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Originally introduced to improve the rate capability of traditional wire chambers, Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) actually demonstrate many more benefits. Be it for medical and industry imaging, collider experiments or more interestingly in the framework of this conference for the search of rare events, they are the subject of constant research and development in several laboratories over the world. The RD51 collaboration has been coordinating this work since April 2008 and is meant to advance the technological development and application of MPGD. The collaboration is presented and emphasis is put on its latest achievements which do make these devices an attractive option for the detection of low energy rare events: the possibility to instrument large area and to detect UV photons.

  18. Financing energy investments world-wide and in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of mobilizing the finance under given circumstances is pointed out. The energy sector investments needs correspond to only 3-4% of world GDP or 6-7% of world capital formation. In most developing countries mobilizing financing is a issue, where the risk/return ratio of a given energy investment project does not compare favourably with competing projects and if their handicap is not compensating for by public financing or government guarantees. Compared to the other regions, the energy systems of the economies in transition absorb a high proportion of domestic capital. This is due to past and continuing supply-oriented energy policies and inefficiencies and the export orientation of the energy-rich countries, and to limited domestic capital markets. As a result only a estimated 9-13% of long-term investment 'needs' is presently financed. The root of the problem is slow progress in the reform of energy and capital markets at a time government withdraw from financing and guaranteeing energy investments. Recommendations include transition to sustainable energy strategies ; the liberalization of energy prices and tariffs; the phasing out of subsides and cross-subsides; the stabilization of tax and depreciation regimes; neutrality with regard of the various forms of ownership; reliable law enforcement; non-discrimination of foreign investors, shareholders, competitors; the ratification of the Energy Charter Treaty; and generally, institutional and regulatory frameworks that address market imperfections. Regarding domestic capital markets the goal is to increase traded volume, reduce volatility, and avoid discrimination and favour international integration

  19. Diabetic kidney disease: world wide difference of prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith Osama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic kidney disease – which is defined by elevated urine albumin excretion or reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR or both – is a serious complication that occurs in 20% to 40% of all diabetics. In this review we try to highlight the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy which is not uncommon complication of diabetes all over the world. The prevalence of diabetes worldwide has extended epidemic magnitudes and is expected to affect more than 350 million people by the year 2035. There is marked racial/ethnic besides international difference in the epidemiology of diabetic kidney disease which could be explained by the differences in economic viability and governmental infrastructures. Approximately one-third of diabetic patients showed microalbuminuria after 15 years of disease duration and less than half develop real nephropathy. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD is more frequent in African-Americans, Asian-Americans, and Native Americans. Progressive kidney disease is more frequent in Caucasians patients with type 1 than type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, although its overall prevalence in the diabetic population is higher in patients with type 2 DM while this type of DM is more prevalent. Hyperglycemia is well known risk factor for in addition to other risk factors like male sex, obesity, hypertension, chronic inflammation, resistance to insulin, hypovitaminosis D, and dyslipidemia and some genetic loci and polymorphisms in specific genes. Management of its modifiable risk factors might help in reducing its incidence in the nearby future.

  20. Technical Evaluation Report 61: The World-Wide Inaccessible Web, Part 2: Internet routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Klaas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the previous report in this series, Web browser loading times were measured in 12 Asian countries, and were found to be up to four times slower than commonly prescribed as acceptable. Failure of webpages to load at all was frequent. The current follow-up study compares these loading times with the complexity of the Internet routes linking the Web users and the Web servers hosting them. The study was conducted in the same 12 Asian countries, with the assistance of members of the International Development Research Centre’s PANdora distance education research network. The data were generated by network members in Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Mongolia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Additional data for the follow-up study were collected in China. Using a ‘traceroute’ routine, the study indicates that webpage loading time is linked to the complexity of the Internet routes between Web users and the host server. It is indicated that distance educators can apply such information in the design of improved online delivery and mirror sites, notably in areas of the developing world which currently lack an effective infrastructure for online education.

  1. World-wide deployment of Robo-AO visible-light robotic laser adaptive optics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Law, Nicholas Michael; Lu, Jessica R.; Tonry, John; Tully, R. Brent; Wright, Shelley; Kulkarni, Shrinivas; Severson, Scott; Choi, Philip; Ramaprakash, A.; Chun, Mark; Connelley, Mike; Tokunaga, Alan; Hall, Donald

    2015-08-01

    In the next few years, several modest-sized telescopes around the world will be upgraded with autonomous laser adaptive optics systems based on the Robo-AO prototype deployed at the Palomar Observatory 1.5-m telescope. The prototype commenced scientific operations in June 2012 and more than 19,000 observations have since been performed at the ~0.12" visible-light diffraction limit. We are planning to move the prototype system to the 2.1-m telescope at Kitt Peak for a 3-year deployment which will serve a consortium of users including Caltech, the University of Hawai`i, IUCAA, NCU and institutions in China. Additionally, 2 months per year will be made available to the US astronomical community.New Robo-AO systems are in various stages of development: a clone by IUCAA for the 2-m IGO telescope in India; a natural guide star variant, KAPAO, by Pomona College at the 1-m Table Mountain telescope in California; and second generation Robo-AO systems are planned for the 3-m IRTF and 2.2-m University of Hawai'i telescopes on Maunakea, Hawai`i. The latter will exploit Maunakea's excellent observing conditions to provide higher Strehl ratios, sharper imaging, ~0.07", and correction to lambda = 400 nm. An additional infrared integral-field spectrograph will be fed by the UH 2.2-m Robo-AO system to quickly classify transients, such as supernovae and asteroids, discovered by the ATLAS system in Hawai`i.

  2. THE IMAGE OF INVESTMENT AND FINANCIAL SERVICES COMPANIES IN WWW LANDSCAPE (WORLD WIDE WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu Ioana Ancuta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In a world where the internet and its image are becoming more and more important, this study is about the importance of Investment and Financial Services Companies web sites. Market competition, creates the need of studies, focused on assessing and analyzing the websites of companies who are active in this sector. Our study wants to respond at several questions related to Romanian Investment and Financial Services Companies web sites through four dimensions: content, layout, handling and interactivity. Which web sites are best and from what point of view? Where should financial services companies direct their investments to differentiate themselves and their sites? In fact we want to rank the 58 Investment and Financial Services Companies web sites based on 127 criteria. There are numerous methods for evaluating web pages. The evaluation methods are similar from the structural point of view and the most popular are: Serqual, Sitequal, Webqual / Equal EtailQ, Ewam, e-Serqual, WebQEM (Badulescu, 2008:58. In the paper: "Assessment of Romanian Banks E-Image: A Marketing Perspective" (Catana, Catana and Constantinescu, 2006: 4 the authors point out that there are at least four complex variables: accessibility, functionality, performance and usability. Each of these can be decomposed into simple ones. We used the same method, and we examined from the utility point of view, 58 web sites of Investment and Financial Services Companies based on 127 criteria following a procedure developed by Institut fur ProfNet Internet Marketing, Munster (Germany. The data collection period was 1-30 September 2010. The results show that there are very large differences between corporate sites; their creators are concentrating on the information required by law and aesthetics, neglecting other aspects as communication and online service. In the future we want to extend this study at international level, by applying the same methods of research in 5 countries from

  3. Confluence of genes, environment, development, and behavior in a post Genome-Wide Association Study world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieze, Scott I; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2012-11-01

    This article serves to outline a research paradigm to investigate main effects and interactions of genes, environment, and development on behavior and psychiatric illness. We provide a historical context for candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies, including benefits, limitations, and expected payoffs. Using substance use and abuse as our driving example, we then turn to the importance of etiological psychological theory in guiding genetic, environmental, and developmental research, as well as the utility of refined phenotypic measures, such as endophenotypes, in the pursuit of etiological understanding and focused tests of genetic and environmental associations. Phenotypic measurement has received considerable attention in the history of psychology and is informed by psychometrics, whereas the environment remains relatively poorly measured and is often confounded with genetic effects (i.e., gene-environment correlation). Genetically informed designs, which are no longer limited to twin and adoption studies thanks to ever-cheaper genotyping, are required to understand environmental influences. Finally, we outline the vast amount of individual difference in structural genomic variation, most of which remains to be leveraged in genetic association tests. Although the genetic data can be massive and burdensome (tens of millions of variants per person), we argue that improved understanding of genomic structure and function will provide investigators with new tools to test specific a priori hypotheses derived from etiological psychological theory, much like current candidate gene research but with less confusion and more payoff than candidate gene research has to date. PMID:23062291

  4. Nutrient Intake Values for Folate during Pregnancy and Lactation Vary Widely around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Houghton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Folate is a B-vitamin with particular importance during reproduction due to its role in the synthesis and maintenance of DNA. Folate is well known for its role in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs during the periconceptional period. There is also an increased need for folate throughout pregnancy to support optimal growth and development of the fetus and blood volume expansion and tissue growth of the mother. During lactation, women are at risk of folate deficiency due to increased demands to accommodate milk folate levels. Nutrient Intake Values (NIVs for folate have been calculated to take into account additional needs during pregnancy and lactation. However, these values vary widely between countries. For example, the folate requirement that is set to meet the needs of almost all healthy women during pregnancy varies from 300 µg/day in the United Kingdom to 750 µg/day in Mexico. Currently, there is no accepted standardized terminology or framework for establishing NIVs. This article reviews country-specific NIVs for folate during pregnancy and lactation and the basis for setting these reference values.

  5. World-wide every fifth vascular plant species is or was used as medicinal or aromatic plant

    OpenAIRE

    Wittig, Rüdiger; Dingermann, Theo; Sieglstetter, Robert; Xie, Yingzhong; Thiombiano, Adjima; Hahn, Karen

    2015-01-01

    It is common knowledge that plants have been the world-wide most important source of medicines and that they still play this role in developing countries. However, up to now, complete lists of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAP) exist for comparatively few countries. A review of all lists know to the authors reveals the following results: A total of 20.7 % of the plant species analyzed by either publications or own research are or were used as MAP. However, regarding single countries, the dif...

  6. The exon 55 deletion in the nebulin gene--one single founder mutation with world-wide occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Greenleaf, Rebecca S; DeChene, Elizabeth T; Kellinsalmi, Mutsumi; Pelin, Katarina; Laing, Nigel G; Beggs, Alan H; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina

    2009-03-01

    In 2004, Anderson et al. reported a homozygous 2502 bp deletion including exon 55 of the nebulin gene in five Ashkenazi Jewish probands with nemaline myopathy. We determined the occurrence of this deletion in a world-wide series of 355 nemaline myopathy probands with no previously known mutation in other genes and found the mutation in 14 probands, two of whom represented families previously ascertained by Anderson et al. Two of the families were not of known Ashkenazi Jewish descent but they had the haplotype known to segregate with this mutation. In all but two of eight homozygous patients, the clinical picture was more severe than in typical nemaline myopathy. PMID:19232495

  7. The exon 55 deletion in the nebulin gene - one single founder mutation with world-wide occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtokari, Vilma-Lotta; Greenleaf, Rebecca S.; DeChene, Elizabeth T; Kellinsalmi, Mutsumi; Pelin, Katarina; Laing, Nigel G.; Beggs, Alan H.; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Anderson and co-workers (2004) reported a homozygous 2,502 bp deletion including exon 55 of the nebulin gene in five Ashkenazi Jewish probands with nemaline myopathy (NM) [1]. We determined the occurrence of this deletion in a world-wide series of 355 NM probands with no previously known mutation in other genes and found the mutation in 14 probands. Two of the families were not of known Ashkenazi Jewish descent but they had the haplotype known to segregate with this mutation. In all but two o...

  8. A large-scale study of the World Wide Web: network correlation functions with scale-invariant boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Luduena, G. A.; Meixner, H.; Kaczor, Gregor; Gros, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    We performed a large-scale crawl of the World Wide Web, covering 6.9 Million domains and 57 Million subdomains, including all high-traffic sites of the Internet. We present a study of the correlations found between quantities measuring the structural relevance of each node in the network (the in- and out-degree, the local clustering coefficient, the first-neighbor in-degree and the Alexa rank). We find that some of these properties show strong correlation effects and that the dependencies occ...

  9. AN INTELLIGENT OPTIMAL GENETIC MODEL TO INVESTIGATE THE USER USAGE BEHAVIOUR ON WORLD WIDE WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V.R. Maheswara Rao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The unexpected wide spread use of WWW and dynamically increasing nature of the web creates new challenges in the web mining since the data in the web inherently unlabelled, incomplete, non linear, and heterogeneous. The investigation of user usage behaviour on WWW is real time problem which involves multiple conflicting measures of performance. These measures make not only computational intensive but also needs to the possibility of be unable to find the exact solution. Unfortunately, the conventional methods are limited to optimization problems due to the absence of semantic certainty and presence of human intervention. In handling such data and overcome the limitations of conventional methodologies it is necessary to use a soft computing model that can work intelligently to attain optimal solution. To achieve the optimized solution for investigating the web user usage behaviour, the authors in the present paper proposes an Intelligent Optimal Genetic Model, IOGM, which is designed as an optimization tool based on the concept of natural genetic systems. Initially, IOGM comprise a set of individual solutions or chromosomes called the initial population. Later, biologically inspired operators create a new and potentially better population. Finally, by the theory of evolution, survive only optimal individuals from the population and then generate the next biological population. This process is terminated as when an acceptable optimal set of visited patterns is found or after fixed time limit. Additionally, IOGM strengthen by its ability to estimate the optimal stopping time of process. The proposed soft computing model ensures the identifiable features like learning, adaptability, self-maintenance and self-improvement. To validate the proposed system, several experiments were conducted and results proven this are claimed in this paper.

  10. An Intelligent Optimal Genetic Model to Investigate the User Usage Behaviour on World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V.R. Maheswara Rao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The unexpected wide spread use of WWW and dynamically increasing nature of the web creates new challenges in the web mining since the data in the web inherently unlabelled, incomplete, non linear, and heterogeneous. The investigation of user usage behaviour on WWW is real time problem which involves multiple conflicting measures of performance. These measures make not only computational intensive butalso needs to the possibility of be unable to find the exact solution. Unfortunately, the conventional methods are limited to optimization problems due to the absence of semantic certainty and presence of human intervention. In handling such data and overcome the limitations of conventional methodologies it is necessary to use a soft computing model that can work intelligently to attain optimal solution. To achieve the optimized solution for investigating the web user usage behaviour, the authors in the present paper proposes an Intelligent Optimal Genetic Model, IOGM, which is designed as an optimization tool based on the concept of natural genetic systems. Initially, IOGM comprise a set of individual solutions or chromosomes called the initial population. Later, biologically inspired operators create a new and potentially better population. Finally, by the theory of evolution, survive only optimal individuals from the population and then generate the next biological population. This process is terminated as when an acceptable optimal set of visited patterns is found or after fixed time limit. Additionally, IOGM strengthen by its ability to estimate the optimal stopping time of process. The proposed soft computing model ensures the identifiable features like learning, adaptability, self-maintenance and self-improvement. To validate the proposed system, several experiments were conducted and results proven this are claimed in this paper

  11. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fucile

    Full Text Available Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org.

  12. Development of a world wide web-based interactive education program to improve detectability of pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To design and develop a World Wide Web-based education program that will allow trainees to interactively learn and improve the diagnostic capability of detecting pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs. Chest radiographs with known diagnosis were retrieved and selected from our institutional clinical archives. A database was constructed by sorting radiographs into three groups: normal, nodule, and false positive (i.e., nodule-like focal opacity). Each nodule was assigned with the degree of detectability: easy, intermediate, difficult, and likely missed. Nodules were characterized by their morphology (well-defined, ill-defined, irregular, faint) and by other associated pathologies or potentially obscuring structures. The Web site was organized into four sections: study, test, record and information. The Web site allowed a user interactively to undergo the training section appropriate to the user's diagnostic capability. The training was enhanced by means of clinical and other pertinent radiological findings included in the database. The outcome of the training was tested with clinical test radiographs that presented nodules or false positives with varying diagnostic difficulties. A World Wide Web-based education program is a promising technique that would allow trainees to interactively learn and improve the diagnostic capability of detecting and characterizing pulmonary nodules

  13. A large-scale study of the world wide web: network correlation functions with scale-invariant boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludueña, Guillermo A.; Meixner, Harald; Kaczor, Gregor; Gros, Claudius

    2013-08-01

    We performed a large-scale crawl of the world wide web, covering 6.9 million domains and 57 million subdomains, including all high-traffic sites of the internet. We present a study of the correlations found between quantities measuring the structural relevance of each node in the network (the in- and out-degree, the local clustering coefficient, the first-neighbor in-degree and the Alexa rank). We find that some of these properties show strong correlation effects and that the dependencies occurring out of these correlations follow power laws not only for the averages, but also for the boundaries of the respective density distributions. In addition, these scale-free limits do not follow the same exponents as the corresponding averages. In our study we retain the directionality of the hyperlinks and develop a statistical estimate for the clustering coefficient of directed graphs. We include in our study the correlations between the in-degree and the Alexa traffic rank, a popular index for the traffic volume, finding non-trivial power-law correlations. We find that sites with more/less than about 103 links from different domains have remarkably different statistical properties, for all correlation functions studied, indicating towards an underlying hierarchical structure of the world wide web.

  14. EDITORIAL: 65th Birthday of Professor Hauptmann 65th Birthday of Professor Hauptmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucklum, Ralf

    2009-12-01

    The papers in this special feature have been contributed by scientific partners in international research projects and from former PhD students of the Editor-in-Chief of this journal, Professor Dr Peter Hauptmann. The motivation for this feature is the occasion of Peter Hauptmann's 65th birthday on 24 July 2009 and his retirement from his chair at the Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg, Germany this autumn. Peter graduated in Physics at the Technical University Dresden and received his PhD from the Technical University Leuna-Merseburg in 1973. He habilitated in 1979. With his appointment at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology in 1985 the Chair of Measurement Science extended its profile to the fast growing area of sensors. Peter was one of the very early developers of ultrasonic sensor systems for process monitoring and quality assurance. The working style here was characteristic of all his future activities. He combined his background in theory and experiment on ultrasonic wave propagation and its application to material science with the advantages of rapidly developing capabilities in microelectronics and data processing. The results have meanwhile found their way into products that are now on the market worldwide. Germany's reunification opened the door to the international sensor community and the most challenging sensor research areas. Peter Hauptmann very soon became a well respected colleague and was consequently appointed as member of the Technical Program Committee of the most important sensor conferences, elected member and head of expert groups of research associations and funding organizations, and of course reviewer of many scientific journals. Nowadays Peter Hauptmann can rightly be called one of the key players in the area of sensors. Professor Hauptmann's research interests combine fundamental aspects of the sensor transduction scheme with application issues up to the use of the sensor system in the industrial world

  15. World Wide Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Grätzel von Grätz, Philipp

    2007-01-01

    Whether for genetic risk analysis or 3D-rekonstruktion of the cerebral vessels: the modern medicine requires more computing power. With a grid infrastructure, this one can be if necessary called by the network. (4 pages)

  16. Variations of the vertical cutoff rigidities for the world wide neutron monitor network during 1950-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Vertical cutoff rigidities for the world wide neutron monitor network are obtained with one year resolution during the period of 1950-2020 by the method of trajectory calculations. The models of Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field and International Geomagnetic Reference Field have been used. Besides, cutoff rigidities for the whole period were obtained using model by Tsyganenko Ts89 with involving yearly mean values of Kp index. In each case an estimation of penumbra contribution was made in approximation of flat and low spectra (index in variations spectrum 0 and -1) of cosmic ray variations. The results testify total decrease of cut off rigidities practically in the all locations, which is apparently connected to the common decrease of magnetic field in a considered period.

  17. Mapping the footsteps of the green anole: A template for publishing ecological data on the World Wide Web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, E.T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Truett, D.F. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Truett, L.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    In the handful of years since the World Wide Web (WWW or Web) came into being, Web sites have developed at an astonishing rate. With the influx of Web pages comes a disparity of site types, including personal homepages, commercial sales sites, and educational data. The variety of sites and the deluge of information contained on the Web exemplify the individual nature of the WWW. Whereas some people argue that it is this eclecticism which gives the Web its charm, we propose that sites which are repositories of technical data would benefit from standardization. This paper proffers a methodology for publishing ecological research on the Web. The template we describe uses capabilities of HTML (the HyperText Markup Language) to enhance the value of the traditional scientific paper.

  18. Suported by Replacement Policy for Caching World-Wide Web Documents Based on Site-Graph Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄伟强; 胡敏; 王鼎兴; 郑纬民; 沈美明

    2001-01-01

    The hit rate, a major metric for evaluating proxy caches, is mostly limited by the replacementstrategy of proxy caches. However, in traditional proxy caches, the hit rate does not usually successfullypredict how well a proxy cache will perform because the proxy cache counts any hit in its caching space whichhas many pages without useful information, so its replacement strategy fails to determine which pages to keepand which to release. The proxy cache efficiency can be measured more accurately using the valid hit rateintroduced in this paper. An efficient replacement strategy based on the Site-Graph model for WWW(World-Wide Web) documents is also discussed in this paper. The model analyzes user access behavior as abasis for the replacement strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that the replacement strategy improvesproxy cache efficiency.``

  19. The efficacy of using search engines in procuring information about orthopaedic foot and ankle problems from the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogler, M; Wimmer, C; Mayr, E; Ofner, D

    1999-05-01

    This study has attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining information specific to foot and ankle orthopaedics from the World Wide Web (WWW). Six search engines (Lycos, AltaVista, Infoseek, Excite, Webcrawler, and HotBot) were used in scanning the Web for the following key words: "cavus foot," "diabetic foot," "hallux valgus,"and "pes equinovarus." Matches were classified by language, provider, type, and relevance to medical professionals or to patients. Sixty percent (407 sites) of the visited websites contained information intended for use by physicians and other medical professionals; 30% (206 sites) were related to patient information; 10% of the sites were not easily classifiable. Forty-one percent (169 sites) of the websites were commercially oriented homepages that included advertisements. PMID:10353772

  20. Identification and characterization of highly divergent simian foamy viruses in a wide range of new world primates from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia P Muniz

    Full Text Available Foamy viruses naturally infect a wide range of mammals, including Old World (OWP and New World primates (NWP, which are collectively called simian foamy viruses (SFV. While NWP species in Central and South America are highly diverse, only SFV from captive marmoset, spider monkey, and squirrel monkey have been genetically characterized and the molecular epidemiology of SFV infection in NWPs remains unknown. We tested a large collection of genomic DNA (n = 332 comprising 14 genera of NWP species for the presence of SFV polymerase (pol sequences using generic PCR primers. Further molecular characterization of positive samples was carried out by LTR-gag and larger pol sequence analysis. We identified novel SFVs infecting nine NWP genera. Prevalence rates varied between 14-30% in different species for which at least 10 specimens were tested. High SFV genetic diversity among NWP up to 50% in LTR-gag and 40% in pol was revealed by intragenus and intrafamilial comparisons. Two different SFV strains infecting two captive yellow-breasted capuchins did not group in species-specific lineages but rather clustered with SFVs from marmoset and spider monkeys, indicating independent cross-species transmission events. We describe the first SFV epidemiology study of NWP, and the first evidence of SFV infection in wild NWPs. We also document a wide distribution of distinct SFVs in 14 NWP genera, including two novel co-speciating SFVs in capuchins and howler monkeys, suggestive of an ancient evolutionary history in NWPs for at least 28 million years. A high SFV genetic diversity was seen among NWP, yet these viruses seem able to jump between NWP species and even genera. Our results raise concerns for the risk of zoonotic transmission of NWP SFV to humans as these primates are regularly hunted for food or kept as pets in forest regions of South America.

  1. A generalization of the Birthday problem and the chromatic polynomial

    CERN Document Server

    Fadnavis, Sukhada

    2011-01-01

    The birthday paradox states that there is at least half a chance that some two out of twenty-three randomly chosen people will share the same birth date. The calculation for this problem assumes that all birth dates are equally likely. We consider the following two modifications of this question. What if the distribution of birth dates is non-uniform and possibly even unknown? Further, what if we focus on birthdays shared by two friends rather than any two people? In this paper we present some of our results and conjectures in this generalized setting. We will also show how these results are related to the Stanley-Stembridge poset chain chromatic conjecture and the `shameful conjecture', two famous conjectures in combinatorics.

  2. Temperature profile data collected in a world wide distribution using XBT casts from 01 January 1994 to 25 May 1994 (NODC Accession 9600159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the ANGO and other platforms in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 01 January 1994 to...

  3. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from a World-Wide Distribution 31 March 1985 to 24 November 1990 (NODC Accession 9700191)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from from a World-Wide Distribution from 31 March 1985 to 24 November 1990. Physical parameters include temperature...

  4. Temperature profile data from XBT casts from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution from 02 January 1990 to 31 December 1995 (NODC Accession 0001268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from a World-Wide distribution from 02 January 1990 to 31 December 1995. Data were submitted by the UK Hydrographic...

  5. Depth, chlorophyll, and total pigment data were collected using bottle casts in a world-wide distribution from 16 March 1997 to 30 January 1998 (NODC Accession 0000292)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Depth, chlorophyll, and total pigment data were collected using bottle casts from TIOGA and other platforms in a world-wide distribution from March 16, 1997 to...

  6. Temperature profile data from XBT casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 20 February 2003 to 24 April 200 (NODC Accession 0001019)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using CTD casts from LYKES RAIDER and other platforms in a world wide distribution from 20 February 2003 to 24 April 2003....

  7. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from NAUKA and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 26 July 1966 to 09 September 1990 (NODC Accession 0000228)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a World-wide distribution from the NAUKA, FIOLENT, LESNOYE, and other platforms from 26 July 1966 to 09...

  8. Temperature profile data from MBT casts from AELITA and other platforms in a World wide distribution from 30 January 1970 to 26 July 1990 (NODC Accession 0000227)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using MBT casts in a world wide distribution from AELITA, ESTAFETA OKTYABRYA, MARLIN, ORHEVI, POLYAKOV, and ZVEZDA AZOVA...

  9. Dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen data collected using bottle in a world wide distribution from 02 September 1998 to 02 November 2003 (NODC Accession 0002403)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) data were collected using bottle casts in a world wide distribution. Data were collected from 02...

  10. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from a World-Wide distribution from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 08 April 1948 to 14 December 1968 (NODC Accession 9300131)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected from MBT casts from a World-Wide distribution. Data were collected from MULTIPLE PLATFORMS from 08 April 1948 to 14 Decmeber...

  11. Temperature profile and oxygen data collected from multiple ships using CTD casts in a world wide distribution from 04 September 1979 to 15 April 1998 (NODC Accession 0002716)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and oxygen data were collected using CTD casts in a world wide distribution from multiple platforms from 04 September 1979 to 15 April 1998....

  12. Temperature profile data from bucket, surface seawater intake, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 07 December 1995 to 18 October 1996 (NODC Accession 9600167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bucket, surface seawater intake, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from December 07,...

  13. Temperature and other data from XBT and MBT casts in a world-wide distribution from 06 March 1958 to 01 April 1958 (NODC Accession 0000336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and other data were collected using XBT and MBT casts in a world-wide distribution from March 6, 1958 to April 1, 1958. Data were submitted by Duetsches...

  14. Development of the World-wide harmonized Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC) and a possible pathway for its introduction in the European legislation

    OpenAIRE

    TUTUIANU MONICA; Bonnel, Pierre; CIUFFO BIAGIO; HANIU Takahiro; ICHIKAWA Noriyuki; MAROTTA Alessandro; PAVLOVIC JELICA; Steven, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the World-wide harmonized Light duty Test Cycle (WLTC), developed under the Working Party on Pollution and Energy (GRPE) and sponsored by the European Union (with Switzerland) and Japan. India, Korea and USA have also actively contributed. The objective was to design the harmonized driving cycle from "real world" driving data in different regions around the world, combined with suitable weighting factors. To this aim, driving data and traffic statistics of light duty vehic...

  15. Amazing light. A volume dedicated to Charles Hard Townes on his 80th birthday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, R. Y.

    This Festschrift is a collection of essays contributed by students, colleagues, and admirers to honor Charles Hard Townes on the occasion of his 80th birthday, July 28, 1995. Charles Townes shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1964 for "fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the laser-maser principle". This book reflects Townes's wide interests and influence, ranging from quantum optics to astrophysics, and from electrical engineering to medicine. It begins with an introductory biographical essay and includes contributions from nine Nobel laureates. The broadly multinational character of the contributions reflects Townes's deep belief in the international character of science, as well as the breadth of the impact his work and teaching have had.

  16. Toward Robust Climate Baselining: Objective Assessment of Climate Change Using Widely Distributed Miniaturized Sensors for Accurate World-Wide Geophysical Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teller, E; Leith, C; Canavan, G; Marion, J; Wood, L

    2001-11-13

    A gap-free, world-wide, ocean-, atmosphere-, and land surface-spanning geophysical data-set of three decades time-duration containing the full set of geophysical parameters characterizing global weather is the scientific perquisite for defining the climate; the generally-accepted definition in the meteorological community is that climate is the 30-year running-average of weather. Until such a tridecadal climate base line exists, climate change discussions inevitably will have a semi-speculative, vs. a purely scientific, character, as the baseline against which changes are referenced will be at least somewhat uncertain. The contemporary technology base provides ways-and-means for commencing the development of such a meteorological measurement-intensive climate baseline, moreover with a program budget far less than the {approx}$2.5 B/year which the US. currently spends on ''global change'' studies. In particular, the recent advent of satellite-based global telephony enables real-time control of, and data-return from, instrument packages of very modest scale, and Silicon Revolution-based sensor, data-processing and -storage advances permit 'intelligent' data-gathering payloads to be created with 10 gram-scale mass budgets. A geophysical measurement system implemented in such modern technology is a populous constellation 03 long-lived, highly-miniaturized robotic weather stations deployed throughout the weather-generating portions of the Earths atmosphere, throughout its oceans and across its land surfaces. Leveraging the technological advances of the OS, the filly-developed atmospheric weather station of this system has a projected weight of the order of 1 ounce, and contains a satellite telephone, a GPS receiver, a full set of atmospheric sensing instruments and a control computer - and has an operational life of the order of 1 year and a mass-production cost of the order of $20. Such stations are effectively &apos

  17. A large-scale study of the World Wide Web: network correlation functions with scale-invariant boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Luduena, G A; Kaczor, Gregor; Gros, Claudius

    2013-01-01

    We performed a large-scale crawl of the World Wide Web, covering 6.9 Million domains and 57 Million subdomains, including all high-traffic sites of the Internet. We present a study of the correlations found between quantities measuring the structural relevance of each node in the network (the in- and out-degree, the local clustering coefficient, the first-neighbor in-degree and the Alexa rank). We find that some of these properties show strong correlation effects and that the dependencies occurring out of these correlations follow power laws not only for the averages, but also for the boundaries of the respective density distributions. In addition, these scale-free limits do not follow the same exponents as the corresponding averages. In our study we retain the directionality of the hyperlinks and develop a statistical estimate for the clustering coefficient of directed graphs. We include in our study the correlations between the in-degree and the Alexa traffic rank, a popular index for the traffic volume, fi...

  18. Global detection of explosive volcanic eruptions with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and application to aviation safety (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Holzworth, R. H.; Diefenbach, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    The hazards of volcanic ash to modern aviation are now widely known, and there is a concerted global effort on the part of volcano observatories, meteorological services, and civil aviation authorities to keep aircraft out of harm’s way. A major issue with providing rapid notification of dangerous eruptions is that only about 50% of the world's volcanoes that currently threaten air operations have any sort of ground-based, real-time monitoring; thus, timely detection of explosive eruptions is more difficult owing to reliance on satellite remote sensing. We have been evaluating the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN, see http://wwlln.net) as a tool to detect volcanogenic lightning associated with explosive eruptions worldwide to aid rapid eruption reporting for aviation. The WWLLN has a data latency of one minute and thus can detect and report volcanogenic lightning in near-real time. We compared explosive volcanic activity worldwide (data from the Smithsonian’s Global Volcanism Program, volcano observatory reports, Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports, and ancillary data sources) with the entire catalog of WWLLN data for 2008 and 2009 to determine the eruption-detection capabilities of the system. Duration and number of WWLLN lightning detections is positively correlated with eruption magnitude. In 2008 the WWLLN detected lightning from all eruptions VEI 4 or larger (Chaiten, Chile; Kasatochi and Okmok, Alaska, USA), as well as four out of six of the ~VEI 3 and two ~VEI 2 eruptions. In 2009 the WWLLN detected the single VEI 4 eruption (Sarychev Peak, Kurile Islands, Russia), four out six of the ~VEI 3 and a single VEI 2 eruption. At volcanoes where eruption-onset times are well determined by seismic or remote sensing means, lightning flashes started within 4 to 58 minutes of eruption onset. Lightning was detected from eruptions that produced ash clouds with heights that ranged from approximately 1-15 km above the vent, with most >9 km. Detected

  19. A performance assessment of the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN via comparison with the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abreu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN uses globally-distributed Very Low Frequency (VLF receivers in order to observe lightning around the globe. Its objective is to locate as many global strokes as possible, with high temporal and spatial (<10 km accuracy. Since detection is done in the VLF range, signals from high peak current lightning strokes are able to propagate up to ~104 km before being detected by the WWLLN sensors, allowing for receiving stations to be sparsely spaced.

    Through a comparison with measurements made by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN between May and August 2008 over a 4° latitude by 4° longitude region centered on Toronto, Canada, this study found that WWLLN detection was most sensitive to high peak current lightning strokes. Events were considered shared between the two networks if they fell within 0.5 ms of each other. Using this criterion, 19 128 WWLLN strokes (analyzed using the Stroke_B algorithm were shared with CLDN lightning strokes, producing a detection efficiency of 2.8%. The peak current threshold for WWLLN detection is found to be ~20 kA, with the detection efficiency increasing to ~70% at peak currents of ±120 kA. The detection efficiency is seen to have a clear diurnal dependence, with a higher detection efficiency at local midnight than at local noon; this is attributed to the difference in the thickness of the ionospheric D-region between night and day. The mean time difference (WWLLN – CLDN between shared events was −6.44 μs with a standard deviation of 35 μs, and the mean absolute location accuracy was 7.24 km with a standard deviation of 6.34 km. These results are generally consistent with previous comparison studies of the WWLLN with other regional networks around the world. Additional receiver stations are continuously being added to the network, acting to improve this detection efficiency.

  20. Stereotypes of Ageing: Messages Promoted by Age-Specific Paper Birthday Cards Available in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Shannon R.; Morrison, Todd G.

    2005-01-01

    Birthday cards are a ceremonial token that may purposefully or unintentionally transmit stereotypes about the ageing process. In the current study, the authors examined 150 age-specific paper birthday cards sold in retail outlets located in a small metropolitan area. Results suggest that a greater proportion of the cards' textual messages…

  1. Promoting Number Theory in High Schools or Birthday Problem and Number Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    The author introduces the birthday problem in this article. This can amuse willing members of any birthday party. This problem can also be used as the motivational first day lecture in number theory for the gifted students in high schools or in community colleges or in undergraduate classes in colleges.

  2. Preparing the way for coming area wide integrated pest management projects against the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in MERCOSUR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New World Screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, was eradicated from the USA, Central America to Panama, but in most tropical regions of Latin America, the NWS is still a serious threat to livestock, provoking estimated annual losses of US$ 1.8 billion in Brazil. Between January and May 2009, a pilot-project was performed at the Brazil-Uruguay border. As the results were positive, novel regional Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management projects are being planned. To set a mass-rearing center based in South America is strategic when considering long-term programs. In partnership with CENA/USP and the Biofactory MOSCAMED Brazil, a project to produce sterile NWS started on 2009. The project aimed to maintain a colony of a regional NWS strain, to develop a mass-rearing system and a sterilization protocol by X rays, and to study the sterility induction in regional strains. A colony was successfully established. The adults were kept in cages and fed on a diet (honey and spray dried egg). The larvae were reared in a medium made of spray dried blood, spray dried egg, milk, water, formalin and Ecogel. Egg hatch has been of 80 ± 10%. From F1 to F22, the total amount of pupae produced was about 38 L (∼ 315,400 pupae). The mean adult emergence and sex ratio were 86.7 ± 3% and 0.59 ± 0.08 respectively. The mean pupal weight was 47.1 ± 1.7 mg. The estimated X ray doses to induce 99% sterility in males and females were 43.7 Gy and 47.5 Gy, respectively. To produce 1.5 L of pupae, the current cost is about US$ 15.00. (author)

  3. Nutritionally "Empty" but "Full" of Meanings: The Socio-Cultural Significance of Birthday Cakes in Four Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural significance of birthday cakes with the purpose of reflecting upon birthday cake practices enacted in four early childhood settings in England. I argue that birthday cakes occupy an ambiguous place in early childhood practice: seen to be both "risky"--a term I problematise--"and"…

  4. CHANNELING: SEARCH OF THE METAANTHROPOLOGIC MEAS-UREMENTS OF MIND BEING IN THE UNIVERSE (based on the World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly T. Tshedrin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study. In the context of religious and philosophical movements of the «New Age» gained channeling phenomenon – «laying channel», «transmission channel» information from the consciousness that is not in human form, to the individual and humanity as a whole. In the socio-cultural environment of the postmodern channeling reflects the problem of finding extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI; «ETC-problem»; SETІ problem and to establish contacts with them, this problem has a different projection, important philosophical and anthropological measurements in culture. Investigation of mechanisms of constructing virtual superhuman personalities in the world web is not only of interest for further analysis of the problem of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI, but also to extend subject field of anthropology of the Internet as an important area of philosophical and anthropological studies. The purpose of the study. Analysis of the phenomenon of channeling as a projection of the fundamental problems of life ETI, its representation on the World Wide Web, the impact on the archaism of postmodern culture posing problems meta an-thropological dimensions of existence in the universe of reason and contact with him in the doctrinal grounds channeling. Analysis of research on the problem and its empirical base. Clustered nature of the problem of ETI and channeling its element involves the widespread use of radio astronomy paradigm works carriers solve CETI; work in anthropology Internet; works of researchers of the phenomenon of «New Age». Empirical basis of the study are network resources, as well as texts–representatives created and introduced into circulation by the channelers, their predecessors. Research Methodology. Channeling as an object of research, its network of representation – as a matter of methods involve the use of analytical hermeneutics and archaeographic commenting text fractal logic cluster analysis. The main

  5. Evolution and connectivity in the world-wide migration system of the mallard: Inferences from mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Robert HS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Main waterfowl migration systems are well understood through ringing activities. However, in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos ringing studies suggest deviations from general migratory trends and traditions in waterfowl. Furthermore, surprisingly little is known about the population genetic structure of mallards, and studying it may yield insight into the spread of diseases such as Avian Influenza, and in management and conservation of wetlands. The study of evolution of genetic diversity and subsequent partitioning thereof during the last glaciation adds to ongoing discussions on the general evolution of waterfowl populations and flyway evolution. Hypothesised mallard flyways are tested explicitly by analysing mitochondrial mallard DNA from the whole northern hemisphere. Results Phylogenetic analyses confirm two mitochondrial mallard clades. Genetic differentiation within Eurasia and North-America is low, on a continental scale, but large differences occur between these two land masses (FST = 0.51. Half the genetic variance lies within sampling locations, and a negligible portion between currently recognised waterfowl flyways, within Eurasia and North-America. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA at continent scale, incorporating sampling localities as smallest units, also shows the absence of population structure on the flyway level. Finally, demographic modelling by coalescence simulation proposes a split between Eurasia and North-America 43,000 to 74,000 years ago and strong population growth (~100fold since then and little migration (not statistically different from zero. Conclusions Based on this first complete assessment of the mallard's world-wide population genetic structure we confirm that no more than two mtDNA clades exist. Clade A is characteristic for Eurasia, and clade B for North-America although some representatives of clade A are also found in North-America. We explain this pattern by evaluating competing

  6. Mind the gaps - the epidemiology of poor-quality anti-malarials in the malarious world - analysis of the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network database

    OpenAIRE

    Tabernero, Patricia; Facundo M Fernández; Green, Michael; Guerin, Philippe J; Newton, Paul N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor quality medicines threaten the lives of millions of patients and are alarmingly common in many parts of the world. Nevertheless, the global extent of the problem remains unknown. Accurate estimates of the epidemiology of poor quality medicines are sparse and are influenced by sampling methodology and diverse chemical analysis techniques. In order to understand the existing data, the Antimalarial Quality Scientific Group at WWARN built a comprehensive, open-access, global datab...

  7. CURRENT - DIRECTION and Other Data from UNKNOWN From World-Wide Distribution from 19390416 to 19840111 (NODC Accession 8700122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains an "Atlas of Selected "Modern" Good Quality Deep Data for the World Oceans (excluding the Arctic). This atlas was compiled by Scripps and...

  8. Possible development of the world-wide improvement of nuclear energy considering economical, social and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accepting the fact that the growing world energy demand cannot be met in the long term without an increasing use of nuclear energy one has to pay more attention to its possible expansion and consequently also to the geographical distribution of nuclear plants in the world. Due to future large scale deployment problems may arise in the areas of uranium supply, waste disposal, nonprofileration, safeguards, acceptability, and nuclear transfer. Based on the World Energy Conference (1977) global energy scenario a country-by-country analysis has been made to evaluate the possible contribution of nuclear energy in each country within the next 40 years. Against this background the problems of the head- and tail-end of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed in detail and compared with the international trade of nonnuclear fuels. (orig.)

  9. Global Patterns of Material Flows and their Socio-Economic and Environmental Implications: A MFA Study on All Countries World-Wide from 1980 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Giljum

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses world-wide patterns of material extraction, trade, consumption and productivity based on a new data set for economy-wide material flows, covering used materials for all countries world-wide between 1980 and 2009. We show that global material extraction has grown by more than 90% over the past 30 years and is reaching almost 70 billion tonnes today. Also, trade volumes in physical terms have increased by a factor of 2.5 over the past 30 years, and in 2009, 9.3 billion tonnes of raw materials and products were traded around the globe. China has turned into the biggest consumer of materials world-wide and together with the US, India, Brazil and Russia, consumes more than 50% of all globally extracted materials. We also show that the per-capita consumption levels are very uneven, with a factor of more than 60 between the country with the lowest and highest consumption in 2009. On average, each human being consumed 10 tonnes of materials in 2009, 2 tonnes more than in 1980. We discuss whether decoupling of economies’ growth from resource use has occurred and analyse interrelations of material use with human development. Finally, we elaborate on key environmental problems related to various material groups.

  10. World-wide work stress multi-case study of the stress-coping process in distributed work

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmi, Niina

    2010-01-01

    The changing world of work is increasing demands on workers through greater need for flexibility in global collaboration. Many organizations utilize distributed teams in which a group of people with a common purpose carry out interdependent tasks across locations and time, using technology to communicate more than face-to-face meetings. Prior literature on distributed teams shows that distributed work creates several challenges for team members' well-being, but our knowledge about the unique ...

  11. “Access denied”? Managing access to the World Wide Web within the National Health Service (NHS) in England: technology, risk, culture, policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ebenezer, Catherine; Bath, Peter A.; Pinfield, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    1. Introduction The research project as a whole examines the factors that bear on the accessibility of online published professional information within the National Health Service (NHS) in England. The poster focuses on one aspect of this, control of access to the World Wide Web within NHS organisations. The overall aim of this study is to investigate the apparent disjunction between stated policy regarding evidence-based practice and professional learning, and actual IT (information te...

  12. The Growth and Species-by-site Interaction of 18 Central American Multipurpose Tree Species Grown at 15 Tropical Sites World-wide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From a world-wide plant introduction trial series utilising 25 central American species planted at over 100 sites in nearly 60 countries, eighteen species planted at 15 sites in the tropics were chosen for further study of the factors determining site productivity and site by species interactions. The species were Acacia pennatula, Acacia farnesiana, Albizia guachapele, Ateleia herbert-smithii, Caesalpinia coriaria, Caesalpinia eriostachys, Caesalpinia velutina, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Gliricidia sepi...

  13. Online catalog of world-wide test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Christopherson, J.B.; Stensaas, G.L.; Teillet, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In an era when the number of Earth-observing satellites is rapidly growing and measurements from these sensors are used to answer increasingly urgent global issues, it is imperative that scientists and decision-makers can rely on the accuracy of Earth-observing data products. The characterization and calibration of these sensors are vital to achieve an integrated Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for coordinated and sustained observations of Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as a supporting member of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and GEOSS, is working with partners around the world to establish an online catalog of prime candidate test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. The online catalog provides easy public Web site access to this vital information for the global community. This paper describes the catalog, the test sites, and the methodologies to use the test sites. It also provides information regarding access to the online catalog and plans for further development of the catalog in cooperation with calibration specialists from agencies and organizations around the world. Through greater access to and understanding of these vital test sites and their use, the validity and utility of information gained from Earth remote sensing will continue to improve. Copyright IAF/IAA. All rights reserved.

  14. Building upon Historical Competencies: Next-generation Clean-up Technologies for World-Wide Application - 13368

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara, K.C. [DOE Savannah River Operations Office, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States); Fellinger, A.P.; Aylward, R.S.; Griffin, J.C.; Hyatt, J.E.; Bush, S.R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has a 60-year history of successfully operating nuclear facilities and cleaning up the nuclear legacy of the Cold War era through the processing of radioactive and otherwise hazardous wastes, remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, management of nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning of excess facilities. SRS recently unveiled its Enterprise.SRS (E.SRS) strategic vision to identify and facilitate application of the historical competencies of the site to current and future national and global challenges. E.SRS initiatives such as the initiative to Develop and Demonstrate Next generation Clean-up Technologies seek timely and mutually beneficial engagements with entities around the country and the world. One such ongoing engagement is with government and industry in Japan in the recovery from the devastation of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  15. Building upon Historical Competencies: Next-generation Clean-up Technologies for World-Wide Application - 13368

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has a 60-year history of successfully operating nuclear facilities and cleaning up the nuclear legacy of the Cold War era through the processing of radioactive and otherwise hazardous wastes, remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, management of nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning of excess facilities. SRS recently unveiled its Enterprise.SRS (E.SRS) strategic vision to identify and facilitate application of the historical competencies of the site to current and future national and global challenges. E.SRS initiatives such as the initiative to Develop and Demonstrate Next generation Clean-up Technologies seek timely and mutually beneficial engagements with entities around the country and the world. One such ongoing engagement is with government and industry in Japan in the recovery from the devastation of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  16. Sectoral effects of a world oil-price shock: economy-wide linkages to the agricultural sector. Staff report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of a world oil price shock on U.S. agriculture are analyzed in an economywide environment. The authors use an input-output model to analyze the direct and indirect cost linkages between energy and other sectors of the economy. Then, to allow sectoral output adjustment and the effects on the U.S. current account, they use the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Economic Research Service Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to analyze the sectoral effects under three different macro adjustment scenarios. The effects on agriculture are not limited to the direct and indirect energy costs. Exchange rate or foreign borrowing adjustments to higher oil import costs and government support programs for agriculture also matter

  17. Production and world-wide distribution of radioisotopes and allied products from NTP at Pelindaba, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Technology Products (NTP) a business division of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd. (NECSA) is today a leading supplier of a range or radioisotope and supporting products to markets throughout the world. To achieve this status in the face of large technological, logistical and business barriers to entry has required the development of integrated and effective processes from a diverse and unconsolidated range of expertise and other resources. The various facilities and competencies established at NECSA over a period of 40 years had as their objective the accomplishment of strictly non-commercial strategic imperatives. Major emphasis was placed at Pelindaba on development of the capability to beneficiate the country's resources of uranium which are extracted as a by-product of gold mining. Fuel enrichment processes (using a method unique to NECSA) and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities were developed and commissioned during the period 1975 - 1990 and substantial quantities of enriched and depleted uranium material was produced. A small amount of locally produced, highly enriched fuel has been used to power the 20 MW SARARI -1 Research Reactor at Pelindaba which has been in operation since 1965. Major political and economic changes affecting South Africa gave rise, in the late 1980s, to the necessity for a fundamental strategic reorientation of NECSA. Over a period of time the fuel enrichment and fabrication programmes were terminated and ever greater emphasis was placed on development of businesses from established, diverse facilities and competencies with the objective of promoting increased financial independence and long term viability for the organisation. It was at this time that NTP the business responsible for production and marketing of radiation-based products at NECSA, was established. The various developments which facilitated the capacity of NTP to accede to its current position as a significant and growing provider of

  18. Meeting to honor F. Richard Stephenson on his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David; Strom, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This book contains papers from a conference held to celebrate the 70th birthday of one of the world’s foremost astronomical historians, Professor F. Richard Stephenson, the latest recipient of the American Astronomical Society’s highest award for research in astronomical history, the LeRoy Doggett Prize. Reflecting Professor Stephenson’s extensive research portfolio, this book brings together under one cover papers on four different areas of scholarship: applied historical astronomy (which Stephenson founded); Islamic astronomy; Oriental astronomy; and amateur astronomy.  These papers are penned by astronomers from Canada, China, England, France, Georgia, Iran, Japan, Lebanon, the Netherlands, Portugal, Thailand and the USA. Its diverse coverage represents a wide cross-section of the history of astronomy community.  Under discussion are ways in which recent research using historical data has provided new insights into auroral and solar activity, supernovae and changes in the rotation rate of the E...

  19. The Universe of Digital Sky Surveys : Meeting to Honour the 70th Birthday of Massimo Capaccioli

    CERN Document Server

    Longo, Giuseppe; Marconi, Marcella; Paolillo, Maurizio; Iodice, Enrichetta

    2016-01-01

    These are the proceedings of a meeting in honour of Massimo Capaccioli at the occasion of his 70th birthday. The conference aimed at summarizing the results from the main current and past digital sky survey projects and at discussing how these can be used to inspire ongoing projects and better plan the future ones. Over the last decades, digital sky surveys performed with dedicated telescopes and finely-tuned wide-field cameras, have revolutionized astronomy. They have become the main tool to investigate the nearby and far away universe, thus providing new insights in the understanding of the galaxy structure and assembly across time, the dark components of the universe, as well as the history of our own galaxy. They have also opened the time domain leading to a new understanding of the transient phenomena in the universe. By providing public access to top quality data, digital surveys have also changed the everyday practice of astronomers who have become less dependent on direct access to large observing ...

  20. Emergence of Robust Information Security Management Structure around the world wide Higher Education Institutions: A Multifaceted Security Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahidul Arafat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polarizing the views on the emergence of Information security around the campus arenas of higher education institutions is the utmost erg of both developing and developed nations in this post catastrophic era of September 11, 2001 where the unthinkable is now potentially a daily reality with root causes of information breaching, misusing and thereby initiating terrorism which have presented the world with many challenges in accommodating peoples personal and work lives to a changed environment. To bring the resources of the academic world to bear on both national policy and on the individual responses and so thus to cope up with and to mitigate such riskier environment various IT security approaches have been proposed. While among them Soft IT Security approach (SITS is highly lucrative now-a-days due to its simplicity and effectiveness in the sector of Information security especially in higher education, however it is unable to secure the all types of educational environment using a general framework due to not most of these environments being homogeneous also because of little focused on cultures and believes of these regions. Addressing this issue, a new security management scheme namely Robust IT Security Balancing (RITS-B Approach is proposed in this paper which is focused on to develop such strategic framework of security environment where facts, national and regional perspectives will be merged up to lead to a proactive leadership and information security system without violating the freedom and openness that is at the very heart of the academia. A quantitative survey has been conducted and the security facts and findings are compared with the three basic survey questionnaires namely more secure than two years ago, system is secure and security program is successful with a 4 point likert scale. The analyzed data shows that institutions which implemented RITS-B approach in their arena either partially or fully feel more high in the above

  1. Editorial: Special issue dedicated to Gabor Somorjai's 80th birthday

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This special issue of Surface Science has been prepared to honor Professor Gabor A. Somorjai on the occasion of his 80th birthday. Professor Somorjai was born on May 4, 1935 in Budapest, Hungary. In 1953 he enrolled as a chemical engineering student at the Technical University of Budapest. Gabor was an active participant in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. When the Soviet military crushed the revolution, he had to leave the country by walking across the border with his sister and his future wife. After immigrating to the USA in 1957, he applied to begin graduate studies and was accepted at the University of California, Berkeley. Gabor received a PhD in Chemistry in 1960, only three years later. Following a short sojourn at IBM, he returned to Berkeley in 1964 to take up a faculty position in the Department of Chemistry and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, which he still holds today. For the interested reader, more can be learned about Gabor's fascinating life in his autobiography, "An American Scientist: The Autobiography of Gabor A. Somorjai.

  2. An 80th birthday celebration for the Ericsons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese proverb says that happiness is when friends coming from far and away meet and talk to each other. These wise words could very well be used to sum up the celebrations in honour of the 80th birthdays of Magda and Torleif Ericson, a couple in the normal sense of the word and often also in the field of physics. Torleif joined CERN's Theory Division in 1960, initially to work at the intersection of nuclear and particle physics at the Synchrocyclotron, and retired in 1995.   During the celebratory event on 17 September, speakers reviewed the depth and breadth of the contributions which both Torleif and Magda have made to theoretical physics in general and to nuclear physics in particular. José Bernabeu, Guy Chanfray, Wolfram Wiese, Achim Richter and Anthony Thomas all covered the considerable research that has been stimulated by the Ericson-Ericson correlation(s) over the past 50 years. A concert by the violinist Jean-Philippe Audoli and the pianist Blandine Eynaud and an informal...

  3. Analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor operations world-wide and consequences for future reactor design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2007, the sodium-cooled fast reactors which are currently operating or have operated throughout the world will have accumulated collective experience of 379 years of operation for 18 different reactors. This paper summarizes the various incidents and problems which have impacted these reactors' operations, ranks them by function and lists the solutions which were brought. This paper solely looks at the operating problems which occurred in the 'sodium' part of the fast reactors. Problems encountered in the classic water/steam part are not described herein review is made for all these reactors on: The water/sodium reactions occurred in the steam generators; -The technical difficulties on the primary components (pumps and exchangers) and the repair operations; -The incidents in handling operations; - The spurious leaks or transfers of sodium and their consequences; - The intakes of air or impurities; -The experience from fuel and clad failures; - The neutronic operations and control; -The material behaviour problems (as 321 or SPX1 drum); - The difficulties due to sodium aerosols. And all the specific difficulties due to sodium related technological problems. This paper also describes how the experience gained has been taken into account in the safe operation of these plants and also in the design of future reactors. n conclusion it appears that a significant experience has been accumulated that allow today good availability for the remaining operating plants and also good design possibilities for the future. (author)

  4. Range-wide latitudinal and elevational temperature gradients for the world's terrestrial birds: implications under global climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A La Sorte

    Full Text Available Species' geographical distributions are tracking latitudinal and elevational surface temperature gradients under global climate change. To evaluate the opportunities to track these gradients across space, we provide a first baseline assessment of the steepness of these gradients for the world's terrestrial birds. Within the breeding ranges of 9,014 bird species, we characterized the spatial gradients in temperature along latitude and elevation for all and a subset of bird species, respectively. We summarized these temperature gradients globally for threatened and non-threatened species and determined how their steepness varied based on species' geography (range size, shape, and orientation and projected changes in temperature under climate change. Elevational temperature gradients were steepest for species in Africa, western North and South America, and central Asia and shallowest in Australasia, insular IndoMalaya, and the Neotropical lowlands. Latitudinal temperature gradients were steepest for extratropical species, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. Threatened species had shallower elevational gradients whereas latitudinal gradients differed little between threatened and non-threatened species. The strength of elevational gradients was positively correlated with projected changes in temperature. For latitudinal gradients, this relationship only held for extratropical species. The strength of latitudinal gradients was better predicted by species' geography, but primarily for extratropical species. Our findings suggest threatened species are associated with shallower elevational temperature gradients, whereas steep latitudinal gradients are most prevalent outside the tropics where fewer bird species occur year-round. Future modeling and mitigation efforts would benefit from the development of finer grain distributional data to ascertain how these gradients are structured within species' ranges, how and why these gradients vary among

  5. World-wide capabilities and applications for high-sensitivity environmental sampling in international safeguards and nuclear materials security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-sensitivity nuclear environmental sampling and analysis techniques have been proven in their ability to verify declared nuclear activities, as well as to assist in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and facilities. Environmental sampling and analysis techniques achieved recognition for potential international safeguards use through their effective application by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Iraq following the Gulf War. Through Programme 93+2, the IAEA proved the ability of environmental sampling to support of international safeguards. Subsequently, they were adopted as routine safeguards measures by the IAEA Department of Safeguards. Applications of these techniques were openly expanded to include support in the verification of other nuclear treaties and of nuclear material security activities. As a result of the international community's recognition of the contributions that environmental sampling and analysis technologies make to nuclear materials security and treaty verification, an increase in capabilities for making these measurements has occurred around the world. National governments and international organizations have expanded their investments in new facilities, new equipment, and newly trained staff at the cost of millions of dollars. There now exists varying degrees of capability and performance worldwide. In order for high-sensitivity environmental sampling and analysis techniques to be more effective in their contributions to improving international safeguards and other nuclear material security and verification applications, the international community needs to strengthen and expand communication and areas of cooperation. This paper will describe current capabilities and applications for high-sensitivity environmental sampling and analysis, and will provide recommendations on strengthening international cooperation in these techniques. (author)

  6. The road to universal logic festschrift for 50th birthday of Jean-Yves Béziau

    CERN Document Server

    Buchsbaum, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This is the first volume of a collection of papers in honor of the fiftieth birthday of Jean-Yves Béziau. These 25 papers have been written by internationally distinguished logicians, mathematicians, computer scientists, linguists and philosophers, including Arnon Avron, John Corcoran, Wilfrid Hodges, Laurence Horn, Lloyd Humbertsone, Dale Jacquette, David Makinson, Stephen Read, and Jan Woleński. It is a state-of-the-art source of cutting-edge studies in the new interdisciplinary field of universal logic. The papers touch upon a wide range of topics including combination of logic, non-classical logic, square and other geometrical figures of opposition, categorical logic, set theory, foundation of logic, philosophy and history of logic (Aristotle, Avicenna, Buridan, Schröder, MacColl). This book offers new perspectives and challenges in the study of logic and will be of interest to all students and researchers interested the nature and future of logic.

  7. The Wide World of Life: from Cultural Context to Literary Text -- The Wide World of Life in Kung Fu Novels%“江湖”:从文化语境到文学文本论武侠小说中的江湖世界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐林

    2011-01-01

    In traditional Chinese culture, the wide world, with the implication of protecting oneself from any harm, represents the frustration and the plight of being down and out of man of letters. The originally complicated political, economic and other social relations in kung fu novels are described as simple concepts such as the confrontation between justice and vice, this world. On the other hand, these relations prese humanness is exemplified here, forming a miniature this world. However the fictional wide world describ are mainly follow the three trends: unconventional, the division of love and hatred, which presents the law of nt the various sides of the real world in which the complex of the real world. Usually we use "the wide world" to call ed by the different kung fu novel writers and the real world direct and metaphorical.%在中国文化传统中,“江湖”具有全身远害之义,它代表的是文人的失意与落魄。而武侠小说所虚构的江湖世界,一方面把原来错综复杂的政治、经济等社会关系化约成简单的概念,如正义与邪恶的对立、恩怨与情仇的划分,自给自足地呈现出此一世界的规律;另一方面以模拟的方式,复制了现实世界的种种面相,展现复杂的人性,成为现实世界的一个缩影。

  8. Review of Crop Pollination by Honey Bees World-wide%全球农作物蜜蜂授粉概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安建东; 陈文锋

    2011-01-01

    蜜蜂是自然界最主要的授粉昆虫,在保持生物多样性和维持生态系统平衡方面发挥着极为重要的作用,尤其是为农作物授粉,具有重要的经济价值和社会效应.笔者主要从蜜蜂在生态系统中的作用、蜜蜂授粉在全球农业生产中的地位、发达国家或地区蜜蜂授粉概括、世界农作物属性种植变化趋势和世界蜂群数量动态变化等方面阐述了全球农作物蜜蜂授粉现状,并分析了中国农作物蜜蜂授粉的现状、存在问题及应对措施.%Honey bees are among the most important pollinators in natural ecosystems world-wide, playing a major role in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function.Honey bees are also of major economic importance for crop pollination.In this paper, the author reviewed the role of honey bees in ecosystems, the importance of pollination by honey bees in global agricultural production, pollination by honey bees in developed countries, trends in the cultivation of different crops world-wide, and changes in the number of honey bee colonies world-wide.Finally, the author analyzed the current situation, the problems, and some solutions for crop pollination by honey bees in China.

  9. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of trace elements in tuna fish homogenate sample IAEA-350

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate and precise determination of trace elements in marine biological samples is an important aspect of marine pollution studies, especially regarding studies of human exposure to toxic elements through sea food consumption. Past intercomparison studies conducted by the Marine Environment Laboratory of IAEA (formerly the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity) have focused upon various marine organisms including fish, bivalves and crustaceans. The present intercalibration exercise was designed in order to satisfy the increased demand for certified reference materials of various origins and the wide range of parameters that should be studied. Additionally, different instrumental techniques, both nuclear and non-nuclear, were compared, and evaluated. By statistically examining the data from this study, the material can be certified for future use as a reference material. The present report presents the entire experimental data set ana a statistical evaluation of the results for each parameter. It should enable individual participants to assess their performance and make appropriate modifications to their laboratory's analytical procedures where necessary. Additionally, a graphical evaluation is made of the data for parameters where a consensus value could not easily be achieved in order to examine the source of any systematic errors. The exercise was designed to satisfy the requirements of participants in IAEA's Analytical Quality Assurance Service as well as laboratories involved in UNEP's Regional Seas Programme and similar activities conducted within the auspices of GIPME (Global Investigations of Pollution in the Marine Environment)

  10. The IAEA world-wide intercomparison exercises (1990-1997): Determination of trace elements and methylmercury in marine sediments and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1973, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory has conducted world-wide and regional intercomparison exercises for trace elements and organometals in marine biota and sediments on a regular basis. These exercises aim at enabling laboratories to monitor their performance and allow an overall evaluation of the quality of data provided for environmental assessment. The results of these exercises are also useful to identify the trends of analytical performance in the determination of elements over the years (ISO, 1997). The Marine Environment Laboratory also offers support to laboratories of Members States with standard reference materials and calibration standards, with appropriate methodologies and also with training courses

  11. Summary of CIGRE 13.06 Working Group world wide reliability data and maintenence cost data on high voltage circuit breakers above 63 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Dialynas, E.; Heising, C.; Janssen, A.; Lanz, W.

    1995-06-01

    A summary is given of the most significant reliability data and maintenance cost data from the two CIGRE 13.06 Working Group world wide reliability surveys of the reliabilityof high voltage circuit breakers 63 kV and above. The first enquiry covered the years 1974 thru 1977 and included all interrupting technologies. The second enquiry covered the years 1988 thru 1991 and only included single pressure SF6 breakers. A description is given of the scope and objectives of the CIGRE 13.06 Working Group. A brief description is given of some of the highlights from their studies.

  12. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can

  13. World-wide information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three international organizations, IAEA, FAO, and UNESCO, which jointly sponsored the Symposium, share an active interest and involvement in information systems development. The extent of their interest was explained by the Director General of the IAEA, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, when he opened the meeting on behalf of the three co-sponsors: UNESCO in conjunction with the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), took initiatives in 1966 which led to the establishment of its UNISIST programme. Its aims are to co-ordinate existing trends towards international co-operation in the collection, storage and dissemination of information and to act as a catalyst. Its ultimate goal is to establish 'a flexible and loosely connected network of information services based on voluntary co-operation'. A particular concern of UNISIST is to ensure co-ordination of the information activities of the United Nations organizations. The Symposium provided an opportunity for the science information community to assess the progress already made in creating links between diverse national, international, intergovernmental and non-governmental information systems and services. Papers were presented describing current developments in the national information systems of a number of countries, with special emphasis on how these developments were furthering harmonization of national information policies and facilitating interconnection with international systems. INIS and AGRIS figured prominently amongst the international systems discussed. In addition, proposals for two new international systems, to be known as DEVSIS and SPINIS, were outlined. The former will deal with development science information; the latter will cover the information on the administrative, scientific and legal aspects of science policy. There was also discussion of international co-operation in information handling within such international organizations as the CMEA, the Commission of the European Communities and OECD

  14. World wide nuclear plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the paper are to compare the performance of different reactor systems, to identify the determinants of plant performance, to examine the evidence of technological maturation, to discover the principal causes of outage or unavailability and to draw implications for technology policy. Judgments are neither made nor implied about the relative merits of nuclear and fossil fuel plants, nor on safety issues. This study covers all commercial nuclear plants installed in the non-communist countries. (author)

  15. Organic Viticulture World-Wide

    OpenAIRE

    Geier, Bernward; Hofmann, Uwe; Willer, Helga

    2000-01-01

    In most wine growing countries organic viticulture is now becoming more and more important. In most non-European countries organic viticulture is still in an initial stage and the number of organic vineyards is still small. The expansion of organic viticulture is hindered by the fact that in many countries incentives are provided for growers to adopt integrated pest management. Such incentive schemes are generally supported and promoted by the government, the chemical industry and convent...

  16. Partnerships---A Way of Making Astrophysics Research Accessible to the K--12 Community through the Internet and World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Battle, R.; Miller-Bagwell, A.

    1996-05-01

    We describe a partnership approach in use at UC Berkeley's Center for EUV Astrophysics (CEA) that facilitates the adaptation of astrophysics data and information---in particular from NASA's EUVE satellite---for use in the K--12 classroom. Our model is founded on a broad collaboration of personnel from research institutions, centers of informal science teaching, schools of education, and K--12 schools. Several CEA-led projects follow this model of collaboration and have yielded multimedia, Internet-based, lesson plans for grades 6 through 12 that are created and distributed on the World Wide Web (http://www.cea.berkeley.edu/Education). Use of technology in the classroom can foster an environment that more closely reflects the processes scientists use in doing research (Linn, diSessa, Pea, & Songer 1994, J.Sci.Ed.Tech., ``Can Research on Science Learning and Instruction Inform Standards for Science Education?"). For instance, scientists rely on technological tools to model, analyze, and ultimately store data. Linn et al. suggest introducing technological tools to students from the earliest years to facilitate scientific modeling, scientific collaborations, and electronic communications in the classroom. Our investigation aims to construct and evaluate a methodology for effective participation of scientists in K--12 education, thus facilitating fruitful interactions with teachers and other educators and increasing effective use of technology in the classroom. We describe several team-based strategies emerging from these project collaborations. These strategies are particular to the use of the Internet and World Wide Web as relatively new media for authoring K--12 curriculum materials. This research has been funded by NASA contract NAS5-29298, NASA grant ED-90033.01-94A to SSL/UCB, and NASA grants NAG5-2875 and NAGW-4174 to CEA/UCB.

  17. World-wide satellite night-light data as a proxy of society-hydrology interaction and vulnerability to flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceola, S.; Laio, F.; Montanari, A.

    2013-12-01

    The study and the analysis of the interactions and feedbacks between hydrology and society constitute the main issue of socio-hydrology. Recent flood events, which occurred across the globe, highlighted once again that mitigation strategies are needed to reduce flood risk. In particular, quick procedures for the identification of vulnerable human settlements and flood prone areas are a necessary tool to identify priorities for flood risk management. To this aim, a 19-year long period of world-wide night light data, as a proxy of human population, and the global river network have been examined. The spatio-temporal evolution of artificial luminosity depending on the distance from the river network has been assessed in order to quantitatively identify the likelihood for a populated pixel to be reached by water. The analysis focuses both on a global and on a local scale. Hotspots, such as highly illuminated areas and developing regions, have been also examined. The analysis shows an increment of yearly-averaged artificial luminosity from 1992 to 2010 (i.e. the time period of satellite data availability), whereas light intensity tends to decrease with increasing distance from the river network. The results thus reveal an increased vulnerability of human settlements to flooding events. A nearly 70-year long period of peace and the economic development after the Second World War could reasonably explain the observed enhancement of human population proximity to water bodies.

  18. Temperature and nutrients data collected using bottle casts from the SKIF and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 06 July 1962 to 08 January 1990 (NODC Accession 0000856)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts in a World-wide distribution from SKIF and other platforms. Data were collected from 06 July 1962...

  19. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from CTD and bottle casts from a world-wide distribution from the ANDROMEDA and other platforms from 01 January 1923 to 31 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000208)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and bottle data were collected from the ANDROMEDA and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1923 to 31 December 1999. Data were...

  20. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from CTD and bottle casts from a world-wide distribution from the CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA and other platforms from 01 January 1914 to 12 December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected from the CORNIDE DE SAAVEDRA and other platforms from a world-wide distribution from 01 January 1914 to 31 December 1999....

  1. Temperature profile data collected using XBT and BT casts in a World-wide distribution from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms from 30 September 1970 to 05 August 1979 (NODC Accession 8300089)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from the NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 30 September 1970...

  2. Temperature profile data from surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts in a world wide distribution from 1996-03-01 to 1997-01-03 (NODC Accession 9700036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using surface seawater intake, bucket, and XBT casts from several vessels in a world wide distribution from March 1, 1996 to...

  3. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from the NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIDGE and other platforms from 07 September 1990 to 29 May 1994 (NODC Accession 9400049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from the NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIDGE and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 07...

  4. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from the NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIDGE and other platforms from 10 March 1989 to 01 August 1990 (NODC Accession 9000239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from the NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRDIGE and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 10 March...

  5. Drifting buoy data from buoy casts in a world wide distribution as part of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) from 1989-07-01 to 1989-07-31 (NODC Accession 8900227)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drifting buoy data were collected using buoy casts in a world wide distribution from July 1, 1989, to July 31, 1989. Data were submitted by National Data Buoy...

  6. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts in a World-wide distribution from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIDGE and other platforms from 22 June 1990 to 29 August 1991 (NODC Accession 9100184)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from the NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIDGE and other platforms in a World-wide distribution from 22 June...

  7. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from a world-wide distribution from the EMERALD INDAH and other platforms from 28 November 2000 to 29 May 2001 (NODC Accession 0000465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT and other data were collected from a world-wide distribution from the EMERALD INDAH and other platforms from 28 November 2000 to 29 May 2001. Data were...

  8. Air/delta/sea surface temperature, pressure, and other data from MISS GAIL in a world-wide distribution from 21 October 1957 to 18 April 1961 (NODC Accession 0000366)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Air/delta/sea surface temperature, pressure, and other data were collected from the MISS GAIL in a world-wide distribution from October 21, 1957 to April 18, 1961....

  9. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, and phosphate profiles collected by CTD or bottle in the World-wide Oceans from 11/4/1902 to 12/17/1998 (NODC Accession 0000198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, meteorological, and nutrients data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from the HOLLAND and other platforms in a world wide distribution....

  10. Is there a species spectrum within the world-wide leaf economics spectrum? Major variations in leaf functional traits in the Mediterranean sclerophyll Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ulo

    2015-01-01

    The leaf economics spectrum is a general concept describing coordinated variation in foliage structural, chemical and physiological traits across resource gradients. Yet, within this concept,the role of within-species variation, including ecotypic and plastic variation components, has been largely neglected. This study hypothesized that there is a within-species economics spectrum within the general spectrum in the evergreen sclerophyll Quercus ilex which dominates low resource ecosystems over an exceptionally wide range. An extensive database of foliage traits covering the full species range was constructed, and improved filtering algorithms were developed. Standardized data filtering was deemed absolutely essential as additional variation sources can result in trait variation of 10–300%,blurring the broad relationships. Strong trait variation, c. two-fold for most traits to up to almost an order of magnitude, was uncovered.Although the Q. ilex spectrum is part of the general spectrum, within-species trait and climatic relationships in this species partly differed from the overall spectrum. Contrary to world-wide trends, Q. ilex does not necessarily have a low nitrogen content per mass and can increase photosynthetic capacity with increasing foliage robustness. This study argues that the within-species economics spectrum needs to be considered in regional- to biome-level analyses. PMID:25580487

  11. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. As an incorrect decision can be extremely costly and detrimental, it is essential that such measurements are accurate, reliable, cost effective and defensible. In addition, measurements performed by laboratories located worldwide should yield traceable and comparable results. Proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. The IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in water grass and soil is conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria), which is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation report for each laboratory

  12. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment sample IAEA-357. Report no. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of IAEA/UNEP intercomparison run 357 for the chemical analysis of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediments. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace organic compounds for over ten years as part of its contribution to IAEA's analytical quality control service and UNEP's regional seas programme and occasionally in association with the intergovernmental oceanographic Commission (of UNESCO) GIPME programme. Results of previous exercises have revealed serious problems for many regional laboratories to obtain comparable data. This, in turn, has raised serious concerns on the validity of region-wide or global marine pollution assessments. Even more worrisome was the apparent lack of improvement in data quality from exercise to exercise. As a consequence of the above situation, it was decided to seek increased support for quality assurance programmes. Staff of MESL, with funding from UNEP, the World bank and regional trust funds, embarked on a campaign to train analysts in modern measurement techniques, supply appropriate and reliable reference methods and materials and, where possible, to improve analytical instruments in member states laboratories. This work continues at present and recent training programmes have been conducted in the Wider Caribbean, East Africa, The Gulf and the Mediterranean

  13. Compilation of ocean circulation and other data from ADCP current meters, CTD casts, tidal gauges, and other instruments from a World-Wide distribution by Oregon State University and other institutions as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and other projects from 24 November 1985 to 30 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000649)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Compilation of ocean circulation and other data were collected from a World-Wide distribution by Oregon State University (OSU) and other institutions as part of...

  14. Evolution and world-wide projections of the carbon dioxide emissions; Evolucion y proyecciones mundiales de las emisiones de bioxido de carbono

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravia, Marisela; Gay, Carlos [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the frame of the present preoccupation on the global climatic change and its influence in the human activities, the possible mitigation scenarios of green house effect gases are analyzed (GEG) in the world-wide scope, the contribution of carbon dioxide future emissions as main green house effect gas originating from the burning of fossil fuels; taking into account two large classifications: Developed and developing countries. In accordance with the world-wide evolution in the 1972-1995 period and to diverse adjustments of future emissions a study of the necessary levels of these emissions is made to obtain the stabilization of the greenhouse effect gases in the atmosphere in a level in the vicinity of 550 ppmv. The considered projections are: emissions in accordance with the present tendency, basic scenario of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climatic Change (Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climatico) (IPCC-IS92a), mitigation proposals of the Netherlands (NL-1%, NL-2%) and profiles that entail the atmospheric CO{sub 2} stabilization. In addition the reduction in the contribution of future emissions that the developing countries would have to face to obtain the stabilization are compared, emissions that will depend on changes in factors such as population growth, economic, emissions per capita and carbon content of the power fuels, changes that would have to take place in all the countries, or certain key countries, in order to arrive to the necessary atmospheric stabilization of the emissions in accordance with those profiles. [Spanish] En el marco de la preocupacion actual sobre el cambio climatico global y su influencia en las actividades humanas, se analizan los posibles escenarios de mitigacion de gases efecto invernadero (GEI) en el ambito mundial, las cuotas de emisiones futuras de dioxido de carbono como principal gas invernadero proveniente de la quema de combustibles fosiles; tomando en cuenta dos grandes clasificaciones: Paises desarrollados y paises

  15. World Wide Telescope(WWT) teaching design base on ASSURE model%基于ASSURE模式的WWT天文教学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗月; 李璐

    2012-01-01

    The ASSURE model is instructional design model based on media technology.This paper takes the ASSURE model as a guide,the World Wide Telescope(WWT) as the teaching media,the student of participating in the compulsory course of fundamental astronomy as implementation of object.The whole instructional design process are carried out according to the ASSURE model of several major steps,it integrate teaching media with astronomy course effectively and play a full role of media and learning resources of advantages,improve the teaching effect,achieve the expected teaching goal,and improve the student of academic record and interest,cultivate the students' innovation ability and the spirit of cooperation and exploration.%ASSURE模式是基于媒体技术的教学设计模式,本文以ASSURE模式为指导,以万维望远镜(WWT)为教学媒体,以参加基础天文学公选课的学生为实施对象。整个教学设计过程按照ASSURE模式主要的几个步骤来进行,使教学媒体与天文课程进行有效的整合,并充分发挥媒体和学习资源的作用和优势,改善课程的教学效果,达到预期的教学目标,并且提高了学生成绩及学习兴趣,培养了学生的创新能力、协作与探索精神。

  16. Achievements and new directions in subatomic physics: Festschrift in Honor of Tony Thomas 60th birthday

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the occasion of his 60th birthday, this workshop honours the outstanding achievements and service to subatomic physics which Tony Thomas has made over a career spanning almost 4 decades. The workshop will review recent results and discuss new directions for nuclear and hadron physics, focusing on topics to which Tony has made significant contributions, such as pion-nucleon scattering, deep inelastic scattering, chiral extrapolations, quark models of the nucleon, and lattice QCD.

  17. RCNi award winner among the trailblazing nurses named in the Queen's birthday honours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Nurses were recognised in the birthday honours, with OBEs going to: » Pauline Watts, lead nurse, quality, mental health, learning disability and dementia at Public Health England, for services to nursing and health visiting » Gwen Moulster, co-chair of UK Nurse Consultants in Learning Disability Network and a winner of an RCNi learning disability award in May, for services to nursing and people with learning disabilities. PMID:27369704

  18. A tribute to Dr. Frank I Tovey on his 90th birthday

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lian-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper pays a tribute to Dr. Frank I Tovey on his 90th birthday which happens on September 1, 2011, and briefly describes the major findings in his research career and contributions as follows. The geographical prevalence of duodenal ulceration is related to staple diets. Unrefined wheat and maize, soya, certain pulses and millets are associated with a low prevalence while refined wheat, maize and rice, yams, cassava and green banana with a high prevalence. Predominant foodstuffs from low...

  19. SEDA at 20: Some Staff and Educational Development Birthday Challenges and Celebrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Invited to write a piece to mark SEDA's 20th birthday as SEDA co-chair, I have been excited and humbled by the task. In preparation I have read past editions of this journal and of the SEDA magazine, once called The New Academic and now called Educational Developments. I have reflected on my SEDA experiences and I have talked to people…

  20. See how people wished CERN a happy birthday with #MyCERN60

    CERN Multimedia

    Kate Kahle

    2014-01-01

    In the run up to 29 September, the hashtag #MyCERN60 gave CERN people and CERN’s followers on social media the chance to wish CERN a happy 60th birthday. Here are some of the highlights.   When tasked with wishing the European Laboratory for Particle Physics a happy 60th birthday, what would you do? Would you draw a picture? Bake a cake? #MyCERN60 on Twitter (EN, FR), Facebook, Google+ and social.cern.ch, gave people the opportunity to send a personal birthday greeting to the Organization. The results were heart-warming. Below is a selection of some of the messages received: Image credits: top left Sanam Ganjian via Google+, top right Rose Hannert via Twitter, middle left Anna P and Tina Nantsou via Facebook, middle right Francesco Palmonari via Twitter, bottom left  Smita Darmora via Facebook, bottom middle Hannah McClow via Twitter, bottom right Katya Chong via Twitter. Croatian students from the "Fran Galović" Koprivnica school celebrating CERN...

  1. The New Astronomy: Opening the Electromagnetic Window and Expanding Our View of Planet Earth A Meeting to Honor Woody Sullivan on his 60th Birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Orchiston, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    This unique work celebrates the 60th birthday of Professor Woodruff Sullivan III (University of Washington, Seattle). The ‘Woodfest’ conference attracted some of the world’s leading astrobiologists and historians of astronomy, so it is no surprise this book provides a collection of key papers and reviews on the history of astronomy, astrobiology and sundials. The emphasis on radio astronomy in the historical papers is a fitting reminder that Woody is widely acknowledged as the world’s leading authority in this field. But there are also papers on astrobiology, which reflect his intimate involvement in this exciting multidisciplinary field. The papers on sundials reveal another passion and his quest to make Seattle the sundial capital of North America! This book will appeal to professional and amateur astronomers, and is a tribute to one of the world’s most remarkable astronomers.

  2. Conference on "Optimization, Control and Applications in the Information Age" : in Honor of Panos M. Pardalos’s 60th Birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in theory, algorithms, and applications in optimization and control are discussed in this proceedings, based on selected talks from the ‘Optimization, Control, and Applications in the Information Age’ conference, organized in honor of Panos Pardalos’s 60th birthday. This volume contains numerous applications to optimal decision making in energy production and fuel management, data mining, logistics, supply chain management, market network analysis, risk analysis, and community network analysis.  In addition, a short biography is included describing Dr. Pardalos’s path from a shepherd village on the high mountains of Thessaly to academic success. Due to the wide range of topics such as global optimization, combinatorial optimization, game theory, stochastics and programming contained in this publication, scientists, researchers, and students in optimization, operations research, analytics, mathematics and computer science will be interested in this volume.

  3. IUTAM Symposium on Innovative Numerical Approaches for Materials and Structures in Multi-Field and Multi-Scale Problems : in Honor of Michael Ortiz's 60th Birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Pandolfi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a detailed insight into diverse and exciting recent developments in computational solid mechanics, documenting new perspectives and horizons. The topics addressed cover a wide range of current research, from computational materials modeling, including crystal plasticity, micro-structured materials, and biomaterials, to multi-scale simulations of multi-physics phenomena. Particular emphasis is placed on pioneering discretization methods for the solution of coupled non-linear problems at different length scales. The book, written by leading experts, reflects the remarkable advances that have been made in the field over the past decade and more, largely due to the development of a sound mathematical background and efficient computational strategies. The contents build upon the 2014 IUTAM symposium celebrating the 60th birthday of Professor Michael Ortiz, to whom this book is dedicated. His work has long been recognized as pioneering and is a continuing source of inspiration for ma...

  4. Tributes to Yuan-Cheng Fung on his 90th birthday biomechanics : from molecules to man

    CERN Document Server

    Chien, Shu; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2009-01-01

    This book is a tribute to Professor Yuan-Cheng Fung, the Father of Biomechanics and a pioneer in Bioengineering, in honor of his 90th Birthday. The book consists of articles contributed by his colleagues, students, friends and family. These articles illustrate Professor Fung's profound influence on outstanding leaders in bioengineering, especially biomechanics, and on the life and work of all people who have been in contact with him. The scientific topics covered range from fundamentals of science and engineering (e.g., residual stress, flow dynamics, and cellular signaling) to clinical disor

  5. Atomic processes and application in honour of David R. Bates' 60th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, P G

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Processes and Applications is a collection of review articles that discusses major atomic and molecular processes and their applications to upper atmospheric physics and to astrophysics. The book also serves as a 60th birthday tribute to Dr. David R. Bates. The coverage of the text includes the overview of stratospheric aeronomy; upper atmosphere of the earth; and problems in atmospheric pollution. The book also deals with technical and highly specialized issues including photoionization of atomic systems; atomic structure and oscillator strengths; and atomic scattering computations. Th

  6. Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization for Real-World Delivery Problems Based on Real Time and Predicted Traffic in Wide Area Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Ochiai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to real-world delive ry problems for home delivery services where a large number of roads exist in cities and the tra ffic on the roads rapidly changes with time. The methodology for finding the shortest-travel-tim e tour includes a hybrid meta-heuristic that combines ant colony optimization with Dijkstra’s al gorithm, a search technique that uses both real-time traffic and predicted traffic, and a way to use a real-world road map and measured traffic in Japan. Experimental results using a map of central Tokyo and historical traffic data indicate that the proposed method can find a better solution than conventional methods.

  7. CERN celebrates André Martin’s 80th birthday

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    André Martin, pictured at the ceremony held in honour of his 80th birthday. On 27 August 2009 CERN’s Main Auditorium was the venue for a celebration in honour of André Martin’s 80th birthday. Regarded as one of the most important theoretical physicists of his generation, André Martin is one of CERN’s most distinguished figures. The celebration began with a conference, followed by a concert and a reception. After the conference, André Martin made an emotional speech looking back over his fifty-year career and paying tribute to all those who had made important contributions during his time at CERN. "I was extremely happy, and I am very touched by this marvellous celebration you have organised for me. It was a wonderful idea, and I very much enjoyed the concert of Blandine Eynaud and John Devore. My wife, Schu, and I love the music of Gabriel Fauré", he said at the end. André Martin j...

  8. Tribute to Professor Padma Kant Shukla on the occasion of his 60th birthday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Asoka

    2010-08-01

    As the Journal of Plasma Physics so fittingly dedicates this current volume to honor Professor Padma Kant Shukla, for his extraordinary and prolific contributions to the field, over a period spanning four decades, on the occasion of his 60th birthday, it gives me great pleasure to contribute this personal tribute. Padma is without doubt one of the preeminent plasma theorists of his generation with a productivity that is phenomenal and perhaps unmatched (well in excess of 1000). What is truly impressive is not only his extraordinary productivity but also the depth and breadth of his contributions, which while being centered in plasma physics, bridge many other disciplines including condensed matter physics, particle physics, and geophysics. Although I was familiar with Padma's work, in several areas, earlier, I first met him about 20 years ago, when he began working in a field of great interest to me, namely dusty plasmas. Very quickly Padma became a leader in this very new and rapidly developing field, in particular, pioneering the fascinating area of waves in dusty plasmas; predicting the existence, among others, of the very low frequency dust acoustic mode, which was spectacularly observed subsequently in the laboratory, and has been cited about 1000 times since. During this time I got to know Padma very well while participating in numerous international meetings convened by him and also while hosting him, several times, as a visiting professor at my home institution, and observing his multifaceted talents as an outstanding scholar, inspiring mentor, tireless organizer, and committed humanitarian. While Padma's accomplishments are extraordinary, what makes them even more noteworthy is his personal history. Padma came from a family of modest means in a small Indian village. He was the first member of his extended family who went to college, mainly due to the efforts of the village schoolteacher who obviously recognized the young student's innate talent. Living up

  9. FOREWORD: The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm The 70th birthday of Professor Stig Stenholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2010-09-01

    Western and Soviet laser cooling communities. In neutral Finland, accessible to both parties, he organized informal workshops that crucially sped the development of laser cooling. The importance of these meetings is highlighted in Bill Phillips' Nobel lecture in 1997 [6]. However, as the emphasis in laser cooling moved from a semiclassical description to quantum theory, Stig started to look for new avenues of research. My contact with Stig came when I went to see him for an MSc thesis topic. This involved polarization spectroscopy and modelling of an experiment performed by the laser spectroscopy group (Birger Ståhlberg) at the University of Helsinki. Without knowing anything about quantum optics I then found myself immediately in one of the Finnish-Soviet workshops on quantum electronics in the small town of Porvoo slightly east of Helsinki. There I met people like Juha Javanainen, Peter Knight, Axel Schenzle and Vladimir Chebotayev, and my own career in quantum optics began, working on the mathematics of the Landau-Zener model and how to apply it and other such models in molecular excitation by femtosecond pulses for my PhD thesis. This work was done together with Barry Garraway, who was a postdoc in Helsinki in the early 1990s. The Finnish-Soviet meetings continued for a while, and in 1990 we even got to travel to Novosibirsk (and back, too). During its existence (1964-1996), the Research Institute of Theoretical Physics (TFT) had a tremendous impact on physics in Finland. Short and long stays by visitors provided a unique and high-level environment for local researchers, the research fields covered a wide range of physics, and for many Finns returning from abroad it provided a place to stay until something more permanent turned up. Thus many researchers who later became professors had, at some point in their career, a connection with TFT. As a director Stig was very broad-minded and without this the happy atmosphere of TFT could not have existed. In the 1980s young

  10. Scientific Community of Valentin N. Samoilov (On the Occasion of His 65th Birthday Anniversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this letter we celebrate the 65th birthday anniversary of Prof. Valentin N. Samoilov, a man of the Soviet scientific ancestry in the nuclear and space research, who is a pupil and follower of the famous Soviet engineer Sergey P. Korolev and the prominent Soviet nuclear physicist Michael G. Mescheryakov

  11. From creep damage mechanics to homogenization methods a liber amicorum to celebrate the birthday of Nobutada Ohno

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Tetsuya; Okumura, Dai

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of contributions on materials modeling, which were written to celebrate the 65th birthday of Prof. Nobutada Ohno. The book follows Prof. Ohno’s scientific topics, starting with creep damage problems and ending with homogenization methods.

  12. An Envoy of Friendship and Culture——In Celebration of Comrade Lin Lin's Ninety-fourth Birthday

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuZixin

    2004-01-01

    On September 27 this year,Comrade Lin Lin has reached the advanced age of ninety-four years. Besides being a senior on the diplomatic and cultural front of our country,Com. Lin Lin has long assumed leading position in our Association as well. In order to introduce his life and celebrate his birthday,

  13. Reflexiones en torno a la financiación actual y futura de las universidades a nivel mundial Considerations about present and future university financing world wide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Segrera

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante la pasada década, las posiciones del Banco Mundial se orientaron hacia la defensa de la orientación competitiva y de mercado de la educación superior, mientras que UNESCO reafirmó el estatuto de servicio público de ella y abogó por mantener un importante financiamiento estatal, con el objetivo de desarrollar una educación superior igualmente accesible a todos sobre la base del mérito. Este artículo es un ejercicio de educación superior internacional comparada. Presenta reflexiones sobre todo respecto a los siguientes temas: principales tendencias globales de la educación superior; modelos mundiales de financiamiento; visión global del financiamiento de las universidades; financiamiento, políticas de educación superior, cooperación internacional e internacionalización; financiamiento de la educación superior en Europa. En resumen, concluye que diversificar las fuentes de financiamiento es positivo y necesario, pero esto no debe implicar una reducción o abdicación del Estado en el financiamiento de la educación terciaria.During the past decade, the World Bank's higher education guidelines were geared towards competition and the market place, while Unesco reaffirmed the statute of its public service and advocated the importance of State financing, with the purpose of developing a higher education that is equally accessible to all and based on merit. This article is a comparison of international higher education. It presents considerations on the following topics: main global tendencies for higher education; world models of financing; global vision of university financing; financing, higher education policies, international cooperation and internationalization; higher education financing in Europe. In short, it concludes that diversifying the sources of financing is both positive and necessary, though this must not imply a reduction or abdication of the State in the financing of higher education.

  14. World-wide and regional intercomparison for the determination of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in mussel sample IAEA-142. Report no. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate and precise determination of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environmental samples is an important aspect of marine pollution assessments in coastal and ocean environments. Intercomparison exercises represent an essential element of method testing and are used as a basic tool for evaluating data quality on a global and regional level. The Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory (MESL) of IAEA-MEL has conducted intercomparison exercises on trace organic compounds for over nineteen years as part of its contribution to IAEA's analytical quality control service and UNEP's regional seas programme, and occasionally in association with the intergovernmental oceanographic commission (of UNESCO) GIPME programme. These exercises are organized on a continuous basis, at least once per year. Result of previous exercises have revealed serious problems for many regional laboratories to obtain comparable data. As a consequence of this situation, it was decided to seek increased support for quality assurance programmes. Staff of MESL, with funding from UNEP, the World Bank and regional trust funds, embarked on a campaign to train analysts in modern measurement techniques, supply appropriate and reliable reference methods and materials and, where possible, to improve analytical instruments in Member State laboratories. This report describes results of the IAEA/UNEP intercomparison run 142 for the chemical analysis of organochlorine compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in a homogenised mussel sample

  15. Optimization in science and engineering in honor of the 60th birthday of Panos M. Pardalos

    CERN Document Server

    Floudas, Christodoulos; Butenko, Sergiy

    2014-01-01

    Optimization in Science and Engineering is dedicated in honor of the 60th birthday of Distinguished Professor Panos M. Pardalos. Pardalos’s past and ongoing work has made a significant impact on several theoretical and applied areas in modern optimization. As tribute to the diversity of Dr. Pardalos’s work in Optimization, this book comprises a collection of contributions from experts in various fields of this rich and diverse area of science. Topics highlight recent developments and include: Deterministic global optimization Variational inequalities and equilibrium problems Approximation and complexity in numerical optimization Non-smooth optimization Statistical models and data mining Applications of optimization in medicine, energy systems, and complex network analysis This volume will be of great interest to graduate students, researchers, and practitioners, in the fields of optimization and engineering.

  16. Fuzzy logic and information fusion to commemorate the 70th birthday of Professor Gaspar Mayor

    CERN Document Server

    Sastre, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a timely report on key theories and applications of soft-computing. Written in honour of Professor Gaspar Mayor on his 70th birthday, it primarily focuses on areas related to his research, including fuzzy binary operators, aggregation functions, multi-distances, and fuzzy consensus/decision models. It also discusses a number of interesting applications such as the implementation of fuzzy mathematical morphology based on Mayor-Torrens t-norms. Importantly, the different chapters, authored by leading experts, present novel results and offer new perspectives on different aspects of Mayor’s research. The book also includes an overview of evolutionary fuzzy systems, a topic that is not one of Mayor’s main areas of interest, and a final chapter written by the Spanish pioneer in fuzzy logic, Professor E. Trillas. Computer and decision scientists, knowledge engineers and mathematicians alike will find here an authoritative overview of key soft-computing concepts and techniques.

  17. Conference on radiation chemistry on the occasion of 100-th birthday of Nataliya Alekseevna Bach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference on radiation chemistry, devoted to the 100-th birthday of N.A.Bach, one of the founders of this scientific discipline in the Soviet Union, took place on June 5-7, 1995 in Moscow. The topics of the conference covered practically all aspects of radiation chemistry: the primary processes; radiation oxidation; radiolysis of organic and inorganic compounds, synthetic and natural polymers; radiation polymerization; radiation chemistry and solid body physics; heterogeneous systems; dosimetry; radiation technologies; ecology, etc. It is noted that the highest interest is aroused by the following trends: radiation-chemical processes in multicomponent heterogeneous and structurized homogeneous systems, the importance of water in most radiation chemical process and also applied problems

  18. Clusters, orders, and trees methods and applications in honor of Boris Mirkin's 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Goldengorin, Boris; Pardalos, Panos

    2014-01-01

    The volume is dedicated to Boris Mirkin on the occasion of his 70th birthday. In addition to his startling PhD results in abstract automata theory, Mirkin’s ground breaking contributions in various fields of decision making and data analysis have marked the fourth quarter of the 20th century and beyond. Mirkin has done pioneering work in group choice, clustering, data mining and knowledge discovery aimed at finding and describing non-trivial or hidden structures—first of all, clusters, orderings, and hierarchies—in multivariate and/or network data. This volume contains a collection of papers reflecting recent developments rooted in Mirkin's fundamental contribution to the state-of-the-art in group choice, ordering, clustering, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Researchers, students, and software engineers will benefit from new knowledge discovery techniques and application directions.

  19. Consuming children and making mothers: birthday parties, gifts and the pursuit of sameness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Clarke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Children's birthday parties, and related consumption, form an integral part of the social process of mothering in contemporary consumer culture. From the choosing of the 'right' present to the arrangement of the 'appropriate' party theme, an enormous pressure is exerted upon mothers to maintain social equilibrium through the circulation of their children and gifts amongst and across households. Ethnographic research in Britain suggests that the economic growth of children's party provision and services is coupled with a popular discourse that laments the loss of 'authentic' kinship-based birthday parties and home-made provisioning. In contrast to this spoken discourse, this article reveals how women in fact avidly embrace market goods and services; as a means of generating a culture of sameness that avoids the risks (to the motherhood as a collective, localised phenomenon of exceptional or overtly accomplished mothering. Commercialised, mass produced goods and birthday services are used as a means of limiting expressive gift relations and hospitality. In this sense, the search for sameness, through the cultural practice of making children's parties, is at once liberating and potentially oppressive in its strive for the normative and its inadvertent exclusion of 'other' care-givers. Furthermore, children and their related material culture are consumed, through the birthday party circuit, as a means of generating specific types of mothering.Festas de aniversário infantil, e o consumo ligado a elas, formam uma parte integral do processo social da criação dos filhos na cultura de consumo contemporânea. Da escolha do presente "certo" à preparação do tema "apropriado" para a festa, uma grande pressão é exercida sobre as mães para manter um equilíbrio através da circulação de suas crianças e seus presentes entre e além das famílias. Uma pesquisa etnográfica na Grã-Bretanha sugere que o crescimento econômico dos preparativos e servi

  20. Special Issue in Honor of the 60th Birthday of Professor Imre J. Rudas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Fodor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Acta Polytechnica Hungarica is dedicated to Professor ImreJ. Rudas on the occasion of his 60th birthday and in recognition of his outstandingcontributions to computational intelligence, robotics with special emphasis onrobot control, soft computing, computer-aided process planning, fuzzy control andfuzzy sets. The issue can be considered as a complement to the edited volume J.Fodor and J. Kacprzyk (Eds., Aspects of Soft Computing, Intelligent Robotics andControl (Studies in Computational Intelligence, vol. 241 (Springer-Verlag,Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009. The manuscripts were submitted in response to directinvitations from the Editor-in-Chief, containing contributions from some of Imre’spast collaborators. The Editor-in-Chief is grateful to the authors for their excellentwork.

  1. El papel de la World Wide Web y la telefonía móvil en las relaciones sociales de los jóvenes de origen latinoamericano en Cataluña

    OpenAIRE

    Huertas Bailén, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo de este texto es indagar sobre la forma en que la World Wide Web y la telefonía móvil influyen en el establecimiento de las relaciones sociales de los adolescentes (entre 15 y 19 años) en un contexto multicultural a partir de un estudio empírico de carácter cualitativo realizado el 2009. En esta investigación ha participado un total de 85 estudiantes (75 de origen latinoamericano y 10 autóctonos) residentes en L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, una localidad cercana a Barcelona cuya pobla...

  2. World-wide capabilities and applications for high-sensitivity environmental sampling and analyses in international safeguards and nuclear material security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: High-sensitivity nuclear environmental sampling and analysis techniques have been proven in their ability to verify declared nuclear activities, as well as to assist in the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and facilities. Environmental sampling and analysis techniques achieved recognition for potential international safeguards use through their effective application by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Iraq following the Gulf War. Through Programme 93+2, the IAEA proved the ability of environmental sampling to support of international safeguards. Subsequently, they were adopted as routine safeguards measures by the IAEA Department of Safeguards. Applications of these techniques were openly expanded to include support in the verification of other nuclear treaties and of nuclear material security activities. Environmental sampling and analysis techniques are now being applied in six broad areas in support of nonproliferation, disarmament treaty verification, national and international nuclear security, and environmental stewardship of weapons production activities. The six areas are: 1) Nuclear safeguards; 2) Nuclear forensics/illicit trafficking; 3) Ongoing monitoring and verification (OMV); 4) Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT); 5) Weapons dismantlement/materials disposition; and 6) Research and development (R and D)/environmental stewardship/safety. As a result of the international community's recognition of the contributions that environmental sampling and analysis technologies make to nuclear materials security and treaty verification, an increase in capabilities for making these measurements has occurred around the world. National governments and international organizations have expanded their investments in new facilities, new equipment, and newly trained staff at the cost of millions of dollars. There now exist varying degrees of capability and performance worldwide. In order for high-sensitivity environmental sampling

  3. A Problematic Family Reunion of a Chinese-American in China: Issues of Face Abstract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses thr...%ract: As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson ...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹凤琴

    2012-01-01

    As one of the heated topics in the intercultural communication studies, face issues have aroused world-wide attention in the academic field. This paper analyses three critical incidents based on two face theories proposed by Brown and Levinson (1987) and Ting-Toomey and Kurogi(1998) respectively. Lastly, by focusing on the relationship between the rapport-threatening behavior and the face, this paper intends to cultivate our awareness of face and highlight the harmonious interpersonal relationship between different cultures.

  4. Contributions to nonlinear elliptic equations and systems a tribute to Djairo Guedes de Figueiredo on the occasion of his 80th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Ruf, Bernhard; Santos, Ederson; Gossez, Jean-Pierre; Soares, Sergio; Cazenave, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    This volume of contributions pays tribute to the life and work of Djairo Guedes de Figueiredo on the occasion of his 80th birthday. The articles it contains were born out of the ICMC Summer Meeting on Differential Equations – 2014 Chapter, also dedicated to de Figueiredo and held at the Universidade de São Paulo at São Carlos, Brazil from February 3-7, 2014. The contributing authors represent a group of international experts in the field and discuss recent trends and new directions in nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations and systems. Djairo Guedes de Figueiredo has had a very active scientific career, publishing 29 monographs and over one hundred research articles. His influence on Brazilian mathematics has made him one of the pillars of the subject in that country. He had a major impact on the development of analysis, especially in its application to nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations and systems throughout the entire world. The articles collected here pay tribute to him and h...

  5. World Health Statistics 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The World Health Organization (WHO) collects and summarizes a wide range of quantitative data from a variety of health domains through country offices, regional offices and headquarter departments.

  6. Night Song Festival "Time to Take Notice" or "The world had never seen such a birthday bash before" / Rein Sikk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikk, Rein, 1961-

    2008-01-01

    Laulvast revolutsioonist 1988. aastal. 19.-20. augustil 2008 Tallinna lauluväljakul toimunud öölaulupeost "Märkamisaeg". Vt. samas: Freedom is not self-evident. Väljavõte president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kõnest

  7. A Birthday Paradox for Markov chains with an optimal bound for collision in the Pollard Rho algorithm for discrete logarithm

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Han; Montenegro, Ravi; Peres, Yuval; Tetali, Prasad

    2010-01-01

    We show a Birthday Paradox for self-intersections of Markov chains with uniform stationary distribution. As an application, we analyze Pollard's Rho algorithm for finding the discrete logarithm in a cyclic group $G$ and find that if the partition in the algorithm is given by a random oracle, then with high probability a collision occurs in $\\Theta(\\sqrt{|G|})$ steps. Moreover, for the parallelized distinguished points algorithm on $J$ processors we find that $\\Theta(\\sqrt{|G|}/J)$ steps suffi...

  8. Sharing International Commercial Law across National Boundaries, Festschrift for Albert H. Kritzer on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ann Pansiri

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The joint collaboration of Camilla B. Andersen and Ulrich G. Schroeter as editors of the festschrift1 to Albert H. Kritzer on his eightieth birthday succeeds in bringing together international commercial law heavyweights and enlightening commentary on the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG. The work pays homage to a preeminent scholar on the CISG whose scholarship has aided in the uniformity of the application and interpretation of the CISG.

  9. Face challenges with confidence when we review the great achievements at the 60th birthday of the people's republic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAORI Ge-tu

    2009-01-01

    @@ The millions of medical and health care professionals in China celebrate with great pleasure and confidence the 60th birthday of the people's republic. In this issue of the journal, our readers will see a part of what fruitful achievements have been obtained by the government, health and medical professionals and researchers in various fields of health and medical care and research as well as what challenges the Chinese medical professionals face.

  10. Publishing, bookselling and the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Spink

    1999-01-01

    This working paper brings together concepts and ideas about the role of information in the future of humanity. Different views have emerged within the international debate on sustainable development - a global industrialization view centers on sustaining global industrialization and a new moral order that advocates societal downscaling and de-industrialization based on regional self-sufficiency to preserve humanity. This working paper briefly outlines these approaches to sustainable developme...

  11. Das "ultimative Informationsbeschaffungssystem" World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Oberthür, Petra

    1996-01-01

    Das Internet, entstanden aus dem militärischen ARPANET, hat sich zu einem weltumspannenden Computernetz entwickelt. Von den traditionellen Internetdiensten wie EMail oder FTP gingen die Entwicklungen hin zu ansprechenderen Informationssystemen und interaktiven Diensten. Seit Einführung des WWW hat das Internet einen enormen Zuwachs an Anwendern erfahren. Dieser rasante Erfolg des WWW bereitet jedoch auch Probleme, da es nicht dafür ausgelegt war, solch große Datenmengen und komplexe Anwendung...

  12. Educational Publishing and the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Marion , Ann; Hacking, Elizabeth H.

    1998-01-01

    Publishers have long had an important role in education, producing books and other learning materials. Today, the publisher's role is changing fast with the platform evolution from stand-alone to networked computers. Print and the Web are compared, demonstrating that they will remain complementary. The publishers' traditional Value Chain is linear and one-way; it is operative in a stable, predictable environment, and accommodates mass production. This traditional Value Chai...

  13. Vom Webstuhl zum World Wide Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heide Palmer

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorin ist Direktorin der „Cybernetic Culture Research Unit“ an der University of Warwick. Sie bezeichnet sich als eine der Begründerinnen des „Cyberfeminismus“ und will mit nullen + einsen das Thema Frauen und Computer in ein neues Licht setzen. Ihre zentrale These lautet, dass das Internet eine Weiterentwicklung des Webstuhls sei. Mit Hilfe einer collage-artigen Erzählweise bildet Plant die nicht-lineare Struktur moderner Kommunikationsmittel ab.

  14. AECL's support to operating plants world wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through their operating records, CANDU reactors have established themselves as a successful and cost-effective source of electricity in Canada and abroad. They have proven to be safe, reliable and economical. A variety of factors have contributed to the enviable CANDU record, such as a sound design based on proven principles supported by effective development programs, along with dedicated plant owners committed to excellence in safely maintaining and operating their plants. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), the CANDU designer, has continuously maintained a close relationship with owners/operators of the plants in Canada, Argentina, Romania and South Korea. AECL and the plant operators have all benefited from this strengthening relationship by sharing experience and information. CANDU plant operators have been required to respond decisively to the economic realities of downward cost pressures and deregulation. Operating, Maintenance and Administration (OM and A) costs are being given a new focus as plant owners review each cost element to improve the economic returns from their investments. Amongst the three main OM and A constituents, plant maintenance costs are the most variable and have the largest influence on effective plant operations. The correlation between effective plant maintenance and high capacity factors shows clearly the importance of proactive maintenance planning to reduce the frequency and duration of forced plant outages and their negative impacts on plant economics. This paper describes the management processes and organizational structures m AECL that support plant operations and maintenance in operating CANDU plants with cost effective products and services. (author)

  15. Tesauros e a World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Tiago R. M.

    2005-01-01

    Thesauri are tools that growing importance in Web context. For this, is necessary adapting the thesauri for Web technologies and functionalities. The present work is an exploratory study that aim identifies how the documentary thesauri are being utilized and/or incorporated for the management of information in the Web.

  16. World wide web - A graphical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lakshminarayana, S.; Chavan, V.S.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Internet_India_IEEE_Hyderabad_1997_21.pdf.txt stream_source_info Internet_India_IEEE_Hyderabad_1997_21.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  17. World-wide distribution automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  18. Representations of Reductive Groups : in Honor of the 60th Birthday of David A. Vogan, Jr.

    CERN Document Server

    Trapa, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the last forty years, David Vogan has left an indelible imprint on the representation theory of reductive groups.  His groundbreaking ideas have lead to deep advances in the theory of real and p-adic groups, and have forged lasting connections with other subjects, including number theory, automorphic forms, algebraic geometry, and combinatorics. Representations of Reductive Groups is an outgrowth of the conference of the same name, dedicated to David Vogan on his 60th birthday, which took place at MIT on May 19-23, 2014.  This volume highlights the depth and breadth of Vogan's influence over the subjects mentioned above, and point to many exciting new directions that remain to be explored.  Notably, the first article by McGovern and Trapa offers an overview of Vogan's body of work, placing his ideas in a historical context. Contributors: Pramod N. Achar, Jeffrey D. Adams, Dan Barbasch, Manjul Bhargava, Cédric Bonnafé, Dan Ciubotaru, Meinolf Geck, William Graham, Benedict H. Gross, Xuhua He, Jing-Son...

  19. Extending birthday paradox theory to estimate the number of tags in RFID systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Masoud; Singh, Mandeep Jit; Sundararajan, Elankovan; Zavvari, Azam; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of Radio Frequency Identification systems is to provide fast identification for tagged objects. However, there is always a chance of collision, when tags transmit their data to the reader simultaneously. Collision is a time-consuming event that reduces the performance of RFID systems. Consequently, several anti-collision algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA (DFSA) is one of the most popular of these algorithms. DFSA dynamically modifies the frame size based on the number of tags. Since the real number of tags is unknown, it needs to be estimated. Therefore, an accurate tag estimation method has an important role in increasing the efficiency and overall performance of the tag identification process. In this paper, we propose a novel estimation technique for DFSA anti-collision algorithms that applies birthday paradox theory to estimate the number of tags accurately. The analytical discussion and simulation results prove that the proposed method increases the accuracy of tag estimation and, consequently, outperforms previous schemes. PMID:24752285

  20. Lessons learnt from a birthday party: a Bacillus cereus outbreak, Bari, Italy, January 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Martinelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bacillus cereus, a ubiquitous bacterium, can be isolated in various starchy food items, causing both emetic and diarrhoeal disease. The real burden of B. cereus outbreaks is actually poorly known in Italy. We report a B. cereus foodborne outbreak that occurred in a pub in Bari (Italy on January 22nd 2012 during a birthday party, promptly reported by the pub owner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 22nd and 24th 2012, we performed a retrospective cohort study among the guests of the party to identify risk factors associated with illness. Leftovers of different meals were available for microbiological analysis. Faecal specimens were collected from cases. RESULTS: A total of 12 cases among the 13 customers (attack rate: 92% were reported. All cases had consumed basmati rice and sweet and sour vegetables (aetiological fraction: 100%. B. cereus was isolated from both basmati rice served during the party and faecal specimens. DISCUSSION: The close collaboration between the pub owner and the public health officers and the possibility to test food leftovers and stool samples contributed to prevent further cases.

  1. Extending birthday paradox theory to estimate the number of tags in RFID systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Shakiba

    Full Text Available The main objective of Radio Frequency Identification systems is to provide fast identification for tagged objects. However, there is always a chance of collision, when tags transmit their data to the reader simultaneously. Collision is a time-consuming event that reduces the performance of RFID systems. Consequently, several anti-collision algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA (DFSA is one of the most popular of these algorithms. DFSA dynamically modifies the frame size based on the number of tags. Since the real number of tags is unknown, it needs to be estimated. Therefore, an accurate tag estimation method has an important role in increasing the efficiency and overall performance of the tag identification process. In this paper, we propose a novel estimation technique for DFSA anti-collision algorithms that applies birthday paradox theory to estimate the number of tags accurately. The analytical discussion and simulation results prove that the proposed method increases the accuracy of tag estimation and, consequently, outperforms previous schemes.

  2. Recuerdo de Sartre en el centenario de su nacimiento Remember Sartre in his birthday centenary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fernández Buey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El texto busca trazar un breve painel del trayecto intelectual y político del gran pensador francés J. P. Sartre (1905-1980 en el año de su centenario. Del existencialismo, pasando por su adhesión al marxismo y a su intenso activismo, Sastre dejó un testamento político-cultural importantísimo. Seguro ningún otro filósofo representó mejor que él los anhelos y esperanzas del intelectual europeo del siglo XX, comprometido con la causa de la libertad. Palabras-clave: Intelectual. Política. Comunismo. Marxismo. Existencialismo. Filosofía. Cultura. This text registers a brief report of the intellectual and political life of the great French philosopher J.P.Sartre (1905-1980 in his birthday centenary. From Existencialism and his intense participation in the Marxist activism, Sartre left us a very important cultural and political heritage. For sure no other philosopher represented better than him the hopes and anxieties of the European intellectual in the 20th century, totally compromised with the liberal cause. Keywords: Intellectual; Politics; Communism; Marxism; Existencialism; Philosophy; Culture.

  3. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the GASCOYNE and other platforms from a world-wide distribution during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 14 November 1916 to 27 December 1961 (NODC Accession 6100000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data and temperature, depth, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from GASCOYNE and other platforms in a world-wide...

  4. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the HMAS DERWENT and other platforms from a world-wide distribution during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 03 August 1904 to 31 December 1964 (NODC Accession 6400000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from HMAS DERWENT and other platforms in a world-wide distribution...

  5. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the PARRAMATTA and other platforms in a world-wide distribution during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 04 October 1903 to 19 December 1963 (NODC Accession 6300000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from PARRAMATTA and other platforms in a world-wide distribution...

  6. Temperature profile and other data collected using bottle and CTD casts from the CAPITAN CANEPA and other platforms in a wide-world distribution during the California Cooperative Fisheries Investigation (CALCOFI) project, 21 March 1921 to 29 December 1962 (NODC Accession 6200000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic Station Data, temperature, and other data were collected using CTD and bottle casts from CAPITAN CANEPA and other platforms in a world-wide...

  7. Suicide in the World

    OpenAIRE

    Peeter Värnik

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which ...

  8. Benign Ancient Schwannoma of the abdominal wall: An unwanted birthday present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Manisha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a recent growth in the use of whole body Computerised Tomography (CT scans in the private sector as a screening test for asymptomatic disease. This is despite scant evidence to show any positive effect on morbidity or mortality. There has been concern raised over the possible harms of the test in terms of radiation exposure as well as the risk and anxiety of further investigation and treatment for the large numbers of benign lesions identified. Case Presentation A healthy 64 year old lady received a privately funded whole body CT scan for her birthday which revealed an incidental mass in the right iliac fossa. This was investigated with further imaging and colonoscopy and as confident diagnosis could not be made, eventually excised. Histology demonstrated this to be a benign ancient schwannoma and we believe this to be the first reported case of an abdominal wall schwannoma in the English literature Conclusions Ancient schwannomas are rare tumours of the peripheral nerve sheaths more usually found in the head, neck and flexor surfaces of extremities. They are a subtype of classical schwannomas with a predominance of degenerative changes. Our case highlights the pitfalls of such screening tests in demonstrating benign disease and subjecting patients to what turns out to be unnecessary invasive investigation and treatment. It provides evidence as to the consequences of the large number of false positive results that are created by blind CT scanning of asymptomatic patients i.e. its tendency to detect pseudodiesease rather than affect survival rates. Should the number of scans increase there may be an unnecessary burden on NHS resources due to the large numbers of benign lesions picked up, that are then referred for further investigation.

  9. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  10. Editorial Special issue on control theory and applications in honor of the 60th birthday of Professor Frank L. Lewis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben M.CHEN; Gang FENG

    2010-01-01

    @@ It is our great pleasure to put up this special issue in Journal of Control Theory and Applications in honor of the 60th birthday of Professor Frank Lewis, who has made many significant contributions to the field of control engineering through the years, and who is regarded as a pioneer in many areas in control and automation, which includes applied optimal control and geometric systems theory in his earlier research period, and his recent focus on intelligent nonlinear control, neural network feedback control, optimal control for nonlinear systems, H-infinity (game theory) control, approximate dynamic programming, discrete event supervisory control, intelligent diagnostics and prognostics, to name a few.

  11. Gravitation following the Prague inspiration : a volume in celebration of the 60th birthday of Jiri Bicak

    CERN Document Server

    Podolsky, J; Zofka, M

    2002-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to Jirí Bicák on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The authors are his former students who currently work in the fields of general relativity, astrophysics, theoretical physics and cosmology. Unlike in traditional Festschrifts with many short contributions, they present several comprehensive surveys and elaborate original works. The subjects range from the motion of stars in galactic nuclei to quantum mechanics on a boundary, and include current topics such as cosmological perturbations, effects of a repulsive cosmological constant, discs around black holes and gravit

  12. PREFACE: Microparticles in Stokes Flows: Symposium in Honor of François Feuillebois' 65th Birthday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekiel-Jeżewska, Maria L.

    2012-12-01

    Microparticles in Stokes Flows - Symposium in Honor of Françcois Feuillebois' 65th Birthday was held from 21-24 August 2011 in Warsaw, Poland. There were 43 participants from Australia, Brazil, France, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Tunisia, United Kingdom and the USA. They presented 5 invited lectures, 25 contributed talks and 9 posters. The abstracts can be found at microparticles2011.ippt.pan.pl. The subjects were divided into three parts and 13 sessions, listed below. Part I. A variety of particles. Sessions: sedimentation at non-Brownian time scale, Brownian and hydrodynamic interactions of non-spherical particles, active particles, permeable particles, deformable particles and biosystems. Part II. Particles and interfaces. Sessions: confined multiparticle systems, hydrodynamic interactions in confined systems, single particle under confinement, particle-interface interactions, slip at interfaces, slip in suspensions. Part III. Stokes flows and beyond. Sessions: inertial effects, texture and self-assembly. At the end of each session, presentations were followed by extensive discussions (two thirds of the presentation time). Also, two round-table general discussions took place, Methods of solving the Stokes equations - which when? and Challenges in microhydrodynamics. This volume contains both original contributions and reviews. There were at least two referees per paper: one participating in the conference, and the other not. I would like to thank all the referees for their work, the Polish Academy of Sciences, Centre national de la recherche scientifique and the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences for supporting in part the conference, Anna Myłyk, Agnieszka Słowicka and Krzysztof Zembrzycki for the weeks spent organizing the symposium, and all the conference participants for their presentations and discussions of the highest scientific quality. Conference photograph Happy Birthday

  13. Screening for simian foamy virus infection by using a combined antigen Western blot assay: evidence for a wide distribution among Old World primates and identification of four new divergent viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) belong to a genetically and antigenically diverse class of retroviruses that naturally infect a wide range of nonhuman primates (NHPs) and can also be transmitted to humans occupationally exposed to NHPs. Current serologic detection of SFV infection requires separate Western blot (WB) testing by using two different SFV antigens [SFVAGM (African green monkey) and SFVCPZ (chimpanzee)]. However, this method is labor intensive and validation is limited to only small numbers of NHPs. To facilitate serologic SFV testing, we developed a WB assay that combines antigens from both SFVAGM and SFVCPZ. The combined-antigen WB (CA-WB) assay was validated with 145 serum samples from 129 NHPs (32 African and Asian species) and 16 humans, all with known SFV infection status determined by PCR. Concordant CA-WB results were obtained for all 145 PCR-positive or -negative primate and human specimens, giving the assay a 100% sensitivity and specificity. In addition, no reactivity was observed in sera from persons positive for human immunodeficiency virus or human T cell lymphotropic virus (HIV/HTLV) (n = 25) or HIV/HTLV-negative U.S. blood donors (n = 100). Using the CA-WB assay, we screened 360 sera from 43 Old World primate species and found an SFV prevalence of about 68% in both African and Asian primates. We also isolated SFV from the blood of four seropositive primates (Allenopithecus nigroviridis, Trachypithecus francoisi, Hylobates pileatus, and H. leucogenys) not previously known to be infected with SFV. Phylogenetic analysis of integrase sequences from these isolates confirmed that all four SFVs represent new, distinct, and highly divergent lineages. These results demonstrate the ability of the CA-WB assay to detect infection in a large number of NHP species, including previously uncharacterized infections with divergent SFVs

  14. Rezension: World Wide War: Angriff aus dem Internet/Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It von Richard A. Clarke und Robert K. Knake/by Richard A. Clarke and Robert K. Knake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Je breiter der Infrastruktur-Anschluss eines Landes an das World Wide Web, desto größer die Angriffsfläche im Fall eines Netzkriegs. Die Messung der virtuellen Kampfkraft erfolgt auf Basis von drei Faktoren: Offensivkraft, Defensivfähigkeit und die Abhängigkeit vom Internet. Die USA verfügen als "Supermacht" zwar über die größte virtuelle Offensivkraft, gleichzeitig steht die Nation Cyberangriffen sehr verwundbar gegenüber. Dagegen sind in Nordkorea kaum Systeme vom Internet abhängig. Obwohl die offensiven Netzkriegskapazitäten Nordkoreas verhältnismäßig gering sind, präsentiert sich die virtuelle Kampfkraft des nordkoreanischen Regimes in Bestform. Die Verwundbarkeit ziviler Systeme, insbesondere der Energieversorgung, muss in direkter Korrelation mit deren Anknüpfung an das Internet betrachtet werden. The more broadly connected a country’s infrastructure and energy distribution, the greater its vulnerability in the event of a cyber war. Measuring this virtual fighting power is based on three factors: offensive and defensive strength, as well as dependency on the Internet. As a superpower, the USA has the greatest virtual offensive strength available. At the same time, the nation is most susceptible to cyber attacks and therefore most vulnerable. By contrast, North Korea’s offensive cyber fighting power is relatively small, but its overall cyber war capabilities are cutting-edge. The vulnerability of civil systems, especially power supply, must be viewed in direct correlation to their connection to the Internet.

  15. World economic slowdown

    OpenAIRE

    Großer, Günter; Weinert, Günter

    1991-01-01

    In the course of last year, the economic climate cooled down world-wide; it was placed under additional strain in late summer by the Gulf crisis. In some industrialized countries, especially the USA, recessive trends have recently gained prevalence. Do indications for 1991 therefore point to a downturn in the world economy?

  16. World law

    OpenAIRE

    Harold J. Berman; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

    1999-01-01

    In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

  17. Analysis and topology in nonlinear differential equations a tribute to Bernhard Ruf on the occasion of his 60th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Ó, João; Tomei, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles presented at the Workshop for Nonlinear Analysis held in João Pessoa, Brazil, in September 2012. The influence of Bernhard Ruf, to whom this volume is dedicated on the occasion of his 60th birthday, is perceptible throughout the collection by the choice of themes and techniques. The many contributors consider modern topics in the calculus of variations, topological methods and regularity analysis, together with novel applications of partial differential equations. In keeping with the tradition of the workshop, emphasis is given to elliptic operators inserted in different contexts, both theoretical and applied. Topics include semi-linear and fully nonlinear equations and systems with different nonlinearities, at sub- and supercritical exponents, with spectral interactions of Ambrosetti-Prodi type. Also treated are analytic aspects as well as applications such as diffusion problems in mathematical genetics and finance and evolution equations related to electromechanical ...

  18. Fundamental Astronomy and Solar System Dynamics : Invited Papers Honoring Prof. Walter Fricke on the occasion of his 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Lieske, J; Seidelmann, P

    1986-01-01

    "Fundamental Astronomy and Solar System Dynamics", a program of invited papers honoring Professor Walter Fricke, who for thirty years has been Director of the Astronomisches Rechen lnstitut in Heidelberg, was held at the Thompson Conference Center of the University of Texas at Austin on Wednesday 27 March 1985 on the occasion of his seventieth birthday and retirement as Director of ARl. Professor Fricke's contributions to astronomy encompass the areas of galactic dynamics, radial velocities, stellar statistics. the fundamental reference system and the constant of precession. Participants were welcomed to the Uni versi ty of Texas by Professor J. Parker Lamb, Chairman of the Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics. The presentations ranged from discussions of astrometric problems concerned with the reference system, the constant of precession, major and minor planet observations, planetary ephemerides and lunar and satellite laser ranging, to a study of disc galaxies in massive halos. The...

  19. Professor Dragutin M. Drazic - On the occasion of his 70th birthday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Despic

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Professor Dragutin Drazic was born on May 5, 1930, in Belgrade. His father, Milan Drazic, was a professor at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Belgrade, while his mother, Zorka, was also a civil engineer working for the City of Belgrade. These facts, as well as the entire intellectual entourage in the “Professors’ Colony” in Belgrade, predetermined his orientation to natural sciences and engineering. Thus, after finishing elementary school before WWII and secondary school by 1949, he entered the Faculty of Science and Mathematics (Department of Chemistry of the University of Belgrade. After his first year of study, he changed the school, enlisting in the faculty of Chemical Engineering (“Faculty of Technology” of the same University. He graduated from the Department of Chemical Technology with the highest grade in 1956. After graduation, he joined the teaching staff of the same school, in the Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, in which he spent his entire career, commencing as an assistant lecturer and becoming a full professor. His affinity for science was supported by his wife Vera (b. Kuharic who was in the same profession and also became a university professor in physical chemistry. The family tradition continued with their two sons, Milan and Dusan, who also joined the academic world, becoming capable mathematician and computer scientists. Profesor Drazic taught very successfully a variety of subjects, such as Electrode Kinetics, Corrosion, Electrochemical Double Layer and Adsorption (postgraduate and finally, Physical Chemistry – a General Course. At the height of his professional career he was the Head of the Chair and Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry for several years. In July 1959 he went to the USA, to join the Electrochemistry Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, led by Professor John O’Mara Bockris, which at the time was the leading

  20. PREFACE: Festschrift to mark the sixtieth birthday of Professor Jens Lothe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jøssang, Torstein; Barnett, David M.

    1992-01-01

    The collection of papers in this Festschrift represents the proceedings of a symposium held at the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters on November 25-26, 1991, marking the occasion of the sixtieth birthday of Professor Jens Lothe. The symposium organizers attempted to invite contributors, either written, oral, or both, from a group of international scientists who have either collaborated with Jens in the past or whose work has had a significant impact in one of three areas in which Jens has focussed his own research interests, namely, statistical physics, elasticity and elastic waves, and the theory of dislocations in crystalline solids. The extent to which we have succeeded in obtaining a proper spectrum of contributors and contributions must be judged by the readers of this volume. It is rather rare in modern times to encounter a physicist such as Jens who has made seminal contributions in fields as diverse as the three included in this Festschrift. For this reason it is both historically interesting and instructive to follow the path that Jens Lothe's research career has taken him, since doing so clearly points out the international nature of the scientific endeavor and the fact that the search for scientific truth transcends national borders and governmental ideologies. Jens' postdoctoral studies at the University of Bristol in the late 1950s brought him in contact with an American postdoctoral student, John Hirth, who had worked on nucleation theory and condensation under the late Professor G M Pound at Carnegie-Mellon University. (Alex Maradudin, one of the contributors to the surface wave session of this symposium was also a postdoctoral fellow at Bristol at this time.) Both Lothe and Hirth had come to Bristol to acquaint themselves with dislocation theory; their first joint paper on double-kink nucleation theory was followed by numerous joint efforts, including their now-classic book Theory of Dislocations. Clearly, their interaction jelled. As legend

  1. Internal lecture | LEP I era (1984-1994) | Celebration of Herwig Schopper's 90th birthday | Main Auditorium | 16 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    "LEP I era (1984-1994)" with a celebration of H. Schopper's 90th birthday, by John Ellis, Horst Wenninger and Herwig Schopper     3.30 – 3.45 p.m.: Coffee     3.45 - 4.30 p.m. LEP1 the Ascent of the Standard Model by John Ellis Abstract When LEP was conceived, the Standard Model was not a phrase that appeared in the titles of particle physics papers. By the end of LEP1, the Standard Model had been established as the theory describing the visible matter in the Universe. In addition to testing the Standard Model, the accurate measurements at LEP1 enabled predictions to be made for new physics, such as the masses of the top quark and the Higgs boson, and provided a hint for possible physics beyond the Standard Model, such as grand unification. Biography John Ellis is Maxwell Professor of Theoretical Physics at King's College in London. After obtaining a PhD from Cambridge University and post-doctoral positions at SL...

  2. Additive Number Theory Festschrift in Honor of the Sixtieth Birthday of Melvyn B Nathanson

    CERN Document Server

    Chudnovsky, David

    2010-01-01

    This impressive volume is dedicated to Mel Nathanson, a leading authoritative expert for several decades in the area of combinatorial and additive number theory. For several decades, Mel Nathanson's seminal ideas and results in combinatorial and additive number theory have influenced graduate students and researchers alike. The invited survey articles in this volume reflect the work of distinguished mathematicians in number theory, and represent a wide range of important topics in current research.

  3. Development of modern statistics and related topics in celebration of prof Yaoting Zhang's 70th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Heping

    2003-01-01

    This book encompasses a wide range of important topics. The articles cover the following areas: asymptotic theory and inference, biostatistics, economics and finance, statistical computing and Bayesian statistics, and statistical genetics. Specifically, the issues that are studied include large deviation, deviation inequalities, local sensitivity of model misspecification in likelihood inference, empirical likelihood confidence intervals, uniform convergence rates in density estimation, randomized designs in clinical trials, MCMC and EM algorithms, approximation of p-values in multipoint linka

  4. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  5. Memorial Meeting for Nobel Laureate Professor Abdus Salam's 90th Birthday

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Abdus Salam was one of the most prolific and exciting scientists of the second half of the last century. From humble beginnings in a village in Pakistan, he rose to become one of the world's most original and influential particle physicists. He shared the 1979 Nobel Prize with Glashow and Weinberg for contributions to electroweak unification, which forms an integral part of the Standard Model. He was the first Pakistani Nobel Laureate and the second only Muslim after Anwar Sadat. After gaining his doctorate in Cambridge, he moved to Imperial College in 1957 where he founded the very successful Theoretical High Energy Physics Group. He remained there as Professor of Physics until his death in 1996.

  6. Shall we play the Festschrift game? essays on the occasion of Lauri Carlson's 60th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Diana; Ng’ang’a, Wanjiku

    2012-01-01

    There are not many people who can be said to have influenced and impressed researchers in so many disparate areas and language-geographic fields as Lauri Carlson, as is evidenced in the present Festschrift.His insight and acute linguistic sensitivity and linguistic rationality have spawned findings and research work in many areas, from non-standard etymology to hardcore formal linguistics, not forgetting computational areas such as parsing, terminological databases, and, last but not least, machine translation.In addition to his renowned and widely acknowledged insights in tense and aspect and

  7. Superhabitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host star...

  8. THE MENACE OF THE UNKNOWN: RE-READING HAROLD PINTER’S THE BIRTHDAY PARTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Baghira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the two world wars men were unable to come out of its horrors and disillusionment. The war which was glorified sooner brings forth total confusion and disorderly situation which none can avoid. This era therefore gives birth to a number of dramatists who constructs The Theatre of Absurd. Pinter’s early plays are often been attributed as ‘comedy of menace’ due to their superficial fun, and inherent menacing, verbal violence, erotic fantasy, obsession jealousy, family hatred and mental disturbance in terms of wordless language. Language plays an important part in constructing the meaning of any text; it simultaneously can voice or silence any issues it is dealing with. Pinter problematizes the use of language in his several plays. His dramas often involve strong conflicts among ambivalent characters who struggle for verbal and territorial dominance and for their own versions of the past. My intention in this paper is to identify how the motif of menace is actualized through verbal violence, uncertain past of characters and sudden, unexpected drop from a comic surface to an underlying seriousness and uncanny.

  9. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  10. Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, František

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis is focused on highlighting the development of virtual worlds. The paper summarizes the evolution of virtual reality. Current virtual worlds are compared in fundamental aspects, such as sociology, economics and education. Social sphere describes the interaction in virtual reality and its specialities. Economical sphere is focused on comparison of real and virtual economies, including their economic indicators. Educational sphere describes the sciences, which are best usea...

  11. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  12. Complete nucleotide sequences of attenuated and severe isolates of Leek yellow stripe virus from garlic in northern Japan: identification of three distinct virus types in garlic and leek world-wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, F; Sano, T; Yamashita, K; Fujita, T; Ueda, K; Kato, T

    2005-06-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of three isolates (two severe and one attenuated) of the potyvirus Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), the main causal agent of the garlic mosaic disease that is prevalent in Aomori prefecture, northern Japan. They contained 10,296-10,297 nucleotides and encoded a deduced polyprotein of 3,215 amino acids. Sequence variation among the three isolates was 1.5% at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Surprisingly, the sequences of all three isolates were quite different from that of recently described garlic isolate of LYSV from China. Sequence similarities among the 5'-UTR and P1 regions were only 56-57% and 52-53%, respectively, raising the possibility that these isolates may actually be distinct virus species. Phylogenetic analyses using 5'-UTR, P1 protein and coat protein revealed that all LYSV isolates described to date can be divided into three groups; i.e., those from leek, those from garlic in northern Japan, and those from garlic in southern Japan, China, and other parts of the world. The garlic isolates from northern Japan were more closely related to LYSV isolates from leek than to garlic isolates from southern Japan and China, suggesting a different origin for the garlic cultivars now cultivated in northern Japan. PMID:15703850

  13. World trade of lighting fixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Volpe

    2013-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the world trade of lighting fixtures industry, with 2012 production and consumption data at world-wide level and data on the evolution (2007-2012) of lighting fixtures trade in 60 countries selected according to their contribution to international trade of lighting fixtures. The world imports and exports of lighting fixtures are broken down by geographical area (European Union 27 + Norway and Switzerland, Central and Eastern Europe outside the EU & Russia, ...

  14. Deterministic Small-World Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Comellas, Francesc; Sampels, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Many real life networks, such as the World Wide Web, transportation systems, biological or social networks, achieve both a strong local clustering (nodes have many mutual neighbors) and a small diameter (maximum distance between any two nodes). These networks have been characterized as small-world networks and modeled by the addition of randomness to regular structures. We show that small-world networks can be constructed in a deterministic way. This exact approach permits a direct calculatio...

  15. The world review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A world-wide review of hydrocarbon processing is presented. Following a general introduction discussing issues such as the crisis in Asia, the mergers between the oil giants, the concern over carbon dioxide emissions in Europe, the expected decline in output of oil in the USA and the attraction of Latin America in terms of natural gas, the article goes on to review the situations and prospects in various parts of the world. Fifty-one countries are discussed individually in this 34-page article. The focus throughout is very much on the activities of individual companies and contracts rather than on technical details. (UK)

  16. The marks of the church in South Africa today - In dialogue with J�rgen Moltmann on his 80th birthday

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ Naude

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this celebration of Moltmann� s 80th birthday, an ecclesiological reading of his well known trilogy, Theology of hope, The crucified God, and The church in the power of the Spirit is attempted. It is asserted that Moltmann� s discussion of the marks of the church is a high point and summary of his early theological development. These insights are then applied to the situation of the church in South Africa today. The article closes with four contextual questions which are then �answered� in terms of the marks of the church.

  17. A testimony of the misbegotten : tension and discord in the poems of Sylvia Plath with special reference to Poem for a birthday / Johanna Aletta Bronn

    OpenAIRE

    Bronn, Johanna Aletta

    1985-01-01

    At the age of thirty Sylvia Plath died by her own hand. When she was nineteen and a student at Smith College, she had a nervous breakdown and tried to take her own life. She was dramatically rescued, and several years later she wrote a sequence of seven poems entitled "Poem for a Birthday" in which she used her attempted suicide and subsequent stay in a mental hospital as subject matter•. This sequence of poems can be considered the watershed between her early poems which she herself dismisse...

  18. Study of the genetics of progeny, brothers and sisters of Wismut employees that died before their 51st birthday from lung cancer. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project was aimed to reconstruct the genotype of Wismut employees that died before their 51st birthday due to lung cancer using genetic data from their children, brothers and sisters, in order to study the individual radiation sensitivity of the person and to develop a bio-sample data base. The final report includes the description of planning and realization of the project, investigation strategies, development and organization of a phenotype and bio-sample data base, preparation of data storage and genotype evaluation.

  19. Preservation of the Digital Culture: Archiving the World Wide Web Sayısal (Dijital Kültürün Korunması: Web Arşivleme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Aldemir

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Information growth in the web medium has required the necessity of archiving these information to transmit them to future generations. Web archiving is a versatile application which covers technical, legal and organizational dimensions. Any stage within the life cycle of digital information is critically important for the information in web environment. All over the world, many countries have started web archiving efforts through the leadership of their national libraries and attempted to carry these initiatives on a legal bases. In the light of these developments, this paper examines the necessity and major techniques in web archiving and it also discuss national and international web archiving projects. Web ortamında yaşanan bilgi artışı, beraberinde bu bilgilerin gelecek nesillere aktarılması amacıyla arşivlenmesi gereğini gündeme getirmiştir. Web'in arşivlenmesi teknik, yasal ve örgütsel boyutları olan çok yönlü bir uygulamadır. Sayısal ortamda üretilmiş bilginin yaşam döngüsündeki her bir aşama, web ortamında yer alan bilgiler için hayati önem taşımaktadır. Dünyada bir çok ülke milli kütüphaneleri öncülüğünde web arşivleme çalışmalarını başlatmış ve bu girişimlerinin yasal bir platforma taşınması için gerekli adımlar atılmıştır. Bu gelişmeler ışığında çalışmamızda, web'in neden arşivlenmesi gerektiğine değinilmiş, web arşivlemede kullanılan belli başlı yaklaşımlar ele alınmış, ulusal ve uluslararası ölçekli web arşivleme çalışmalarına yer verilmiştir.

  20. World energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three major concerns face mankind's future: the impending energy crisis as caused by the depletion of the world's fossil fuel reserves, world atmospheric pollution as caused by the burning of these fuels, and mankind's destruction if the vast energy contained in nuclear weapons stockpiles is released in a global conflict. This paper describes an ambitious, combined solution to these problems by the use of deep underground detonations of thermonuclear devices/bombs to provide a virtually pollution free, world energy source into the far distant future, while achieving a significant increase in mutual trust between the superpowers and all nations. The key is believed to be thermonuclear geothermal stimulation to produce the electrical power needed for a hydrogen economy

  1. World armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary of consequences on: Armament expenditure of the world, arms trade, arms race and nuclear weapon arsenals, nuclear weapon proliferation, nuclear safety controls, nuclear carrier systems, international nuclear trade, nuclear weapon accidents, chemical wars, war law, ecological wars, armament limitations. (HP)

  2. World Englishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心; 周丽

    2014-01-01

    In the current days, the search for information and the need for global communication have already promoted English from being the language of people in different countries as the international language. This essay will give some arguments about the inevitability of variety of world Englishes and its characteristics, and then explain that what Standard English is and examples about the standards in English.

  3. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the...... dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  4. The Sociolinguistic Analysis of Harold Pinter’s “The Birthday Party” in terms of Brown and Levinson’s Politeness Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biook Behnam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a comprehensive study of the politeness phenomenon in Pinter’s well-known play, “The Birthday party”. It aims at figuring out how politeness strategies are used by the characters and how the variables of power and distance influence the choice of politeness levels. In order to analyze the play’s text Brown and Levinson’s (1987 universal model of politeness was used. The model is characterized by three variables which are power, distance and rank extremity. Careful screening of the dialogues demonstrates that a good many of politeness strategies were used in the drama. However, different preferences were found in the use of the strategies towards the positive pole. Regarding the social distance the findings are consistent with Brown and Levinson’s theory predictions. The findings of this study suggest that the assertion of power is a complicated process which can not merely be explained by the high frequency of the use of certain strategies and an interlocutor’s power depends upon many factors like the role of the interlocutor and his/her status in the particular interaction, and in relation to the addressee.Keywords: Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory, Distance, Face work, Politeness strategies, Power, “The Birthday party” play

  5. A Birthday Gala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Overseas Chinese celebrate the 60th anniversary of the founding of the New China with pomp and performances "Hurrah! China is great!" Patrick Pan, a Shanghaiborn Chinese who studied economics in London and currently works in New York, cheerfully shouted as a group of overseas students

  6. Happy birthday, supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advances in understanding that have been made concerning SN 1987A in the year since it appeared are reviewed. The rapidity of the initial rise in brightness and the relatively faint absolute magnitude during the first few weeks have been found to be due to the progenitor star's being a blue giant, relatively small compared to a red giant. The nitrogen lines in the spectrum are evidence that the star was once a red giant whose stellar wind was so strong that the resulting loss of material converted the star into a blue giant. The variations in the light curve of the supernova are explained in terms of the radioactive decay of Ni-56 and Co-56 and the interaction of the resulting gamma rays with the debris cloud. Some of the remaining unanswered questions are summarized

  7. Happy Birthday TREF!

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Last month marked the 20th anniversary of TREF, CERN’s Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum, which held its first meeting on 27 September 1994. TREF was established to provide a forum in which the Management, Council delegations and the staff would be able to have their say on employment conditions at CERN. Its mandate remains “to oversee the collection of information [about employment conditions at other employers] and to stimulate communication and discussion between representatives of the Member States, the CERN Management and the CERN Staff Association”.   TREF was preceded by a series of bodies, the first of which was established as far back as 1979, the year in which the concept of a five-yearly review of employment conditions was first introduced at CERN. Fifteen years later, the establishment of TREF marked a coming of age. TREF brought a new methodology to data collection activities, systematically looking at the employers that are CERN’s real co...

  8. Happy birthday Echo!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    You are reading the number hundred and one (no. 101) edition of our bulletin Echo. Just over four years ago, on 27th March 2006, the first untitled edition was published (Fig. 1 on the left). The title Echo appeared on the second edition on 10th April 2006 (Fig. 1 in the centre). Today (see Fig. 1 on the right), the layout is slightly different, but the structure of each edition has remained more or less the same: an editorial informing you of the important issues, followed by articles on club life, cultural activities (exhibitions and conferences), information from GAC-EPA, and special offers for our members.     Fig. 1 : Nos. 1, 2 and 100 of our twice-monthly publication Echo Echo was created in March 2006 when, much to our regret, CERN official communication and that of your representatives were separated. November 2009 saw a return to normal practice, and since then the CERN st...

  9. Happy Birthday, Thomas Edison!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Edward A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the work and inventions of Thomas Edison and their use in making teachers and students aware of the importance of electrotechnology in their lives and in their futures. Enables students to learn about science, experimentation, research, the process of invention, and the thrill of discovery. Describes educational resources available from…

  10. Minimalist Instruction for Learning to Search the World Wide Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of minimalist instruction to develop self-regulatory skills involved in Web searching. Two versions of minimalist self-regulatory skill instruction were compared to a control group that was merely taught procedural skills to operate the search engine. Acquired skills

  11. Relational justice: mediation and ODR through the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Casanovas, Pompeu; Poblet, Marta; López Cobo, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    ODR means “Online Dispute Resolution”. Dialogue, negotiation and mediation are coming back as sources of contemporary law. We introduce in this paper two concepts and two related projects. We define the concepts of “relational law” and “relational justice”. And, at the same time, we describe how to put them in place from a social and technological point of view. Therefore, we introduce two concrete applications: (i) the Catalan White Book on Mediation, a large project to assemble the require...

  12. "Così abbiamo creato il World Wide Web"

    CERN Multimedia

    Sigiani, GianLuca

    2002-01-01

    Meeting with Robert Cailliau, scientist and pioneer of the web, who, in a book, tells how at CERN in Geneva, his team transformed Internet (an instrument used for military purposes) in one of the most revolutionary tool of mass media from ever (1 page)

  13. Freud goes Multimedia : Psychoanalyse im World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Laszig, Parfen; Sauter, Dagmar

    1997-01-01

    Im Zeitalter der Kommunikationsmedien erfährt der Mensch eine Art elektronische Ausweitung. Das globale Dorf, 1964 von Marshall McLuhan als visionäre Metapher eingeführt, nimmt damit zunehmend virtuelle Konturen an. Auch (oder gerade) die Psychoanalyse, als Wissenschaft des Unbewußten und dessen Wirkung auf Individuum und Gesellschaft, bleibt von dieser weltweiten Entwicklung nicht unberührt. Das Internet als ein Zeitgeist-Phänomen stellt somit auch die Psychoanalytiker/innen vor die Frage de...

  14. World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network: a data users guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jon R.; Hutt, Charles R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report, which is based on an unpublished draft prepared in the 1970s, is to provide seismologists with the information they may need to use the WWSSN data set as it becomes available in a more easily accessible and convenient format on the Internet. The report includes a description of the WWSSN network, station facilities, operations and instrumentation, a derivation of the instrument transfer functions, tables of transfer functions, a description of calibration techniques, and a description of a method used to determine important instrument constants using recorded calibration data.

  15. MPEG-7 Based Image Retrieval on the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Rajeev; Fotouhi, Farshad; Stanchev, Peter; Dong, Ming

    2004-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the number of digital media elements like image, video, audio, graphics on Internet, there is an increasing demand for effective search and retrieval techniques. Recently, many search engines have made image search as an option like Google, AlltheWeb, AltaVista, Freenet. In addition to this, Ditto, Picsearch, can search only the images on Internet. There are also other domain specific search engines available for graphics and clip art, audio, video, educ...

  16. Application of a World Wide Web technology to environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Buffalo District, is responsible for overseeing the remediation of several sites within its jurisdiction. FUSRAP sites are largely privately held facilities that were contaminated by activities associated with the nuclear weapons program in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s. The presence of soils and structures contaminated with low levels of radionuclides is a common problem at these sites. Typically, contaminated materials must be disposed of off-site at considerable expense (up to several hundred dollars per cubic yard of waste material). FUSRAP is on an aggressive schedule, with most sites scheduled for close-out in the next couple of years. Among the multitude of tasks involved in a typical remediation project is the need to inform and coordinate with active stakeholder communities, including local, state, and federal regulators

  17. CURRENT SCENARIO OF HERBAL TECHNOLOGY WORLD WIDE: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Agarwal*, Shashi Alok , Amreen Fatima and Amita Verma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the basic concepts of herbal technology which is used worldwide. 21st century is the century of Biology mechanical and propelled by scientific knowledge and hi-tech expertise. Herbal technology, are going to be the most influential elements that are fundamental for success and welfare for the people of nations. Information on the herbal technology was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. Nutraceutical are food or part of the food that grant medical or health benefits together with the prevention or cure of the disease. Cosmaceuticals are the largest accumulation to the health trade and are described as cosmetic products with drug; they are the fastest increased segment in the skin care market. Biopesticides are cost effective, safer, readily available, and ecological and therefore more environment- friendly and will offer substitute to conventional pesticides. Herbal drugs represent a major contribute to all the formally recognized systems of health in India. An upward trend has been experimental in the research on herbals. Export–Import reports reveal that the global trade of herbal technology and plant originated products is around US $250 billion. In the present article, an attempt has been made to present an overview of the herbal technology in the international market and intends to throw in the knowledge about Herbal drugs, Nutraceuticals, Cosmaceuticals, and Biopesticides which comes under herbal technology.

  18. Standardized Testing in Physics via the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIsaac, Dan; Cole, Rebecca Pollard; Cole, David M.; McCullough, Laura; Maxka, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Examines the differences in paper-based and web-based administrations of a commonly used assessment instrument, the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Results demonstrated no appreciable difference on FCI scores or FCI items based on the type of administration. Concludes that the web-based administration of the FCI appears to be as efficacious as the…

  19. Scholarly Misconduct and Misinformation on the World Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Philip J.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses scholarly misconduct as a source of misinformation on the Web and describes the results of focus interviews conducted in Singapore that considered the potential impact of misinformation on the Web. Topics include motivation for publication; motivation for misconduct; improving information literacy; and possibilities for quality control.…

  20. The World Wide Telescope: An Archetype for Online Science

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Jim; Szalay, Alexander S.

    2004-01-01

    Most scientific data will never be directly examined by scientists; rather it will be put into online databases where it will be analyzed and summarized by computer programs. Scientists increasingly see their instruments through online scientific archives and analysis tools, rather than examining the raw data. Today this analysis is primarily driven by scientists asking queries, but scientific archives are becoming active databases that self-organize and recognize interesting and anomalous fa...

  1. Pills on the World Wide Web: reducing barriers through technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Lori M; Turok, David K

    2015-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills are safe, effective, and available without a prescription in most countries. Despite support from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to provide oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication, US women are still required to have a prescription to obtain them. Use of online applications and the Internet has made most things easier to obtain in our society and this includes contraceptive methods. Several online ventures are now underway to enable US women to obtain oral contraceptives without visiting a medical provider's office. Women's health care professionals should encourage these novel approaches, as they will improve contraceptive access. As US women experiment with innovative health care models, providers will need to lead, follow, or be left behind. PMID:26071918

  2. An Interlibrary Loan System on the World-Wide Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Schubert; Lim, Ee Peng

    1998-01-01

    Examines the interlibrary loan process used by libraries in Singapore and proposes that the existing paper-based manual system be replaced by a Web-based system. Presents an example of such a system that has been successfully designed and implemented at the Nanyang Technological University. (Author/LRW)

  3. WIRED — World Wide Web interactive remote event display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballaminut, A.; Colonello, C.; Dönszelmann, M.; van Herwijnen, E.; Köper, D.; Korhonen, J.; Litmaath, M.; Perl, J.; Theodorou, A.; Whiteson, D.; Wolff, E.

    2001-10-01

    WIRED ( http://wired.cern.ch/) is a framework, written in Java, to build High Energy Physics event displays that can be used across the network. To guarantee portability across all platforms, WIRED is implemented in the Java language and uses the Swing user interface component set. It can be used as a stand-alone application or as an applet inside a WWW browser. The graphical user interface allows for multiple views and for multiple controls acting on those views. A detector tree control is available to toggle the visibility of parts of the events and detector geometry. XML (Extensible Markup Language), RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and CORBA loaders can be used to load event data as well as geometry data, and to connect to FORTRAN, C, C++ and Java reconstruction programs. Non-linear and non-Cartesian projections (e.g., fisheye, ρ- φ, ρ- Z, φ- Z) provide special views to get a better understanding of events. A special Java interpreter allows physicists to write small scripts to interact with their data and its display. WIRED has grown to be a framework in use and under development in several HEP experiments (ATLAS, CHORUS, DELPHI, LHCb, BaBar, D0 and ZEUS). WIRED event displays have also proven to be useful to explain High Energy Physics to the general public. Both CERN, in its traveling exhibition and MicroCosm, and RAL, during its open days, have displays set up.

  4. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  5. World Wide Web Search Engines: AltaVista and Yahoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the history, structure, and search capabilities of Internet search tools AltaVista and Yahoo. AltaVista provides relevance-ranked feedback on full-text searches. Yahoo indexes Web "citations" only but does organize information hierarchically into predefined categories. Yahoo has recently become a publicly held company and currently…

  6. World-wide ocean optics database WOOD (NODC Accession 0092528)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WOOD was developed to be a comprehensive publicly-available oceanographic bio-optical database providing global coverage. It includes nearly 250 major data sources...

  7. The world-wide interdependence of energy, population and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special problem of our time is not an energy-supply problem but an energy-disposal problem, as is shown by the example of CO2 production and climate disaster. Against this background the abandonment of nuclear energy cannot be right, since one risk would thus be replaced by another. The principle of risk diversification must be valid. An evuluation suggests that the necessary reductions in CO2 can be achieved to about 60% through energy conservation, about 25% through the use of alternative energy sources and about 15% through nuclear energy. (DG)

  8. Nuclear Insurance Pools: World-wide Practice and Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following paper explains why Nuclear Insurance Pools were established, how they operate and what insurance protection they offer to the operations of nuclear installations. It will be shown that the clear interrelationship of the Pool-insurance operations, both on a national and an international level, has resulted in a transparency of each individual Pool-Member's exposure, which enables him to make the highest possible commitment to nuclear risks. Finally, some views will be given as regards the future prospective for the long proven method of pooling this particularly sensitive class of business. (author)

  9. Detecting image purpose in World Wide Web documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seungyup; Smith, John R.

    1998-04-01

    The number of WWW documents available to users of the Internet is growing at an incredible rate. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to develop systems that aid users in searching, filtering, and retrieving information from the Internet. Currently, only a few prototype systems catalog and index images in Web documents. To greatly improve the cataloging and indexing of images on the Web, we have developed a prototype rule-based systems that detects the content images in Web documents. Content images are images that are associated with the main content of Web documents, as opposed to a multitude of other images that exist in Web documents for different purposes, such as decorative, advertisement and logo images. We present a system that uses decision tree learning for automated rule induction for the content images detection system. The system uses visual features, text-related features and the document context of images in concert for fast and effective content image detection in Web documents. We have evaluated the system by collecting more than 1200 images from 4 different Web sites and we have achieved an overall classification accuracy of 84 percent.

  10. Fans, Free Expression, and the Wide World of Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard M. Wasserman

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available People will come to ballparks, stadiums, and arenas (usually paid for by the community for the exclusive benefit of a professional team to watch the games being played. The controversy is over what people will say when they get there.

  11. INIS: new world-wide nuclear information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new search system utilizing Atomindex is expounded. The nuclear information system of United States of America will be shifted to the larger scale system, Atomindex, at the moment of discontinuing the publication of Nuclear Science Abstract (NSA). This shifting exerts large or small influence upon the information systems of the other countries. The Atomindex is a publication of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), and it includes most market unavailable reports. It is delivered through the clearing house to the users. Main differences between INIS and NSA are illustrated. Each piece of literature is listed under one or more descriptor pairs. Each pair is composed of the main heading and its qualifier, both of which are descriptors. Atomindex employs four working languages, namely English, French, Russian and Spanish. However, a version in the original language, even when this is not a working language can be recorded on magnetic tapes. Many special characters (suffixes, Greek, etc.) as well as alphabet are used, and italic type or boldface can be designated, so that the quality of Atomindex is better than that of NSA. The tapes for SDI and RS will be utilized as on-line real time systems. The second generation that utilizes the computer seems to be superseding the first generation that turns over the abstracts page by page. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Traitor: associating concepts using the world wide web

    OpenAIRE

    Drijfhout, Wanno; Oliver, Jundt; Wevers, Lesley; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2013-01-01

    We use Common Crawl's 25TB data set of web pages to construct a database of associated concepts using Hadoop. The database can be queried through a web application with two query interfaces. A textual interface allows searching for similarities and differences between multiple concepts using a query language similar to set notation, and a graphical interface allows users to visualize similarity relationships of concepts in a force directed graph.

  13. Hoe veilig zijn transacties via het World Wide Web?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Recent is in de pers breed uitgemeten dat hackers enkele 'home pages' van vooraanstaande Amerikaanse overheidsinstellingen wijzigden. In september moest de CIA eraan geloven en in december werden bezoekers van de 'site' van de Amerikaanse luchtmacht op porno getracteerd. Is dit het topje van de ijsb

  14. Hoe veilig zijn transacties via het World Wide Web?

    OpenAIRE

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Recent is in de pers breed uitgemeten dat hackers enkele 'home pages' van vooraanstaande Amerikaanse overheidsinstellingen wijzigden. In september moest de CIA eraan geloven en in december werden bezoekers van de 'site' van de Amerikaanse luchtmacht op porno getracteerd. Is dit het topje van de ijsberg? Wordt er dagelijks routinematig, op minder opvallende wijze op computersystemen ingebroken?

  15. World Wide Web Metaphors for Search Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; Ludowise, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    A software program that searches and browses mission data emulates a Web browser, containing standard meta - phors for Web browsing. By taking advantage of back-end URLs, users may save and share search states. Also, since a Web interface is familiar to users, training time is reduced. Familiar back and forward buttons move through a local search history. A refresh/reload button regenerates a query, and loads in any new data. URLs can be constructed to save search results. Adding context to the current search is also handled through a familiar Web metaphor. The query is constructed by clicking on hyperlinks that represent new components to the search query. The selection of a link appears to the user as a page change; the choice of links changes to represent the updated search and the results are filtered by the new criteria. Selecting a navigation link changes the current query and also the URL that is associated with it. The back button can be used to return to the previous search state. This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  16. The Design of an IVDS World Wide Web Browser Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hawes, Aaron George

    1997-01-01

    An IVDS (Interactive Video Data Service) uses an interactive television system to transmit data to and from subscribers' homes. IVDS allows the viewer to interact with content provided on the television using a remote control. A typical IVDS application would be ordering an advertised product or playing along with a quiz show. The Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications (CWT), under a contract with Interactive Return Service, Inc., is developing an IVDS system in which...

  17. World-wide innovations in the development of CCS-technologies and possibilities of utilization and recycling of CO{sub 2}; Weltweite Innovationen bei der Entwicklung von CCS-Technologien und Moeglichkeiten der Nutzung und des Recyclings von CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm; Markewitz, Peter; Linssen, Jochen; Zapp, Petra [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (DE). Inst. fuer Energieforschung (IEF), Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (IEF-STE); Peters, Martina; Koehler, Burkhard; Mueller, Thomas E.; Leitner, Walter [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC und CAT Catalytic Center)

    2010-07-01

    In the context of world-wide strategies for the reduction of climatic gases the CCS technology (CCS = carbon capture and sequestration) highlights a great importance. In individual areas the capture of carbon dioxide occurs commercially. However, the losses of the efficiency in the operation of power stations must be reduced by the separation and processing of carbon dioxide. A construction of a demonstration unit is particularly important. On this basis, diaphragm-based procedures, procedures for oxygen production as well as the dry sorption of carbon dioxide are promising. The technical and chemical utilization of carbon dioxide can offer an interesting approach for the direct reduction of the global emissions of carbon dioxide.

  18. Shell worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  19. Report of study group 8.1 ''methane emissions caused by the gas industry world-wide''; Rapport du groupe d'etude 8.1 ''emissions de methane causees par l'industrie du gaz sur le plan international''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altfeld, K.

    2000-07-01

    This report details the work undertaken by the WOC 8 Study Group 8.1 (methane emissions) in the triennium 1997 to 2000. The objective is to identify the major methane emission sources within the natural gas chain and to estimate from that the global methane emissions caused by the natural gas industry with a reasonable accuracy. Against the background of substantial uncertainties and insufficient data, a conservative approach has been adopted. The results presented in this report are based on a commonly agreed method using reasonable emission factors, on data provided by the operators inside the natural gas industry and on reliable data from literature. The total methane emissions caused by the gas industry world-wide were some 20,000 kt in 1995. This figure neither includes the methane emissions connected with the production of crude oil nor the methane emissions connected with associated gas which occurs during oil production and is not fed into a gas grid. More than half of the methane emissions can be attributed to three countries: USA, Canada and Russia, producing more than 50 % of the world natural gas. Related to the world's natural gas net production of approx. 79,000 PJ (net calorific value) the specific methane emission is approx. 0.26 kt/PJ (0.92 g/kWh). (Assuming - as a 'worst case' scenario - that natural gas is purely methane, a specific emission factor of 0.92 g/kWh corresponds to a leakage rate of 1.3 %). (author)

  20. Ordered Data Analysis, Models and Health Research Methods : an International Conference in Honor of H.N. Nagaraja for his 60th Birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaraja, Chaitra; Ng, Hon

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents an eclectic mix of original research articles in areas covering the analysis of ordered data, stochastic modeling and biostatistics. These areas were featured in a conference held at the University of Texas at Dallas from March 7 to 9, 2014 in honor of Professor H. N. Nagaraja’s 60th birthday and his distinguished contributions to statistics. The articles were written by leading experts who were invited to contribute to the volume from among the conference participants. The volume is intended for all researchers with an interest in order statistics, distribution theory, analysis of censored data, stochastic modeling, time series analysis, and statistical methods for the health sciences, including statistical genetics.

  1. A Festschrift in honor of Akira Imamura's 77th birthday, his recent retirement, and his many contributions to theoretical chemistry INTRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.; Aoki, Yuriko

    2011-01-01

    The Imamura Festschrift Issue of Theoretical Chemistry Accounts is a special multifocus international issue commemorating the 77th birthday of Professor Akira Imamura and his many contributions to the fields of theoretical chemistry, polymer science, molecular biophysics, chemical physics, and...... Long Gu at South China Normal University, supported by several funds from the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). In addition, there are contributions from top experimental and theoretical groups in the areas of nanotechnology, bionanotechnology, quantum transport theory, molecular biophysics......, molecular electronics, and even molecular medicine and medical diagnostics, where the marriage between theory and experiment is very important to be able to fully understand, interpret, and utilize the wealth of new and exciting experimental data. The development of new and refined methods, and the...

  2. High T$_{c}$ superconductors and related transition metal oxides special contributions in honor of K. Alex Müller on the occasion of his 80th birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann-Holder, Annette

    2007-01-01

    This book containing 30 articles written by highly reputed experts is dedicated to K. Alex Müller on the occasion of his 80th birthday. The contributions reflect the major research areas of K. Alex Müller which he activated in high temperature superconductivity and phase transitions. They are theoretical as well as experimental ones and focus mainly on high temperature superconductivity. A smaller part deals with ferroelectricity and their applications. Also in this field there have recently been major break throughs experimentally as well as theoretically which will be addressed by the invited authors. During the scientific career of K. Alex Müller he made major advances in the understanding of ferroelectricity, which used to be his major research field. The discovery of superconductivity in cuprates for which he received together with J. Georg Bednorz the Nobel Prize in 1987 has not diminished his interest in this area, but has enlarged his activities considerably.

  3. Suicide in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Värnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male–female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0 and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1. Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15–29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45–59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15–29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world.

  4. A world wide and genome wide assessment of biodiversity in commercial poultry populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity is the key to all genetic progress, past and future. Over the last 10,000 years, poultry was domesticated first from the wild jungle fowl, then in the last 1,000 years into standard breeds, such as game, meat, eggs, show, and dual purpose. In the last century, those breeds have b...

  5. The world solution for world problems : the problem, its cause, its solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, L.

    2002-01-01

    The book discusses the main world problem of today, which is the gradual, but lethal change of the soil and atmosphere, the main cause, which is the world-wide overpopulation, and the main solution, which is world government by lottocracy. It is a recipe for the solution of the one and only problem

  6. Patents and Technological Progress in a Globalized World-Liber Amicorum Joseph Straus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    -called liber amicorum comprises 60 (!) articles written by friends, colleagues and pupils from more than 15 different countries in Asia, America and Europe. The articles address a wide range of legal, economic and policy perspectives on various challenges related to the title of the book: "Patents and...... address a remarkable variety of crucial issues in the complex debates shaping today's technology related intellectual property law. Besides dealing with topics that directly concern Professor Straus' primary research interest, i.e. international and comparative patent law with a special focus on...... congratulate and pay tribute to this "distinguished grandmaster of intellectual property law". One of his birthday presents was a colossal book honoring his lifelong dedication to intellectual property law and his widely recognized achievements, not only in his primarily patent law-related research and...

  7. Looking for Darwin's footprints in the microbial world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, B. Jesse; David, Lawrence A.; Friedman, Jonathan; Alm, Eric J.

    2009-03-30

    As we observe the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birthday, microbiologists interested in the application of Darwin's ideas to the microscopic world have a lot to celebrate: an emerging picture of the (mostly microbial) Tree of Life at ever-increasing resolution, an understanding of horizontal gene transfer as a driving force in the evolution of microbes, and thousands of complete genome sequences to help formulate and refine our theories. At the same time, quantitative models of the microevolutionary processes shaping microbial populations remain just out of reach, a point that is perhaps most dramatically illustrated by the lack of consensus on how (or even whether) to define bacterial species. We summarize progress and prospects in bacterial population genetics, with an emphasis on detecting the footprint of positive Darwinian selection in microbial genomes.

  8. Wide-Screen Cinema and Stereophonic Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysotsky, Michael Z.

    Developments in the techniques of wide screen cinema and stereophonic sound throughout the world are detailed in this book. Particular attention is paid to progress in the Soviet Union in these fields. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet view of stereophonic sound as a vital adjunct in the search for enchanced realism as opposed to the…

  9. The World Stress Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Knowledge of the stress field in the Earth's crust is a key issue for the understanding of geodynamic processes,seismic hazard assessment, and stability of underground openings such as waste disposals, tunnels, mines or wells, and reservoir management. The World Stress Map project is a collaborative project of academia,industry and governmental organizations that aims to understand the states and sources of tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust. We present the Worm Stress Map at 1:46,000,000 scale as a result of more than two decades of international collaboration. The map reveals that the first-order pattern of stress is of plate-wide scale, indicating that plate boundary forces are the major control of the stress orientations and the tectonic regime.

  10. The World Needs a New Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The author proposes that today's existing, world-wide curriculum--based on offering roughly the same math, language arts, science, and social studies to all--is not what is required for the future, and is hurting rather than helping the world's students. Math, language arts, science, and social studies, he argues, are really "proxies"…

  11. Science Across the World in Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Lida; Weishet, Egbert; Kennedy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Science Across the World is an exchange programme between schools world-wide. It has two main components: existing resources for students (age 6-10) and a database with all participating schools. The programme exists since 1990. It is carried out in partnership with the British Association of Science Education (ASE) and international…

  12. Teach Students About World Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. Dana; Gibson, Rosemary P.

    1975-01-01

    The authors have travelled widely gathering data on information systems; they discuss the world communication and information revolutions, and call on teachers to turn out students with a world outlook. Eight guidelines are offered to this end, as well as a listing of some specific topics to include in courses. (AJ)

  13. Symposia on Time Series and Econometric Modelling : Advances in the Statistical Sciences : Festschrift in Honor of Professor V.M. Joshi's 70th birthday : v.III

    CERN Document Server

    Umphrey, Gary; Carter, Richard; McLeod, A; Ullah, Aman

    1987-01-01

    On May 27-31, 1985, a series of symposia was held at The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada, to celebrate the 70th birthday of Professor V. M. Joshi. These symposia were chosen to reflect Professor Joshi's research interests as well as areas of expertise in statistical science among faculty in the Departments of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, Economics, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Philosophy. From these symposia, the six volumes which comprise the "Joshi Festschrift" have arisen. The 117 articles in this work reflect the broad interests and high quality of research of those who attended our conference. We would like to thank all of the contributors for their superb cooperation in helping us to complete this project. Our deepest gratitude must go to the three people who have spent so much of their time in the past year typing these volumes: Jackie Bell, Lise Constant, and Sandy Tarnowski. This work has been printed from "camera ready" copy produced by our Vax 785 computer and QMS Laserg...

  14. Out of care and into care again: A Danish register‐based study of children placed in out-of‐home care before their third birthday

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubbesen, Mads Bonde; Petersen, Liselotte; Mortensen, Preben Bo;

    2012-01-01

    Objective: When children are reunited with their families of origin and the reasons for placing them in out-of-home care no longer exist, it is usually considered a good outcome. Unfortunately, some children are later returned to care. The objective of this register-based study is to describe in ...... histories. A psychiatric history is associated with re-entry only when the family structure consists of two parents. An immigration background is associatedwith a higher like- lihood of reunification and with a lower likelihood of re-entry. ©......Objective: When children are reunited with their families of origin and the reasons for placing them in out-of-home care no longer exist, it is usually considered a good outcome. Unfortunately, some children are later returned to care. The objective of this register-based study is to describe in...... terms of rates the processes of reunification and re-entry, involving children placed in out-of-homecare before their third birthday. Further- more, the objective is to study whether individual and parental characteristics predict reunifications and re-entries. Method: Data were obtained by using...

  15. In quest of perfection in electron optics: A biographical sketch of Harald Rose on the occasion of his 80th birthday

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief biographical sketch of Harald Rose on occasion of his 80th birthday describes some of the key events in an extraordinarily successful scientific life. Many of the theoretical concepts developed by him over the last 50 years have been fundamental for electron optics. Indeed, some of them have changed the whole complexion of this field and are fundamental to modern electron microscopy, both in TEM and in STEM mode. With this dedicated issue of Ultramicroscopy, the members of the electron microscopy community would like to thank Harald Rose for dedicating his professional life to their field and thereby enriching the life of those active in it. - Highlights: • A short biography of the professional life of Harald Rose is given. • We give a guide to some of Harald Rose's most important papers. • The impact of Harald Rose's work in the field of electron optics is described. • An introduction to a Special Issue of Ultramicroscopy dedicated to Harald Rose is given

  16. In quest of perfection in electron optics: A biographical sketch of Harald Rose on the occasion of his 80th birthday

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Knut W., E-mail: k.urban@fz-juelich.de

    2015-04-15

    This brief biographical sketch of Harald Rose on occasion of his 80th birthday describes some of the key events in an extraordinarily successful scientific life. Many of the theoretical concepts developed by him over the last 50 years have been fundamental for electron optics. Indeed, some of them have changed the whole complexion of this field and are fundamental to modern electron microscopy, both in TEM and in STEM mode. With this dedicated issue of Ultramicroscopy, the members of the electron microscopy community would like to thank Harald Rose for dedicating his professional life to their field and thereby enriching the life of those active in it. - Highlights: • A short biography of the professional life of Harald Rose is given. • We give a guide to some of Harald Rose's most important papers. • The impact of Harald Rose's work in the field of electron optics is described. • An introduction to a Special Issue of Ultramicroscopy dedicated to Harald Rose is given.

  17. Brane-World Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartens Roy

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The observable universe could be a 1+3-surface (the "brane" embedded in a 1+3+$d$-dimensional spacetime (the "bulk", with Standard Model particles and fields trapped on the brane while gravity is free to access the bulk. At least one of the $d$ extra spatial dimensions could be very large relative to the Planck scale, which lowers the fundamental gravity scale, possibly even down to the electroweak ($sim$TeV level. This revolutionary picture arises in the framework of recent developments in M theory. The 1+10-dimensional M theory encompasses the known 1+9-dimensional superstring theories, and is widely considered to be a promising potential route to quantum gravity. General relativity cannot describe gravity at high enough energies and must be replaced by a quantum gravity theory, picking up significant corrections as the fundamental energy scale is approached. At low energies, gravity is localized at the brane and general relativity is recovered, but at high energies gravity "leaks" into the bulk, behaving in a truly higher-dimensional way. This introduces significant changes to gravitational dynamics and perturbations, with interesting and potentially testable implications for high-energy astrophysics, black holes and cosmology. Brane-world models offer a phenomenological way to test some of the novel predictions and corrections to general relativity that are implied by M theory. This review discusses the geometry, dynamics and perturbations of simple brane-world models for cosmology and astrophysics, mainly focusing on warped 5-dimensional brane-worlds based on the Randall-Sundrum models.

  18. A World Nuclear University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the mission and tasks of the World Nuclear University (WNU) established to build worldwide knowledge and support the effective use of nuclear techniques for solving the global human and environmental problems of 21 century and thereby support the global sustainable development. In this respect the WNU would build Human resources, Technical knowledge and Public Support. A Network of educational and research institutions with strong programmes in nuclear science and engineering will be created. The WNU Head quarters and Regional Centers will: 1) Facilitate agreement on curriculum and WNU certification curriculum 2) Develop and administer scholarships; 3) Foster educational exchanges within WNU family institutions; 4) Build core faculty for summer 1/2 year Masters degrees; 5) Co-ordinate research, grants and knowledge management research; 6) Operate think tank and public information service; 7) Emphasise key areas such as safeguards systems and the nuclear-renewable-hydrogen economy; 8) Oversee world-wide human resources pool; 9) Orchestrate alumni support for nuclear technology. The possible participants and possible location of the Regional Centres are given

  19. Just how wide should 'wide reading' be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Educationalists introduce students to literature search strategies that, with rare exceptions, focus chiefly on the location of primary research reports and systematic reviews of those reports. These sources are, however, unlikely to adequately address the normative and/or metaphysical questions that nurses frequently and legitimately interest themselves in. To meet these interests, non-research texts exploring normative and/or metaphysical topics might and perhaps should, in some situations, be deemed suitable search targets. This seems plausible and, moreover, students are encouraged to 'read widely'. Yet accepting this proposition creates significant difficulties. Specifically, if non-research scholarly sources and artistic or literary (humanities) products dealing with normative/metaphysical issues were included in what are, at present, scientifically orientated searches, it is difficult to draw boundaries around what--if anything--is to be excluded. Engaging with this issue highlights problems with qualitative scholarship's designation as 'evidence'. Thus, absurdly, if qualitative scholarship's findings are labelled evidence because they generate practice-relevant understanding/insight, then any literary or artistic artefact (e.g. a throwaway lifestyle magazine) that generates kindred understandings/insights is presumably also evidence? This conclusion is rejected and it is instead proposed that while artistic, literary, and qualitative inquiries can provide practitioners with powerful and stimulating non-evidential understanding, these sources are not evidence as commonly conceived. PMID:26037965

  20. World Energy Outlook 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-11-10

    What will the credit crunch and economic recession mean for energy markets? Will investment cutbacks lead us towards a supply crunch a few years down the line? How could the transition to a clean global energy system be financed? These are just three of the questions that World Energy Outlook 2009 addresses. Incorporating recent developments in energy and environmental policy, this year's Outlook draws on the latest data reflecting the impact of the global financial and economic crisis and takes into account ongoing gyrations in energy prices. The resulting analysis presents a full update of energy projections through to 2030, fuel by fuel, and with more country-level detail than ever before. WEO-2009 puts the spotlight on three special topics: (1) Financing energy investment under a post-2012 climate framework: What policy action is needed to increase deployment of new energy technologies? Where are the most cost-effective opportunities for carbon mitigation? This ground-breaking analysis, which zooms in on the crucial period through to 2020, provides a robust quantitative basis for United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations in the lead-up to the crucial climate meeting in Copenhagen in December 2009. (2) Prospects for global natural gas markets: How hard will the credit crisis and economic recession hit gas demand and investment in gas supply? How will geology and geopolitics affect future gas supplies? Through field-by-field analysis of production trends of the world's key gas fields and a bottom-up analysis of upstream costs and investment, WEO-2009 takes a hard look at future global gas supply. (3) Energy trends in Southeast Asia: In recognition of the growing influence Southeast Asia is having on global energy markets, WEO-2009 includes an in-depth analysis of this fast-growing region. The annual WEO report -- the flagship publication of the IEA -- is widely recognised as the most authoritative source of global energy

  1. SYMMETRY IN WORLD TRADE NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Guangle YAN; Yanghua XIAO

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry of the world trade network provides a novel perspective to understand the world-wide trading system. However, symmetry in the world trade network (WTN) has been rarely studied so far. In this paper, the authors systematically explore the symmetry in WTN. The authors construct WTN in 2005 and explore the size and structure of its automorphism group, through which the authors find that WTN is symmetric, particularly, locally symmetric to a certain degree. Furthermore, the authors work out the symmetric motifs of WTN and investigate the structure and function of the symmetric motifs, coming to the conclusion that local symmetry will have great effect on the stability of the WTN and that continuous symmetry-breakings will generate complexity and diversity of the trade network. Finally, utilizing the local symmetry of the network, the authors work out the quotient of WTN, which is the structural skeleton dominating stability and evolution of WTN.

  2. Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites

    CERN Document Server

    Siebentritt, Susanne

    2006-01-01

    Chalcopyrites, in particular those with a wide band gap, are fascinating materials in terms of their technological potential in the next generation of thin-film solar cells and in terms of their basic material properties. They exhibit uniquely low defect formation energies, leading to unusual doping and phase behavior and to extremely benign grain boundaries. This book collects articles on a number of those basic material properties of wide-gap chalcopyrites, comparing them to their low-gap cousins. They explore the doping of the materials, the electronic structure and the transport through interfaces and grain boundaries, the formation of the electric field in a solar cell, the mechanisms and suppression of recombination, the role of inhomogeneities, and the technological role of wide-gap chalcopyrites.

  3. Scientific Endeavors of A.M. Mathai: An Appraisal on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday, 28 April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Haubold

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A.M. Mathai is Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and Statistics at McGill University, Canada. He is currently the Director of the Centre for Mathematical and Statistical Sciences India. His research contributions cover a wide spectrum of topics in mathematics, statistics, physics, astronomy, and biology. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, National Academy of Sciences of India, and a member of the International Statistical Institute. He is a founder of the Canadian Journal of Statistics and the Statistical Society of Canada. He was instrumental in the implementation of the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (1991–2012. This paper highlights research results of A.M. Mathai in the period of time from 1962 to 2015. He published over 300 research papers and over 25 books.

  4. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  5. ‘Surprise’: Outbreak of Campylobacter infection associated with chicken liver pâté at a surprise birthday party, Adelaide, Australia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Denehy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In July 2012, an outbreak of Campylobacter infection was investigated by the South Australian Communicable Disease Control Branch and Food Policy and Programs Branch. The initial notification identified illness at a surprise birthday party held at a restaurant on 14 July 2012. The objective of the investigation was to identify the potential source of infection and institute appropriate intervention strategies to prevent further illness.Methods: A guest list was obtained and a retrospective cohort study undertaken. A combination of paper-based and telephone questionnaires were used to collect exposure and outcome information. An environmental investigation was conducted by Food Policy and Programs Branch at the implicated premises.Results: All 57 guests completed the questionnaire (100% response rate, and 15 met the case definition. Analysis showed a significant association between illness and consumption of chicken liver pâté (relative risk: 16.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.4–118.6. No other food or beverage served at the party was associated with illness. Three guests submitted stool samples; all were positive for Campylobacter. The environmental investigation identified that the cooking process used in the preparation of chicken liver pâté may have been inconsistent, resulting in some portions not cooked adequately to inactivate potential Campylobacter contamination.Discussion: Chicken liver products are a known source of Campylobacter infection; therefore, education of food handlers remains a high priority. To better identify outbreaks among the large number of Campylobacter notifications, routine typing of Campylobacter isolates is recommended.

  6. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach world religions…

  7. Health Care Wide Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Hazards (Lack of) PPE Slips/Trips/Falls Stress Tuberculosis Universal Precautions Workplace Violence Use of Medical Lasers Health Effects Use ... Needlesticks Noise Mercury Inappropriate PPE Slips/Trips/Falls ... of Universal Precautions Workplace Violence For more information, see Other Healthcare Wide ...

  8. Maria Lisiewska and Anna Bujakiewicz – on the occasion of their 80th and 75th birthdays and the 60th anniversary of creating Poznań Mycocoenological School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ławrynowicz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Birthday anniversaries of excellent mycologists professor Maria Lisiewska (born 2 January 1934 and professor Anna Bujakiewicz (born 1 February 1940 are an occasion for dedicating them the jubilee issue of Acta Mycologica. Both ladies are known as authors of remarkable papers on mycocoenology, chorology and taxonomy of fungi. Specially appreciated is their educational activity in the form of courses and seminars opened for people from the whole country. The entity of their work resulted with the creation of Poznań Mycocoenological School and was important for integration of Polish mycologists, which later contributed to establishing the Polish Mycological Society.

  9. Wide Coverage Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Zackrisson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Small satellites require small and lightweight antennas for telemetry and command function as well as for downlinking of data. We have during the last thirty years developed a large suite of wide coverage antennas. The basic radiator designs used are quadrifilar helices, waveguides, horns and patch excited cups (PEC) depending on frequency range, coverage requirements and application. The antenna designs range from L-band up to Ka-band frequencies. Typical coverages for the antennas are from ...

  10. METRIC OF VIRTUAL WORLDS

    OpenAIRE

    Trunev A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis of a plurality of parallel and virtual worlds. It is assumed that sentient beings in each virtual world reach a stage of development that can create a virtual world to simulate the history of their own development. In this case, the virtual worlds are nested within each other, which put a severe restriction on the possible geometry of space-time. Discussed the draft geometry virtual worlds consistently displayed from one world to another. It is shown that in this...

  11. Virtual World Security Inspection

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Charles Patterson; Michael Hobbs

    2012-01-01

    Virtual property theft is a serious problem that exists in virtual worlds. Legitimate users of these worlds invest considerable amounts of time, effort and real-world money into obtaining virtual property, but unfortunately, are becoming victims of theft in high numbers. It is reported that there are over 1 billion registered users of virtual worlds containing virtual property items worth an estimated US$50 billion dollars. The problem of virtual property theft is complex, involving many lega...

  12. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    The paper was presented in the panel “Tending the tensions in co-creation: A critical, reflexive approach to co-creative methods” at the 32nd IHSCR. This paper highlights different forms of tension involved in facilitating creative processes and argues that tension is a necessity for change and t...... constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  13. Virtual Worlds? "Outlook Good"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, AJ

    2008-01-01

    Many people believed that virtual worlds would end up like the eight-track audiotape: a memory of something no longer used (or useful). Yet today there are hundreds of higher education institutions represented in three-dimensional (3D) virtual worlds such as Active Worlds and Second Life. The movement toward the virtual realm as a viable teaching…

  14. World Council-OMEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Margaret

    1990-01-01

    Details the 1990 meeting of the World Council of the World Organization for Early Childhood Education (OMEP) in Lagos, Nigeria. OMEP's Statement to the World Summit for Children is provided. The conditions of Nigerian children and female children in India are considered. (BG)

  15. Savior of the World Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The credit crunch and generally tightened monetary policy caused by the subprime crisis in the United States are still being widely assessed around the globe.Worries are that a further downturn of the U.S.market in the coming year will intensify cash flow shortages and spur more economic losses,resulting in a complete decline of the U.S.market and therefore slowing down the world economy.Another theory has surfaced assuming that China and the United States are the double-barreled engines of the world economy.As China’s influence spreads,it will have to complement the United States to rid the world of this crisis. Ding Yifan,Deputy Director of the Institute of World Development under the Development Research Center of the State Council,has made clear China’s growing impact on the global economy.However,as Ding wrote to the Global Times,a Beijing-based daily publication,the knockdown effect of the mortgage crisis is apparent,and emerging markets look even more vulnerable because of it.Excerpts follow:

  16. The world's largest turbulence simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Federrath, Christoph; Iapichino, Luigi; Hammer, Nicolay J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding turbulence is critical for a wide range of terrestrial and astrophysical applications. Here we present first results of the world's highest-resolution simulation of turbulence ever done. The current simulation has a grid resolution of 10048^3 points and was performed on 65536 compute cores on SuperMUC at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ). We present a scaling test of our modified version of the FLASH code, which updates the hydrodynamical equations in less than 3 micro seconds per cell per time step. A first look at the column density structure of the 10048^3 simulation is presented and a detailed analysis is provided in a forthcoming paper.

  17. Wide HI profile galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah; Zitrin, Adi

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the nature of objects in a complete sample of 28 galaxies selected from the first sky area fully covered by ALFALFA, being well-detected and having HI profiles wider than 550 km/s. The selection does not use brightness, morphology, or any other property derived from optical or other spectral bands. We investigate the degree of isolation, the morphology, and other properties gathered or derived from open data bases and show that some objects have wide HI profiles probably because they are disturbed or are interacting, or might be confused in the ALFALFA beam. We identify a sub-sample of 14 galaxies lacking immediate interacting neighbours and showing regular, symmetric, two-horned HI profiles that we propose as candidate high-mass disk systems (CHMDs). We measure the net-Halpha emission from the CHMDs and combine this with public multispectral data to model the global star formation (SF) properties of each galaxy. The Halpha observations show SFRs not higher than a few solar masses per year. Sim...

  18. METRIC OF VIRTUAL WORLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the hypothesis of a plurality of parallel and virtual worlds. It is assumed that sentient beings in each virtual world reach a stage of development that can create a virtual world to simulate the history of their own development. In this case, the virtual worlds are nested within each other, which put a severe restriction on the possible geometry of space-time. Discussed the draft geometry virtual worlds consistently displayed from one world to another. It is shown that in this case, the metric should be universal, depending only on the fundamental constants. There are examples of universal metrics obtained in Einstein's theory of gravitation and Yang-Mills theory

  19. World AIDS Day 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CynthiaKirk; 刘保行

    2005-01-01

    December first was World AIDS Day. Last year, the campaign (运动;活动) centered on women and girls. They made up almost half of all people infected with the virus HIV that causes AIDS. And H1V was spreading faster among women than men in most areas of the world. These findings (发现) werefrom the yearly report by the United Nations and the World Health Organization, a UN agency

  20. Happy birthday n_TOF!

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    The “Neutron Time Of Flight” facility (n_TOF) has recently turned ten. A simple ceremony marked the date of the anniversary and provides a nice opportunity to retrace the successful history of this unique facility, whose scientific activity spans a range from astrophysics to the study of nuclear-waste transmutation processes.   From left to right: Enrique Gonzalez-Romero, Chairman of Collaboration Board, Enrico Chiaveri, Spokesperson of n_TOF Experiment, and Carlo Rubbia, the creator of the n_TOF experiment. Ten years after its first beam, n_TOF is just approaching maturity. Revitalized by the recent renovation of its infrastructures that allowed it to gain the unique label of “Class A” in radio-protection standards, n_TOF has a rich and challenging scientific programme. “One year ago, the beam line and the experimental area were completely rebuilt to comply with the Class A radio protection requirements in order to safely use almost all radionucl...