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Sample records for birth-weight cancer incidence

  1. Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among Full Term Deliveries. ... (LBW) is a reliable indicator in monitoring and evaluating the success of maternal and child ... Key words: Low birth weight- incidence- associated factors.

  2. Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds and health effects in women and their infants. Epidemiological studies on birth-weight, cancer incidence, and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rylander, L

    1997-05-01

    In Sweden the main exposure route for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other persistent organochlorine compounds is through consumption of fatty fish species from the Baltic Sea (the eastern coast of Sweden). Cohorts of fishermen`s wives from the Swedish east and west coasts were established. Interviewed east and west coast cohort women ate locally caught fish at least twice as often as women from the general population. The east coast cohort women displayed during the period 1968-1989 an increased breast cancer incidence and mortality in ischemic heart disease as compared with the west coast cohort. Due to lack of individual data on exposure and confounding factors, it is not possible to conclude that the differences were caused by fish intake. Infants from the east coast cohort had during the period 1973-1991 an increased risk for low birth weight, as compared with infants from the west coast cohort. A nested case-referent study within the east coast cohort indicated an increased risk of low birth weight among infants born to mothers who reported a relatively high current intake of fish from the Baltic Sea, as well as among mothers who had grown up in a fishing village. Moreover, maternal 2,2`,4,4`,5,5`-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153, which was showed to be a feasible biomarker for exposure to PCB) concentrations in plasma drawn in 1995 and the estimated concentrations during the year of childbirth showed effects on the risk for having an infant with low birth weight. Employing alternative plausible kinetic models, an increased risk for low birth weight was observed at a CB-153 concentration in plasma during year of childbirth around 300-400 ng/g lipid. 117 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  3. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  4. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  5. Trends in incidence of low birth weight deliveries in a tertiary hospital, in Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    O Hassan; Z Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight is an important determinant of both infant and neonatal mortality rates and is also an indicator of social and economic development. The World Health Organization described any baby with birth weight of less than 2.5kg as low birth weight baby. Objective: To determine the incidence of low birth weight deliveries in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Study design: A retrospective descriptive study. Results: The overall incidence of low birth weight delive...

  6. Reducing the Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Low-Income Countries Has Substantial Economic Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of low birth weight not only lowers infant mortality rates but also has multiple benefits over the life cycle. This study estimates the economic benefits of reducing the incidence of low birth weight in low-income countries, both through lower mortality rates and medical costs and through increased learning and productivity. The estimated economic benefits, under pla...

  7. Risk Factors Correlated with Incidence of Low Birth Weight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjas Dwi Purwanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The infant with Low Birth Weight (LBW was one of the risk factors that contributed to the high infant mortality, especially in the neonatal period. About 17% from 25 millions birth each year in the world are infant with LBW. LBW could be caused by multifactor that were maternal factors (maternal age, birth interval, parity, anemia, social-economic and behaviour, fetus factor, placental factor, and environmental factor. The research aims was to analyze the risk factors correlated with incidence of LBW. This research was an observational  research with case-control design. The number of samples in this research were 120 mothers who delivered in working area of RSIA Kendangsari in 2014. The subjects were selected used systematic random method. The independent variabels in this research were maternal age, education level, employment status, birth interval, parity, age pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, hypertension, and anemia, while the dependent variable in this research was LBW. Based on correlation analysis used Chi-square test showed there were not significant correlation (p>0,05 between birth interval and parity with LBW cases and there were significant correlations (p<0,05 between age pregnancy, hypertension during pregnancy and anemia with LBW cases. Odds Ratio (OR were 13,571 on age pregnancy, 2,224 on multiple pregnancy,2,753 on hypertension and 4,030 on anemia. The conlusion showed that the risk factors of LBW cases were age pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, hypertension and anemia. While maternal age, education level, employment status, birth intervaland parity were not had any correlation with LBW cases. Keywords: LBW, risk factors, babies, maternal, pregnancy

  8. Trends in incidence of low birth weight deliveries in a tertiary hospital, in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a steady decline in the incidence of low birth weight deliveries over the period of study. Most of the babies born with low birth weight were delivered before 37 completed weeks of gestation and preterm labour was the most dorminant risk factor.

  9. Incidence and severity of stage IV bronchopulmonary dysplasia in infants of very low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, B.R.; Stevens, S.K.; Northway, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and severity of stage IV bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in infants of very low birth weight, the authors reviewed the clinical course and chest radiographs of 138 such infants. In the lowest weight group ( 1500 g, 10%). However, the severity of BPD (graded by the Toce-Edwards Scale) was highest (6.3) in the < 1500-g group (< 900 g, 5.4; 1200-1500 g, 5.9). These data showed that, although the incidence of stage IV BVD significantly decreased as birth weight increased, the severity of chronic changes was independent of birth weight

  10. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 children....... No significant sex differences were observed; therefore combined results are presented. Birth weight was positively associated with colon cancers with a HR of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26) per kilogram of birth weight. For rectal cancer a significant association was not observed for birth weights below 3.5kg. Above 3...

  11. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. Mazharul

    2015-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman. PMID:26052449

  12. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1% by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman.

  13. Intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy and incidence of low birth weight in malaria-endemic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cates, Jordan E.; Westreich, Daniel; Unger, Holger W.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the impact of hypothetical antimalarial and nutritional interventions (which reduce the prevalence of low midupper arm circumference [MUAC]) on the incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Methods. We analyzed data from 14 633 pregnancies from 13 studies conducted across Africa...

  14. Relationship of Anemia in Pregnant Women with the Incidence of Low Birth Weight Babies

    OpenAIRE

    suci wijaya, Ratih

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between anemia in pregnant women with the incidence of low birth weight babies in hospitals Raden Mattaher Jambi period 19 April to 31 May 2013. The study design was a descriptive-analytic cross sectional approach. The study was conducted in the delivery room part Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital Raden Mattaher Jambi on 19 April to 31 May 2013. Sample size was 97 samples. Data collection in this study used secondary data which medical records. D...

  15. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. 193,306 children, born from 1936 to 1972, from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register were followed prospectively in Danish health registers. Colon and rectal cancer cases were defined using the International Classification of Disease version 10 (colon: C18.0-18.9, rectal: 19.9 and 20.9). Only cancers classified as adenocarcinomas were included in the analyses. Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were stratified by birth cohort and sex. During 3.8 million person-years of follow-up, 1465 colon and 961 rectal adenocarcinomas were identified. No significant sex differences were observed; therefore combined results are presented. Birth weight was positively associated with colon cancers with a HR of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26) per kilogram of birth weight. For rectal cancer a significant association was not observed for birth weights below 3.5kg. Above 3.5kg an inverse association was observed (at 4.5kg, HR=0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.96]). Further, the associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer differed significantly from each other (p=0.006). Birth weight is positively associated with the risk of adult colon cancer, whereas the results for rectal cancer were inverse only above values of 3.5kg. The results underline the importance of investigating colon and rectal cancer as two different entities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, child...

  17. Childhood Height and Birth Weight in Relation to Future Prostate Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Gamborg, Michael; Aarestrup, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Adult height has been positively associated with prostate cancer risk. However, the exposure window of importance is currently unknown and assessments of height during earlier growth periods are scarce. In addition, the association between birth weight and prostate cancer remains undetermined. We...

  18. Impact of maternal risk factors on the incidence of low birth weight neonates in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : U.N.Reddy, VamshiPriya, SwathiChacham, SanaSalimKhan, J Narsing Rao, Mohd Nasir mohiuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is recommended as one of the twelve global indicators for monitoring the health of the community and is an important determinant of adverse perinatal and neonatal events. LBW infant carries five times higher risk of dying in the neonatal period and three times more in infancy. Aims and Objectives: To estimate the incidence of LBW and impact of various maternal and biosocial factors on the incidence of LBW neonates in the study population. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in Princess Esra hospital, a tertiary care hospital in south India, over a period of six months. All consecutive LBW (single ton neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were enrolled, while those born of multiple gestation and those with major congenital malformations were excluded. Results: A total of 300 neonates were included in the present study out of which 150 were LBW and 150 weighed ≥2500 gm. Higher maternal weight (>60kgs had low incidence of LBW neonates (p value-0.03. Illiterate women had a remarkably higher incidence of LBW babies (p value-0.001. In primigravida incidence of LBW was 61.2%. Higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with oligo hydramnio’s. Conclusions: This study showed that maternal age, weight, literacy level and parity have a significant influence on the incidence of LBW. Incidence of LBW neonate in the study was 50%. Risk of having LBW neonates was higher in primigravida. There was a significant association between LBW with oligo hydramnio’s and female gender.

  19. Correlation of periodontitis during pregnancy and incidence of low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Reddy

    2012-01-01

    After delivery, gestational age (in weeks and birth weight of baby (in kg were collected from hospital records. Infants were placed into following categories by gestational age (WHO and by birth weight preterm-3,900 gm. Results: Based on the findings of the study, a significant correlation was observed between periodontitis and low birth weight and preterm low birth weight (p<_0.001 and a significant relation was observed between periodontitis and gestational age (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Periodontitis was considered a risk indicator for reduced gestational age and birth weight. Multicentric trials will greatly help to establish the independent role of periodontal disease and their relationship in terms of pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Incidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury in extremely-low-birth-weight infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common event in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, especially in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW infants. This cohort study investigated the incidence of and risk factors for AKI in ELBW infants and their overall survival at the postmenstrual age (PMA of 36 weeks.All ELBW infants admitted to our NICU between January 2010 and December 2013 were enrolled. Those who died prior to 72 hours of life, had congenital renal abnormality, or had only one datum of the serum creatinine (SCr level after the first 24 hours of life were excluded. The criteria used for the diagnosis of AKI was set according to the modified neonatal KDIGO AKI definition.AKI occurred in 56% of 276 infants. Specifically, stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI occurred in 30%, 17%, and 9% of ELBW infants, respectively. High-frequency ventilation support (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78-6.67, p< 0.001, the presence of patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 2.25-8.07, p < 0.001, lower gestational age (adjusted OR for gestational age: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.58-0.83, < 0.001, and inotropic agent use (adjusted OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.31-5.21, p = 0.006 were independently associated with AKI. Maternal pre-eclampsia was a protective factor (adjusted OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.14-0.97, p = 0.044. Infants with AKI had higher mortality before the PMA of 36 weeks with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 5.34 (95% CI: 1.21-23.53, p = 0.027. Additionally, infants with stage 3 AKI had a highest HR of 10.60, 95% CI: 2.09-53.67, p = 0.004.AKI was a very common event (56% in ELBW infants and was associated with a lower GA, high-frequency ventilation support, the presence of PDA, and inotropic agent use. AKI reduced survival of ELBW infants before the PMA of 36 weeks.

  1. Impact of a standardized hand hygiene program on the incidence of nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capretti, Maria Grazia; Sandri, Fabrizio; Tridapalli, Elisabetta; Galletti, Silvia; Petracci, Elisabetta; Faldella, Giacomo

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the effects of a standardized hand hygiene program on the rate of nosocomial infection (NI) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight hand hygiene program was implemented using antimicrobial soap (4% chlorhexidine gluconate) and alcohol-based hand rubs. NI after 72 hours of life was detected in 16 of the 85 VLBW infants in the first period and in 5 of the 80 VLBW infants in the second period. The rate of central venous catheter colonization was significantly lower in the second period (5.8%) than in the first period (16.6%). In our NICU, the incidence of NI in VLBW infants was significantly reduced after the introduction of a standardized handwashing protocol. In our experience, a proper hand hygiene program can save approximately 10 NI episodes/year, at a cost of $10,000 per episode. Therefore, improving hand hygiene practice is a cost-effective program in the NICU.

  2. Social causes of low birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Kogan, M D

    1995-01-01

    The manifest importance of reducing the incidence of low birth weight is most obvious for the first year of life: low birth weight is the single most important factor affecting infant morbidity and mortality. However, there is growing evidence that the adverse consequences of low birth weight continue throughout the life cycle. This review deals primarily with social causes of low birth weight.

  3. High incidence of rickets in extremely low birth weight infants with severe parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Namgung, Ran; Park, Min Soo; Eun, Ho Sun; Park, Kook In; Lee, Chul

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for rickets of prematurity have not been re-examined since introduction of high mineral formula, particularly in ELBW infants. We analyzed the incidence and the risk factors of rickets in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. As a retrospective case-control study from 2004 to 2008, risk factors were analyzed in 24 patients with rickets versus 31 patients without. The frequency of rickets in ELBW infants was 24/55 (44%). Infants with rickets were diagnosed at 48.2 ± 16.1 days of age, and improved by 85.3 ± 25.3 days. By radiologic evaluation, 29% were grade 1 rickets, 58% grade 2 and 13% grade 3. In univariate analysis, infants with rickets had significantly higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC), severe PNAC and moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for gestation and birth weight, rickets significantly correlated with severe PNAC and with moderate/severe BPD. Serum peak alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly elevated in rickets (P rickets of prematurity remains high and the incidence of severe PNAC and moderate/severe BPD was significantly increased 18 and 3 times, respectively.

  4. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L.; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. We investigated the association between birth weight and adult PLC...... separately in men and women, using a large cohort of 217,227 children (51% boys), born from 1936 to 1980, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, and followed them until 2010 in national registers. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of PLC (30 years or older) were estimated by Cox...... regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p-value for interaction=0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25-3.75 kg...

  5. Can community-based, low-cost antenatal care in the third trimester of pregnancy reduce the incidence of low birth weight newborns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, A K; Chaudhary, Asha; Tiwari, S C; Dwivedi, R

    2012-06-01

    To determine if community-based, low-cost interventions during third trimester of pregnancy can reduce the incidence of low birth weight babies. In a case control study, 290 pregnant women from a slum area were registered in the beginning of third trimester of pregnancy and provided full antenatal care comprising fortnightly check up, one IFA tablet daily, counseling for minimum one-and-a-half hour post-lunch rest in left lateral position, additional diet to ensure minimum 2,200 kcal per day, and management of clinical conditions, if any. An equal number of pregnant women belonging to the same slum area were registered as control who received routine antenatal services from the existing health care facilities. The birth weight of the babies in the two groups were recorded and compared. Test of significance and correlation coefficient were applied to the data. Mean birth weight of the babies of the Subjects was 2.76 kg (SD 0.39) compared to mean birth weight of 2.57 kg (SD 0.36) of the babies in the Control group. Incidence of low birth weight babies among subjects who consumed minimum 2,400 kcal per day, had one-and-a-half hour post-lunch rest in left lateral position and who consumed one tablet of IFA (100 mg iron and 5 mg folic acid) per day during the last trimester of pregnancy was lower (17.6 %) as compared with women in the Control group (36.2 %). The difference in the mean birth weight of newborns of the two groups was statistically significant (t = 2.52, p < 0.01). Incidence of low birth weight babies can be significantly reduced by providing simple, low-cost care to pregnant women during the last trimester of pregnancy in the community setting.

  6. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including the CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies) score, in a local ... these babies for expensive tertiary care. Subjects. ... patient numbers, the tendency is simply to increase the ... included birth weight, gestational age, 5-minute Apgar score ...

  7. Analysis of Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity Among Very-low-birth-weight Infants in North Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yo Yang

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of ROP among VLBW infants was 45.8%; 19.0% had severe ROP. Infants of lower GAs and/or with LBW, whose mother had preeclampsia or who had a long duration of mechanical ventilation are at risk for the development of threshold ROP.

  8. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure. Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  9. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  10. High baby birth weight and risk of hormone-associated cancer in mothers: the cancer-cardiovascular disease dichotomy and its possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev M

    2013-07-01

    The idea of intrauterine or fetal factors being the cause of several prevalent noninfectious diseases in adults has recently gained the status of an axiom. One of the most thoroughly studied predictors is birth weight (BW). Although many published studies point at relations between BW and later adult morbidity or mortality, much less attention is paid to associations between baby BW and maternal morbidity. Available data suggest a sort of dichotomy in these relationships. Thus, cardiovascular risk is higher in mothers of babies with a reduced BW, while cancer risk, mainly of the breast and some other hormone-dependent cancers, is often higher among mothers of babies with a large BW (newborn macrosomia). This review addresses possible causes and endocrine mechanisms of this topic and suggests a 'particular' and 'general' solution for arising controversy. Emphasis is placed on a probable competition between chronic diseases (mainly, between female hormone-related cancer and cardiovascular pathology) within the concept of multiple causes of death. These associations should be remembered while studying the relation between offspring BW and maternal predisposition to hormone-associated cancers and other noncommunicable diseases.

  11. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen-Lamb, D.J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Vink, J.M.; Haak, M.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on

  12. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Haak, Monique C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background

  13. Birth weight, body silhouette over the life course, and incident diabetes in 91,453 middle-aged women from the French Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Balkau, Beverley; Charles, Marie-Aline; Romieu, Isabelle; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2010-02-01

    Obesity and increases in body weight in adults are considered to be among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Low birth weight is also associated with a higher diabetes incidence. We aimed to examine to what extent the evolution of body shape, from childhood to adulthood, is related to incident diabetes in late adulthood. Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) is a cohort study of French women born in 1925-1950 and followed by questionnaire every 2 years. At baseline, in 1990, women were asked to report their current weight, height, and body silhouette at various ages. Birth weight was recorded in 2002. Cases of diabetes were self-reported or obtained by drug reimbursement record linkage and further validated. Of the 91,453 women who were nondiabetic at baseline, 2,534 developed diabetes over the 15 years of follow-up. Birth weight and body silhouette at 8 years, at menarche, and in young adulthood (20-25 years) were inversely associated with the risk of diabetes, independently of adult BMI during follow-up (all P(trend) < 0.001). In mid-adulthood (35-40 years), the association was reversed, with an increase in risk related to a larger body silhouette. An increase in body silhouette from childhood to mid-adulthood amplified the risk of diabetes. Low birth weight and thinness until young adulthood may increase the risk of diabetes, independently of adult BMI during follow-up. Young women who were lean children should be especially warned against weight gain.

  14. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  15. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are those born weighing less ... an association between retinopathy of prematurity and poor weight gain. .... LGA = large for gestational age; SGA = small for gestational age; NEC = necrotising enterocolitis;.

  16. Bubble nasal CPAP, early surfactant treatment, and rapid extubation are associated with decreased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very-low-birth-weight newborns: efficacy and safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Charles A; Menchaca, Robert C; Baker, Mary C; Rivas, Clarissa K; Laberge, Raymond N; Rios, Enrique H; Haider, Syed H; Romero, Edgar J; Eason, Elizabeth B; Fraley, J Kennard; Woldesenbet, Mesfin

    2013-07-01

    Current literature has been inconsistent in demonstrating that minimizing the duration of mechanical ventilation in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) newborns reduces lung damage. To determine if introduction of bubble nasal CPAP (bnCPAP), early surfactant treatment, and rapid extubation (combined bnCPAP strategy) in our community-based neonatal ICU reduced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This was a 7-year retrospective,single-institution review of respiratory outcomes in 633 VLBW babies before and after introduction of the combined bnCPAP strategy. Coincident changes in newborn care were taken into account with a logistic regression model. The average percentage of VLBW newborns with BPD decreased to 25.8% from 35.4% (P = .02), reaching a minimum in the last post-bnCPAP year of22.1% (P = .02). When other coincident changes in newborn care during the study years were taken into account, VLBW babies in the post-bnCPAP years had a 43% lower chance of developing BPD(P = .003, odds ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.25– 0.75). Decreases occurred in mechanical ventilation and the percentage of infants discharged on diuretics and on supplemental oxygen. Among the subset of extremely-low-birth-weight newborns, improved respiratory outcomes in the post-bnCPAP years,as compared to outcomes in the pre-bnCPAP years, included an increase in the percentage alive and off mechanical ventilation at 1 week postnatal age (P < .001), a more rapid extubation rate(P < .03), a decrease in the median days on mechanical ventilation (P = .002), and a decrease in the percentage with BPD plus died (P = .01). Post-bnCPAP extremely-low-birth-weight babies had a statistically significant decrease in retinopathy of prematurity, an increase in low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage, and a decrease in ductal ligations. A combined BnCPAP strategy may contribute to a reduction of BPD, after adjusting for concurrent treatments.

  17. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR. Methods In a sample of 1230 triplets from 410 families, the effects of assisted reproductive techniques, zygosity, birth order, gestational age, sex, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on birth weight were assessed. The resemblance among triplets for birth weight was estimated as a function of zygosity. Birth weight discordance within families was studied by the pair-wise difference between triplets, expressed as a percentage of the birth weight of the heaviest child. We compare data from triplets registered with the NTR with data from population records, which include live births, stillbirths and children that have deceased within days after birth. Results There was no effect of assisted reproductive techniques on triplet birth weight. At gestational age 24 to 40 weeks triplets gained on average 130 grams per week; boys weighed 110 grams more than girls and triplets of smoking mothers weighted 104 grams less than children of non-smoking mothers. Monozygotic triplets had lower birth weights than di- and trizygotic triplets and birth weight discordance was smaller in monozygotic triplets than in di- and trizygotic triplets. The correlation in birth weight among monozygotic and dizygotic triplets was 0.42 and 0.32, respectively. In nearly two-thirds of the families, the heaviest and the lightest triplet had a birth weight discordance over 15%. The NTR sample is representative for the Dutch triplet

  18. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  19. The effect of parity, birth weight babies, pregnancy interval and a history of hemorrhage with the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (Case Study in the RSUD Ngudi Waluyo Wlingi Blitar on 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izfa Rifdiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum hemorrhage is one of the problems was the cause of maternal deaths in Indonesia. The maternal mortality rate is one indicator for the degree of health specially of a woman. Postpartum hemorrhage is bleeding or blood loss of 500 cc or more that occurred after the child is born. The research objective was to analyze the effect of parity, birth weight babies, pregnancy interval and a history of postpartum hemorrhage in the mother after giving birth to the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage in Ngudi Waluyo Hospital Wlingi Blitar 2014. This study used a case-control design. The populations in this study are all mothers who gave birth in Ngudi Waluyo Hospital Wlingi Blitar 2014. The sampling technique was simple random sampling. The results were obtained no effect of parity on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (OR=0,810, CI 95% 0,329birth weight babies on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (OR=0,651, CI 95% 0,104incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (OR = 17.953, 95% CI 3.550 incidence of postpartum hemorrhage postpartum (OR = 18.104, 95% CI 3.559 birth weight babies, pregnancy interval, a history of postpartum hemorrhage, the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage

  20. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karema Corine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence decreased over the last six years (2002–2007. Therefore, the impact of malaria on birth outcomes is also expected to vary over time and space. Methods Obstetric indicators (birth weight and pregnancy outcome and malaria incidence were compared and analyzed to their association over time (2002–2007 and space. Birth data from 12,526 deliveries were collected from maternity registers of 11 different primary health centers located in different malaria endemic areas. Malaria data for the same communities were collected from the National Malaria Control Programme. Associations were sought with mixed effects models and logistic regression. Results In all health centres, a significant increase of birth weight over the years was observed (p Conclusion In Rwanda, birth weight and pregnancy outcome are not directly influenced by malaria, which is in contrast to many other studied areas. Although malaria incidence overall has declined and mean birth weight increased over the studied period, no direct association was found between the two. Socio-economic factors and improved nutrition could be responsible for birth weight changes in recent years.

  1. Breastfeeding Trends Among Very Low Birth Weight, Low Birth Weight, and Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Angela G; Miranda, Patricia Y

    2018-05-18

    To examine the change in breastfeeding behaviors over time, among low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), and normal birth weight (NBW) infants using nationally representative US data. Univariate statistics and bivariate logistic models were examined using the Early Child Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001) and National Study of Children's Health (2007 and 2011/2012). Breastfeeding behaviors improved for infants of all birth weights from 2007 to 2011/2012. In 2011/2012, a higher percentage of VLBW infants were ever breastfed compared with LBW and NBW infants. In 2011/2012, LBW infants had a 28% lower odds (95% CI, 0.57-0.92) of ever breastfeeding and a 52% lower odds (95% CI, 0.38-0.61) of breastfeeding for ≥6 months compared with NBW infants. Among black infants, a larger percentage of VLBW infants were breastfed for ≥6 months (26.2%) compared with LBW infants (14.9%). Breastfeeding rates for VLBW and NBW infants have improved over time. Both VLBW and NBW infants are close to meeting the Healthy People 2020 ever breastfeeding goal of 81.9%. LBW infants are farther from this goal than VLBW infants. The results suggest a need for policies that encourage breastfeeding specifically among LBW infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  3. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  4. Birth weight and perinatal mortality: A comparison of "optimal" birth weight in seven western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafmans, W.C.; Richardus, J.H.; Borsboom, G.J.J.M.; Bakketeig, L.; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Bergsjø, P.; Macfarlane, A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, P.; Mackenbach, J.; Aelvoet, W.; Alderdice, F.; Amelink, M.; Bakoula, C.; Blondel, B.; Bødker, B.; Bolumar, F.; Davidson, L.; Gissler, M.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Holt, J.; Kaminski, M.; Leidinger, J.; Lekea, V.; Lindmark, G.; Masuy-Stroobant, G.; Pal, K. van der; Penney, G.; Purificação Araújo, M. Da; Rantakallio, P.; Rebagliato, M.

    2002-01-01

    Background. Previous studies have suggested that a population's entire birth weight distribution may be shifted towards higher or lower birth weights, and that optimal birth weight may be lower in populations with a lower average birth weight. We evaluated this hypothesis for seven western European

  5. Low Birth Weight, Very Low Birth Weight Rates and Gestational Age-Specific Birth Weight Distribution of Korean Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Son-Moon; Chang, Young-Pyo; Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Young-Ah; Son, Dong-Woo; Kim, Min-Hee; Choi, Young-Ryoon

    2005-01-01

    To obtain the low birth weight (LBW) rate, the very low birth weight (VLBW) rate, and gestational age (GA)-specific birth weight distribution based on a large population in Korea, we collected and analyzed the birth data of 108,486 live births with GA greater than 23 weeks for 1 yr from 1 January to 31 December 2001, from 75 hospitals and clinics located in Korea. These data included birth weight, GA, gender of the infants, delivery type, maternal age, and the presence of multiple pregnancy. ...

  6. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, Stephen; Mens, Pètra F.; Karema, Corine; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Kaligirwa, Nadine; Vyankandondera, Joseph; de Vries, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence

  7. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  8. Impact of change in maternal age composition on the incidence of Caesarean section and low birth weight: analysis of delivery records at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania, 1999–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidanto Hussein L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on change in maternal age composition in Tanzania do not indicate its impact on adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to establish temporal changes in maternal age composition and their impact on annual Caesarean section (CS and low birth weight deliveries (LBWT at Muhimbili National Hospital in Tanzania. Methods We conducted data analysis of 91,699 singleton deliveries that took place in the hospital between 1999 and 2005. The data were extracted from the obstetric data base. Annual proportions of individual age groups were calculated and their trends over the years studied. Multiple logistic analyses were conducted to ascertain trends in the risks of CS and LBWT. The impact of age composition changes on CS and LBWT was estimated by calculating annual numbers of these outcomes with and without the major changes in age composition, all others remaining equal. In all statistics, a p value Results The proportion of teenage mothers (12–19 years progressively decreased over time while that of 30–34 years age group increased. From 1999, the risk of Caesarean delivery increased steadily to a maximum in 2005 [adjusted OR = 1.7; 95%CI (1.6–1.8] whereas that of LBWT declined to a minimum in 2005 (adjusted OR = 0.76; 95% CI (0.71–0.82. The current major changes in age trend were responsible for shifts in the number of CS of up to206 cases per year. Likewise, the shift in LBWT was up to 158 cases per year, but the 30–34 years age group had no impact on this. Conclusion The population of mothers giving birth at MNH is progressively becoming older with substantial impact on the incidence of CS and LBWT. Further research is needed to estimate the health cost implications of this change.

  9. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  10. [The influence of previous pregnancy terminations, miscarriages and still-births on the incidence of babies with low birth weight and premature births as well as a somatic classification of newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, M; Olbertz, D; Fusch, C; Krafczyk, D; Briese, V; Schneider, K T M

    2008-02-01

    The influence of previous interruptions, miscarriages and IUFD on the IUGR and preterm rate as well as on the somatic staging (gestational age and birth weight) of the new born is a subject of controversial discussion in the literature. The present paper attempts to quantify these risks of the medical history. 2 282 412 singleton pregnancies of the period 1995 to 2000 were evaluated from the German Perinatal Database. For the analysis 1 065 202 pregnancies (46.7 %) of those mothers without any live birth in the medical history were assessed. To exclude any influence from previous abortions patients with previous miscarriages and IUFDs were excluded. The control collective were new borns whose mothers had suffered neither from miscarriages nor from abortions or IUFD. Previous interruptions, miscarriages and IUFD influence the rate of new borns with low birth weight and increase the rate of prematurity. With increasing numbers of isolated or combined risks in the medical history, the rate of newborns with a low birth weight or with prematurity is increased. The lowest risk was found after one interruption, the highest rate with two or more IUFDs. Interruptions, miscarriages or IUFD are not risk factors for IUGR or SGA. Previous interruptions, miscarriages and IUFD are relevant risk factors for prematurity and are related with low birth weight of the new borns. Pregnant women with such risk factors have to been considered as risk pregnancies and need intensive surveillance.

  11. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  12. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Objectives: To determine the relationship between Low Birth Weight (LBW), maternal age and multiple ... mothers. Low socio-economic status is the underlying ... rate of low birth weight infants. ... Table 3: Distribution of Age against Birth weight.

  13. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  14. Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Mahony, Rhona; Malone, Fergal D

    2011-07-01

    To establish the level of birth weight discordance at which perinatal morbidity increases in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancy. This prospective multicenter cohort study included 1,028 unselected twin pairs recruited over a 2-year period. Participants underwent two weekly ultrasonographic surveillance from 24 weeks of gestation with surveillance of monochorionic twins two-weekly from 16 weeks. Analysis using Cox proportional hazards compared a composite measure of perinatal morbidity (including any of the following: mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or sepsis) at different degrees of birth weight discordance with adjustment for chorionicity, gestational age, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, birth order, gender, and growth restriction. Perinatal outcome data were recorded for 977 patients (100%) who continued the study with both fetuses alive beyond 24 weeks, including 14 cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Adjusting for gestation at delivery, twin order, gender, and growth restriction, perinatal mortality, individual morbidity, and composite perinatal morbidity were all seen to increase with birth weight discordance exceeding 18% for dichorionic pairs (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.9, Pbirth weights were appropriate for gestational age. : The threshold for birth weight discordance established by this prospective study is 18% both for dichorionic twin pairs and for monochorionic twins without twin-twin transfusion syndrome. This threshold is considerably lower than that defined by many retrospective series as pathologic. We suggest that an anticipated difference of 18% in birth weight should prompt more intensive fetal monitoring.

  15. Subjective Social Status, Mental and Psychosocial Health, and Birth Weight Differences in Mexican-American and Mexican Immigrant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-12-01

    Recent Mexican immigrant women on average have an unexpectedly low incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Birth weights decline and LBW incidence increases in post-immigrant generations. This pilot project tested the hypothesis that subjective social status (SSS) of pregnant women predicts variation in birth weight between Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women. 300 low-income pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women in South Texas were surveyed for SSS, depression, pregnancy-related anxiety, perceived social stress and self-esteem and subsequent birth weight. No significant difference in SSS levels between pregnant Mexican immigrant and Mexican-American women were found. However, SSS better predicted variation in birth weight across both groups than mental and psychosocial health variables. Results suggest distinct relationships among SSS, mental and psychosocial health that could impact birth weight. They underscore the relevance of a multilevel, biopsychosocial analytical framework to studying LBW.

  16. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish......Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth....../cup/day). Compared to non-coffee drinkers, intake of eight or more cups of coffee per day was associated with an adjusted birth weight difference of −65 g [95% confidence interval (CI) −92 to −39] for non-smokers and −79 g [95% CI −124 to −34] for women smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day. Women drinking eight...

  17. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  18. Pattern and determinants of birth weight in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; ElSayed, M K

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the pattern of birth weight (BW) and identify the factors affecting BW and the risk factors of low birth weight (LBW) in Oman. The data for the study came from the 2000 Oman National Health Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health. The survey covered a nationally representative sample of 2037 ever married Omani women of reproductive age. Data on birth weight were gathered from health cards of the infants born within five years before the survey date. The study considered 977 singleton live births for whom data on birth weights were available. LBW was defined as BW less than 2500 g. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, multivariate linear regression and logistic regression models were used for data analysis. The mean BW was found to be 3.09 (SD 0.51) kg. BW was found to be significantly lower among the infants with the following characteristics: born in Ad-Dhakhliyah region, born in rural areas, and whose mothers had low economic status, low parity (0-2), and late initiation of antenatal care (ANC) visit. The incidence of LBW was found to be 9% in Oman in 2000. Mother's education, economic status, region of residence, late initiation of first ANC visit and experience of pregnancy complications appeared as the significant determinants of LBW in Oman. In contrast to most other studies, this study demonstrates that mothers with an advanced level of education (secondary and above) are more likely to have infants with LBW in Oman. The study findings highlight the need of intervention for specific groups of women with higher risk of adverse BW outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does culture medium influence offspring birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Beatriz; Boada, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Coroleu, Buenaventura; Barri, Pedro N; Veiga, Anna

    2013-11-01

    To determine whether the type of medium used to culture human embryos in vitro influences neonatal birth weight after IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study and a retrospective study. Private assisted reproduction center. The prospective study included 449 IVF/ICSI cycles from August to December 2008. The retrospective analysis was performed for 2,518 IVF/ICSI cycles from October 2006 to December 2010. In the prospective study, patients were randomized for embryo culture in Cook or Vitrolife medium. The retrospective study was performed with three different culture media (MediCult, Cook, and Vitrolife). Mean birth weight, adjusted for gestational age and gender (z score) of newborns. In the prospective study, the average z score was -0.19 ± 0.85 in Cook and 0.08 ± 1.40 in Vitrolife. In the retrospective study, the z scores obtained in each group were as follows: Cook, -0.14 ± 0.96; MediCult, 0.06 ± 1.13; and Vitrolife, 0.03 ± 1.05. No significant differences were observed regarding the birth weight of children born in the different groups in both studies. The results do not show any relationship between the medium used for in vitro culture and mean birth weight adjusted for gestational age and gender of singletons born after IVF/ICSI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Low Birth Weight And Maternal Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secma Nigam

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To study tile socio-economic and maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight babies and to measure the strength of association. Study Design : Hospital based case-control study. Setting : Shri Sayajirao General Hospital, Vadodara. Sample size : 312 cases and 312 controls. Participants : Cases Mothers who delivered single, live baby less than 2500 gms i.e. low birth weight. Controls:- Mothers who delivered single live baby more than 2500 gms. Study Variable : Maternal age, literacy, anaemia, outcome of last pregnancy. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test and odd’s ratio. Result : Among cases, 14.5% mothers had age less titan 20 yrs as compared to 7.3% mothers in control group. 68.6% mothers amongst cases were illiterate against 46.5% mothers in control group. 53.8% mothers had haemoglobin level 10gm% or less amongst cases and no statistically significant difference was found between low birth weight and outcome of last pregnancy Conclusion : The maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight in mothers attending S.S.G. hospital age maternal anaemia (OR 2.66, illiteracy (OR 2.51, maternal age less than 20 yrs. (OR 2.OS. No association was found between low birth rate and outcome of last pregnancy

  1. Is low birth weight a risk factor for asthma during adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Seidman, D S; Laor, A; Gale, R; Stevenson, D K; Danon, Y L

    1991-01-01

    The effect of low birth weight on the incidence of asthma by 17 years of age was investigated by studying medical draft examination records of 20,312 male subjects born in Jerusalem between January 1967 and December 1971. Additional information on birth weight and other demographic factors was abstracted from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study computerised database. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios for developing asthma by 17 years of age in 500 g birthw...

  2. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  3. Birth weight and later life adherence to unhealthy lifestyles in predicting type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Ley, Sylvia H; Tobias, Deirdre K; Chiuve, Stephanie E; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Curhan, Gary C; Willett, Walter C; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B; Qi, Lu

    2015-07-21

    To prospectively assess the joint association of birth weight and established lifestyle risk factors in adulthood with incident type 2 diabetes and to quantitatively decompose the attributing effects to birth weight only, to adulthood lifestyle only, and to their interaction. Prospective cohort study. Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010), Nurses' Health Study (1980-2010), and Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2011). 149,794 men and women without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline. Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through self report and validated by a supplementary questionnaire. Unhealthy lifestyle was defined on the basis of body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and the alternate healthy eating index. During 20-30 years of follow-up, 11,709 new cases of type 2 diabetes were documented. The multivariate adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes was 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.32 to 1.59) per kg lower birth weight and 2.10 (1.71 to 2.58) per unhealthy lifestyle factor. The relative risk of type 2 diabetes associated with a combination of per kg lower birth weight and per unhealthy lifestyle factor was 2.86 (2.26 to 3.63), which was more than the addition of the risk associated with each individual factor, indicating a significant interaction on an additive scale (P for interaction unhealthy lifestyle alone, and 18% (13.9% to 21.3%) to their interaction. Most cases of type 2 diabetes could be prevented by the adoption of a healthier lifestyle, but simultaneous improvement of both prenatal and postnatal factors could further prevent additional cases. © Li et al 2015.

  4. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  5. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  6. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight.

  7. Use of birth weight threshold for macrosomia to identify fetuses at risk of shoulder dystocia among Chinese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yvonne K-Y; Lao, Terence T; Sahota, Daljit S; Leung, Viola K-T; Leung, Tak Y

    2013-03-01

    To assess the incidence of macrosomia and the influence of birth weight on shoulder dystocia risk among a cohort of Chinese women. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 80953 singleton deliveries recorded at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, between 1995 and 2009. The incidences of macrosomia (birth weight ≥ 4000 g) and shoulder dystocia were assessed by birth weight; risk factors for shoulder dystocia were examined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The incidence of macrosomia was 3.4%. The overall incidence of shoulder dystocia was 0.3%; however, the incidence rose with increasing birth weight. The odds ratio (OR) for a birth weight of 4000-4199 g was 22.40, while the OR for a birth weight of 4200 g or above was 76.10. Other independent risk factors for shoulder dystocia included instrumental delivery (OR 12.11), short stature (OR 2.16), maternal diabetes mellitus (OR 1.78), and obesity (OR 1.58). Although the overall incidences of macrosomia and shoulder dystocia were low, the risk of shoulder dystocia was strongly linked to increasing birth weight. International guidelines for elective cesarean delivery in suspected cases of macrosomia may not, therefore, apply to Chinese women. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...

  9. Parental socioeconomic status and birth weight distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... The low birth weight rate was ... identified maternal educational level4 and parental occu- pation5 as significant determinants of birth weight. There however, has not been sufficient evaluation of effects of ..... children in Ilesa.

  10. Newborn birth weight in normal pregnancy in rural Telangana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanta M Hota

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Abnormal birth weight leads to many complications, both immediate and remote. However, to predict and manage such complications, one must know the average newborn birth weight. This study is the first of its kind in rural Telangana.

  11. Birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity in discordant twins in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Hua Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To assess the relative effect of birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using preterm twin pairs discordant for birth weigh in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in China.METHODS: Fifty-six discordant twin pairs of 112 preterm infants were retrospectively analyzed. The twin pairs were divided into two subgroups based on birth weight in each pair. The occurrence of ROP and severe ROP requiring treatment were compared between the lower birth weight infants and their co-twins with the higher birth weight. Some neonatal morbidities related to prematurity and neonatal characteristics were also compared between the twin pairs.RESULTS: Based on the univariate analysis, gestational age and birth weight were significantly associated with the occurrence and progression of ROP. But no significant differences in ROP between larger and smaller infants were observed in the twin-paired analysis. The incidence of neonatal morbidities regarding respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, sepsis and neonatal characteristics regarding gender distribution, one- and five-minute Apgar score, postnatal steroid treatment, blood transfusion, supplemental oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were not different between the twins. However, gestational age of ≤28wk was significantly associated with significantly higher rates of ROP and severe ROP.CONCLUSION: Gestational age is a better predictor of ROP than birth weight in the twin-paired study.

  12. Low birth weight in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy outcomes in the United States and other developed countries are considerably better than those in many developing countries. However, adverse pregnancy outcomes are generally more common in the United States than in other developed countries. Low-birth-weight infants, born after a preterm birth or secondary to intrauterine growth restriction, account for much of the increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Wide disparities exist in both preterm birth and growth restriction among different population groups. Poor and black women, for example, have twice the preterm birth rate and higher rates of growth restriction than do most other women. Low birth weight in general is thought to place the infant at greater risk of later adult chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Of interest, maternal thinness is a strong predictor of both preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. However, in the United States, several nutritional interventions, including high-protein diets, caloric supplementation, calcium and iron supplementation, and various other vitamin and mineral supplementations, have not generally reduced preterm birth or growth restriction. Bacterial intrauterine infections play an important role in the etiology of the earliest preterm births, but, at least to date, antibiotic treatment either before labor for risk factors such as bacterial vaginosis or during preterm labor have not consistently reduced the preterm birth rate. Most interventions have failed to reduce preterm birth or growth restriction. The substantial improvement in newborn survival in the United States over the past several decades is mostly due to better access to improved neonatal care for low-birth-weight infants.

  13. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... interviews of the mother during pregnancy and post partum. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (in brackets) are presented. Infantile colic was defined as crying for more than three hours per day and for more than three days per week (modified Wessel’s criteria). Results A total of 4...... with GA gestational weeks 32-40. Finally, after adjusting for GA...

  14. Displasia broncopulmonar: incidência, fatores de risco e utilização de recursos em uma população sul-americana de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: incidence, risk factors and resource utilization in a population of South-American very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Tapia

    2006-02-01

    .OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, its risk factors and resource utilization in a large South American population of very low birth weight infants. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from infants weighing 500 to 1,500 g born at 16 NEOCOSUR Network centers from 10/2000 through 12/2003. Multivariate relative risk and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Poisson regression with robust error variance to find factors that affected the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. RESULTS: 1,825 very low birth weight infant survivors were analyzed. Mean birth weight and gestational age were 1085+279 g and 29+3 weeks respectively. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence averaged 24.4% and survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia augmented with increasing gestational age. Higher birth weight and gestational age and a female gender all decreased the risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Factors that independently increased that risk were surfactant requirement, mechanical ventilation, air leak, patent ductus arteriosus, late onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia infants had more days of hospitalization (91±27 vs. 51±19, on mechanical ventilation (19±20 vs. 4±7 and oxygen therapy (72±30 vs. 8±14 in comparison with non BPD infants. CONCLUSIONS: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence was 24.4% in a large South American population and is related to greater resource utilization. Risk factors for bronchopulmonary dysplasia in this study were: surfactant requirement, mechanical ventilation, air leak, patent ductus arteriosus, late onset sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. These studies may provide information useful to the design of effective preventive perinatal strategies.

  15. Glycerin Suppositories Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shalinkumar; Dereddy, Narendra; Talati, Ajay J; Gaston, Kan; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To study the characteristics of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glycerin suppositories (GS) and evaluate the association of GS use with outcomes. Study Design  This is a retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Infants with birth weight between 500 and 1,499 g were evaluated. We evaluated the frequency of GS use and compared the characteristics and outcomes of the GS group with the no-GS group. Multivariate analyses controlling for gestational age and small for gestational age status were performed to study the effect of GS on outcomes. Results  A total of 1,073 infants were included in the study. Out of those, 527 (49.1%) infants received GS. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis was not significantly different between the two groups, while days to reach full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were significantly longer in the GS group. Conclusion  Frequent use of GS warrants further prospective studies to evaluate its safety and efficacy in view of our study showing association with longer time to reach full enteral feeds. We speculate that GS use could be a marker for gastrointestinal dysmotility and hence the association with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Correlates of antenatal body mass index (bmi as a determinant of birth weight – a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Rambiharilal Shrivastava

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI in antenatal period and birth weight of child, along with the socio-demographic determinants of birth weight. Methods: A longitudinal study of one-year duration, from June 2010 to May 2011, was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai, India. Universal sampling method was employed, including as subjects all pregnant women with minimum two Antenatal Care (ANC visits - and at least one in the third trimester - registered at an urban health centre from June to August 2010. Subjects with any pre-existing co-morbid illness or with past history of giving birth to twins or to any congenitally malformed child, or else, with outcome of still births or home delivery, were excluded. These women were followed up for the next months until delivery. Maternal weight was recorded at each visit and BMI was calculated, or the average BMI, in case of more than one visit in any trimester. Birth weight was recorded using hospital or maternity home records. Results: Prevalence of low birth weight was 26.7%. Correlation between maternal BMI of third trimester and neonatal birth weight was moderately positive. 60.8% of variability in birth weight can be predicted by maternal BMI in third trimester. Conclusions: Third trimester BMI can be used as a predictor of neonatal birth weight. Information, Education and Counseling (IEC activities regarding utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC services can help reducing the incidence of Low Birth Weight (LBW.

  17. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  18. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  19. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  20. Maternal Anemia during pregnancy and infant low birth weight: A systematic review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Shoboo; Delpishe, Ali; Azami, Milad; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammed Reza; Sayehmiri, Kurosh

    2017-03-01

    Infant low birth weight is one of the major problems in different societies. Different reports have provided different results regarding the relationship between maternal anemia and infant low birth weight in different months of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal anemia during pregnancy and infant low birth weight. This systematic review was conducted using related keywords in national (Sid, Iran.doc, Iran medex and Magiran) and international (PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Springer, Embase, Google scholar) databases. Relative risks and confidence intervals were extracted from each study. The results were combined using random-effects model for meta-analysis. The I 2 index was also used to measure heterogeneity between the studies. Overall, 17 studies with a total sample size of 245407 entered the final meta-analysis and demonstrated that the relative risk for maternal anemia in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03-1.55), 0.97 (95% CI: 0.57-1.65), and 1.21 (95% CI: 0.84-1.76), respectively. The relationship between maternal anemia and infant low birth weight in the first trimester of pregnancy was significant. Maternal anemia, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy, can be considered as a risk factor for pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, one needs to take the necessary steps to cure this disease in order to reduce the incidence of infant low birth weight.

  1. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  2. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2014-01-01

    between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....

  3. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low-birth-weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; van Zwol, Annelies; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Fetter, Willem P. F.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low- birth- weight infants on the incidence of allergic and infectious diseases during the first year of life. Design: Follow- up study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: All surviving infants who

  4. Low birth weight,very low birth weight rates and gestational age-specific birth weight distribution of korean newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Son-Moon; Chang, Young-Pyo; Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Young-Ah; Son, Dong-Woo; Kim, Min-Hee; Choi, Young-Ryoon

    2005-04-01

    To obtain the low birth weight (LBW) rate, the very low birth weight (VLBW) rate, and gestational age (GA)-specific birth weight distribution based on a large population in Korea, we collected and analyzed the birth data of 108,486 live births with GA greater than 23 weeks for 1 yr from 1 January to 31 December 2001, from 75 hospitals and clinics located in Korea. These data included birth weight, GA, gender of the infants, delivery type, maternal age, and the presence of multiple pregnancy. The mean birth weight and GA of a crude population are 3,188 +/-518 g and 38.7+/-2.1 weeks, respectively. The LBW and the VLBW rates are 7.2% and 1.4%, respectively. The preterm birth rate (less than 37 completed weeks of gestation) is 8.4% and the very preterm birth rate (less than 32 completed weeks of gestation) is 0.7%. The mean birth weights for female infants, multiple births, and births delivered by cesarean section were lower than those for male, singletons, and births delivered vaginally. The risk of delivering LBW or VLBW infant was higher for the teenagers and the older women (aged 35 yr and more). We have also obtained the percentile distribution of GA-specific birth weight in infants over 23 weeks of gestation.

  5. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  6. Cancer incidence among merchant seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig Petersen, Kajsa; Volk, Julie; Kaerlev, Linda

    2018-01-01

    on the incidence of specific cancers among both male and female seafarers. Methods: Using records from the Danish Seafarer Registry, all seafarers employed on Danish ships during 1986-1999 were identified, resulting in a cohort of 33 084 men and 11 209 women. Information on vital status and cancer was linked...... to each member of the cohort from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Cancer Registry using the unique Danish personal identification number. SIRs were estimated for specific cancers using national rates. Results: The overall incidence of cancer was increased for both male and female...

  7. Trends and racial differences in birth weight and related survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, G R; Tompkins, M E; Allen, M C; Hulsey, T C

    1999-06-01

    In the past two decades, infant mortality rates in the United States declined in African-American and White populations. Despite this, racial disparities in infant mortality rates have increased and rates of low birth weight deliveries have shown little change. In this study, we examine temporal changes in birth weight distributions, birth weight specific neonatal mortality, and the birth weight threshold for an adverse risk of survival within both racial groups in order to explore the mechanisms for the disparities in infant mortality rates. Single live births born to South Carolina resident mothers between 1975 and 1994 and considered White or African-American based on the mother's report of maternal race on the birth certificate were selected for investigation. We define the birth weight threshold for adverse survival odds as the birth weight at which 50% or more of infants in the population died within the first month of life. Despite significant increases in very low birth weight percentages, neonatal mortality rates markedly declined. Birth weight specific neonatal mortality decreased for both races, although greater reductions accrued to White low birth weight infants. By the end of the study period, the birth weight at which over 50% of newborns died within the first month of life was 696 g for Whites and 673 g for African-Americans. The ongoing decline in neonatal mortality is mainly due to reductions in birth weight specific neonatal mortality, probably related to high-risk obstetric and neonatal care. Technological developments in these areas may have differentially benefited Whites, resulting in an increasing racial disparity in mortality rates. Moreover, the relatively greater and increasing mortality risk from postmaturity and macrosomia in infants of African-America mothers may further exacerbate the racial gap in infant mortality.

  8. Factors predisposing to low birth weight in Jimma Hospital South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight continues to remain a major public health problem in Ethiopia in contrast to what is observed in many developing countries. Objectives: To assess some of the predisposing factors to low birth weight among deliveries in Jimma hospital. Design: Cross-sectional case referent study.

  9. Intrapartum prediction of birth weight using maternal anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This prospective study was conducted at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Nigeria, between April 1st and 31st of July, 2013 to predict birth weight in labour using four clinical methods and ultrasound scan independently and comparatively to determine which is closest to the actual birth weight. The four clinical methods are ...

  10. Birth Weight does not Associate with Gestational Physical Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise during pregnancy has been a subject of debate and whether gestational physical activity profile affects birth weight is an important issue as birth weight is an indicator of fetal, neo-natal and post-natal mortality. This study was carried at three hospitals in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria to determine the difference between ...

  11. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  12. biostatistical analysis of birth weight and head circumference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    URCHMAN

    hypothesis that birth weight is independent of head circumference; birth weight is ... small head size called Microcephaly or very slow growth rate may indicate that .... Decision is to reject H0 if the F distribution with K degrees of freedom in the ...

  13. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Shyam V; Kulkarni, Madhav B; Sadavarte, Vaishali S; Ashtekar, Ratna S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg) over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby’s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades. PMID:20922101

  14. Joint association between birth weight at term and later life adherence to a healthy lifestyle with risk of hypertension: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Ley, Sylvia H; VanderWeele, Tyler J; Curhan, Gary C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Willett, Walter C; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Qi, Lu

    2015-07-31

    Low birth weight and unhealthy lifestyles in adulthood have been independently associated with an elevated risk of hypertension. However, no study has examined the joint effects of these factors on incidence of hypertension. We followed 52,114 women from the Nurses' Health Study II without hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, prehypertension, and hypertension at baseline (1991-2011). Women born preterm, of a multiple pregnancy, or who were missing birth weight data were excluded. Unhealthy adulthood lifestyle was defined by compiling status scores of body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, and the use of non-narcotic analgesics. We documented 12,588 incident cases of hypertension during 20 years of follow-up. The risk of hypertension associated with a combination of low birth weight at term and unhealthy lifestyle factors (RR, 1.95; 95 % CI, 1.83-2.07) was more than the addition of the risk associated with each individual factor, indicating a significant interaction on an additive scale (P interaction unhealthy lifestyle alone, and their joint effect were 23.9 % (95 % CI, 16.6-31.2), 63.7 % (95 % CI, 60.4-66.9), and 12.5 % (95 % CI, 9.87-15.0), respectively. The population-attributable-risk for the combined adulthood unhealthy lifestyle and low birth weight at term was 66.3 % (95 % CI, 56.9-74.0). The majority of cases of hypertension could be prevented by the adoption of a healthier lifestyle, though some cases may depend on simultaneous improvement of both prenatal and postnatal factors.

  15. Developmental outcome of low birth-weight and preterm newborns: a re-view of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems. Global statistics demonstrates an increase in the prevalence of low birth weight in the developing countries. Low birth weight infants are exposed to complications such as major neurosensory impairements, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances. The majority of infant's death and developmental disorders were due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight. Infants weighing less than 2500 g, is a major determinant of both neonatal and infant mortality rates and, together with congenital anomalies (e.g., cardiac, central nervous system, and respiratory, contributes significantly to childhood morbidity. Various studies indicate that low birth weight infants are suffering from physiological and psychosocial disabilities, two to three times more than the other children. At school age, preterm and low birth weight infants have poorer physical growth, cognitive function, and school performance. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Although the survival rates have increased dramatically and the incidence of morbidities has decreased, the complications are still considered to be associated with economical and social burdens. Most children with Low birth weight suffer from multiple disabilities. Therefore, they need special and consistent care. On demand of reducing the infant mortality rate, the need to decrease the complications in low birth weight and preterm infants should be considered by the policy makers in health care system. In this review article, we assessed current evidences on developmental outcomes of low birth weight and

  16. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight......, gestational age, TSH, and smoking) did not change the findings of nonsignificant regression coefficients. CONCLUSION: Low birth weight per se has no evident role in the etiology of thyroid autoimmunity....

  17. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  19. Regional differences in low birth weight in Spain: biological, demographic and socioeconomic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Zuluaga, Pilar; Colantonio, S E; Román-Busto, J

    2015-01-01

    The geographic and demographic dimensions of Spain, in terms of surface and number of inhabitants, and its heterogeneous socioeconomic development offer an adequate opportunity to study the provincial differences in birth weight from 1996 to 2010, focusing on possible factors determining the relative frequency of low birth weight. The study analysed geographic differences with regard to biological, demographic and socioeconomic factors that interfere with the female reproductive pattern. The variables considered here were: birth order, proportion of premature deliveries, mother's age, multiparity, mother's country of origin and professional qualifications. Two periods (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were compared by means of principal components analysis. An increase in the relative frequency of deliveries weighing less than 2500 g occurred in most of the 52 geographic units studied, differences being significant in 42. Only in five cases was there a non-significant reduction in the proportion of low weight births. The first component after principal component analysis indicated that low birth weight was positively related to maternal age and to multiple deliveries, and negatively to the mother's low professional qualification. The second component related positively to the incidence of premature deliveries and to non-Spanish status and negatively in the case of primiparous mothers. The progressive increase in low birth weight incidence observed in Spain from 1996 onwards has occurred with considerable variation in each province. In part, this diversity can be attributed to the unequal reproductive patterns of immigrant mothers.

  20. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  1. Assessing the value of customized birth weight percentiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Walker, Mark; Platt, Robert W

    2011-02-15

    Customized birth weight percentiles are weight-for-gestational-age percentiles that account for the influence of maternal characteristics on fetal growth. Although intuitively appealing, the incremental value they provide in the identification of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) over conventional birth weight percentiles is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the value of customized birth weight percentiles in a simulated cohort of 100,000 infants aged 37 weeks whose IUGR status was known. A cohort of infants with a range of healthy birth weights was first simulated on the basis of the distributions of maternal/fetal characteristics observed in births at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal, Canada, between 2000 and 2006. The occurrence of IUGR was re-created by reducing the observed birth weights of a small percentage of these infants. The value of customized percentiles was assessed by calculating true and false positive rates. Customizing birth weight percentiles for maternal characteristics added very little information to the identification of IUGR beyond that obtained from conventional weight-for-gestational-age percentiles (true positive rates of 61.8% and 61.1%, respectively, and false positive rates of 7.9% and 8.5%, respectively). For the process of customization to be worthwhile, maternal characteristics in the customization model were shown through simulation to require an unrealistically strong association with birth weight.

  2. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  4. Pacemaker therapy in low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchigami, Tai; Nishioka, Masahiko; Akashige, Toru; Shimabukuro, Atsuya; Nagata, Nobuhiro

    2018-02-01

    Infants born with complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) and fetal bradycardia are frequently born with low birth weight. Three low-birth-weight CAVB infants underwent temporary pacemaker implantation, followed by permanent single-chamber pacemaker implantation at median body weights of 1.7 and 3.2 kg, respectively. All infants caught up with their growth curves and had >3 years of estimated residual battery life. This two-stage strategy was successful in facilitating permanent pacemaker implantation in low-birth-weight babies. Placement of single-chamber pacemaker on the apex of the left ventricle appears to be associated with longer battery lifespan. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Birth weight and intelligence in young adulthood and midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. RESULTS: Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow......OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. METHODS: The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members...

  6. Failure of erythromycin to eliminate airway colonization with ureaplasma urealyticum in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruger Thomas E

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway colonization of mechanically ventilated very low birth weight infants (birth weight Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu is associated with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. While Uu is sensitive to erythromycin in vitro, the efficacy of intravenous (IV erythromycin to eliminate Uu from the airways has not been studied. Methods 17 very low birth weight infants with Uu positive tracheal aspirate (TA cultures were randomized to either 5 (8 infants or 10 days (9 infants of IV erythromycin lactobionate (40 mg/kg/day in 3 divided doses. Tracheal aspirate cultures for Uu were performed on days 0, 5, 10 and 15. Results Intravenous erythromycin failed to eliminate airway colonization in a large proportion of infants regardless of whether they received 5 or 10 days of treatment. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 4/15 (27% of TAs obtained at 5 days, 5/12 TAs (42% obtained at 10 days and 6/11(55% TAs obtained at 15 days (combined group data. Conclusions Erythromycin administered IV does not eliminate Uu from the airways in a large proportion of infants. Failure of erythromycin to eliminate Uu from the airways may contribute to the lack of efficacy of this drug in reducing the incidence of BPD in very low birth weight infants.

  7. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  8. [A cohort study on the correlation between birth weight, simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qi; Tan, Jing; Liu, Zhao-hui; Liu, Rong-kun; Yang, Zheng

    2007-11-01

    To determine the correlation between birth weight and simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence. A vertical sectional survey on 193 children aged 7 - 11 years was performed in 1996. A questionnaire consisting of items on environmental factors and lifestyle, physical examination and biochemical assessment was conducted at baseline and the 9th year of follow-up. The incidence of obesity and over-weight in childhood in high (6.1%) and low birth-weight group (5.6%) was higher than that in normal birth-weight group (2.8%), but did not reach statistic significance; The levels of body mass index in adolescence in high and low birth-weight group were significantly higher than that in normal birth-weight group (P = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively), and the incidence of obesity and over-weight in adolescence was significantly higher in high (33.3%) and low birth-weight group (38.9%) than that in normal birth-weight group (16.2%, P = 0.025 and 0.020, respectively). There were no significant differences in the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure between different birth weight groups (all, P > 0.05). Intrauterine growth is linked to physical growth during childhood and adolescence. Nutritional guidance in pregnant phase may help to control the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescent.

  9. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... significant (P < 0.05). Type of birth also had effect on the body weight of lambs at birth in both Pirot and ... Key words: Environmental factors, birth weight variability, indigenous sheep. ... breeding plans to improve production.

  10. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  11. Prediction of low birth weight from other anthropometric parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... rameters, low birth weight, new- born, Nigeria. Introduction ... measurements of the new born babies8,9. ... of length, occipitofrontal circumference, mid-arm cir- .... intrinsic and extrinsic factors associated with race ac- count for ...

  12. NEONATAL SEPTICAEMIA IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... Conclusion: Case fatality rate for low birth weight infants with sepsis is high. Gram negative organisms ... streptococci was found while there was no candida sepsis. Early onset ..... puerperal sepsis study group. Central Afr. J.

  13. Impaired kidney growth in low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Chellakooty, Marla; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is an important risk factor for hypertension and unfavorable prognoses of a number of renal diseases. It is also associated with reduced kidney size and nephron number. A differentiation between the effects of low birth weight versus being born premature or small...... for gestational age has, however, not been addressed. METHODS: The influence of weight for gestational age (percentage deviation from expected mean), gestational age, birth weight, and early diet on kidney growth was studied in 178 children born pre- or postmature and/or small or large for gestational age......, comparing them to 717 mature children, birth weight appropriate for gestational age. Kidney size was determined by bilateral ultrasonography measuring length, width and depth, using the equation of an ellipsoid for volume calculation. The examinations were performed at 0, 3, and 18 months of age together...

  14. Race, Ethnicity, Concentrated Poverty, and Low Birth Weight Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (< 2500 grams) rates were calculated for non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White live singleton births. Concentrated poverty was defined as poor persons living in ne...

  15. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  16. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Fernandes RIBEIRO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively.

  17. Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Following Icsi- Pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    Aygül Demirol; Süleyman Güven; Timur Gürgan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report preterm birth and low birth weight rate of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) related pregnancies and to compare our data with literature findings. STUDY DESIGN: Three-hundred and eighty-nine pregnancies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection were retrospectively evaluated. Patients’ characteristics including age, gestational age at delivery and birth weight were noted from special clinic files. Women with early pregnanc...

  18. Birth Weight and Intelligence in Young Adulthood and Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-06-01

    We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow-up assessments, with intelligence scores increasing across 4 birth weight categories and declining for the highest birth weight category. The adjusted differences between those in the 5 IQ points at all 3 follow-up assessments, corresponding to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident across the normal birth weight range and so were not accounted for by low birth weight only. The association between birth weight and intelligence is stable from young adulthood into midlife. These long-term cognitive consequences may imply that even small shifts in the distribution of birth size, in normal-sized infants as well, may have a large impact at the population level. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. [Role of donor human milk feeding in preventing nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hong-Juan; Xu, Jing; Wei, Qiu-Fen

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of donor human milk in the prevention of nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. MeETHODS: A total of 105 hospitalized preterm infants with a very low birth weight were enrolled. They were classified into mother's own milk feeding group, donor human milk feeding group, and preterm formula feeding group, with 35 infants in each group. The three groups were compared in terms of incidence rates of nosocomial infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, and feeding intolerance, time to full enteral feeding, and early growth indices. Compared with the preterm formula feeding group, the donor human milk feeding group and the mother's own milk feeding group had significantly lower incidence rates of nosocomial infection and necrotizing enterocolitis and shorter time to full enteral feeding (Pmilk can be used in case of a lack of mother's own milk and may help to reduce nosocomial infection.

  20. Effects of maternal pregnancy intention, depressive symptoms and social support on risk of low birth weight: a prospective study from southwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Dibaba Wado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. METHODS: Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which women were followed from pregnancy through to delivery. Six hundred twenty two women were followed and 537 birth weights were measured within 72 hours. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to model the risk of low birth weight. RESULTS: The mean birth weight was 2989 grams (SD ± 504 grams, and the incidence of LBW was 17.88%. The mean birth weight of babies after unwanted pregnancy was 114 g lower compared to births from intended pregnancy. Similarly, mean birth weight for babies among women with symptoms of antenatal depression was 116 grams lower. Results of unadjusted log-binomial regression showed that unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support were associated with LBW. The relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms and LBW was mediated by the presence of social support, while the association between LBW and unwanted pregnancy remained after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: The incidence of low birth weight is high in the study area. Poverty, nonuse of antenatal care, low social support and unwanted pregnancy contribute to this high incidence of low birth weight. Hence, identifying women's pregnancy intention during antenatal care visits, and providing appropriate counseling and social support will help improve birth outcomes.

  1. High frequency oscillatory ventilation with lung volume optimization in very low birth weight newborns – a nine-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nona

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of very low birth weight newborns, submitted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation with a strategy of early lung volume optimization. Methods: Descriptive prospective study in a nine-year period, between 1999 January 1st to 2008 January 1st. All the very low birth weight newborns were born in Dr. Alfredo da Costa Maternity, Lisbon, Portugal, were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and submitted to high frequency oscillatory ventilation with early lung volume optimization; these newborns were followed-up since birth and their charts were analyzed periodically until hospital discharge. Rresults: From a total population of 730 very low birth weight inborns, 117 babies died (16% and 613 survived (84%. The median of birth weight was 975 g and the gestational age median was 28 weeks. For the survivors, the median ventilation and oxygenation times were 3 and 18 days, respectively. The incidence of chronic lung disease was 9.5%, with nine newborns discharged on oxygen therapy. The incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage III – IV (total population group was 11.5% and the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity grade 3 or higher was 8.0%. Cconclusions: High frequency oscillatory ventilation with early lung volume optimization strategy reduced the need of respiratory support, and improved pulmonary and global outcomes in very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress syndrome.

  2. Maternal Anemia during pregnancy and infant low birth weight: A systematic review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoboo Rahmati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant low birth weight is one of the major problems in different societies. Different reports have provided different results regarding the relationship between maternal anemia and infant low birth weight in different months of pregnancy. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maternal anemia during pregnancy and infant low birth weight. Materials and Methods: This systematic review was conducted using related keywords in national (Sid, Iran.doc, Iran medex and Magiran and international (PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Springer, Embase, Google scholar databases. Relative risks and confidence intervals were extracted from each study. The results were combined using random-effects model for meta-analysis. The I2 index was also used to measure heterogeneity between the studies. Results: Overall, 17 studies with a total sample size of 245407 entered the final meta-analysis and demonstrated that the relative risk for maternal anemia in the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03-1.55, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.57-1.65, and 1.21 (95% CI: 0.84-1.76, respectively. The relationship between maternal anemia and infant low birth weight in the first trimester of pregnancy was significant. Conclusion: Maternal anemia, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy, can be considered as a risk factor for pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, one needs to take the necessary steps to cure this disease in order to reduce the incidence of infant low birth weight.

  3. [Birth weight distribution among premature infants and related social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-jun; Ye, Rong-wei; Wang, Gui-xia; Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-wen; Ren, Ai-guo

    2009-12-01

    To understand the distribution of birth weight among premature infants and the associated social factors. The study population consisted of 97 537 women who delivered singleton live birth of 20 to 41 gestational weeks in 4 counties/cities, Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces, China from 1995 to 2000. Chi-square test was employed to test the difference of proportions between respective groups. One- way ANOVA was used to test the differences regarding the mean of gestational weeks at the first prenatal visit and the mean of prenatal visits between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to examine the factors associated with premature birth. Women aged 35 years had higher (8.8%) premature incidence than those aged less than 24 years (5.6%), 25 - 29 years (4.6%), or 30 - 34 years (4.5%, P premature incidence than those with height taller than 150 cm (5.0%). Women whose BMI were at least 28 and 24 - 28 had higher (5.5%, 5.5%) premature incidences than those whose BMI were 18.5 - 24.0 (5.0%), premature birth was 6.0% among women without previous pregnancy, higher than that among those women with 4 times of pregnancies (5.7%), 2 times of pregnancies (4.3%), and 3 times of pregnancies (4.0%). Parous women with at least two deliveries had higher (9.3%) premature incidence than the primiparous women (5.2%) and whose women with only one delivery (4.5%, P premature incidence than those who did not receive the service (6.1%). The mean times of prenatal visits among women with premature births was 8.53, less than that of those with full term delivery (10.97). Women with less than four times of prenatal visit had higher (18.9%) premature incidence than those with at least five prenatal visits (4.9%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that premature delivery risk was associated with age, height, BMI, gravidity, parity, early prenatal care, the mean of gestational weeks at first prenatal visit and the mean number of prenatal visits etc. Premature delivery

  4. Effect of Maternal Diet Diversity and Physical Activity on Neonatal Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Slums of Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Manerkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India has the highest prevalence of low birth weight babies. Geographical variation and level of physical activity can influence diet diversity and maternal nutritional status which in turn influences the birth weight of the neonate. Mumbai is a large city comprising of slums in suburbs depicting diet diversity amongst populations. Aim: To study the maternal diet diversity, physical activity and its effect on birth weight of the neonates in urban slums of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A six month follow-up study was carried out in three maternity homes representing different geographical areas of Western, Central and Southern Mumbai. A total number of 131 pregnant women were selected using simple random sampling. Final sample size was n=121 after follow-up loss of 9 and 1 miscarriage. Maternal anthropometric, socio-demographic, physical activity and diet diversity data was collected using structured questionnaires through personal interview after taking written informed consent. Birth weight of the neonate was recorded. Chi-Square, Correlation, ANOVA was used to test the significance. A p-value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Nineteen (15.7% were low birth weight (LBW infants, 102 (84.3% had normal weight. There was a significant association between place of Antenatal Clinic (ANC visit and diet diversity score and its subsequent effect on birth weight (p<0.05. Geographic variation had an impact on diet diversity scores which in turn affected the birth weight of neonates. Women who delivered low birth weight babies were more involved in household domestic activities (p<0.05 compared to those women who delivered normal weight babies. Conclusion: Diet diversity and physical activity influence the birth weight of neonates across different geographic locations. Despite of ample interventions available to prevent maternal malnutrition, the incidence of LBW was not decreased. Thus, this issue needs to be addressed at

  5. Overcoming birth weight: can physical activity mitigate birth weight-related differences in adiposity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone-Heinonen, J; Markwardt, S; Fortmann, S P; Thornburg, K L

    2016-06-01

    Individuals born at low or high birth weight (BW) have elevated adiposity. The extent to which physical activity can mitigate this risk is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if associations between BW and adiposity vary by self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents. We used data on adolescents in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006; 12-15 years; n = 4064). Using gender-stratified linear regression, we modelled body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) z-scores as a function of low, normal and high BW, MVPA (weekly Metabolic Equivalent of Task hours) and MVPA*BW cross-product terms, adjusting for sociodemographics, diet and, in WC models, BMI. Among girls with low MVPA, those born with high BW had greater BMI than normal BW; this difference diminished with greater MVPA (coefficient [95% confidence interval]: low MVPA: 0.72 [0.29, 1.14]; high MVPA: -0.04 [-0.48, 0.39]; P for interaction = 0.05). Among boys, MVPA did not modify the associations between BW and BMI. WC was unrelated to BW, regardless of MVPA. Findings suggest that effects of high BW in total adiposity can be more easily modified with MVPA in adolescent girls than in boys. © 2015 World Obesity.

  6. Relationship between Maternal Serum Copper Level and Birth Weight Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzarahimi M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem. LBW is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether maternal copper nutrition is associated with pregnancy outcome or fetal growth. Methods: This case-control study was carried out at Alavi Hospital in Ardabil between August 2008 and August 2009. 56 women who had delivered low-birth- weight infants (<2500gr were taken as the case group, and from the mothers who had delivered normal birth weight infants (≥2500gr, 56 were selected at random as the control group. Venous blood samples were obtained from the mothers. Serum zinc level was determined by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method.Results: Mean of birth weight in infants, maternal age, body mass index in mothers and socioeconomic or demographic factors did not differ between cases and control groups. Maternal copper concentration (μg/dl differed between Cases and Controls; 231.75±38.12μg/dl vs. 204.42±31.30μg/dl respectively. There is a significant difference (p<0.001 in the serum copper concentration between the two groups.Conclusion: There is a negative relation between low infant birth weight and maternal copper concentration.

  7. The Relationship between Folic Acid Intake and Infant Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Esmailzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Folic acid is a B vitamin which 5mg daily intake before gestation and until the tenth week of pregnancy is recommended. Since no study has been conducted in some regions of East Azerbaijan including Bostanabad, Khosroshahr and Sarab and no prevalence was spotted in country specific studies, therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between folic acid intake and infant birth weight. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort. In this study, 1939 of pregnant women who were referred to health care centers before pregnancy were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups: first group of pregnant women who regularly took folic acid before pregnancy and second group included the women who did not take folic acid supplements. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using T-Test and ANOVA. Results: This study was conducted on 1939 mothers who had an average age of 25.98 years and average infants birth weight was 3.209 kg. Totally, 92.9% of the mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. Analysis of the results showed that with increasing maternal BMI, birth weight also increased. It showed a significant relationship between regular folic acid intake and increase in infant birth weight. Conclusion : Our results showed that both high maternal pre-pregnancy weight and folic acid intake lead to higher birth weight infants.

  8. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C

    2006-01-01

    Scientific interest in morbidity in children born small for gestational age (SGA) has increased considerably over the last few decades. The elevated risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adulthood in individuals born SGA has been well documented, whereas data on gonadal development are...... of individual study results, the combined evidence from all data leaves little doubt that fetal growth restriction is associated with increased risk of male reproductive health problems, including hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer....

  9. Is Biology Destiny? Birth Weight and Differential Parental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Time diaries of sibling pairs from the PSID-CDS are used to determine whether maternal time investments compensate for or reinforce birth-weight differences among children. The findings demonstrate that the direction and degree of differential treatment vary by mother's education. Less-educated mothers devote more total time and more educationally oriented time to heavier-birth-weight children, whereas better-educated mothers devote more total and more educationally oriented time to lower-birth-weight children. The compensating effects observed among highly educated mothers are substantially larger than the reinforcing effects among the least-educated mothers. The findings show that families redistribute resources in ways that both compensate for and exacerbate early-life disadvantages. PMID:22865101

  10. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  11. [Perinatal health: low birth weight and social class].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A A; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol, H; Dal Bó, C M; Mucillo, G; Gomes, U A

    1991-04-01

    A survey was carried out in Ribeirão Preto, S. Paulo State, Brazil, between June 1978 and May 1979 with a view to studying the prevalence of low birth weight and its occurrence among different social classes. Data were collected from 8,878 singleton live births in eight maternity hospitals, accounting for 98% of all births in the area. Social classes were determinated by the use of a model proposed by Singer and modified for epidemiological purposes by Barros. Out of the 8,878 births, 660 (7.5%) were of low birth weight. The prevalence of deficient weight at birth (between 2,500 and 2,999 grams) was of 21.1%. Analysis indicated that 50.6% of children with low birth weight were at term and the majority of them suffered form intrauterine growth retardation. The prevalence of low birth weight according to social class was seen to be lower in the bourgeoisie classes (ranging from 2.8% to 3.9%) and higher in working classes (from 7% up to 9.5%). Low birth weight (defined as less than or equal to 2,500 grams) was used for purposes of comparison with other previous surveys. The percentage was lower in this study (8.3%) than that found in the Interamerican Investigation of Mortality in Childhood (8.7%), carried out in 1968-70. No statistically significant differences in the percentage of low birth weight were found in the case of Ribeirão Preto when these two surveys were compared.

  12. Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans

    2005-01-01

    ), and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in risk pattern for lung cancer between the different job categories among men ranged in terms of SIR from 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) (engine officers) to 2.3 (1.6 to 3.3) (engine room crew), and 4.1 (2.1 to 7.4) among...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...

  13. The role of immunonutrients in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm very low birth weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Yanqi; Ma, Li-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC...

  14. Risk Factors for Invasive Candidiasis in Infants >1500 g Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Herring, Amy H.; Clark, Reese H.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Smith, P. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background We describe the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of invasive candidiasis in infants >1500 g birth weight. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants >1500 g birth weight discharged from 305 NICUs in the Pediatrix Medical Group from 2001–2010. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified risk factors for invasive candidiasis. Results Invasive candidiasis occurred in 330/530,162 (0.06%) infants. These were documented from positive cultures from ≥1 of these sources: blood (n=323), cerebrospinal fluid (n=6), or urine from catheterization (n=19). Risk factors included day of life >7 (OR 25.2; 95% CI 14.6–43.3), vaginal birth (OR 1.6 [1.2–2.3]), exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics (OR 1.6 [1.1–2.4]), central venous line (OR 1.8 [1.3–2.6]), and platelet count candidiasis had increased mortality (OR 2.2 [1.3–3.6]). Conclusions Invasive candidiasis is uncommon in infants >1500 g birth weight. Infants at greatest risk are those exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics and with platelet counts of <50,000/mm3. PMID:23042050

  15. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  16. Patterns of birth weight at a community level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    identified a one-year live birth cohort of 8,273 in Jimma, Illubabor and Keffa ... METHODS: This was a community-based longitudinal study, which attempts to ... RESULTS: The results of the study found an estimated low birth weight rate ... mothers' experience of previous child deaths. ... births occur at home. ..... assessment.

  17. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  18. Successful management of a set of preterm, low birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: We report a case of successful management of preterm, low birth weight quadruplets (QI, QII, QIII, and QIV) delivered at 32 weeks by Caesarean section to a 30 year old primiparous mother. QIII and QIV developed septicaemia with conjugated bilirubinaemia and were managed with intravenous antibiotics, and ...

  19. Birth weights and gestational ages of Malawian newborns at Queen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the distributions of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) and calculate rates of still birth (SB) of four years delivery in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital( QECH). Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out on data of deliveries conducted between January 2000 and December 2003.

  20. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (PV-IVH) aInong very-low-birthweight infants at Baragwanath Hospital has not been well docwnented. In this prospective study, a total of 282 live-born infants with birth weights of 1 000 - 1 749 g were studied over a 41/2-month period. Every infant had at least ...

  1. Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish standard ranges and curve of mean gestational birth weights validated by ultrasonography for the Cameroonian population in Yaoundé. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in the metropolis between March 5 and ...

  2. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...

  3. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  4. Prediction of low birth weight from other anthropometric parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight is a global problem but presents a major burden on the neonatal services in developing countries such as Nigeria, and brings to bear a greater strain on the meagre resources available for health care delivery and family financing. In a resourceconstrained setting as ours, proper weighing of all ...

  5. Association between maternal gingivitis, low birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between maternal gingivitis and pregnancy outcome, including low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery. This prospective study was conducted among 300 randomly selected pregnant women aged 20-34 years attending the antenatal clinic, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ...

  6. The role of lifestyle in preventing low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, V R; Cheung, L W; Lieberman, E

    1995-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviors such as cigarette smoking, weight gain during pregnancy, and use of other drugs play an important role in determining fetal growth. The relationship between lifestyle risk factors and low birth weight is complex and is affected by psychosocial, economic, and biological factors. Cigarette smoking is the largest known risk factor for low birth weight. Approximately 20% of all low birth weight could be avoided if women did not smoke during pregnancy. Reducing heavy use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy could also reduce the rate of low birth weight births. Pregnancy and the prospect of pregnancy provide an important window of opportunity to improve women's health and the health of children. The adoption before or during pregnancy of more healthful lifestyle behaviors, such as ceasing to smoke, eating an adequate diet and gaining enough weight during pregnancy, and ceasing heavy drug use, can positively affect the long-term health of women and the health of their infants. Detrimental lifestyles can be modified, but successful modification will require large-scale societal changes. In the United States, these societal changes should include a focus on preventive health, family-centered workplace policies, and changes in social norms.

  7. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr. faki

    obtained from maternal antenatal clinic and child's growth monitoring cards. ... There was strong correlation between recall and recorded birth weight (r2=0.79; p<0.01). ... The sample size was determined under the assumption that most women .... Other studies elsewhere showed high correlation between recalled and.

  8. Association between alcohol abuse during pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ivelissa da; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Oliveira, Sandro Schreiber de; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2011-10-01

    To assess the association between alcohol abuse during gestation and low birth weight. Cross-sectional, population-based nested study from a cohort of 957 pregnant women who received prenatal assistance through Sistema Único de Saúde (National Health System) in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, and delivered their babies between September 2007 and September 2008. The mothers were interviewed at two distinct moments: prenatal and postpartum periods. In order to verify alcohol abuse, the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener) scale was used. Bivariate analyses were carried out, as well as multiple logistic regression adjusted by the variables prematurity and alcohol abuse. The level of significance that was adopted was 95%. Of the women who participated in the study, 2.1% abused alcohol during pregnancy and, among these, 26.3% had low birth weight children. There was an association between alcohol abuse and low birth weight (palcohol abuse during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight.

  9. Ramadan during pregnancy and birth weight of newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I.; Amelia, Dwirani; Painter, Rebecca C.; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    P= 0·44), although there was a non-significant trend towards lower birth weight with fasting in the second and third trimester. Women who fasted had significantly lower total energy, macronutrient and water intake as compared with women who did not. Women's intake was also lower during Ramadan

  10. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those who delivered at home (15%) were either assisted by a relative or Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA). Over three quarters (78.5%) of the mothers had birth weights of their children recorded in the postnatal care cards. Out of 38 children who were born at home, 87% (n = 33) were not weighed and there were 23 women ...

  11. Histopathological Study of Placentae in Low Birth Weight Babies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological Study of Placentae in Low Birth Weight Babies in India. JS Nigam, V Misra, P Singh, PA Singh, S Chauhan, B Thakur. Abstract. Background: The antenatal health-care given to pregnant women has great influence on the rates of perinatal death and morbidity. Amongst the different causes of perinatal ...

  12. Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We, therefore, investigated effects of exposure to biomass fuels on reduced birth weight in the Malawian population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using secondary data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey with a total of 9124 respondents. Information on exposure to biomass fuels, ...

  13. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  14. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza Research Centre, ... Abstract: According to the World Health Organization low birth weight (LBW) babies ... services in relation to safe motherhood at community level in order to reduce risk fac- .... Key : OR= Odds ratio; PAF= Population attributable risk; CI: 95% Confidence ...

  15. Low birth weight: risk factors in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Y.S.A.; Bataineh, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights (LBW) in Irbid, Jordan, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in Prince Rashed Hospital (PRH). Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 15-45 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive in PRH during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is also a need to discourage early pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy. (author)

  16. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term...

  17. Survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants in a resource-limited public hospital setting is still low in South. Africa. is study aimed ... Mortality as a result of prematurity is the major contributor to .... reported from a large cohort study that.

  18. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...

  19. Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria, Nigeria. B Danborno, A Afegbua. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy Vol. 5(1) 2006: 21-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Increasing low birth weight rates: deliveries in a tertiary hospital in istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Yasemin; Cömert, Serdar; Turan, Cem; Unal, Orhan; Piçak, Abdülkadir; Ger, Lale; Telatar, Berrin

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence of low birth weight deliveries may vary across different environments. The necessity of determination of regional data prompted this study. Information of all deliveries from January 2004 to December 2008 was obtained from delivery registry records retrospectively. Initial data including birth weight, vital status, sex, maternal age and mode of delivery were recorded using medical files. The frequency of low birth weight, very low birth weight, extremely low birth weight and stillbirth deliveries were determined. Among 19,533 total births, there were 450 (23.04 per 1000) stillbirths. Low birth weight rate was 10.61%. A significant increase in yearly distribution of low birth weight deliveries was observed (Pbirth weight and extremely low birth weight delivery rates were 3.14% and 1.58% respectively. Among 2073 low birth weight infants, 333 (16.06%) were stillbirths. The stillbirth delivery rate and the birth of a female infant among low birth weight deliveries were significantly higher than infants with birth weight ≥2500g (Pbirth weight and maternal age. The rate of cesarean section among low birth weight infants was 49.4%. High low birth weight and stillbirth rates, as well as the increase in low birth weight deliveries over the past five years in this study are striking. For reduction of increased low birth weight rates, appropriate intervention methods should be initiated.

  1. Ramadan during pregnancy and birth weight of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitri, Ary I; Amelia, Dwirani; Painter, Rebecca C; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Roseboom, Tessa J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that Ramadan exposure during pregnancy might affect the health of women and their babies, particularly through the effect of fasting. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Ramadan exposure and fasting during pregnancy on the birth weight of newborns. This study concerned 1351 pregnant women from a prospective cohort in Jakarta, Indonesia. Ramadan exposure was based on the actual overlap between Ramadan and pregnancy. Women's fasting behaviour was recorded among 139 women who came for antenatal care between 10 July 2013 and 7 August 2013, and those who had fasted for at least 1 d ( n 110) were classified as exposed to Ramadan fasting. Furthermore, a 24 h dietary recall was performed and repeated 1 month later. Birth weight of newborns who were exposed to Ramadan during pregnancy did not significantly differ from those who were not, both in the total and trimester-specific analysis. Maternal fasting did not seem to affect the birth weight of newborns (-72 (95 % CI -258, 114) g; P = 0·44), although there was a non-significant trend towards lower birth weight with fasting in the second and third trimester. Women who fasted had significantly lower total energy, macronutrient and water intake as compared with women who did not. Women's intake was also lower during Ramadan (regardless of their fasting behaviour) as compared with 1 month later. Lifestyle changes that occur with Ramadan and fasting during pregnancy are associated with lower reported energy intake. We cannot conclude on the effect of fasting on birth weight due to low statistical power.

  2. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  3. Birth weight and order as risk factors for childhood central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jane; Partap, Sonia; Reynolds, Peggy; Von Behren, Julie; Fisher, Paul Graham

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether birth characteristics related to maternal-fetal health in utero are associated with the development of childhood central nervous system tumors. We identified, from the California Cancer Registry, 3733 children under age 15 diagnosed with childhood central nervous system tumors between 1988 and 2006 and linked these cases to their California birth certificates. Four controls per case, matched on birth date and sex, were randomly selected from the same birth files. We evaluated associations of multiple childhood CNS tumor subtypes with birth weight and birth order. Low birth weight was associated with a reduced risk of low-grade gliomas (OR=0.67; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.97) and high birth weight was associated with increased risk of high-grade gliomas (OR=1.57; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.12). High birth order (fourth or higher) was associated with decreased risk of low-grade gliomas (OR=0.75; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.99) and increased risk of high-grade gliomas (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.72 for second order). Factors that drive growth in utero may increase the risk of low-grade gliomas. There may be a similar relationship in high-grade gliomas, although other factors, such as early infection, may modify this association. Additional investigation is warranted to validate and further define these findings. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Birth weight and other perinatal characteristics and childhood leukemia in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Cockburn, M; Mezei, G; Kheifets, L

    2012-12-01

    We conducted a large registry-based study in California to investigate the association of perinatal factors and childhood leukemia with analysis of two major subtypes, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We linked California cancer and birth registries to obtain information on 5788 cases and 5788 controls matched on age and sex (1:1). We examined the association of birth weight, gestational age, birth and pregnancy order, parental ages, and specific conditions during pregnancy and risk of total leukemia, ALL and AML using conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for potential confounders. The odds ratio (OR) per 1000 g increase in birth weight was 1.11 for both total leukemia and ALL. The OR were highest for babies weighing ≥ 4500 g with reference birth weight and LGA were associated with increased risk and SGA with decreased risk of total childhood leukemia and ALL, being first-born was associated with decreased risk of AML, and advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk of ALL. These findings suggest that associations of childhood leukemia and perinatal factors depend highly on subtype of leukemia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The incidence of skin cancer in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, van der S.; Siemerink, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Verhaegh, M.E.J.M.; Ostertag, J.U.; Neumann, H.A.M.; Krekels, G.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is known that the incidence of skin cancer is rising rapidly worldwide, but no reliable figures on multiple nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are available. Aim To determine the actual incidence of skin cancer in dermatology practice and to estimate how this relates to the first primary

  6. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Shim, So-Yeon; Sung, In Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Here, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and mortality of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea and assess the associated factors of PHH. This cohort study used prospectively collected data from the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN). Among 2,386 VLBW infants in the KNN database born between January 2013 and June 2014, 63 infants who died without brain ultrasonography results were excluded. Maternal demographics and neonatal clinical characteristics were assessed. The overall incidence of IVH in all the VLBW infants was 42.2% (987 of 2,323), while those of IVH grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 25.1%, 7.0%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively. The incidence and severity of IVH showed a negatively correlating trend with gestational age and birth weight. PHH developed in 0%, 3.5%, 36.1%, and 63.8% of the surviving infants with IVH grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Overall, in the VLBW infants, the IVH-associated mortality rate was 1.0% (24/2,323). Only IVH grade severity was proven to be an associated with PHH development in infants with IVH grades 3-4. This is the first Korean national report of IVH and PHH incidences in VLBW infants. Further risk factor analyses or quality improvement studies to reduce IVH are warranted.

  7. Birth weight, sex, and celiac disease: a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuja-Halkola R

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Kuja-Halkola,1 Benjamin Lebwohl,1,2 Jonas Halfvarson,3 Louise Emilsson,4–6 Patrik K Magnusson,1 Jonas F Ludvigsson1,2,7,8 1Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4Department of Health Management and Health Economy, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 6Centre for Clinical Research, Vårdcentralen Värmlands Nysäter, County Council of Värmland, Värmland, 7Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Objective: Earlier research suggests that birth weight may be associated with celiac disease (CD, but the direction of association has been unclear potentially due to confounding effect from genetic and intrafamilial factors. Through within-twin analyses, we aimed to minimize confounding effects such as twins that share genetic and early environmental exposures.Materials and methods: Using the Swedish Twin Registry, we examined the birth weight of 146,830 twins according to the CD status. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to a small intestinal biopsy reports.Results: The prevalence of diagnosed CD was 0.5% (n=669, and we included 407 discordant pairs of CD–non-CD twins. Comparing the 669 CD patients with non-CD twins, the association between birth weight and future CD was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] per 1000 g increase in birth weight: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.97–1.38. In males, the association was positive and statistically significant (OR=1.50; 95% CI

  8. Incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weble, Tanja Cruusberg; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Kissmeyer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to monitor the evolution of the incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark over 70 years. We also compared registrations of pancreatic cancer in a nationwide population-based database, the Danish Cancer Registry, and a clinical database, the Danish Pancreatic...... Cancer Database, in 2012-2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Registrations of pancreatic cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry over 1943-2012 were used to calculate age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 person years by sex and age in 5-year period, weighted by the Segi World Standard Population for age...... standardization. We used absolute numbers from the Cancer Registry and the Pancreatic Cancer Database, including distribution of topography of cancers registered in 2012-2013, to compare registration in the two data sources. RESULTS: The incidence rates of pancreatic cancer among Danish men increased until 1968...

  9. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Initiatives Stay Informed Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Quick ... a late stage with a poor outcome, often death. The journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention published ...

  10. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamal, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)

  11. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Birth weight and frozen embryo transfer: State of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anav, M; Ferrières-Hoa, A; Gala, A; Fournier, A; Zaragoza, S; Vintejoux, E; Vincens, C; Hamamah, S

    2018-04-18

    The aim of this study was to update our acknowledgment if there is a link between assisted embryo cryopreservation and epigenetics in human? Animal studies have demonstrated epigenetics consequence and especially imprinting disorders due to in vitro culture. In human, it is important to note that after frozen embryo transfer birth weight is significantly increased by 81 to 250g. But these studies cannot identify the reasons of such difference. This review strongly suggests that embryo cryopreservation is responsible for birth weight variations but mechanisms not yet elucidated. Epigenetics is probably one of these but to date, none study is able to prove it. We have to be attentive on a possible link between assisted reproductive technology (ART) and epigenetics reprogrammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....

  14. Effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight.Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  15. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  16. Neonatal bartter syndrome in an extremely low birth weight baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeparaj Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of Bartter syndrome (BS in the neonatal period is a clinical challenge, more so in an extremely low birth weight (ELBW baby because of the inherent renal immaturity and the associated difficulty in fluid management. However, once a diagnosis is made, the disorder is known to respond well to fluid and electrolyte management, prostaglandin inhibitors, and potassium-sparing diuretics. Herein, we report a case of neonatal BS in a very premature ELBW infant.

  17. Prevalence and causes of low birth weight in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, P; Pal, M; Bandyopadhyay, M; Bhakta, A; Chakraborty, S; Bharati, P

    2011-12-01

    The aims of the study are (i) to understand inter-zone and interstate variation of low birth weight (LBW) and (ii) to determine the key variables to reduce LBW in India. Using the latest National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data of 2005-06 which showed the percentage distribution of LBW infants, ANOVA and post-hoc test were performed to determine the spatial variation of birth weight. The covariates which influence LBW fell into three categories: (i) social variables which included location, mother's education, religion, access of mothers to newspapers, television and family structure; (ii) economic variable namely, the wealth index, and (iii) biological variables which consisted of sex of the children, birth order, and mother's body mass index (BMI). Three models of Logistic regression were carried out to examine the influence of the combinations of these direct and indirect factors. In India, nearly 20% of new borns have LBW. Males have less frequency of LBW than females. The North-east zone has the lowest prevalence of LBW while the north zone has the highest. Mother's education, access to TV and nuclear family, and intake of iron tablets are the most important socio-economic influences on the determination of birth weight in India. It is essential to provide proper diet and nutritional care of mothers during pregnancy. Increased education of mothers through programmes in TV and newspapers articles have significant roles to play in reducing LBW in India.

  18. Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants with Admission Hypothermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yang Chang

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypothermia remains a common problem and is related to elevated morbidities and mortality. However, the long-term neurodevelopmental effects of admission hypothermia are still unknown. This study attempted to determine the short-term and long-term consequences of admission hypothermia in VLBW preterm infants.This retrospective study measured the incidence and compared the outcomes of admission hypothermia in very low birth weight (VLBW preterm infants in a tertiary-level neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were divided into the following groups: normothermia (36.5-37.5°C, mild hypothermia (36.0-36.4°C, moderate hypothermia (32.0-35.9°C, and severe hypothermia (< 32°C. We compared the distribution, demographic variables, short-term outcomes, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months of corrected age among groups.We studied 341 infants: 79 with normothermia, 100 with mild hypothermia, 162 with moderate hypothermia, and 0 with severe hypothermia. Patients in the moderate hypothermia group had significantly lower gestational ages (28.1 wk vs. 29.7 wk, P < .02 and smaller birth weight (1004 g vs. 1187 g, P < .001 compared to patients in the normothermia group. Compared to normothermic infants, moderately hypothermic infants had significantly higher incidences of 1-min Apgar score < 7 (63.6% vs. 31.6%, P < .001, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS (58.0% vs. 39.2%, P = .006, and mortality (18.5% vs. 5.1%, P = .005. Moderate hypothermia did not affect neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years' corrected age. Mild hypothermia had no effect on short-term or long-term outcomes.Admission hypothermia was common in VLBW infants and correlated inversely with birth weight and gestational age. Although moderate hypothermia was associated with higher RDS and mortality rates, it may play a limited role among multifactorial causes of neurodevelopmental impairment.

  19. Updated birth weight centiles for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tom; Seaton, Sarah E; Manktelow, Brad N; Baker, Philip N; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Field, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Smith, Lucy K

    2017-12-07

    Construct updated birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts for use in the UK and compare these to the currently used UK-WHO charts. Secondary analysis of national birth data. Centiles were constructed using 1 269 403 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2013-2014 as part of the MBRRACE-UK national perinatal surveillance programme. These were then validated using 642 737 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2015. Sex-specific birth weight-for-gestational age centiles. Centiles were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method via the GAMLSS package in R. This method transforms the skewed birth weight distribution to approximate a normal distribution, allowing any birth weight centile to be produced. The new centiles performed well in the validation sample, with the observed and expected proportion of births below a given centile in agreement. Overall, driven by the predominance of term births, the UK-WHO charts classify a smaller proportion of infants as below a given centile. For example, the UK-WHO estimates classified only 1.32% (8035/606 430) of term infants born in 2015 as below the second centile, compared with 1.97% (11 975/606 430) using the new MBRRACE-UK centiles. At the earliest gestational ages, however, the opposite is observed, with the UK-WHO classifying a larger proportion of infants as below a given centile, particularly at the lower end of the birthweight distribution. We have constructed and validated updated birth weight-for-gestational age centiles using a contemporary sample of births occurring in England and Wales. The benefits of these updated centiles will be first to assist the national surveillance of perinatal mortality programme by improving the identification of the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by intrauterine growth restriction and, second, to aid clinicians by more accurately identifying babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth.

  20. Birth weight curves tailored to maternal world region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Joel G; Sgro, Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Glazier, Richard H; Bocking, Alan; Hilliard, Robert; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2012-02-01

    Newborns of certain immigrant mothers are smaller at birth than those of domestically born mothers. Contemporary, population-derived percentile curves for these newborns are lacking, as are estimates of their risk of being misclassified as too small or too large using conventional rather than tailored birth weight curves. We completed a population-based study of 766 688 singleton live births in Ontario from 2002 to 2007. Smoothed birth weight percentile curves were generated for males and females, categorized by maternal world region of birth: Canada (63.5%), Europe/Western nations (7.6%), Africa/Caribbean (4.9%), Middle East/North Africa (3.4%), Latin America (3.4%), East Asia/Pacific (8.1%), and South Asia (9.2%). We determined the likelihood of misclassifying an infant as small for gestational age (≤ 10th percentile for weight) or as large for gestational age (≥ 90th percentile for weight) on a Canadian-born maternal curve versus one specific to maternal world region of origin. Significantly lower birth weights were seen at gestation-specific 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles among term infants born to mothers from each world region, with the exception of Europe/Western nations, compared with those for infants of Canadian-born mothers. For example, for South Asian babies born at 40 weeks' gestation, the absolute difference at the 10th percentile was 198 g (95% CI 183 to 212) for males and 170 g (95% CI 161 to 179) for females. Controlling for maternal age and parity, South Asian males had an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.68) of being misclassified as small for gestational age, equivalent to approximately 116 in 1000 newborns; for South Asian females the OR was 2.41 (95% CI 2.34 to 2.48), equivalent to approximately 106 per 1000 newborns. Large for gestational age would be missed in approximately 61 per 1000 male and 57 per 1000 female South Asian newborns if conventional rather than ethnicity-specific birth weight curves were used. Birth weight curves

  1. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  2. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  3. Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of the observed to the expected numbers of cancers, that is, standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using incidence rates for the general Danish and Swedish populations as a reference. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During 5,652,918 person-years of follow-up, 80,990 cancers occurred......, the standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, and respiratory and urinary tracts and for squamous cell skin carcinoma remained elevated beyond 10 years after the transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in cancer risk shortly after a blood transfusion may...

  4. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S.D.; Zhang, M.G.; Der, G.; Mathur, S.; Mina, T.H.; Reynolds, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EM...

  5. Increasing Low Birth Weight Rates: Deliveries in a Tertiary Hospital in Istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    Berrin Telatar; Orhan Ünal; Abdülkadir Piçak; Lale Ger; Serdar Cömert; Cem Turan; Yasemin Akin

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Prevalence of low birth weight deliveries may vary across different environments. The necessity of determination of regional data prompted this study. Methods:Information of all deliveries from January 2004 to December 2008 was obtained from delivery registry records retrospectively. Initial data including birth weight, vital status, sex, maternal age and mode of delivery were recorded using medical files. The frequency of low birth weight, very low birth weight, extremely low birth...

  6. Refeeding syndrome in very-low-birth-weight intrauterine growth-restricted neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J R; Finch, C; Ebeling, M; Taylor, S N

    2013-09-01

    Determine the incidence of refeeding syndrome, defined by the presence of hypophosphatemia in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) compared with those without IUGR. In this retrospective cohort study, VLBW infants admitted over a 10-year period (271 IUGR and 1982 non-IUGR) were evaluated for specific electrolyte abnormalities in the first postnatal week. IUGR infants were significantly more likely to have hypophosphatemia (41% vs 8.9%, relative risk (95% confidence interval: 7.25 (5.45, 9.65)) and severe hypophosphatemia (11.4% vs 1%, 12.06 (6.82, 21.33)) in the first postnatal week. The incidence of hypophosphatemia was significantly associated with the presence of maternal preeclampsia in all VLBW infants (odds ratio (OR): 2.58 (1.96, 3.40)) when controlling for birth weight and gestational age. Refeeding syndrome occurs in VLBW infants with IUGR and born to mothers with preeclampsia. Close monitoring of electrolytes, especially phosphorus, is warranted in this population.

  7. Developmental outcome of very low birth weight infants in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballot Daynia E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in neonatal care allow survival of extremely premature infants, who are at risk of handicap. Neurodevelopmental follow up of these infants is an essential part of ongoing evaluation of neonatal care. The neonatal care in resource limited developing countries is very different to that in first world settings. Follow up data from developing countries is essential; it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from units in developed countries. This study provides follow up data on a population of very low birth weight (VLBW infants in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods The study sample included all VLBW infants born between 01/06/2006 and 28/02/2007 and discharged from the neonatal unit at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Version 111 (BSID 111 were done to assess development. Regression analysis was done to determine factors associated with poor outcome. Results 178 infants were discharged, 26 were not available for follow up, 9 of the remaining 152 (5.9% died before an assessment was done; 106 of the remaining 143 (74.1% had a BSID 111 assessment. These 106 patients form the study sample; mean birth weight and mean gestational age was 1182 grams (SD: 197.78 and 30.81 weeks (SD: 2.67 respectively. The BSID (111 was done at a median age of 16.48 months. The mean cognitive subscale was 88.6 (95% CI: 85.69 - 91.59, 9 (8.5% were Conclusion Although the neurodevelopmental outcome of this group of VLBW infants was within the normal range, with a low incidence of cerebral palsy, these results may reflect the low survival of babies with a birth weight below 900 grams. In addition, mean subscale scores were low and one third of the babies were identified as "at risk", indicating that this group of babies warrants long-term follow up into school going age.

  8. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

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    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  9. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-09-01

    Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500-4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother's Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother's job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother's poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother's job style had the most adverse effect (B=-0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother's level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother's job style and household income (B=-0.17). According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother's job situation in order to prevent any adverse effects.

  10. Clinical formulas, mother's opinion and ultrasound in predicting birth weight

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    Maria Regina Torloni

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Accurate fetal weight estimation is important for labor and delivery management. So far, there has not been any conclusive evidence to indicate that any technique for fetal weight estimation is superior to any other. Clinical formulas for fetal weight estimation are easy to use but have not been extensively studied in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of clinical formulas for fetal weight estimation compared to maternal and ultrasound estimates. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study involving 100 full-term, cephalic, singleton pregnancies delivered within three days of fetal weight estimation. The setting was a tertiary public teaching hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Upon admission, the mother's opinion about fetal weight was recorded. Symphyseal-fundal height and abdominal girth were measured and two formulas were used to calculate fetal weight. An ultrasound scan was then performed by a specialist to estimate fetal weight. The four estimates were compared with the birth weight. The accuracy of the estimates was assessed by calculating the percentage that was within 10% of actual birth weight for each method. The chi-squared test was used for comparisons and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The birth weight was correctly estimated (± 10% in 59%, 57%, 61%, and 65% of the cases using the mother's estimate, two clinical formulas, and ultrasound estimate, respectively. The accuracy of the four methods did not differ significantly. CONCLUSION: Clinical formulas for fetal weight prediction are as accurate as maternal and ultrasound estimates.

  11. The neglected sociobehavioral risk factors of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the most important health indicators in the world. It has certain known and unknown causes. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of socio-behavioral factors on neonatal birth weight.Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on 300 eligible neonates (150 LBW infants as cases and 150 normal body weight infants as controls in 2015. The national pregnancy care forms of the neonates kept in heath care centers in Kerman were used. The data was analyzed running Independent samples t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher’s Exact test in SPSS. The significance level was set as 0.05.Results: Preterm birth (P<0.001, number of primary care during pregnancy (P=0.001, mother’s age (P=0.049, consumption of supplements during pregnancy (P=0.03, and history of substance abuse in mothers (P=0.03 were found to have significant roles in having LBW neonate.Conclusion: Identifying the sociobehavioral risk factors of Preterm labor and modifying them to prevent preterm birth are essential approaches to prevent LBW. Governments should pay special attention to nutritional status of teenage and young girls to have healthy mothers and babies in the future. Women of childbearing age should be screened and educated about risky behaviors. Pregnancy care and support should be delivered to all pregnant women according to the standard methods.Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Risk Factors; Behavior; Preterm Labor

  12. A risk prediction model for severe intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants and the effect of prophylactic indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, M J; Tapia, J L; Villarroel, L; Marshall, G; Musante, G; Carlo, W; Kattan, J

    2014-01-01

    Develop a risk prediction model for severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). Prospectively collected data of infants with birth weight 500 to 1249 g born between 2001 and 2010 in centers from the Neocosur Network were used. Forward stepwise logistic regression model was employed. The model was tested in the 2011 cohort and then applied to the population of VLBWI that received prophylactic indomethacin to analyze its effect in the risk of severe IVH. Data from 6538 VLBWI were analyzed. The area under ROC curve for the model was 0.79 and 0.76 when tested in the 2011 cohort. The prophylactic indomethacin group had lower incidence of severe IVH, especially in the highest-risk groups. A model for early severe IVH prediction was developed and tested in our population. Prophylactic indomethacin was associated with a lower risk-adjusted incidence of severe IVH.

  13. Relationship between birth order and birth weight of the pig

    OpenAIRE

    Charneca, Rui; Freitas, Amadeu; Nunes, José; Le Dividich, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether birth weight of the pig is related to its birth order. The study involved 292 sows from 2 genotypes (Large White x Landrace crossbred (LL), n= 247 and Alentejano (AL), n=45) of mixed parity and their piglets. Most sows farrowed naturally. Each piglet was identified, weighed (± 1g) (mummies excepted) and its birth order (BO) recorded within 2 min of birth. A total of 3418 LL and 375 AL piglets were born of which 43 and 7 were mummified, a...

  14. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...... 29.0 kg/m(2)) women, with emphasis on the use of the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations in Denmark....

  15. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (BW) has been associated with poor bone health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BW and bone mass and metabolism in adult BW discordant monozygotic twins (MZ). METHODS: 153 BW extremely discordant MZ twin-pairs were recru......-BMC, and -WB-Area after adjustments. Compared to the co-twin, twins with the highest BW were heavier and taller in adulthood (Mean differences (SD): 3.0 (10.5) kg; 1.6 (2.6) cm, both p ...

  16. Maternal Determinants of Birth Weight in Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Abubakari

    Full Text Available Weight at birth is usually considered as an indicator of the health status of a given society. As a result this study was designed to investigate the association between birth weight and maternal factors such as gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy BMI and socio-economic status in Northern Ghana.The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in two districts in the Northern region of Ghana. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural population. The current study included 419 mother-infant pairs who delivered at term (37-42 weeks. Mother's height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight changes were generated from the antenatal records. Questionnaires were administered to establish socio-economic and demographic information of respondents. Maternal factors associated with birth weight were examined using multiple and univariate regressions.The mothers were generally well nourished before conception (Underweight 3.82%, Normal 57.76%, Overweight 25.06% and Obesity 13.37% but approximately half of them could not gain adequate weight according to Institute of Medicine recommendations (Low weight gain 49.64%, Adequate weight gain 42.96% and Excessive weight gain 7.40%. Infants whose mothers had excess weight gain were 431g (95% CI 18-444 heavier compared to those whose mothers gained normal weight, while those whose mothers gained less were 479g (95% CI -682- (-276 lighter. Infants of mothers who were overweight and obese before conception were 246g (95% CI 87-405 and 595g (95% CI 375-815 respectively heavier than those of normal mothers, whereas those whose mothers were underweight were 305g (95% CI -565 -(-44 lighter. The mean birth weight observed was 2.98 ± 0.68 kg.Our findings show that pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy influence birth weight. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counseling and assisting pregnant women to stay within the recommended weight

  17. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

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    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  18. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...... incidence data from Denmark 1943–2013, Finland and Norway 1953–2013, and Sweden 1958–2013. Results: Since the implementation of screening, the incidence of cervical cancer has decreased for each successive birth cohort. All birth cohorts showed a unipolar age-specific pattern. In unscreened women in Denmark...

  19. Cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanqing; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Zeng, Hongmei; Xia, Changfa; Zuo, Tingting; Yang, Zhixun; Zou, Xiaonong; He, Jie

    2017-08-10

    National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCRC) updated nationwide statistics of cancer incidence and mortality in China using population-based cancer registration data in 2013 from all available cancer registries. In 2016, 255 registries' data were qualified and included in this analysis. We estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in China in 2013 using age-specific rates and corresponding national population stratified by area, sex, age group (0, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14…85+) and cancer type. The world Segi's population was applied for age-standardized rates. All rates were expressed per 100,000 person-year. A total of 3,682,000 new cancer cases and 2,229,300 cancer deaths were estimated in China in 2013. Cancers of lung, female breast, stomach, liver, colon-rectum and esophagus were the most common cancers, accounting for about half of all cancer new cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer were the five leading causes of cancer death, accounting for about 60% of all cancer deaths. The cancer patterns showed differences not only between male and female, but also among different geographic regions in China. For overall cancers, the age-standardized incidence rates were stable during the past decades in male, but significantly increased by 2.2% per year in female. Cancer poses a major threat to public health and the cancer burden keep raising in China. The annual updated cancer statistics can provide scientific basis for cancer prevention and control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Disposal of household burned garbage and risk of low birth weight in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pembakaran sampah di dalam rumah tanggadapat mempengaruhi berat badan bayi lahir rendah (BBLR. Pada tulisan ini disajikan pembakaran sampah di rumah tangga terhadap risiko BBLR.Metode: Analisis data menggunakan sebagian data studi potong lintang Riskesdas 2013 di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Data yang dianalisis ialah data bayi berusia 0-11 bulan. Berat badan bayi waktu lahir berdasarkan catatan berat bayi saat lahir yang tercatat dalam kuesioner Riskesdas. Bayi dikategorikan BBLR jika berat badan waktu lahir kurang dari 2500 gram. Hasil: Di antara 281 bayi yang mempunyai catatan berat badan lahir terdapat 10,6% (23 bayi yang BBLR. Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan perilaku pengelolaan sampah dengan cara dibakar dibandingkan dengan selain dibakar mempunyai risiko 2,3 kali lipat mengalami BBLR (RRa=2,28; 95% CI=1,18-8,61. Kesimpulan: Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan sampah dibakar dibandingkan dengan tanpa sampah dibakar mempunyai risiko lebih tinggi BBLR di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:89-93Kata kunci: berat badan lahir rendah, pembakaran sampahAbstractBackground: The management of household waste by burning can affect the incidence of low birth weight (LBW. This paper aims to identify the burning of garbage at home and risk of low birth weight. Methods: This analysis used a part of Riskesdas 2013 data in the Central Sulawesi Province. Subjects analyzed were infants aged 0-11 months. Baby’s weight was based on the baby’s birth weightwhich was recorded in the questionnaire of Riskesdas. The infants were categorized as LBW, if the recorded birth weight was less than 2500 grams. Results: Out of 392 babies,  281 babies had recorded birth weightswhich could be proved by documentary evidence. The majority of babies were boys (50.9% and lived in rural areas (58.7%. The proportion of babies who had LBW was 10.6% (23 infants. The babies who were living in households with

  1. Impact of antenatal steroids on intraventricular hemorrhage in very-low-birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J C; Catalano, R; Profit, J; Gould, J B; Lee, H C

    2016-05-01

    To determine the association between antenatal steroids administration and intraventricular hemorrhage rates. We used cross-sectional data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative during 2007 to 2013 for infants ⩽32 weeks gestational age. Using multivariable logistic regression, we evaluated the effect of antenatal steroids on intraventricular hemorrhage, stratified by gestational age. In 25 979 very-low-birth weight infants, antenatal steroid use was associated with a reduction in incidence of any grade of intraventricular hemorrhage (odds ratio=0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.75) and a reduction in incidence of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (odds ratio=0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.58). This association was seen across gestational ages ranging from 22 to 29 weeks. Although current guidelines recommend coverage for preterm birth at 24 to 34 weeks gestation, our results suggest that treatment with antenatal steroids may be beneficial even before 24 weeks of gestational age.

  2. Race, ethnicity, concentrated poverty, and low birth weight disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (rates were calculated for non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White live singleton births. Concentrated poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group.

  3. The Relationship between Maternal Biosocial Determinants and Infant Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zare Neyestanak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Low birth weight (LBW is the center of focus as a cause of many social, emotional, and mental deficiencies. The identification of the probable causes of LBW is considered as an important measure in reducing the prevalence of this health problem. Regarding this, the present study was carried out to compare some of the mental and social traits in the mothers of normal weight newborns and those with LBW neonates. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the parents of 400 neonates selected by the proportional sampling technique in Isfahan, Iran. The participants were assigned into two groups of mothers including 200 subjects with LBW neonate and 200 cases with normal birth weight newborns. The data were collected using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 developed by Lavibond and Lavibond in 1995 and the couple satisfaction index. Results: According to the results of the study, there was a significant difference between the two groups of mothers in terms of depression, stress, anxiety, age, medicine consumption, level of education, and marital satisfaction (P

  4. Relationship between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight babies

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    Ahmad Haerian-Ardakani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal infections, which serve as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators, may pose a threat to the fetal-placental unit and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was assessing the periodontal status of women during puerperium and determining the possible relationship between their periodontal disease and low birth weight delivery. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study. The sample included 88 ex-pregnant women were seen at maternity hospitals of Yazd, Iran. Half of the mothers had low birth babies (LBW (birth weight below 2500g- case group and the others had normal weight babies (>2500g- control group. The mothers’ data were obtained from medical files, interview and periodontal clinical examination carried out up to 3 days after delivery. Bleeding on probing, presence of supra-gingival calculus and CPITN (Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs were used for periodontal assessment Results: Among the known risk factors of LBW babies, history of previous LBW infant among case mothers reached statistical significance (p=0.0081, Student t-test. Mothers of LBW infants had less healthy areas of gingiva (p=0.042, and more deep pockets (p=0.0006, Mann-Whitney test. Conclusion: The maternal periodontal disease can be a potential independent risk factor for LBW.

  5. Birth weight trends among interracial black and white infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J D

    2000-05-01

    I examined time trends in low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) among interracial compared with single-race infants. Using natality data from 1978 through 1997 for singleton births to black and white parents, I calculated relative risks (RRs) of LBW and VLBW for interracial compared with single-race births, stratified by maternal race and adjusted for maternal characteristics. Among black mothers, interracial births had lower risks of LBW and VLBW than single-race births, and RRs were similar throughout the time period [for example, adjusted RR = 0.76 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73-0.80 for LBW in 1994-1997]. Among white mothers, interracial infants had higher risks of LBW than single-race infants; however, the adjusted RRs declined over the time period, from 1.22 (95% CI = 1.19-1.27) in 1978-1981 to 1.05 (95% CI = 1.03-1.08) in 1994-1997. Since 1978, there has been some relative improvement in birth outcomes for infants of white mothers and black fathers compared with single-race white births. There was, however, no relative improvement for black mother/black father infants relative to black mother/white father births.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  7. Birth weight and risk of childhood solid tumors in Brazil: a record linkage between population-based data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Paula Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the relationship between the development of childhood solid tumors and 1 birth weight and 2 fetal growth, using two Brazilian population-based data sets. Methods A case–cohort study was performed using two population-based data sets, and linkage between the Live Birth Information System (Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos, SINASC and 14 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs was established. Four controls per case were chosen randomly from the SINASC data set. Tumors were classified as central nervous system (CNS, non-CNS embryonal, and other tumors (“miscellaneous”. Adjustments were made for potential confounders (maternal age, mode of delivery, maternal education, birth order, gestational age, sex, and geographic region. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were computed using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results In a trend analysis, for every 500 g of additional birth weight, the crude OR was 1.12 (CI: 1.00–1.24 and the adjusted OR was 1.02 (CI: 0.90–1.16 for all tumors. For every 1 000 g of additional birth weight, the crude OR was 1.25 (CI: 1.00–1.55 and the adjusted OR was 1.04 (CI: 0.82–1.34 for all tumors. Among children diagnosed after reaching the age of 3 years, in the miscellaneous tumor category, the OR was significantly increased for every additional 500 g and 1 000 g of birth weight. Conclusions The study data suggested that increased birth weight was associated with childhood solid tumor development, especially among children more than 3 years old with “miscellaneous” tumors.

  8. Birth weight and risk of childhood solid tumors in Brazil: a record linkage between population-based data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Silva, Neimar; de Souza Reis, Rejane; Cunha, Rafael Garcia; Oliveira, Julio Fernando; da Silva de Lima, Fernanda Cristina; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria Socorro; Santos, Marceli Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2017-04-20

    To analyze the relationship between the development of childhood solid tumors and 1) birth weight and 2) fetal growth, using two Brazilian population-based data sets. A case-cohort study was performed using two population-based data sets, and linkage between the Live Birth Information System (Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos, SINASC) and 14 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) was established. Four controls per case were chosen randomly from the SINASC data set. Tumors were classified as central nervous system (CNS), non-CNS embryonal, and other tumors ("miscellaneous"). Adjustments were made for potential confounders (maternal age, mode of delivery, maternal education, birth order, gestational age, sex, and geographic region). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using unconditional logistic regression analysis. In a trend analysis, for every 500 g of additional birth weight, the crude OR was 1.12 (CI: 1.00-1.24) and the adjusted OR was 1.02 (CI: 0.90-1.16) for all tumors. For every 1 000 g of additional birth weight, the crude OR was 1.25 (CI: 1.00-1.55) and the adjusted OR was 1.04 (CI: 0.82-1.34) for all tumors. Among children diagnosed after reaching the age of 3 years, in the miscellaneous tumor category, the OR was significantly increased for every additional 500 g and 1 000 g of birth weight. The study data suggested that increased birth weight was associated with childhood solid tumor development, especially among children more than 3 years old with "miscellaneous" tumors.

  9. Low birth weights and risk of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-12-01

    mortality. This study aims to examine contribution of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in Indonesia. Methods: Data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS conducted in 2012 were used in the analysis. A total of 18021 live births in the last five years preceding the survey were reported from the mothers. Completed information of their children (14837 children were taken for this analysis. The adjusted relative risk with cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to assess the strength of association to neonatal mortality. Results: Children born in low birth weight were 9.89-fold higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children born in normal weight [adjusted relative risk (aRR = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.41 – 13.19; P = < 0.0001]. Children delivered from younger mothers (aged 15 - 19 years had 94% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children delivered from mothers aged 20-35 years. Working mothers had 81% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to unemployed mothers. Conclusion: Children born in a low birth weight and born from younger mothers had higher risk of neonatal mortality. Appropriate care and treatment for children born in low birth weight is needed to prolonged survival rates of the children. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2:113-117 Keywords: Low birth weight, neonatal mortality, Indonesia   

  10. Permissive hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants (≤1000 gm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, Jeong Hee; Sung, Se In; Jung, Ji Mi; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon

    2012-07-01

    We performed this study to evaluate the safety of permissive hypotension management in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs). Medical records of all inborn ELBWIs admitted to Samsung Medical Center from January 2004 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Of a total of 261 ELBWIs, 47 (18%) required treatment for hypotension (group T), 110 (42%) remained normotensive (group N), and 104 (40%) experienced more than one episode of hypotension without treatment (group P) during the first 72 hours of life. Treatment of hypotension included inotropic support and/or fluid loading. Birth weight and Apgar scores were significantly lower in the T group than the other two groups. In the N group, the rate of pathologically confirmed maternal chorioamnionitis was significantly higher than other two groups, and the rate was higher in the P group than the T group. After adjusting for covariate factors, no significant differences in mortality and major morbidities were found between the N and P groups. However, the mortality rate and the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage (≥stage 3) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (≥moderate) were significantly higher in the T group than the other two groups. Long term neurodevelopmental outcomes were not significantly different between the N and P groups. Close observation of hypotensive ELBWIs who showed good clinical perfusion signs without intervention allowed to avoid unnecessary medications and resulted in good neurological outcomes.

  11. Cancer incidence in men with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasle, H.; Mellemgaard, A.; Nielsen, J.; Hansen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Many case reports have suggested an association between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and cancer, but studies of the cancer incidence in larger groups of men with KS are lacking. A cohort of 696 men with KS was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on the cancer incidence in the cohort was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age, period and site specific cancer rates for Danish men. A total of 39 neoplasms were diagnosed (relative risk = 1.1). Four mediastinal tumours were observed (relative risk = 67); all four were malignant germ cell tumours. No cases of breast cancer or testis cancer were observed. One case of prostate cancer occurred within a previously irradiated field. No excess of leukaemia or lymphoma was found. An increased risk of cancer occurred in the age group 15-30 years (relative risk = 2.7). All six tumours in this group were germ cell tumours or sarcomas. The overall cancer incidence is not increased and no routine cancer screening seems to be justified. A considerably elevated risk of mediastinal germ cell tumours occurs in the period from early adolescence until the age of 30. PMID:7841064

  12. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  13. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  14. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.P.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Grievink, L.; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schram-Bijkerk, D.

    2013-01-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of

  15. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05) than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05) in ELBW group. Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Cancer incidence among Danish brewery workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Albertsen, Katrine; Johansen, Christoffer

    2005-01-01

    in a brewery between 1939 and 1963. From the original cohort of 14,313 workers, it was possible to identify 13,051 brewery workers (91.2%). The identified brewery workers were linked to the Danish Cancer Registry for any cancer diagnoses during 1943-1999. The incidence rate of all Danish men was applied...... to calculate the expected number of cancers, standardised incidence ratios for age and time trend (O/E) were computed. A total of 3,928 cases of cancer were observed compared to 2,835.8 expected (O/E, 1.39; 95%-CI, 1.34-1.43). Significantly elevated risk of cancers was seen for cancer sites such as the buccal...

  17. Postdischarge growth assessment in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon-Sik; Han, Jungho; Shin, Jeong Eun; Lee, Soon Min; Eun, Ho Seon; Park, Min-Soo; Park, Kook-In; Namgung, Ran

    2017-03-01

    The goal of nutritional support for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from birth to term is to match the in utero growth rates; however, this is rarely achieved. We evaluated postdischarge growth patterns and growth failure in 81 Korean VLBW infants through a retrospective study. Weight and height were measured and calculated based on age percentile distribution every 3 months until age 24 months. Growth failure was defined as weight and height below the 10th percentile at 24 months. For the subgroup analysis, small-for-gestational age (SGA) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants were evaluated. The growth patterns based on the Korean, World Health Organization (WHO), or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) standard were serially compared over time. At postconception age (PCA) 40 weeks, 47 (58%) and 45 infants (55%) showed growth failure in terms of weight and height, respectively. At PCA 24 months, 20 infants (24%) showed growth failure for weight and 14 (18%) for height. Growth failure rates were higher for the SGA infants than for the appropriate-weight-for-gestational age infants at PCA 24 months ( P =0.045 for weight and P =0.038 for height). Growth failure rates were higher for the ELBW infants than for the non-ELBW infants at PCA 24 months ( P <0.001 for weight and P =0.003 for height). Significant differences were found among the WHO, CDC, and Korean standards ( P <0.001). Advancements in neonatal care have improved the catch-up growth of VLBW infants, but this is insufficient. Careful observation and aggressive interventions, especially in SGA and ELBW infants, are needed.

  18. Ethical issues related to caring for low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mary S; Passmore, Denise; Cline, Genieveve; Maguire, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Currently preterm births are the leading causes of newborn deaths and newborn mortality in developed countries. Infants born prematurely remain vulnerable to many acute complications and long-term disabilities. There is a growing concern surrounding the moral and ethical implications of the complex and technological care being provided to extremely low birth weight infants in neonatal intensive care units in the developed nations. The purpose of this study was to describe the ethical and moral issues that neonatal intensive care nurses experience when caring for low birth weight preterm infants and their families. A phenomenological method design was used to describe the lived experiences of nurses with ethical and moral issues encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions were used to gather data from the participants. The setting for this study was a 97-bed neonatal intensive care. A total of 16 female nurses were interviewed. Approval to conduct the research study was obtained from the institutional review board of the hospital where the study was conducted. Formal signed consent was obtained from each participant. To ensure confidentiality, each participant was asked to choose a confederate name to be used in the interview and the transcriptions. The thematic analysis identified five recurring themes: (a) at the edge of viability, (b) infant pain and discomfort, (c) crucial decisions, (d) communicating with parents, and (e) letting go. Neonatal intensive care unit nurses indicated that they often had challenges to their own sense of morality as they struggled to protect the infant from pain and unnecessary discomfort, provide care to an infant and their family whom they thought was faced with a lifetime of challenges and poor health, accepting decisions made by parents, and feeling as if parents were not adequately informed about outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The Relationship between CO Ambient and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Majd H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: LBW is the strongest factor related to prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood mortality and morbidity. Air pollution is one of the risk factors that is recently gaining attention. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the CO ambient and low birth weight in women referring to Tehran hospitals in 2007-2008. Methods: In this historical cohort study 225 pregnant women having lived within 5 kilometers of a monitoring station during pregnancy and referring to selected hospitals in Tehran were investigated. An information questionnaire was used for data collection and sampling was done by multistage sampling and convenience method. Women were assigned to low exposure group and high exposure group based on mean exposure to each pollutant during pregnancy. These two groups were matched with respect to confounding factors. SPSS software version 15, T statistics, 2, Man Withnney, and Relative Risk procedures were used for data analysis.Results: The result showed that 31.6% of CO high exposure group and 7.4% of CO low exposure group had Low birth weight baby. The result also showed a significant relationship between exposure to high amount of CO and LBW (p=0.001. Relative Risk calculated with confidence interval (RR=4/67, CI=(1/76-9/43 was found to be 95% and the amount of attributable risk was 66%.Conclusion: Based on these finding, exposure to carbon monoxide pollution can cause LBW. There should be an educational program about the disadvantages of CO pollutant on pregnant women living in densely populated areas of the city. Moreover, practical approaches should be provided to reduce these pollutants.

  20. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Nitipir; Lucian Alecu; Iulian Slavu; Raluca Tulin; Radu C. Jecan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the...

  1. Factors affecting successful closure of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus with indomethacin in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan-Zhong; Lee, Jiun

    2008-05-01

    The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is high in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Indomethacin has been widely used in the prophylaxis and treatment of hemodynamically significant PDA. This retrospective study was undertaken to identify factors such as birth weight, gestational age, gender, fetal growth retardation, ductal size, timing of the first dose of indomethacin and side effects of indomethacin, which may affect the successful closure of the PDA with indomethacin in ELBW infants. A cohort of 139 ELBW infants who had received indomethacin treatment for PDA during a consecutive period of more than three years (September 2000 to December 2003) was retrospectively analyzed. Administration of indomethacin was associated with closure of PDA in 108 (77.7%) of 139 ELBW infants, and only 19.4% of infants required surgical ligation of the ductus eventually. There was no significant relationship between closure of PDA with gestational age, gender, fetal growth retardation, and ductal size. A higher birth weight and early use of indomethacin after birth could significantly increase the closure rate of PDA (P<0.05). Side effects of indomethacin such as transient oliguria and hyponatremia during indomethacin therapy did not affect PDA closure. Indomethacin is effective for the treatment of PDA in ELBW infants. A higher rate of ductal closure is related to the increase of birth weight. PDA closure with indomethacin is age-related, and early administration of indomethacin could increase PDA closure and reduce the incidence of hyponatremia. There is no significant difference in major morbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) after early treatment. Early screening for hemodynamically significant PDA in ELBW infants and early treatment with indomethacin are recommended.

  2. An audit of caesarean sections for very low birth weight babies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2012-02-01

    This study reviewed caesarean sections for very low birth weight babies in a tertiary referral maternity hospital. Maternal and neonatal complications were recorded and classified according to uterine incision type. We reviewed medical records of 89 women over a period of 2 years. The indication for the caesarean section influenced the type of uterine incision made (p = 0.004). Women who had antepartum haemorrhage were more likely to need a vertical incision. There was also a higher incidence of vertical incisions for gestations <28 weeks (p = 0.029). Surprisingly, when the computerised discharge summaries were reviewed retrospectively, all the vertical uterine incisions were recorded as lower segment caesarean sections. This would have a clinical impact on those women in future pregnancies, especially in a highly mobile population.

  3. Continuous versus bolus intragastric tube feeding for preterm and low birth weight infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Robyn; Foster, Jann P; Psaila, Kim

    2014-07-17

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a particularly common condition in preterm and low birth weight infants. These infants are also more likely to have excessive regurgitation, as they do not have a fully developed antireflux mechanism. Preterm and low birth weight infants who are unable to suck oral feeds are required to be fed via an intragastric tube for varying lengths of time. Intragastric tube feeding can be delivered by the intermittent bolus or continuous feeding method. Use of continuous or intermittent bolus intragastric feeding may have a positive or negative effect on the incidence or severity of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. To determine whether continuous or intermittent bolus intragastric tube feeding reduces the number of episodes and the duration of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in preterm and low birth weight infants.We intended to perform subgroup analyses for gestational age; birth weight; age in days from birth at full enteral feeding via intragastric tube (breast vs bottle); frequency of intermittent bolus feed; and type of medication for treatment of GORD (only if medication prescribed and given similarly to both intervention groups). We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Group as described in The Cochrane Library (www.thecochranelibrary.com) to search for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 9), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2013), EMBASE (1980 to September 2013) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to September 2013). We also searched previous reviews, including cross-references, abstracts and conference and symposia proceedings of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Pediatric Academic Societies (American Pediatric Society/Society for Pediatric Research and European Society for Paediatric Research) from 1990 to 2012. Published and unpublished RCTs and quasi

  4. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention with mandat......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... the initiation and termination of vitamin D fortification programmes. In total, four sets of analyses were performed. Information on birth weight was available in the Copenhagen School Health Record Register for all school children in Copenhagen. The mean birth weight was lower among the exposed than non...

  5. Intraventricular hemorrhage risk factors in very low birth weight newborns: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of variables that affect the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Methods: Analytic case-control study, in a population consisting of all VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a maternity hospital, between January 2002 and December 2007. The authors considered as cases all VLBW newborns with severe IVH (grade ≥ 3, and control all VLBW newborns without IVH. Independent variables included obstetric, perinatal and neonatal diagnosis and therapy. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Rresults: During this period, of the 864 VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, 9.7% had severe IVH. With bivariate analysis an association between severe IVH, gestational age and birth weight was found. Prenatal care and pre-eclampsia were associated with a decrease in the incidence of severe IVH. Amnionitis, being outborn, vaginal delivery, male gender, intubation in the delivery room, surfactant, hyaline membrane disease, pneumothorax, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC perforation and oscillatory high frequency ventilation were associated with an increased incidence of severe IVH. By multivariate logistic regression, the variables associated with increased risk of severe IVH were: pneumothorax (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 1.7-8.3, NEC with perforation (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 1.7-45.0, vaginal delivery (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.0-4.1 and high frequency ventilation (OR = 4.8; 95%CI = 1.3-17.3. The following were protective of severe IVH: gestational age (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.52-0.72, patent ductus arteriosus treatment with indomethacin (OR = 0.26; 95%CI = 0.11-0.6 and fertility treatment (OR = 0.24; 95%CI = 0.06-0.94. Cconclusion: These data outline the importance of improvement of pre and neonatal care to reduce severe IVH.

  6. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  7. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and infant birth weight: A within-family analysis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ji

    2015-07-01

    In the United States, the high prevalence of unhealthy preconception body weight and inappropriate gestational weight gain among pregnant women is an important public health concern. However, the relationship among pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and newborn birth weight has not been well established. This study uses a very large dataset of sibling births and a within-family design to thoroughly address this issue. The baseline analysis controlling for mother fixed effects indicates maternal preconception overweight, preconception obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain significantly increase the risk of having a high birth weight baby, respectively, by 1.3, 3 and 3.9 percentage points, while underweight before pregnancy and inadequate gestational weight gain increase the low birth weight incidence by 1.4 and 2 percentage points. The benchmark results are robust in a variety of sensitivity checks. Since poor birth outcomes especially high birth weight and low birth weight have lasting adverse impacts on one's health, education, and socio-economic outcomes later in life, the findings of this research suggest promoting healthy weight among women before pregnancy and preventing inappropriate weight gain during pregnancy can generate significant intergenerational benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Intergenerational predictors of birth weight in the Philippines: correlations with mother's and father's birth weight and test of maternal constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; Eisenberg, Dan T A

    2012-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) predicts many health outcomes, but the relative contributions of genes and environmental factors to BW remain uncertain. Some studies report stronger mother-offspring than father-offspring BW correlations, with attenuated father-offspring BW correlations when the mother is stunted. These findings have been interpreted as evidence that maternal genetic or environmental factors play an important role in determining birth size, with small maternal size constraining paternal genetic contributions to offspring BW. Here we evaluate mother-offspring and father-offspring birth weight (BW) associations and evaluate whether maternal stunting constrains genetic contributions to offspring birth size. Data include BW of offspring (n = 1,101) born to female members (n = 382) and spouses of male members (n = 275) of a birth cohort (born 1983-84) in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Regression was used to relate parental and offspring BW adjusting for confounders. Resampling testing was used to evaluate whether false paternity could explain any evidence for excess matrilineal inheritance. In a pooled model adjusting for maternal height and confounders, parental BW was a borderline-significantly stronger predictor of offspring BW in mothers compared to fathers (sex of parent interaction p = 0.068). In separate multivariate models, each kg in mother's and father's BW predicted a 271±53 g (ppaternity rates of >25% and likely 50% would be needed to explain these differences. There was no interaction between maternal stature and maternal BW (interaction p = 0.520) or paternal BW (p = 0.545). Each kg change in mother's BW predicted twice the change in offspring BW as predicted by a change in father's BW, consistent with an intergenerational maternal effect on offspring BW. Evidence for excess matrilineal BW heritability at all levels of maternal stature points to indirect genetic, mitochondrial, or epigenetic maternal contributions to offspring

  9. Intergenerational predictors of birth weight in the Philippines: correlations with mother's and father's birth weight and test of maternal constraint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Kuzawa

    Full Text Available Birth weight (BW predicts many health outcomes, but the relative contributions of genes and environmental factors to BW remain uncertain. Some studies report stronger mother-offspring than father-offspring BW correlations, with attenuated father-offspring BW correlations when the mother is stunted. These findings have been interpreted as evidence that maternal genetic or environmental factors play an important role in determining birth size, with small maternal size constraining paternal genetic contributions to offspring BW. Here we evaluate mother-offspring and father-offspring birth weight (BW associations and evaluate whether maternal stunting constrains genetic contributions to offspring birth size.Data include BW of offspring (n = 1,101 born to female members (n = 382 and spouses of male members (n = 275 of a birth cohort (born 1983-84 in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Regression was used to relate parental and offspring BW adjusting for confounders. Resampling testing was used to evaluate whether false paternity could explain any evidence for excess matrilineal inheritance. In a pooled model adjusting for maternal height and confounders, parental BW was a borderline-significantly stronger predictor of offspring BW in mothers compared to fathers (sex of parent interaction p = 0.068. In separate multivariate models, each kg in mother's and father's BW predicted a 271±53 g (p25% and likely 50% would be needed to explain these differences. There was no interaction between maternal stature and maternal BW (interaction p = 0.520 or paternal BW (p = 0.545.Each kg change in mother's BW predicted twice the change in offspring BW as predicted by a change in father's BW, consistent with an intergenerational maternal effect on offspring BW. Evidence for excess matrilineal BW heritability at all levels of maternal stature points to indirect genetic, mitochondrial, or epigenetic maternal contributions to offspring fetal growth.

  10. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Fikawati; Dwi Wahyuni; Ahmad Syafiq

    2012-01-01

    Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW), are  intergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life. Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective study aims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and weight gain during pregnancy) and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged...

  11. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs...... with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures....

  12. Errors in registered birth weight and its implications for mortality statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, D; Pharoah, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Birth weight mortality statistics are important for examining trends and monitoring the outcomes of neonatal care.
AIM—To determine the effects of errors in the registered birth weight on birth weight specific mortality.
METHODS—All twins born in England and Wales during 1993-95 comprise the denominator population. For those twins that died, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) provided copies of the death certificates. From the information on the death cer...

  13. Thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica. 1998 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laurence; Lasalle, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    In France, Corsica appears to be one of the most exposed regions to the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Taking into account the scientific knowledge at that time, it was decided to focus studies on thyroid cancers. A study was carried out in order to estimate thyroid cancer incidence in Corsica for the periods 1998-2001 and 2002-2006. The study identified incident thyroid cancer cases between 1998 and 2006 among residents in Corsica. Data were collected using information from the hospitals (PMSI) and the local health insurance funds (ALD). Cases were validated through medical records before inclusion in the study. Over the period of study, 342 cases of thyroid cancer, rather women and relatively young patients, were identified in Corsica. Incidence rate of the thyroid cancer was high, but stable among men, and with a slight increase among women, particularly between 2002 and 2006. However, incidence rate and clinical characteristics of thyroid cancer in Corsica are not exceptional and are similar to those in other French districts. (authors)

  14. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  15. Maternal pesticide use and birth weight in the agricultural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Basso, Olga; Karr, Catherine J; Lozano, Paula; Alavanja, Michael; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2010-04-01

    Studies examining the association between maternal pesticide exposure and low birth weight yield conflicting results. The authors examined the association between maternal pesticide use and birth weight among women in the Agricultural Health Study, a large study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The authors evaluated self-reported pesticide use of 27 individual pesticides in relation to birth weight among 2246 farm women whose most recent singleton birth occurred within 5 years of enrollment (1993-1997). The authors used linear regression models adjusted for site, preterm birth, medical parity, maternal body mass index, height, and smoking. The results showed that mean infant birth weight was 3586 g (+/- 546 g), and 3% of the infants were low birth weight (birth weight. Ever use of the pesticide carbaryl was associated with decreased birth weight (-82 g, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -132, -31). This study thus provides limited evidence about pesticide use as a modulator of birth weight. Overall, the authors observed no associations between birth weight and pesticide-related activities during early pregnancy; however, the authors have no data on temporal specificity of individual pesticide exposures prior to or during pregnancy and therefore cannot draw conclusions related to these exposure windows. Given the widespread exposure to pesticide products, additional evaluation of maternal pregnancy exposures at specific time windows and subsequent birth outcomes is warranted.

  16. INFLUENCE OF SOME NON GENETIC FACTORS ON BIRTH WEIGHT OF TEDDY GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Asad Ullah Hyder, Pervez Akhtar and Khalid Zafar Gondal1

    2002-01-01

    Data on birth weight of Teddy goats maintained at the Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, were collected. A total of 1666 kidding records spread over a period of 25 years were available. Overall least square mean for birth weight was 1.44 ± 0.06 kg. The variation in birth weight due year and season of birth was significant. The winter born kids were heavier (1.46 ± 0.06 kg) than summer born kids (1.42 ± 0.06 kg). Least square mean for birth weight of male kids was 1.49 ± 0....

  17. Consanguinity, prematurity, birth weight and pregnancy loss: a prospective cohort study at four primary health center areas of Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellad, M B; Goudar, S S; Edlavitch, S A; Mahantshetti, N S; Naik, V; Hemingway-Foday, J J; Gupta, M; Nalina, H R; Derman, R; Moss, N; Kodkany, B S

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether consanguinity adversely influences pregnancy outcome in South India, where consanguinity is a common means of family property retention. Data were collected from a prospective cohort of 647 consenting women, consecutively registered for antenatal care between 14 and 18 weeks gestation, in Belgaum district, Karnataka in 2005. Three-generation pedigree charts were drawn for consanguineous participants. χ (2)-Test and Student's t-test were used to assess categorical and continuous data, respectively, using SPSS version 14. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Overall, 24.1% of 601 women with singleton births and outcome data were consanguineous. Demographic characteristics between study groups were similar. Non-consanguineous couples had fewer stillbirths (2.6 vs 6.9% P=0.017; adjusted P=0.050), miscarriages (1.8 vs 4.1%, P=0.097; adjusted P=0.052) and lower incidence of birth weight birth (P=0.013), whereas smoking (P=0.015) and poverty (P=0.003) were associated with higher rates of low birth weight. Consanguinity significantly increases pregnancy loss and birth weight <2500 g.

  18. Epidemiological factors involved in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very low birth-weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardón-Fernández, Marita; Uberos, José; Molina-Oya, Manuel; Narbona-López, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    In spite of the advances made in perinatal medicine, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has not decreased and the aetiopathogenesis of the "new" BPD is still a matter for debate. The objectives of the present study were to analyse the epidemiological factors and morbidity associated with the development of BPD in a cohort of very low birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants. This retrospective observational study included all the preterm infants with birth weight ≤1500 g who were admitted to a tertiary-level hospital NICU from 2008 to 2011. A neurological follow-up was also carried out during the first two years of life. A total of 140 VLBW infants were analyzed: 28.4% presented oxygen dependence at 28 days, and 17.2% at 36 weeks adjusted gestational age. Predictive factors for the development of BPD were gestational age, birth weight, number of days of parenteral nutrition, number of days to achieve full enteral feeding, number of transfusions, duration of respiratory support and insulin administration, vasoactive drugs, diuretics, sedoanalgesia and postnatal corticosteroids. The neonatal morbidity associated with the development of BPD was late neonatal sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and intraventricular hemorrhage. Non-significant associations with neurodevelopmental impairment were observed. Predictive factors for the development of BPD were respiratory support, feeding and different types of medication. Moreover, patients with BPD had a higher associated morbidity than those who did not develop BPD.

  19. Cancer incidence in eastern Morocco: cancer patterns and incidence trends, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi Errahhali, Manal; Elidrissi Errahhali, Mounia; Ouarzane, Meryem; Boulouiz, Redouane; Bellaoui, Mohammed

    2017-08-29

    Cancer is one of the major health problems worldwide. In this article, we present for the first time the cancer incidence trends, the distribution and the socioeconomic profile of incident cancer cases in Eastern Morocco over a period of eight years. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with cancer at the Hassan II Regional Oncology Center (ROC) since it was created in October 2005 until December 2012. During the study period, the ROC was the only hospital specialized in cancer care in Eastern Morocco. A total of 7872 incident cases of cancer were registered in Eastern Morocco. Among these incident cases 5220 cases were women and 2652 were men, with a female to male ratio of 1.97. The mean age at diagnosis was 58 years for males and 52 for females and 94% of the patients aged over 30 years. For both sexes combined and for all cancer sites, breast cancer was the commonest followed by cervix uteri, colon-rectum, lung, nasopharynx, and stomach cancers. The most common cancer in women was breast cancer, followed respectively by cervix uteri cancer, colon-rectum cancer, ovary cancer, and stomach cancer. In men, the lung cancer ranked first, followed respectively by colon-rectum cancer, nasopharynx cancer, prostate cancer, and stomach cancer. For most cancers, crude incidence rates (CR) have increased significantly. The CR for all cancers combined has increased from 56.6 to 80.3 per 100,000 females and from 32.3 to 42.6 per 100,000 males during the study period. Patients profile analysis showed that 79% of cancer patients were from urban areas, 83% were unemployed and 85% had no health insurance. The distribution of cancers in Eastern Morocco is different from those observed in other regions of Morocco. Unlike most countries, women were much more affected with cancer than men in Eastern Morocco. More importantly, the rates of many cancers are rising. Therefore, our data justify the need to develop effective programs for cancer control and prevention in

  20. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  1. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  2. The Relationship between CO Ambient and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kariman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: LBW is the strongest factor related to prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood mortality and morbidity. Air pollution is one of the risk factors that is recently gaining attention. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the CO ambient and low birth weight in women referring to Tehran hospitals in 2007-2008.

     

    Methods: In this historical cohort study 225 pregnant women having lived within 5 kilometers of a monitoring station during pregnancy and referring to selected hospitals in Tehran were investigated. An information questionnaire was used for data collection and sampling was done by multistage sampling and convenience method. Women were assigned to low exposure group and high exposure group based on mean exposure to each pollutant during pregnancy. These two groups were matched with respect to confounding factors. SPSS software version 15, T statistics, c2, Man Withnney, and Relative Risk procedures were used for data analysis.

     

    Results: The result showed that 31.6% of CO high exposure group and 7.4% of CO low exposure group had Low birth weight baby. The result also showed a significant relationship between exposure to high amount of CO and LBW (p=0.001. Relative Risk calculated with confidence interval (RR=4/67, CI=(1/76-9/43 was found to be 95% and the amount of attributable risk was 66%.

     

    Conclusion: Based on these finding, exposure to carbon monoxide pollution can cause LBW. There should be an educational program about the disadvantages of CO pollutant on pregnant women living in densely populated areas of the city. Moreover, practical approaches should be provided to reduce these pollutants.

  3. Temporal trends in pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in Bavaria 2000–2007: slightly decreasing birth weight with increasing weight gain in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schiessl, Barbara; Beyerlein, Andreas; Lack, Nicholas; Kries, Rüdiger von

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To assess temporal trends in birth weight and pregnancy weight gain in Bavaria from 2000 to 2007. Methods: Data on 695,707 mother and infant pairs (singleton term births) were available from a compulsory reporting system for quality assurance, including information on birth weight, maternal weight at delivery and at booking, maternal smoking, age, and further anthropometric and lifestyle factors. Pregnancy weight gain was defined as: weight prior to delivery minus weight at first booki...

  4. Pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight: A cohort study in rural Belgaum, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited conclusive evidence is available. Objectives: To determine the relation between pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight of newborn in primigravida women in rural Belgaum. To assess the oral health status of the same primigravida women in rural Belgaum. Materials & Methods:Study Design & Period: A cohort study for 18 months Study location: 3 rural field areas of JNMC (Handiganur, Kinaye and Vantamuri in Belgaum. Study Population: Primigravida women in the 3 villages in their first trimester in January/February 2011 during enrolment and expected to deliver in August/September 2011. Sample Size: 240 (120 in each cohort. Data Collection: After ethical review, a pilot study was conducted on 10% of study population in each village to essentially pre-test the interview schedule. Then screening visit to enrol women based on eligibility criteria was done. Subsequent screening periodontal examination was done by CPI to allocate the women into study (pregnant women with periodontitis and control (pregnant women without periodontitis cohort. Oral health status was also recorded using OHI-S and DMFT indices. Follow up visits consisted of trimester-wise visit to check on periodontal status and a post delivery visit to record term of delivery and LBW. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS (β version 20 and analyzed in in proportions, percentages, Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Chi-Square test and Logistic Regression Analysis.Results: The total incidence of

  5. Pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight: A cohort study in rural Belgaum, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited conclusive evidence is available. Objectives: To determine the relation between pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight of newborn in primigravida women in rural Belgaum. To assess the oral health status of the same primigravida women in rural Belgaum. Materials & Methods: Study Design & Period: A cohort study for 18 months Study location: 3 rural field areas of JNMC (Handiganur, Kinaye and Vantamuri in Belgaum. Study Population: Primigravida women in the 3 villages in their first trimester in January/February 2011 during enrolment and expected to deliver in August/September 2011. Sample Size: 240 (120 in each cohort. Data Collection: After ethical review, a pilot study was conducted on 10% of study population in each village to essentially pre-test the interview schedule. Then screening visit to enrol women based on eligibility criteria was done. Subsequent screening periodontal examination was done by CPI to allocate the women into study (pregnant women with periodontitis and control (pregnant women without periodontitis cohort. Oral health status was also recorded using OHI-S and DMFT indices. Follow up visits consisted of trimester-wise visit to check on periodontal status and a post delivery visit to record term of delivery and LBW. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS (β version 20 and analyzed in in proportions, percentages, Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Chi-Square test and Logistic Regression Analysis.Results: The total incidence of

  6. Fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction: a new population-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, H K; Grøttum, P; Økland, I; Eik-Nes, S H

    2017-04-01

    To develop a complete, population-based system for ultrasound-based fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction for use in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Using 31 516 ultrasound examinations from a population-based Norwegian clinical database, we constructed fetal size charts for biparietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference from 24 to 42 weeks' gestation. A reference curve of median birth weight for gestational age was estimated using 45 037 birth weights. We determined how individual deviations from the expected ultrasound measures predicted individual percentage deviations from expected birth weight. The predictive quality was assessed by explained variance of birth weight and receiver-operating characteristics curves for prediction of small-for-gestational age. A curve for intrauterine estimated fetal weight was constructed. Charts were smoothed using the gamlss non-linear regression method. The population-based approach, using bias-free ultrasound gestational age, produces stable estimates of size-for-age and weight-for-age curves in the range 24-42 weeks' gestation. There is a close correspondence between percentage deviations and percentiles of birth weight by gestational age, making it easy to convert between the two. The variance of birth weight that can be 'explained' by ultrasound increases from 8% at 20 weeks up to 67% around term. Intrauterine estimated fetal weight is 0-106 g higher than median birth weight in the preterm period. The new population-based birth-weight prediction model provides a simple summary measure, the 'percentage birth-weight deviation', to be used for fetal size monitoring throughout the third trimester. Predictive quality of the model can be measured directly from the population data. The model computes both median observed birth weight and intrauterine estimated fetal weight. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John

  7. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, S D; Zhang, M G; Der, G; Mathur, S; Mina, T H; Reynolds, R M

    2017-04-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range -86-129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI -4.0-6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57-103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.

  8. Milk consumption during pregnancy increases birth weight, a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C; John, Swen Malte; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-16

    Antenatal dietary lifestyle intervention and nutrition during pregnancy and early postnatal life are important for appropriate lifelong metabolic programming. Epidemiological evidence underlines the crucial role of increased birth weight as a risk factor for the development of chronic diseases of civilization such as obesity, diabetes and cancer. Obstetricians and general practitioners usually recommend milk consumption during pregnancy as a nutrient enriched in valuable proteins and calcium for bone growth. However, milk is not just a simple nutrient, but has been recognized to function as an endocrine signaling system promoting anabolism and postnatal growth by activating the nutrient-sensitive kinase mTORC1. Moreover, pasteurized cow's milk transfers biologically active exosomal microRNAs into the systemic circulation of the milk consumer apparently affecting more than 11,000 human genes including the mTORC1-signaling pathway. This review provides literature evidence and evidence derived from translational research that milk consumption during pregnancy increases gestational, placental, fetal and birth weight. Increased birth weight is a risk factor for the development of diseases of civilization thus involving key disciplines of medicine. With regard to the presented evidence we suggest that dietary recommendations promoting milk consumption during pregnancy have to be re-evaluated.

  9. Birth-weight charts and immigrant populations: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Sørbye, Ingvil K; Wanigaratne, Susitha

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing body of literature focusing on differences in newborn size between different population subgroups defined by racial, ethnic, and immigration status. The interpretation of these differences as pathological or as merely reflecting normal variability is not straightforward and may have consequences for the provision of obstetric and neonatal care to minority populations. In this review, we critically assess some methodological issues affecting the assessment of newborn size and their potential implications for minority populations. In particular, we discuss the pros and cons of different types of newborn birth-weight (BW) charts (i.e., single local population-based references, minority-specific references, and a single international standard) to determine abnormal newborn size, with emphasis on immigrant populations. We conclude that size alone is not enough to inform clinical decisions and that all newborn size charts should be used as screening tools, not as diagnostic tools. Parental minority status may be regarded as a marker and used to further inquire about individual risk factors, particularly among immigrants who may not have a complete medical history in the new country. Finally, we outline areas for further research and recommendations for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Predicting birth weight with conditionally linear transformation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möst, Lisa; Schmid, Matthias; Faschingbauer, Florian; Hothorn, Torsten

    2016-12-01

    Low and high birth weight (BW) are important risk factors for neonatal morbidity and mortality. Gynecologists must therefore accurately predict BW before delivery. Most prediction formulas for BW are based on prenatal ultrasound measurements carried out within one week prior to birth. Although successfully used in clinical practice, these formulas focus on point predictions of BW but do not systematically quantify uncertainty of the predictions, i.e. they result in estimates of the conditional mean of BW but do not deliver prediction intervals. To overcome this problem, we introduce conditionally linear transformation models (CLTMs) to predict BW. Instead of focusing only on the conditional mean, CLTMs model the whole conditional distribution function of BW given prenatal ultrasound parameters. Consequently, the CLTM approach delivers both point predictions of BW and fetus-specific prediction intervals. Prediction intervals constitute an easy-to-interpret measure of prediction accuracy and allow identification of fetuses subject to high prediction uncertainty. Using a data set of 8712 deliveries at the Perinatal Centre at the University Clinic Erlangen (Germany), we analyzed variants of CLTMs and compared them to standard linear regression estimation techniques used in the past and to quantile regression approaches. The best-performing CLTM variant was competitive with quantile regression and linear regression approaches in terms of conditional coverage and average length of the prediction intervals. We propose that CLTMs be used because they are able to account for possible heteroscedasticity, kurtosis, and skewness of the distribution of BWs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Management and outcome of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Papageorgiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW and extremely premature (EP infants has shown consistent improvement thanks to advances and innovations in perinatal and neonatal care. Regionalization, with high-risk deliveries in a tertiary perinatal center, offers the coordinated, collaborative, expert and specialized care needed by these mothers and their infants. Despite decreasing rates of the major neonatal morbidities observed in recent years, these continue still to be significant for ELBW/EP infants, impacting their overall prognosis. After NICU discharge and in the first years of life, issues with health, growth and development are common. In school age and adolescence, problems with behavior, socialization and cognition are prevalent. Adult outcomes of ELBW/EP need further clarity, emphasizing the importance for consistent long-term follow-up for this special cohort. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  12. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  13. Trends in Patent Ductus Arteriosus Diagnosis and Management for Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Samantha; Profit, Jochen; Gould, Jeffrey B; Lee, Henry C

    2017-04-01

    To examine yearly trends of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) diagnosis and treatment in very low birth weight infants. In this retrospective cohort study of very low birth weight infants (<1500 g) between 2008 and 2014 across 134 California hospitals, we evaluated PDA diagnosis and treatment by year of birth. Infants were either inborn or transferred in within 2 days after delivery and had no congenital abnormalities. Intervention levels for treatment administered to achieve ductal closure were categorized as none, pharmacologic (indomethacin or ibuprofen), both pharmacologic intervention and surgical ligation, or ligation only. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for PDA diagnosis and treatment. PDA was diagnosed in 42.8% (12 002/28 025) of infants, with a decrease in incidence from 49.2% of 4205 infants born in 2008 to 38.5% of 4001 infants born in 2014. Pharmacologic and/or surgical treatment was given to 30.5% of patients. Between 2008 and 2014, the annual rate of infants who received pharmacologic intervention (30.5% vs 15.7%) or both pharmacologic intervention and surgical ligation (6.9% vs 2.9%) decreased whereas infants who were not treated (60.5% vs 78.3%) or received primary ligation (2.2% vs 3.0%) increased. There is an increasing trend toward not treating patients diagnosed with PDA compared with more intensive treatments: pharmacologic intervention or both pharmacologic intervention and surgical ligation. Possible directions for future study include the impact of these trends on hospital-based and long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Effect of Consanguinity on Low Birth Weight: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Ameri, Pegah; Soltanian, Alireza; Bahrami, Masoud

    2017-03-01

    Consanguinity (when couples share at least one common ancestor) is a public health issue with a variety of distributions and incidence rates worldwide. Several epidemiological studies have explored the association between consanguinity and low birth weight (LBW). However, the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the overall association between consanguineous marriage and LBW. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and reference lists of articles up to May 2015. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies addressing the association between consanguinity and LBW. We assessed heterogeneity using Q-test and I2 statistic. We explored publication bias using the Egger's and Begg's tests and the funnel plot. We meta-analyzed the data and reported the overall odds ratio (OR) and mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the random-effects model. We included 24 out of 3941 retrieved studies, with 44,131 participants. We indicated that LBW was associated significantly with first-cousin marriages (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.69) and non-significantly with second-cousin marriages (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.91). Furthermore, first-cousin marriages can reduce the birth weight of siblings of consanguineous couples 144 g more compared to non-consanguineous marriages. This meta-analysis measured the association between consanguinity and LBW. Based on the current evidence, consanguineous marriage can increase the risk for LBW. However, further evidence based on large cohort studies conducted in different settings is required to make a robust conclusion regarding the effect of consanguinity on LBW.

  15. [Factors influencing the prognosis of patent ductus arteriosus in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Hong; Shi, Li-Ping; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Luo, Fang; Chen, Zheng; Lin, Hui-Jia; DU, Li-Zhong

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the factors influencing the prognosis of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. A total of 194 VLBW infants who were admitted from January 2012 to December 2014 were enrolled as study subjects. According to cardiac ultrasound findings and treatment outcome, these infants were divided into non-PDA group, spontaneous closure group, pharmaceutical closure group, and surgical closure group. Their clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were analyzed. The spontaneous closure rate of PDA was 58.7%. The spontaneous closure group showed significantly higher gestational age, birth weight, and proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants than the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups (Pclosure groups had a significantly higher incidence rate of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and a significantly higher proportion of infants who were given pulmonary surfactant (PS) than the spontaneous closure group (Pclosure group had a significantly smaller ductus arteriosus diameter than the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups (Pductus arteriosus diameter at 48 hours were significantly associated with the prognosis of PDA. The major transductal flow pattern in the spontaneous closure group was closing pattern, while in the pharmaceutical and surgical closure groups, the main flow patterns were pulmonary hypertension and growing patterns within 48 hours and growing pattern on days 4 and 7. The VLBW infants have a high spontaneous closure rate of PDA. A decreased closure rate of PDA is associated with the lower gestational age and the application of PS. PDA with a large ductus arteriosus diameter and a growing or pulsatile flow pattern cannot easily achieve spontaneous closure.

  16. Cancer incidence after nasopharyngeal radium irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Verduijn, Pieter G.; Stovall, Marilyn; Land, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    From 1940 until 1970, nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was used to treat children and military personnel suffering from Eustachian tube failure attributable to local lymphoid hyperplasia. We studied cancer incidence in a cohort of 4339 Dutch patients treated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation,

  17. Large effects on birth weight follow inheritance pattern consistent with gametic imprinting and X chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth weight (BW) records of 28,638 Brangus and Simbrah calves (12,295 of which were produced by embryo transfer) were provided by a private seedstock breeder. The objectives were to determine the genetic mechanism(s) responsible for previously observed 12.3 and 6.9 kg differences in birth weight b...

  18. Delayed Prenatal Care and the Risk of Low Birth Weight Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, William J.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Davis, Lucy; Sturgill, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    Assessed whether the timing of prenatal care related to low birth weight delivery, adjusting for sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. Data on births to white and African American women showed no benefits for early initiation of prenatal care in reducing the risk of low birth weight.(SM)

  19. Lower birth weight and diet in Taiwanese girls more than boys predicts learning impediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance questionnaires in relation to diet quality by the Youth Healthy Eating Index-Taiwan and birth weight of children aged 6-13 years (n=2283). Lower birth weight (≤15th percentile: ≤2850 g for boys and ≤2700 g for girls) children were mostly from mountainous areas and of indigenous descent. Compared to normal birth weight, lower birth weight girls experienced greater inability to learn and weaker overall competence. Better diet quality predicted more favorable emotional and behavioral outcomes in lower birth weight girls, and this persisted with adjustment for covariates. None of these findings were evident among boys. Girls' cognitive and social development appears to be susceptible to diet quality and birth weight, such that the adverse risk of lower birth weight on school performance may be offset by improved diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed J; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Razmifard, Farzad; Afsharnia, Farzaneh

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

  1. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  2. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Groppetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001 and litter size (p < 0.05 increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and the lightest pups, respectively (p < 0.001. Birth weight decreased with litter size (p < 0.001, and male pups were heavier than females (p < 0.001. These results suggest that canine morphotype, not only maternal size and body weight, can affect birth weight and litter size with possible practical implications in neonatal assistance.

  3. Metabolomic profiling in blood from umbilical cords of low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivorra Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight has been linked to an increased risk to develop obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in adult life, although the mechanisms underlying the association are not well understood. The objective was to determine whether the metabolomic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between low and normal birth weight newborns. Methods Fifty healthy pregnant women and their infants were selected. The eligibility criteria were being born at term and having a normal pregnancy. Pairs were grouped according to their birth weight: low birth weight (LBW, birth weight th percentile, n = 20 and control (control, birth weight between the 75th-90th percentiles, n = 30. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR was used to generate metabolic fingerprints of umbilical cord plasma samples. Simultaneously, the metabolomic profiles of the mothers were analysed. The resulting data were subjected to chemometric, principal component and partial least squares discriminant analyses. Results Umbilical cord plasma from LBW and control newborns displayed a clearly differentiated metabolic profile. Seven metabolites were identified that discriminate the LBW from the control group. LBW newborns had lower levels of choline, proline, glutamine, alanine and glucose than did the control newborns, while plasma levels of phenylalanine and citrulline were higher in LBW newborns (p Conclusions Low birth weight newborns display a differential metabolomic profile than those of normal birth weight, a finding not present in the mothers. The meaning and the potential utility of the findings as biomarkers of risk need to be addressed in future studies.

  4. Growth pattern and final height of very preterm vs. very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dommelen, P. van; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundBoth very preterm (VP; i.e., gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e., birth weight <1,500 g) are used as inclusion criteria by studies on preterm birth. We aimed to quantify the impact of these entities on postnatal growth until final height.MethodsSubjects born VP

  5. Outcome of very-low-birth-weight babies managed with nasal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants is often due to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) ... to be associated with CPAP failure have included lower gestational age (GA) and birth weight ... was intubated and put on MV. In developing countries ...

  6. Birth weight centiles by gestational age for twins born in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Mathews, Jiji; Benjamin, Santhosh; Regi, Annie; Jose, Ruby; Kuruvilla, Anil; Mathai, Mathews

    2016-03-24

    Birth weight centile curves are commonly used as a screening tool and to assess the position of a newborn on a given reference distribution. Birth weight of twins are known to be less than those of comparable singletons and twin-specific birth weight centile curves are recommended for use. In this study, we aim to construct gestational age specific birth weight centile curves for twins born in south India. The study was conducted at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, south India. The birth records of all consecutive pregnancies resulting in twin births between 1991 and 2005 were reviewed. Only live twin births between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation were included. Birth weight centiles for gestational age were obtained using the methodology of generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Centiles curves were obtained separately for monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Of 1530 twin pregnancies delivered during the study period (1991-2005), 1304 were included in the analysis. The median gestational age at birth was 36 weeks (1st quartile 34, 3rd quartile 38 weeks). Smoothed percentile curves for birth weight by gestational age increased progressively till 38 weeks and levels off thereafter. Compared with dichorionic twins, monochorionic twins had lower birth weight for gestational age from after 27 weeks. We provide centile values of birth weight at 24 to 42 completed weeks of gestation for twins born in south India. These charts could be used both in routine clinical assessments and epidemiological studies.

  7. Rickets in very-Iow-birth-weight infants born at Baragwanath Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract Disturbed mineral and bone metabolism has been reported to occur frequently in very-10w-birth- weight infants fed breast-milk during the first 3 months of life. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of disturbed mineral homeostasis in a breast-milk-fed very-Iow-birth-weight popu- lation at Baragwanath ...

  8. A centile chart for birth weight for an urban population of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distribution of birth weight at each week of gestation from. 28 to 42 weeks was ... A comparison of the distribution of birth weight in the ... The increased perinatal death rate of these ... lower socio-economic class, no home deliveries are done in.

  9. Birth weight in opposite sex twins as compared to same sex dizygotic twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Neeleman, D.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in the present report is whether the large birth weight differences in dizygotic twin pairs of opposite sex (DZos), especially in 'male first' couples - observed by Blickstein and Weissman (Blickstein I, Weissman A. Birth weight discordancy in male-first and female-first pairs

  10. Regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in adulthood is not related to birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Petersen, Inge; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults....

  11. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...... Children's Accelerometry Database. Birth weight was measured in hospitals or maternally reported, sedentary time was assessed by using accelerometry (

  12. Birth weight and cognitive development in adolescence: causal relationship or social selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Bridget K

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I investigate the relationship between birth weight and cognitive development among adolescents aged 12-17. Initial OLS regression models reveal a significant, positive relationship between low birth weight and verbal ability. Controlling for demographic, socioeconomic, and other adolescent characteristics modifies, but does not eliminate, this relationship. Additional models that stratify the sample by parental education illustrate the greater importance of other family and adolescent characteristics for cognitive development in adolescence, and a diminished role of birth weight. In the final section of the paper, fixed effects models of non-twin full siblings indicate no significant association between birth weight and verbal ability, suggesting that traditional cross-sectional models overstate the influence of birth weight for cognitive development in adolescence.

  13. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg...... were not significant. However, a meta-analysis across the four independent samples, in total 216 birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs, showed a significant positive association between birth weight and DNA methylation differences at IGF1R (random-effects meta-analysis p = .04), and the effect...... was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent...

  14. Nutritional status of low birth weight infants in Makkah region: Evaluation of anthropometric and biochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensara, Osama Adnan; Azzeh, Firas Sultan

    2016-04-01

    To assess the nutritional status of low birth weight infants from Makkah area immediately after birth. The prospective study was conducted between October and December 2012 at Al-Noor Speciality Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, and comprised low birth weight infants who were divided into three equal groups according to their birth weight: group A (low birthweight1501-2500gm), group B (very low birthweight1001-1500gm), and group C (extremely low birth weight 0.05). Normal serum phosphorus, potassium and magnesium levels and mild hypocalcaemia were observed in all infants. However, hypernatraemia was significantly evident (pnutritional status in terms of low anthropometric and abnormal biochemical measures. It was not possible to correlate the birth weight of the neonates to the parameters of the complete blood tests.

  15. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  16. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimarães, Armênio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW

  17. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA.Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana.Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05.This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  18. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  19. Unmodifiable variables related to thyroid cancer incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of thyroid cancer is significantly different between male and female patients. Thyroid cancer is also the only form of cancer where age can be considered a staging variable. Identifying biological prognostic factors such as age or sex is important as it helps select an optimal personalized therapy. The present analysis is an observational, prospective study that enrolled all patients with thyroid disease who were operated upon at a single center. The study aimed to determine the most frequent age at presentation, the predominance of one sex over the other, the incidence of malignant thyroid disease, and the relative risk for each sex to develop thyroid carcinoma. The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was higher for women than for men, with a higher relative risk in the female subgroup. Incidence was also highest in the 50-60-year-old group. Given that studies show better survival for women and for younger patients, even when presenting with advanced disease, compared with older, male patients, such prognostic indicators should be a factor in the treatment decision.

  20. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa.

  1. Birth weight and risk of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma: Findings from a population-based record linkage study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triebwasser, Corey; Wang, Rong; DeWan, Andrew T; Metayer, Catherine; Morimoto, Libby; Wiemels, Joseph L; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Ma, Xiaomei

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between birth weight (along with a variety of pre and perinatal characteristics) and the risk of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnosed at age birth records from 1978-2009 and cancer diagnosis data from 1988-2011 to conduct a population-based case-control study with 1216 cases and 4485 controls (matched on birth month and year, sex, and race/ethnicity). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of paediatric HL overall and by age of diagnosis, controlling for other perinatal factors. Compared to children with a normal birth weight (2500-3999 g), those who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g) had an increased risk of paediatric HL overall (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02-1.48) after adjusting for birth order, maternal age at the time of delivery, and paternal age at the time of delivery. The magnitude of association appeared larger for subgroups of children whose age of diagnosis was 0-10 years (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.04-2.24) or 15-19 years (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.11-1.83), while no association was observed in 11-14 year olds. Compared with firstborn children, those who were third or higher in birth order had a reduced risk of paediatric HL overall (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67-0.95), and this association also varied by age of diagnosis. In this study with the largest number of paediatric HL cases, high birth weight was associated with an increased disease risk for most but not all ages of diagnosis. The different findings by age of diagnosis regarding both birth weight and birth order underscore the importance to stratify paediatric HL by age at diagnosis in future etiological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effect of extensively hydrolyzed formula on growth and development of infants with very/extremely low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun-Yan; Jiang, Hui-Fen; Wang, Jin-Xiu

    2017-08-01

    To study the effect of extensively hydrolyzed formula on the growth and development in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. A total of 375 VLBW or ELBW infants were enrolled and divided into an observation group (187 infants) and a control group (188 infants) using a random number table. The infants in the observation group were given extensively hydrolyzed formula, and when the amount of extensively hydrolyzed formula reached 10 mL/time, it was changed to the standard formula for preterm infants. The infants in the control group were given standard formula for preterm infants. Both groups were fed for 4 consecutive weeks and were compared in terms of incidence rate of feeding intolerance, time to establish full enteral feeding, time to complete meconium excretion, number of spontaneous bowel movements, growth and development, motilin level at 4 and 10 days after feeding, and incidence rate of infection. Compared with the control group, the observation group had a lower rate of feeding intolerance (Pdevelopment, and reduce the incidence of infection in VLBW and ELBW infants.

  3. Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii on necrotizing enterocolitis or sepsis in very low birth weight infants: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serce, Ozge; Benzer, Derya; Gursoy, Tugba; Karatekin, Guner; Ovali, Fahri

    2013-12-01

    Probiotics have strain specific effects and the effects of fungi in preventing diseases in preterm infants have been investigated poorly. Saccharomyces boulardii is a yeast which acts both as a probiotic and a polyamine producer. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of S. boulardii in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis in very low birth weight infants. A prospective, double blind, placebo controlled trial was conducted in preterm infants (≤ 32 GWs, ≤ 1500 g birth weight). They were randomized either to receive feeding supplementation with S. boulardii 50 mg/kg every 12 h or placebo, starting with the first feed until discharged. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) or sepsis and NEC or death. Birth weight and gestational age of the study (n = 104) and the control (n = 104) groups were 1126 ± 232 vs 1162 ± 216 g and 28.8 ± 2.2 vs 28.7 ± 2.1 weeks, respectively. Neither the incidence of stage ≥ 2 NEC or death nor stage ≥ 2 NEC or late onset culture proven sepsis was significantly lower in the study group when compared with the control group (9.6% vs 7.7%, p = 0.62; 28.8% vs 23%, p = 0.34). Time to reach 100 mL/kg/day of enteral feeding (11.9 ± 7 vs 12.6 ± 7 days, p = 0.37) was not different between the groups. Saccharomyces boulardii did not decrease the incidence of NEC or sepsis. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors of extubation failure in extremely low birth weight infants: a five year retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chao-Yi; Su, Bai-Horng; Lin, Tsung-Wen; Lin, Hung-Chih; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wang, Nai-Phon

    2002-01-01

    Extubation failure is one of the most serious complications in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI) on mechanical ventilation therapy. We performed a 5-year retrospective analysis to realize the status of extubation failure in ELBWI. Extubation failure was defined as requirements of re-intubation within 72 hours after extubation. The extubation failure rate was 21% (29/138). The mean birth body weight was 808.3 +/- 140.4 gm. The mean gestational age was 25.8 +/- 1.2 wks. The incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) in infants with extubation failure was 100% (29/29). Apnea of prematurity 49% (14/29) and post-extubation atelectasis 39% (11/29) were the most common reasons for reintubation. The major microbiology findings which correlated with nosocomial pneumonia in infants with extubation failure were Acinetobacter baumanni (21%), Klebsiella pneumonia (21%), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (14%), and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (14%). In conclusion, post-extubation atelectasis and apnea were the most common reasons for reintubation. ELBWI with extubation failure had higher incidences of post-extubation atelectasis, CLD, and nosocomial pneumonia. Further prospective studies are needed in order to clarify the appropriate extubation program for ELBWI and to prevent post-extubation atelectasis and nosocomial pneumonia.

  5. Impact of Antenatal Steroids on Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Julia C.; Catalano, Ralph; Profit, Jochen; Gould, Jeffrey B.; Lee, Henry C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between antenatal steroids administration and intraventricular hemorrhage rates. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative during 2007-2013 for infants ≤ 32 weeks gestational age. Using multivariable logistic regression, we evaluated the effect of antenatal steroids on intraventricular hemorrhage, stratified by gestational age. Results In 25,979 very low birth weight infants, antenatal steroid use was associated with a reduction in incidence of any grade of intraventricular hemorrhage (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.58) and a reduction in incidence of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.57, 0.67). This association was seen across gestational ages ranging from 22 to 29 weeks. Conclusions While current guidelines recommend coverage for preterm birth at 24 to 34 weeks gestation, our results suggest that treatment with antenatal steroids may be beneficial even before 24 weeks of gestational age. PMID:27010109

  6. Birth Weight, Physical Morbidity, and Mortality: A Population-based Sibling-Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Rickert, Martin E.; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between low birth weight (≤2,500 g) and increased risk of mortality and morbidity provided the foundation for the “developmental origins of health and disease” hypothesis. Previous between-family studies could not control for unmeasured confounders. Therefore, we compared differentially exposed siblings to estimate the extent to which the associations were due to uncontrolled factors. Our population cohort included 3,291,773 persons born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008. Analyses controlled for gestational age, among other covariates, and considered birth weight as both an ordinal and a continuous variable. Outcomes included mortality after 1 year, cardiac-related death, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation problems, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We fitted fixed-effects models to compare siblings and conducted sensitivity analyses to test alternative explanations. Across the population, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk of mortality (e.g., cardiac-related death (low birth weight hazard ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 3.53)) and morbidity (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (low birth weight hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.14)) outcomes in comparison with normal birth weight. All associations were independent of shared familial confounders and measured covariates. Results emphasize the importance of birth weight as a risk factor for subsequent mortality and morbidity. PMID:24355331

  7. The effects of maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Haliloglu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the influence of third trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels on birth weight.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: Between January 2005 and July 2005, 750 pregnant women applied for delivery at Zeynep Kamil Women’s and Children Education and Research Hospital at 37-40 week’s gestation were examined. Maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels were measured. Data included maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age, birth weight, gender, presence of iron supplementation and its duration.\tRESULTS: The birth weight was significantly higher in anemic and hypoproteinemic groups compared those with normal levels. After adjusting for counfounding factors, significance of both findings lost. The cases received iron supplementation had infants with higher birth weight, however, it was not statistically significant (p: 0.055. A significant positive relation was observed between birth weight and maternal age, gravidity, parity and gestational age. No relation found between maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels and birth weight.\tCONCLUSION: The last trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels seem not to be a determining factor on infant's birth weight.

  8. KIR and HLA-C: Immunogenetic regulation of human birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia E. Farrell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancies resulting in very small or very large babies are at higher risk of obstetric complications with increased morbidity for both mother and baby. Using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we have shown how human birth weight is still subject to stabilizing selection. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune genes have been implicated in pregnancies resulting in a low birth weight baby (<5th birth weight centile. More specifically, an inhibitory maternal KIRAA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. At the other end of the birth weight spectrum the presence of an activating maternal KIR2DS1 gene is associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p=0.005, OR=2.65. Thus, inhibitory maternal KIR combined with fetal HLA-C2 is more frequently associated with low birth weight, whereas activating maternal KIR with fetal HLA-C2 ligand is associated with increasing birth weight. Our findings using the MoBa cohort have replicated the association of KIR and HLA-C seen in poor placentation, and confirm the importance of maternal/fetal immune gene interactions in determining the outcome of pregnancy.

  9. Is obesity a risk factor for impaired cognition in young adults with low birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, M; Morgården, E; Gustafsson, J

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There is also an association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability. Since low birth weight is associated with adult metabolic disease, particularly in obese subjects, the question emerges whether obesity has an additional negative effect on cognitive function in subjects with low birth weight. The aim was to analyse whether overweight or obesity influence intellectual performance in young adults with particular focus on those with a low birth weight. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 620,834 males born between 1973 and 1988 and matched to results on intellectual performance and BMI at conscription. The risk for low intellectual performance was higher for those with high BMI compared to those with normal. The highest risk was found among subjects with low birth weight and overweight or obesity in young adulthood (odds ratios, 1.98 [1.73-2.22] and 2.59 [2.00-3.34], respectively). However, subjects with further high birth weight and a high BMI at conscription had no further increased risk. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of subnormal intellectual performance in young adult males. Subjects with low birth weight and adolescent overweight/obesity are at particular risk of subnormal performance. A high birth weight increases the risk for obesity, but a high adult BMI does not further increase the risk for subnormal performance. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. Birth weight and risk of adiposity among adult Inuit in Greenland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Falberg Rønn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Inuit population in Greenland has undergone rapid socioeconomic and nutritional changes simultaneously with an increasing prevalence of obesity. Therefore, the objective was to examine fetal programming as part of the aetiology of obesity among Inuit in Greenland by investigating the association between birth weight and measures of body composition and fat distribution in adulthood. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from a total of 1,473 adults aged 18-61 years in two population-based surveys conducted in Greenland between 1999-2001 and 2005-2010. Information on birth weight was collected from birth records. Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI, and visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT estimated by ultrasound. The associations to birth weight were analyzed using linear regression models and quadratic splines. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, birthplace, ancestry and family history of obesity. RESULTS: Spline analyses showed linear relations between birth weight and adult adiposity. In multiple regression analyses, birth weight was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, FMI, FFMI and SAT with generally weaker associations among women compared to men. Birth weight was only associated with VAT after additional adjustment for waist circumference and appeared to be specific and inverse for men only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher birth weight among Inuit was associated with adiposity in adulthood. More studies are needed to explore a potential inverse association between birth size and VAT.

  11. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-12-15

    Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on the different socio-economic backgrounds of their clients. The data on birth weight and other factors were derived from hospital records. It was observed that low birth weight is still highly prevalent (29.6%), while macrosomia (10.5%) is also increasingly becoming important. There were marginal differences in low birth weight observed across public hospitals but marked difference in low birth weight was observed in Cienfuegos Suglo Specialist Hospital (Private hospital) as compared to the public hospitals. The private hospital also had the highest prevalence of macrosomia (20.1%). Parity (0-1) (p malnutrition phenomenon, which is currently being experienced by developing and transition counties. Both low birth weight and macrosomia are risk factors, which could contribute considerably to the current and future burden of diseases. This may overstretch the already fragile health system in Ghana. Therefore, it is prudent to recommend that policies aiming at reducing diet related diseases should focus on addressing malnutrition during pregnancy and early life.

  12. Residential proximity to major roads and placenta/birth weight ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Naruse, Hiroo; Kashima, Saori; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has been demonstrated to increase the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight. We examined whether proximity to major roads (as a marker of exposure to air pollution) is associated with increased placenta/birth weight ratio (as a biomarker of the placental transport function). Data on parental characteristics and birth outcomes were extracted from the database maintained by a major hospital in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers who delivered liveborn single births from 1997 to 2008 (n = 14,189). Using geocoded residential information, each birth was classified according to proximity to major roads. We examined the association between proximity to major roads and the placenta/birth weight ratio, using multiple linear regression. Proximity to major roads was associated with higher placenta/birth weight ratio. After adjusting for potential confounders, living within 200 m of a major road increased the ratio by 0.48% (95% CI = 0.15 to 0. 80). In addition, proximity to major roads was associated with lower placenta weight and birth weight. These observed associations were stronger among participants living closer to major roads. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution is associated with higher placenta/birth weight ratio. Impaired placental oxygen and nutrient transport function might be a mechanism for explaining the observed association between air pollution and low birth weight as well as preterm birth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increasing incidence and survival in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnov, Kirstine Kim Schmidt; Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral carcinomas (OCs) make up a significant proportion of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs) and are an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The purpose of this population-based study was to determine trends in incidence and survival in OC in the Danish population from 1980...... to 2014. Material and methods: This study covered all patients registered in the nationwide Danish cancer registry (DCR) in the period 1980–2014. Age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) per 100,000 and annual percentage change (APC) were evaluated. Also, 5-year overall survival (OS) was calculated with Cox......-standardized incidence of OC during the last 30 years in Denmark, and also an improvement in survival. The 5-year OS was significantly better in recent years even when we adjusted the analysis for relevant covariates....

  14. Does cardiorespiratory fitness modify the association between birth weight and insulin resistance in adult life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Aoyama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. METHODS: The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females aged 20-64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject's or his/her mother's memory. RESULTS: The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.141, p = 0.003, even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = -0.148, p = 0.001, although VO2max (β = -0.376, p<0.001 was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual's low birth weight.

  15. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Young adults with very low birth weight: leaving the parental home and sexual relationships--Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajantie, Eero; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Andersson, Sture

    2008-07-01

    Although most children and adults who are born very preterm live healthy lives, they have, on average, lower cognitive scores, more internalizing behaviors, and deficits in social skills. This could well affect their transition to adulthood. We studied the tempo of first leaving the parental home and starting cohabitation with an intimate partner and sexual experience of young adults with very low birth weight (Adults, 162 very low birth weight individuals and 188 individuals who were born at term (mean age: 22.3 years [range: 18.5-27.1]) and did not have any major disability filled out a questionnaire. For analysis of their ages at events which had not occurred in all subjects, we used survival analysis (Cox regression), adjusted for gender, current height, parents' ages at the birth, maternal smoking during pregnancy, parental educational attainment, number of siblings, and parental divorce/death. During their late teens and early adulthood, these very low birth weight adults were less likely to leave the parental home and to start cohabiting with an intimate partner. In gender-stratified analyses, these hazard ratios were similar between genders, but the latter was statistically significant for women only. These very low birth weight adults were also less likely to experience sexual intercourse. This relationship was statistically significant for women but not for men; however, very low birth weight women and men both reported a smaller lifetime number of sex partners than did control subjects. Healthy young adults with very low birth weight show a delay in leaving the parental home and starting sexual activity and partnerships.

  17. Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight and NBW (Normal Birth Weight was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015. Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  18. Clinical Outcome of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Usman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a DNA virus and a marker of the herpes virus groups. This virus was found only in human and the infection occurs for a long time. The transmission of CMV infection to fetus/neonates is via congenital infections or perinatal infections. Clinical manifestation of symptomatic CMV infection of the fetus has two presentations, early and second early manifestations. Diagnosis of neonatal CMV infection may be done by serologic test based on detection of IgM of CMV infection. The objective of this study is to asses clinical outcome of CMV infection of low birth weight infants delivery with long term sequelae. An observational study was conducted since March 2010 until December 2011 in Advent and Hermina Pasteur Hospital, all subjects were low birth weight infants (LBWI. The inclusion criterias are all LBWI who were delivered in those hospital or were a referred neonates. The exclusion criterias are major congenital defect, which is not related to congenital CMV infection and neonates’ death before one week of life. Every neonate was examine both their physical and peripher blood count, glucose, Ca. Liver function test done for neonates with acute hepatitis and titre IgG and IgM CMV serial, head ultrasound serial and head CT scan/MRI used for babies with intracranial bleeding and hydrocephaly.  During the period of this study there were 50 cases of LBWI, consisted of 41 preterm babies, and 30 small for gestational age babies. Clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis were found in 20% subjects, all of them with the  elevation of liver function test. Microcephaly which occured in the first untill three weeks of life were 8%. Ventricular dilatation were 10% in the first week of life and increased up to 48% after three weeks. Cases with intracranial haemorrhage were found in 6% and 10% with cerebral calcification on head while sensorineural hearing loss were 8%. All of LBWI have 100% serorespon immune IgG. IgM CMV

  19. Birth Weight, Nutritional Status and Body Composition among Malaysian Children Aged 7 to 10 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ang, Yeow Nyin

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Studies have indicated that lower birth weight is associated with lower body mass index, but the use of birth weight in predicting later nutritional status and adiposity remains inconsistent. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the relationship between birth weight and nutritional status with body composition among Malaysian children. This study is part of the Nutritional Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). Subjects comprising 398 boys and 389 girls from the main ethnic groups, namely Malays, Chinese, Indians, Sabah and Sarawak natives, were recruited using a stratified random sampling. Anthropometric measurements comprised body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat (BF). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) adjusted with height were included, and birth weight was obtained by parental report. Nutritional status such as weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were determined using the WHO growth reference for 5–19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Mean birth weight, height, weight, and BF were 3.1±0.5kg, 128.0±8.1cm, 28.4±8.9kg, and 27.9±9.1% respectively. Boys (20.4±4.2kg) had higher FFM (p 4.0kg) (WAZ: 0.51±1.35; HAZ: -0.07 ± 0.67) at p<0.05. Besides, there were significant differences in weight, height, BAZ, FFM and FFMI between birth weight groups. Birth weight has weak correlation (p<0.01) with FFM (r = 0.22), WAZ (r = 0.21), HAZ (r = 0.20), BAZ (r = 0.18) and WC (r = 0.14). After adjusting for covariates, we found that higher birth weight was associated with significant higher values in all anthropometric measurements (p<0.01), especially WC (β = 2.82, p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis also indicated that birth weight positively predicted later nutritional status; 1kg increase in birth weight predicted 0.70, 0.46, and 0

  20. Influence of Parental Overweight on the Association of Birth Weight and Fat Distribution Later in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the association between birth weight and fat distribution in childhood is modified by parental overweight. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 728 Danish children aged 8-10 and 14-16 years. The main outcomes were waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, subscapular......: The association between birth weight and fat distribution seems to be influenced by parental overweight. Lower birth weights are associated with central adiposity among offspring of overweight parents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....

  1. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence...... of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies...

  2. Low Birth Weight as The Risk factor of Coronary Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Wahyu Wibowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight, a nutritional deficiency is related to the increased in the coronary heart disease insidence. Low birth weight is correlated with the hipotalamus-pituitary-adrenal responsible for the the concentration of cortisol in sirculation, increased in homosistein, insuline resistence and increased C reactive protein playing role on the aterosclerosis process predispose the corronary disease. This paper will discuss the relationship between the low birth weight and the ateroclesoris process leading to coronary heart disesase (Sains Medika, 3(2:185-200.

  3. Low birth weight as a predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence? The pep family heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda-Maria Haas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Overall we did not find significant associations between birth weight and nine traditional cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. However, the 2 nd quintile of birth weight might suggest clustering of risk factors.

  4. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Jeon, Jihyun; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang-sun

    2016-01-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, a...

  5. Ponderal index (PI) vs birth weight centiles in the low-risk primigravid population: which is the better predictor of fetal wellbeing?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, S M

    2012-07-01

    Our objective was to compare Ponderal index (PI) with birth weight centiles as predictors of perinatal morbidity and to determine which best reflects the presence of placental disease. We prospectively recruited 1,011 low-risk primigravidas and calculated PI and birth weight centiles following delivery. Perinatal morbidity was defined as: pre-term birth (PTB); fetal acidosis; an Apgar score <7 at 5 min or neonatal resuscitation. Placental disease was defined as chronic uteroplacental insufficiency (CUPI); villous dysmaturity; infection or vascular pathology. Ponderal index was statistically reduced (25.33 vs 27.79 p =0.001) and the incidence of infant birth weight <9th centile was statistically higher (11.1% vs 5.1%; p =0.004) in cases with PTB and in CUPI (26.23 vs 27.84; p =0.001 and 28.2.1% vs 10.4%; p =0.002). Both PI and infant birth weight centile <9th centile for gestational age correlate with PTB, however overall, both are poor predictors of neonatal and placental disease.

  6. The influence of birth weight and body mass in early adulthood on early coronary heart disease risk among Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the joint and separate influence of birth weight and body mass in young adulthood on subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cohort of 9,143 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1953, for whom information on birth weight and body weight and height around age 19 years were...... retrieved from birth certificates and conscript records, respectively, were followed from 1978 until 2005 (between age 25 and 52 years) for incident fatal and non-fatal CHD. Data on CHD were obtained through record linkage to the Cause of Death Registry and the National Patient Registry. During follow......-up, a total of 475 men had a CHD diagnosis. Men with low birth weight, high body mass index (BMI) at age 19, a father from the working class, and low educational level at age 19 had an increased risk for CHD. Birth weight was inversely associated with CHD only in men with BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or above...

  7. A Communicative Model of Mothers’ Lifestyles During Pregnancy with Low Birth Weight Based on Social Determinants of Health: A Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mahmoodi1,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW is one of the major health problems worldwide. It is important to identify the factors that play a role in the incidence of this adverse pregnancy outcome. This study aimed to develop a tool to measure mothers’ lifestyles during pregnancy with a view to the effects of social determinants on health and develop a correlation model of mothers’ lifestyles with LBW. Methods: This study was conducted using methodological and case-control designs in four stages by selecting 750 mothers with infants weighing less than 4000 g using multistage sampling. The questionnaire contained 160 items. Face, content, criterion, and construct validity were used to study the psychometrics of the instrument. Results: After psychometrics, 132 items were approved in six domains. Test results indicated the utility and the high fitness of the model and reasonable relationships adjusted for variables based on conceptual models. Based on the correlation model of lifestyle, occupation (-0.263 and social relationships (0.248 had the greatest overall effect on birth weight. Conclusions: The review of lifestyle dimensions showed that all of the dimensions directly, indirectly, or both affected birth weight. Thus, given the importance and the role of lifestyle as a determinant affecting birth weight, attention, and training interventions are important to promote healthy lifestyles.

  8. Incidence of second malignancies for prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Van Hemelrijck

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess risk of second primary cancers in prostate cancer (PCa patients, especially since PCa treatment may be associated with increased risk of second primary tumours. METHODS: We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for second primary tumours comparing men diagnosed with PCa between 1980 and 2010 in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland (n = 20,559, and the general male population in the Canton. RESULTS: A total of 1,718 men developed a second primary tumour after PCa diagnosis, with lung and colon cancer being the most common (15 and 13% respectively. The SIR for overall second primary cancer was 1.11 (95%CI: 1.06-1.17. Site-specific SIRs varied from 1.19 (1.05-1.34 to 2.89 (2.62-4.77 for lung and thyroid cancer, respectively. When stratified by treatment, the highest SIR was observed for thyroid cancer (3.57 (1.30-7.76 when undergoing surgery, whereas liver cancer was common when treated with radiotherapy (3.21 (1.54-5.90 and kidney bladder was most prevalent for those on hormonal treatment (3.15 (1.93-4.87. Stratification by time since PCa diagnosis showed a lower risk of cancer for men with PCa compared to the general population for the first four years, but then a steep increase in risk was observed. CONCLUSION: In the Canton of Zurich, there was an increased risk of second primary cancers among men with PCa compared to the general population. Increased diagnostic activity after PCa diagnosis may partly explain increased risks within the first years of diagnosis, but time-stratified analyses indicated that increased risks remained and even increased over time.

  9. Incidence Rate and Distribution of Common Cancers among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children. Methods: In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system. Results:The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences. Conclusion: The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.

  10. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  11. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this stud...... consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression....

  12. Cancer incidence and mortality in Serbia 1999-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihajlovic, Jovan; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica; Zivković, Snežana; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the increase in cancer incidence in the last years in Serbia, no nation-wide, population-based cancer epidemiology data have been reported. In this study cancer incidence and mortality rates for Serbia are presented using nation-wide data from two population-based cancer

  13. Estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso gestacional e peso ao nascer Maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of

  14. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horikoshi, M.; Yaghootkar, H.; Mook-Kanamori, D.O.; Sovio, U.; Taal, H.R.; Hennig, B.J.; Bradfield, J.P.; St Pourcain, B.; Evans, D.M.; Charoen, P.; Kaakinen, M.; Cousminer, D.L.; Lehtimäki, T.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Warrington, N.M.; Bustamante, M.; Feenstra, B.; Berry, D.J.; Thiering, E.; Pfab, T.; Barton, S.J.; Shields, B.M.; Kerkhof, M.; Leeuwen, E. M.; Fulford, A.J.; Kutalik, Z.; Zhao, J.H.; van den Hoed, M.; Mahajan, A.; Lindi, V.; Goh, L.K.; Hottenga, J.J.; Wu, Y.; Raitakari, O.T.; Harder, M.N.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Ntalla, I.; Salem, R.M.; Jameson, K.A.; Zhou, K.; Monies, D.M.; Lagou, V.; Kirin, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Adair, L.S.; Alkuraya, F.S.; Al-Odaib, A.; Amouyel, P.; Andersson, E.A.; Bennett, A.J.; Blakemore, A.I.F.; Buxton, J.L.; Dallongeville, J.; Das, S.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Estivill, X.; Flexeder, C.; Froguel, P.; Geller, F.; Godfrey, K.M.; Gottrand, F.; Groves, C.J.; Hansen, T.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Hofman, A.; Hollegaard, M.V.; Hougaard, D. M.; Hyppönen, E.; Inskip, H.M.; Isaacs, A.; Jørgensen, T.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C.; Kemp, J.P.; Kiess, W.; Kilpeläinen, T.O.; Klopp, N.; Knight, B.A.; Kuzawa, C.W.; McMahon, G.; Newnham, J.P.; Niinikoski, H.; Oostra, B.A.; Pedersen, L.; Postma, D.S.; Ring, S.M.; Rivadeneira, F.; Robertson, N.R.; Sebert, S.; Simell, O.; Slowinski, T.; Tiesler, C.M.T.; Tönjes, A.; Vaag, A.A.; Viikari, J.S.; Vink, J.M.; Vissing, N.H.; Wareham, N.J.; Willemsen, G.; Witte, D.R.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Wilson, J.F.; Stumvoll, M.; Prentice, A.M.; Meyer, B.F.; Pearson, E.R.; Boreham, C.A.; Cooper, C.; Gillman, M.W.; Dedoussis, G.V.; Moreno, L.A.; Pedersen, O.; Saarinen, M.; Mohlke, K.L.; Boomsma, D.I.; Saw, S.M.; Lakka, T.A.; Körner, A.; Loos, R.J.; Ong, K.K.; Vollenweider, P.; van Duijn, C.M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Hattersley, A.T.; Holloway, J.W.; Hocher, B.; Heinrich, J.; Power, C.; Melbye, M.; Guxens, M.; Pennell, C.E.; Bønnelykke, K.; Bisgaard, H.; Eriksson, J.G.; Widén, E.; Hakonarson, H.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Pouta, A.; Lawlor, D.A.; Smith, G.D.; Frayling, T.M.; McCarthy, M.I.; Grant, S.F.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Järvelin, M.R.; Timpson, N.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Freathy, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2

  15. Understanding heterogeneity in the effects of birth weight on adult cognition and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Cook, C; Fletcher, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    A large economics literature has shown long term impacts of birth weight on adult outcomes, including IQ and earnings that are often robust to sibling or twin fixed effects. We examine potential mechanisms underlying these effects by incorporating findings from the genetics and neuroscience literatures. We use a sample of siblings combined with an "orchids and dandelions hypothesis", where the IQ of genetic dandelions is not affected by in utero nutrition variation but genetic orchids thrive under advantageous conditions and wilt in poor conditions. Indeed, using variation in three candidate genes related to neuroplasticity (APOE, BDNF, and COMT), we find substantial heterogeneity in the associations between birth weight and adult outcomes, where part of the population (i.e., "dandelions") is not affected by birth weight variation. Our results help uncover why birth weight affects adult outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  17. Residential segregation and birth weight among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Emily

    2009-12-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel analyses to examine the associations of residential isolation and clustering with birth weight among Asian, black, and Latino Americans using data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Natality Files and the U.S. Census. Findings indicate that segregation has a negative effect on the likelihood of having a low birth weight baby among Asian Americans, suggesting a possible concentration of social and structural resources in highly-segregated communities. On the contrary, segregation marginally increases the odds of low birth weight among African Americans, but only in the presence of higher poverty rates. Segregation does not affect birth weight among Latino Americans.

  18. Transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on low birth weight among African Americans in Cook County, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; David, Richard J; Rankin, Kristin M; Desireddi, Jennifer R

    2009-03-15

    In perinatal epidemiology, transgenerational risk factors are defined as conditions experienced by one generation that affect the pregnancy outcomes of the next generation. The authors investigated the transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on infant birth weight among African Americans. Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational data set with appended US Census income information. Singleton African-American infants (n = 40,648) born in 1989-1991 were considered index births. The mothers of index infants had been born in 1956-1976. The maternal grandmothers of index infants were identified. Rates of infant low birth weight (birth weight for maternal grandmother's residence in a poor neighborhood (compared with an affluent neighborhood) equaled 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4). This study suggests that maternal grandmother's exposure to neighborhood poverty during her pregnancy is a risk factor for infant low birth weight among African Americans.

  19. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  20. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, T.F.; Anastopoulos, A.D.; Garrett, M.E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Oades, R.D.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Asherson, P.; Gill, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Sergeant, J.A.; Kollins, S.H.; Faraone, S.V.; Ashley-Koch, A.; Consortium, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related

  1. morbidity and mortality of low birth weight infants in the new born

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-07-01

    Jul 1, 2004 ... developing countries, it has been suggested that a substantial number of ... adequate to improve our low birth weight survival rates. In the mid eighties, ..... could be a reflection of poor transfer facilities between hospitals or ...

  2. Meditations on birth weight: is it better to reduce the variance or increase the mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haig, David

    2003-07-01

    A conceptual model is presented here in which the birth weight distribution is decomposed into a distribution of target weights and a distribution of perturbations from the target. The target weight is the adaptive goal of fetal development. In the simplest model, perinatal mortality is independent of variation in target weight and determined solely by the magnitude of the perturbation of birth weight from the target. In this model, mortality risk is concentrated in the tails of the birth weight distribution. A difference between populations in their distributions of target weights will be associated with a corresponding shift in their curves of weight-specific risk, without any difference between the populations in overall risk. In this model, risk would be reduced by decreasing the variance of the distribution of perturbations. The model is discussed in the context of the so-called "paradoxes of low birth weight."

  3. Birth Weight and Social Trust in Adulthood: Evidence for Early Calibration of Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Social trust forms the fundamental basis for social interaction within societies. Understanding the cognitive architecture of trust and the roots of individual differences in trust is of key importance. We predicted that one of the factors calibrating individual levels of trust is the intrauterine flow of nutrients from mother to child as indexed by birth weight. Birth weight forecasts both the future external environment and the internal condition of the individual in multiple ways relevant for social cognition. Specifically, we predicted that low birth weight is utilized as a forecast of a harsh environment, vulnerable condition, or both and, consequently, reduces social trust. The results of the study reported here are consistent with this prediction. Controlling for many confounds through sibling and panel designs, we found that lower birth weight reduced social trust in adulthood. Furthermore, we obtained tentative evidence that this effect is mitigated if adult environments do not induce stress. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2008-01-01

    It has been speculated whether maternal immune responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens affect pregnancies negatively. This study explores, on a population level, whether previous births of boys compared with girls are associated with a decrease in birth weight...... of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...

  5. Elevated plasma urokinase receptor predicts low birth weight in maternal malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Shulman, C E; Peshu, N

    2007-01-01

    -suPAR and gestational age were the only independent predictors of birth weight in multivariate linear regression adjusted for maternal-suPAR, HIV-1 infection, age, BMI, haemoglobin, peripheral parasitaemia, parity and gestational age; 1 ng/mL higher maternal-suPAR predicted -56 g (95% CI -100 to -12, P = 0.016) reduced...... birth weight. Cord-suPAR could not predict birth weight after adjusting for gestational age. Future studies are warranted to investigate whether the maternal suPAR level is increased earlier in pregnancy in women with active placental malaria infection and whether early maternal suPAR measurements can...... predict birth weight. If so, measurements of maternal suPAR early in pregnancy might then potentially identify women with increased needs for antenatal care and intervention....

  6. Is it good to be too light? Birth weight thresholds in hospital reimbursement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Simon; Wichert, Sebastian; Wuppermann, Amelie

    2018-02-02

    Birth weight manipulation has been documented in per-case hospital reimbursement systems, in which hospitals receive more money for otherwise equal newborns with birth weight just below compared to just above specific birth weight thresholds. As hospitals receive more money for cases with weight below the thresholds, having a (reported) weight below a threshold could benefit the newborn. Also, these reimbursement thresholds overlap with diagnostic thresholds that have been shown to affect the quantity and quality of care that newborns receive. Based on the universe of hospital births in Germany from the years 2005-2011, we investigate whether weight below reimbursement relevant thresholds triggers different quantity and quality of care. We find that this is not the case, suggesting that hospitals' financial incentives with respect to birth weight do not directly impact the care that newborns receive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Maternal education level and low birth weight: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Silvestrin

    2013-07-01

    Conclusions: The hypothesis of similarity between the extreme degrees of social distribution, translated by maternal education level in relation to the proportion of low birth weight, was not confirmed.

  8. Recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusion in low-birth weight preterm infants under restrictive transfusion guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiee, Z.; Pourmirzaiee, Mohmmad A.; Naseri, F.; Kelishadi, R.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the number and volume of red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) in very low birth weight infants under restrictive red blood cell transfusion guidelines with and without erythropoietin administration. In a controlled clinical trial conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit of Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, between April 2002 to April 2004, 60 premature infants with gestational age up to 34 weeks, birth weight up to 1500 g, and postnatal age between 8 and 14 days were included. The newborns were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 received 3 doses of 400 IU/kg erythropoietin per week for 6 weeks, and Group 2 received no treatment aside from their conventional medications. The 2 groups did not differ significantly with respect to their mean gestational age, birth weight and hematocrit at the study entry. Fewer transfusions were administered to those receiving erythropoietin (26.7% versus 50%, p=0.03), but there was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to volume of transfusion. Compared with the placebo group, the infants receiving erythropoietin had a higher mean hematocrit (34% +/- 4.3 versus 29% +/- 5.9, p<0.001) and absolute reticulocyte count (57 +/- 19 versus 10 +/- 4.8 x 106, p<0.001) at the end of the study. We found no significant difference in the incidence of thrombocytopenia and leukopenia between the 2 groups. We conclude that when the restrictive RBCT guidelines were followed, treatment with erythropoietin can be useful in reduction of the number of RBCTs. (author)

  9. Low-birth-weight babies among hospital deliveries in Nepal: a hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koirala AK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arun K Koirala,1 Dharma N Bhatta2,3 1Administrative Department, Helping Hands Community Hospital, Chabahil, Kathmandu, 2Department of Public Health, Nobel College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 3Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand Background: Birth weight is an important indicator of a population’s health and is associated with numerous interrelated factors in the infant, mother, and physical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of low birth weight and identify the associated factors for low birth weight in a liveborn infant among the women in Morang, Nepal.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from December 2010 to March 2011 among 255 mothers who gave birth during the study period at the Koshi Zonal Hospital, Nepal. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed through logistic regression and presented with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: The study showed that the prevalence of low-birth-weight babies was 23.1% (95% CI: 17.9–28.1. The mean (standard deviation age of mothers was 23.23 (4.18 years. The proportion of low birth weight of previous baby was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.1–7.9, and 15.7% (95% CI: 11.5–20.5 of the respondents had preterm delivery. Nearly one-third (36.1%; 95% CI: 26.4–45.6 of the respondents had >2 years’ gap after the previous delivery. Nonformal employment (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 0.523–8.74, vegetarian diet (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.23–9.36, and no rest during pregnancy (AOR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.41–4.39 were factors more likely to determine low birth weight. However, none of the variables showed a significant association between low birth weight and other dependent variables.Conclusion: Low birth weight is an important factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality and is a common problem in the developing world. The

  10. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-02-01

    We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4-7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4-7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4-7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4-7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child's IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06-0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4-7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or

  11. Early Working Memory in Children Born With Extremely Low Birth Weight: Assessed by Object Permanence

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Jean; MacLean, Peggy C.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Watterberg, Kristi

    2009-01-01

    Object permanence is considered the earliest method for assessing working memory. Factors affecting object permanence performance in a sample of two hundred and thirty-three 18- to 22-month olds born with extremely low birth weight were examined. It was hypothesized that object permanence would be directly related to emotional and attention regulation, that children with lower birth weight and higher illness severity would have more difficulty on the object permanence task, and that no ethnic...

  12. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  13. Cord Blood Lysophosphatidylcholine 16: 1 is Positively Associated with Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ping Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Impaired birth outcomes, like low birth weight, have consistently been associated with increased disease susceptibility to hypertension in later life. Alterations in the maternal or fetal metabolism might impact on fetal growth and influence birth outcomes. Discerning associations between the maternal and fetal metabolome and surrogate parameters of fetal growth could give new insight into the complex relationship between intrauterine conditions, birth outcomes, and later life disease susceptibility. Methods: Using flow injection tandem mass spectrometry, targeted metabolomics was performed in serum samples obtained from 226 mother/child pairs at delivery. Associations between neonatal birth weight and concentrations of 163 maternal and fetal metabolites were analyzed. Results: After FDR adjustment using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC 14: 0, 16: 1, and 18: 1 were strongly positively correlated with birth weight. In a stepwise linear regression model corrected for established confounding factors of birth weight, LPC 16: 1 showed the strongest independent association with birth weight (CI: 93.63 - 168.94; P = 6.94×10-11 . The association with birth weight was stronger than classical confounding factors such as offspring sex (CI: -258.81- -61.32; P = 0.002 and maternal smoking during pregnancy (CI: -298.74 - -29.51; P = 0.017. Conclusions: After correction for multiple testing and adjustment for potential confounders, LPC 16: 1 showed a very strong and independent association with birth weight. The underlying molecular mechanisms linking fetal LPCs with birth weight need to be addressed in future studies.

  14. A study of birth weight of full term neonates and its′ determinants

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    Yugantara R Kadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is highly prevalent in India and has a multifactorial causation. There is a need to study and identify the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors determining birth weight. This will help in planning ante natal care more effectively. Materials and Methods : Study-type-cross-sectional study-setting: Hospital based. Study-subject: Mothers and their new borns. Sample size: All the births taken place during the study period. Study period: July 2010-June 2011. Study tools : (0 i Questionnaire. (ii pediatric weighing machine. Inclusion criteria : m0 others attending ante natal care (ANC clinic from 1 st trimester with minimum three antenatal visits, non-anemic at the end of 2 nd trimester, had full-term and singleton delivery. Exclusion criteria : H/O pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, diabetes mellieutus (DM, tuberculosis (TB, urinary tract infection (UTI, delivered preterm and tobacco chewers or mishri users. Statistical Analysis : Percentages, mean and SD of birth weight, χ2 test, ANOVA, Z-test, and Binary logistic. Results: By using birth weight as a continuous data it was observed that birth-weight was significantly associated with maternal age (F = 3.360, df = 2, P = 0.035, education (F = 4.401, df = 4, P = 0.002 and breakfast (z = 3.970, P = 0.00. Proportion of LBW was 42.4%. For analysis, groups of newborns on the basis of birth weight showed significant association between LBW and maternal education (χ2 = 12.734, df = 4, P = 0.013, breakfast (χ2 = 13.241, df = 1, P = 0.00 and evening snacks (χ2 = 4.275, df = 1, P = 0.013. According to the binary logistic regression, breakfast and education were significant and best predictors for birth weight. Conclusion: Education and breakfast are strong determinants of birth-weight. Less educated women need more intense health education.

  15. Ethnicity, maternal risk, and birth weight among Hispanics in Massachusetts, 1987-89.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, B B; Friedman, D J; Mahan, C M; Lederman, R; Munoz, D

    1993-01-01

    National data reveal that low birth weight and infant mortality rates among Hispanics are, in general, between the rates for whites and those for blacks. The question remains, do differences in low birth weight reflect distributions of known risk factors, or do ethnic differences persist after simultaneously adjusting for intervening variables? In this study, Massachusetts birth certificate data for 206,973 white non-Hispanic infants and 19,571 Hispanic infants are used to examine differences...

  16. Trends in low birth weight infants and changes in Baltimore's childbearing population, 1972–77

    OpenAIRE

    Strobino, Donna M.

    1982-01-01

    Linked birth and death records provided the population for a study of trends in low birth weight (LBW) rates in Baltimore between 1972 and 1977 and of the effect of changes in the characteristics of the childbearing population on these trends. The impact of shifts in the birth weight distribution on neonatal mortality rates was also investigated. Trends were analyzed for unstandardized LBW rates as well as for rates standardized on the distributions of maternal age, education, gravidity, prio...

  17. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. Methods: The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on t...

  18. Inattention and development of toddlers born in preterm and with low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, June-Hui; Huang, Huei-Lin; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Lin, Lung-Chang; Tseng, Hsing-I; Kao, Tsung-Jen

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of low birth weight and preterm birth on a toddler's inattention and development, including cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional and adaptive behaviors. A total of 105 toddlers enrolled for the study; they were divided into four groups: 40 full-term and normal birth weight (NBW, birth weight greater than 2500 g) toddlers, 24 moderate birth weight (MLBW, birth weight between 2499 and 1500 g) toddlers, 20 very to extremely low birth weight (V-ELBW, 12 between 1000 and 1499 g and 8 lower than 1000 g) toddlers, and 21 term toddlers who were recruited from a clinic of developmental delay as the developmental delay at risk (DDR) group. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (BSID-III) and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-Toddler were used. The findings were as follows: (1) DDR group performed worst in BSID-III; (2) although there were no statistical differences among the NBW, MLBW, and V-ELBW groups in BSID-III, the lower the birth weight, the lower the average performance, especially in language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior; and (3) comparing the inattention score, the DDR group was the poorest, normal and V-ELBW groups were the best, and MLBW group was in the middle. In conclusion, low birth weight and preterm delivery affected children's inattention and development of language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Inattention and development of toddlers born in preterm and with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Hui Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the impact of low birth weight and preterm birth on a toddler's inattention and development, including cognitive, language, motor, social–emotional and adaptive behaviors. A total of 105 toddlers enrolled for the study; they were divided into four groups: 40 full-term and normal birth weight (NBW, birth weight greater than 2500 g toddlers, 24 moderate birth weight (MLBW, birth weight between 2499 and 1500 g toddlers, 20 very to extremely low birth weight (V-ELBW, 12 between 1000 and 1499 g and 8 lower than 1000 g toddlers, and 21 term toddlers who were recruited from a clinic of developmental delay as the developmental delay at risk (DDR group. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development—Third Edition (BSID-III and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale—Toddler were used. The findings were as follows: (1 DDR group performed worst in BSID-III; (2 although there were no statistical differences among the NBW, MLBW, and V-ELBW groups in BSID-III, the lower the birth weight, the lower the average performance, especially in language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior; and (3 comparing the inattention score, the DDR group was the poorest, normal and V-ELBW groups were the best, and MLBW group was in the middle. In conclusion, low birth weight and preterm delivery affected children's inattention and development of language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior.

  20. Factors associated with low birth weight in Nepal using multiple imputation

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    Usha Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survey data from low income countries on birth weight usually pose a persistent problem. The studies conducted on birth weight have acknowledged missing data on birth weight, but they are not included in the analysis. Furthermore, other missing data presented on determinants of birth weight are not addressed. Thus, this study tries to identify determinants that are associated with low birth weight (LBW using multiple imputation to handle missing data on birth weight and its determinants. Methods The child dataset from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011 was utilized in this study. A total of 5,240 children were born between 2006 and 2011, out of which 87% had at least one measured variable missing and 21% had no recorded birth weight. All the analyses were carried out in R version 3.1.3. Transform-then impute method was applied to check for interaction between explanatory variables and imputed missing data. Survey package was applied to each imputed dataset to account for survey design and sampling method. Survey logistic regression was applied to identify the determinants associated with LBW. Results The prevalence of LBW was 15.4% after imputation. Women with the highest autonomy on their own health compared to those with health decisions involving husband or others (adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.87, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 1.31, 2.67, and husband and women together (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.35 were less likely to give birth to LBW infants. Mothers using highly polluting cooking fuels (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.22 were more likely to give birth to LBW infants than mothers using non-polluting cooking fuels. Conclusion The findings of this study suggested that obtaining the prevalence of LBW from only the sample of measured birth weight and ignoring missing data results in underestimation.

  1. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pul, Carola van [Maxima Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  2. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul; Lequin, Maarten; Pul, Carola van; Buijs, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm 2 ) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  3. Morbidity in extreme low birth weight newborns hospitalized in a high risk public maternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derijulie Siqueira Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the prevalence of the most common morbidities in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants hospitalized in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU and to evaluate the influence of these morbidities through the length of in-hospital stay. Methods: observational, longitudinal, prospective and analytical study in a high risk reference maternity NICU from Sergipe, realized with 158 ELBW infants admitted between March 2014 and April 2015. The analysis of the hospitalization time was realized through the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: the average weight of premature was 785,2g ± 138,2g. The gestational age vary from 22 to 35 weeks and the average was 26,8 weeks. Of those admitted at NICU, sixty three (39,9% were discharged and 95 (60,1% died. The time of hospitalization was influenced for morbidities as: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication (157 - 99,4%. The incidence of persistent arterial duct, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, hypothermia, hypoglycemia and retinopathy of prematurity was 39,2%, 17,1%, 32,3%,50,3%, 52,3% e 16,6% respectively. Conclusions: the morbidities from respiratory tract, cardiac, neurological and infectious were the most prevalent, whilst PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis were the morbidities that significantly influenced the time of hospitalization.

  4. Birth weight and neonatal adiposity prediction using fractional limb volume obtained with 3D ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Clare; O'Higgins, Amy; Doolan, Anne; Segurado, Ricardo; Stuart, Bernard; Turner, Michael J; Kennelly, Máireád M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study fetal thigh volume throughout gestation and explore its correlation with birth weight and neonatal body composition. This novel technique may improve birth weight prediction and lead to improved detection rates for fetal growth restriction. Fractional thigh volume (TVol) using 3D ultrasound, fetal biometry and soft tissue thickness were studied longitudinally in 42 mother-infant pairs. The percentages of neonatal body fat, fat mass and fat-free mass were determined using air displacement plethysmography. Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed. Linear regression analysis showed an association between TVol and birth weight. TVol at 33 weeks was also associated with neonatal fat-free mass. There was no correlation between TVol and neonatal fat mass. Abdominal circumference, estimated fetal weight (EFW) and EFW centile showed consistent correlations with birth weight. Thigh volume demonstrated an additional independent contribution to birth weight prediction when added to the EFW centile from the 38-week scan (p = 0.03). Fractional TVol performed at 33 weeks gestation is correlated with birth weight and neonatal lean body mass. This screening test may highlight those at risk of fetal growth restriction or macrosomia.

  5. Influence of birth weight on differences in infant mortality by social class and legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, D A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social class. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality was 4.2/1000 and 2.3/1000 respectively for social class I and 6.8/1000 and 5.6/1000 respectively for social class V. Mortality was lower among births registered within marriage (postneonatal 3.5/1000; neonatal 5.2/1000) than among those jointly registered outside marriage (5.1/1000; 6.4/1000); mortality was highest in those solely registered outside marriage (7.2/1000; 7.0/1000). For neonatal mortality the effect of social class varied with birth weight. Social class had little effect on neonatal mortality in low birthweight babies and increasing effect in heavier babies. For postneonatal mortality the effect of social class was similar for all birth weights and was almost as steep as for all birth weights combined. CONCLUSION--Birth weight mediates little of the effect of social class on postneonatal mortality. PMID:1954421

  6. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

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    Sonia Minooee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM/ body lean mass (BLM in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW. Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27 vs. 15.7% (22. Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS

  7. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  8. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  9. Maternal immigrant status and high birth weight: implications for childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity, a growing epidemic, is associated with greater risk of several chronic diseases in adulthood. Children of immigrant mothers are at higher risk for obesity than children of non-immigrant mothers. High birth weight is the most important neonatal predictor of childhood obesity in the general population. To understand the etiology of obesity in children of immigrant mothers, we assessed the relation between maternal immigrant status and risk for high birth weight. Data about all births in Michigan (N = 786,868) between 2000-2005 were collected. We used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between maternal immigrant status and risk for neonatal high birth weight. The prevalence of high birth weight among non-immigrant mothers was 10.6%; the prevalence among immigrant mothers was 8.0% (P maternal age, education, marital status, parity, and tobacco use, children of immigrant mothers had lower odds (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.70) of high birth weight compared to those of non-immigrant mothers. Although maternal immigrant status has been shown to be associated with greater childhood obesity, surprisingly, children of immigrant mothers have lower risk of high birth weight than children of non-immigrant mothers. This suggests that factors in early childhood, potentially cultural or behavioral factors, may play a disproportionately important role in the etiology of childhood obesity in children of immigrant vs non-immigrant mothers.

  10. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  11. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F; Wachmann, Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612) answered a questionnaire during 12th to 16th gestational week about their exposure to ETS at home and outside the home. Pregnant nonsmokers exposed to ETS both at home and outside the home gave birth to children with a birth weight of 78.9 g (95% CI -143.7 to -14.1) (P=0.02) lower than the weight of children born to women unexposed to ETS. There was no significant reduction in birth weight among women exposed to ETS at home only or outside the home only. A nonsignificant dose-response association was seen between increasing daily exposure to ETS and reduction in birth weight. Nonsmoking pregnant women who were exposed to ETS at home as well as outside the home gave birth to children with a 79 g reduction in birth weight compared to children of unexposed women. The fact that exposure to ETS has an effect on the birth weight is regarded as essential. The authors recommend that pregnant women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking.

  12. Maternal KIR in combination with paternal HLA-C2 regulate human birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Susan E; Apps, Richard; Chazara, Olympe; Farrell, Lydia E; Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill; Gjessing, Håkon K; Carrington, Mary; Moffett, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Human birth weight is subject to stabilizing selection; babies born too small or too large are less likely to survive. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune system genes are associated with pregnancies where the babies are ≤ 5th birth weight centile, specifically an inhibitory maternal KIR AA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. We have now analyzed maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C combinations at the opposite end of the birth weight spectrum. Mother/baby pairs (n = 1316) were genotyped for maternal KIR as well as fetal and maternal HLA-C. Presence of a maternal-activating KIR2DS1 gene was associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p = 0.005, n = 1316). Effect of KIR2DS1 was most significant in pregnancies where its ligand, HLA-C2, was paternally but not maternally inherited by a fetus (p = 0.005, odds ratio = 2.65). Thus, maternal KIR are more frequently inhibitory with small babies but activating with big babies. At both extremes of birth weight, the KIR associations occur when their HLA-C2 ligand is paternally inherited by a fetus. We conclude that the two polymorphic immune gene systems, KIR and HLA-C, contribute to successful reproduction by maintaining birth weight between two extremes with a clear role for paternal HLA.

  13. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  14. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  15. Invasive cancer incidence - Puerto Rico, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple D; Wilson, Reda J; Ortiz-Ortiz, Karen J; Ríos, Naydi Pérez; Torres Cintrón, Carlos R; Luna, Guillermo Tortolero; Zavala Zegarra, Diego E; Ryerson, A Blythe

    2015-04-17

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and death in Puerto Rico. To set a baseline for identifying new trends and patterns of cancer incidence, Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry staff and CDC analyzed data from Puerto Rico included in U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2007-2011, the most recent data available. This is the first report of invasive cancer incidence rates for 2007-2011 among Puerto Rican residents by sex, age, cancer site, and municipality. Cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were compared with those in the U.S. population for 2011. A total of 68,312 invasive cancers were diagnosed and reported in Puerto Rico during 2007-2011. The average annual incidence rate was 330 cases per 100,000 persons. The cancer sites with the highest cancer incidence rates included prostate (152), female breast (84), and colon and rectum (43). Cancer incidence rates varied by municipality, particularly for prostate, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum cancers. In 2011, cancer incidence rates in Puerto Rico were lower for all cancer sites and lung and bronchus, but higher for prostate and thyroid cancers, compared with rates within the U.S. Identifying these variations can aid evaluation of factors associated with high incidence, such as cancer screening practices, and development of targeted cancer prevention and control efforts. Public health professionals can monitor cancer incidence trends and use these findings to evaluate the impact of prevention efforts, such as legislation prohibiting tobacco use in the workplace and public places and the Puerto Rico Cessation Quitline in decreasing lung and other tobacco-related cancers.

  16. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rupa; Harris, Maria; Sie, Lillian; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM 2.5 , which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM 2.5 mass and 23 PM 2.5 constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; 2.5 mass and several PM 2.5 constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM 2.5 constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM 2.5 , especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity

  17. Comparison of Cancer Incidence between China and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Chuan; Wei, Li-Juan; Liu, Jun-Tian; Li, Shi-Xia; Wang, Qing-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cancer varies around the globe, especially between less-developed and developed regions. The aim of this study is to explore differences in cancer incidence between China and the USA. Data were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database. Estimated numbers of new cancer cases in the USA were obtained from the American Cancer Society, while the numbers of cases in China, including those in urban and rural areas, were obtained from 36 cancer registries (2003-2005). Cancer incidence for major sites between China and the USA were analyzed. In China, lung cancer was the predominant type of cancer detected in males; in females, breast cancer was the main type of cancer. Gastrointestinal cancers, such as those of the liver, stomach, and esophagus, were more commonly seen in China than in the USA. A significant difference in the incidence of melanoma of the skin was observed between China and the USA. During comparison of differences in the age-standardized rates by world population (ASRWs) of major cancer sites between the two countries, 4 sites in males (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, and liver) and 6 sites in females (i.e., nasopharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, and cervix uteri) showed higher cancer incidence rates in China than in the USA. Significant differences in cancer incidence sites were found between the two countries. Cancer may be prevented through public education and awareness. Programs to promote cancer prevention in China, especially those of the lung, breast, and gastrointestinal region, must also be implemented.

  18. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure versus Mechanical Ventilation on the Fist Day of Life in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Dustin D.; O’Donnell, Elizabeth; Kornhauser, Mike; Dysart, Kevin; Greenspan, Jay; Aghai, Zubair H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine differences in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or death in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants managed successfully on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) versus mechanical ventilation on the first day of life (DOL). Study Design This is a retrospective analysis of the Alere neonatal database for infants born between January 2009 and December 2014, weighing ≤ 1,500 g. Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were compared between the two groups. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to control the variables that differ in bivariate analysis. Results In this study, 4,629 infants (birth weight 1,034 ± 290 g, gestational age 28.1 ± 2.5 weeks) met the inclusion criteria. The successful use of early CPAP was associated with a significant reduction in BPD or death (p CPAP on the first DOL in VLBW infants is associated with a reduced risk of BPD or death. PMID:27057767

  19. Preeclampsia and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Chung; Yang, Hwai-I; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Yi; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Tsou, Kuo-Inn; Tsao, Po-Nien

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are associated with impaired angiogenesis. Previous studies on the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP have produced conflicting results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal preeclampsia and ROP using a large population-based cohort of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants from 21 neonatal departments registered in the database of the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preeclampsia with reference to ROP and severe ROP. A total of 5,718 VLBW infants (844 cases with maternal preeclampsia) were included for analysis. The overall incidences of mild and severe ROP were 36.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Univariable analysis showed lower GA and lower birth weight, vaginal delivery, non-SGA, RDS, PDA, sepsis, transfusion, and absence of maternal preeclampsia to be associated with mild and severe ROP development. However, OR (95% CI) adjusted for the variables that were significant according to univariable analysis showed the risks of developing any-stage ROP and severe ROP for maternal preeclampsia to be 1.00 (0.84-1.20) and 0.89 (0.63-1.25), respectively. The results remained unchanged in stratified analyses according to SGA status. Our data showed that maternal preeclampsia was not associated with the subsequent development of any stage or severe ROP in VLBW infants.

  20. Preeclampsia and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Huang

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are associated with impaired angiogenesis. Previous studies on the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP have produced conflicting results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal preeclampsia and ROP using a large population-based cohort of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants from 21 neonatal departments registered in the database of the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for preeclampsia with reference to ROP and severe ROP. A total of 5,718 VLBW infants (844 cases with maternal preeclampsia were included for analysis. The overall incidences of mild and severe ROP were 36.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Univariable analysis showed lower GA and lower birth weight, vaginal delivery, non-SGA, RDS, PDA, sepsis, transfusion, and absence of maternal preeclampsia to be associated with mild and severe ROP development. However, OR (95% CI adjusted for the variables that were significant according to univariable analysis showed the risks of developing any-stage ROP and severe ROP for maternal preeclampsia to be 1.00 (0.84-1.20 and 0.89 (0.63-1.25, respectively. The results remained unchanged in stratified analyses according to SGA status. Our data showed that maternal preeclampsia was not associated with the subsequent development of any stage or severe ROP in VLBW infants.

  1. Wealth status, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and antenatal care (ANC) are determinants for low birth weight in Kersa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Nega; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Low Birth Weight (LBW) is one of the major risk factor for death in early life. However, little is known about predictors of LBW in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the incidence and determinants of LBW in a rural population of Ethiopia. An observational cohort study on pregnant women was conducted from December 2009 to November 2010. During the study period 1295 live birth were registered and the weights of 956 children were measured within 24 hours after birth. Socio-demographic, economic, maternal and organizational factors were considered as a predicators of LBW, defined as birth weight below 2500g. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data, odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CI) are reported. The incidence of LBW was 28.3%. It is significantly associated with poverty [OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.42, 3.05], maternal Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) less than 23 cm [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.19], not attending ANC [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.28], mother's experience of physical violence during pregnancy [OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.48], and longer time to walk to health facility [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.40]. The incidence of LBW was high in Kersa. Babies born to women who were poor, undernourished, experienced physical violence during pregnancy and who had poor access to health services were more likely to be LBW in this part of the country. In this largely poor community where ANC coverage is low, to reduce the incidence of LBW, it is essential to improve access for maternal health care. The involvement of husbands and the community at large to seek collective action on LBW is essential.

  2. Wealth status, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC and antenatal care (ANC are determinants for low birth weight in Kersa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nega Assefa

    Full Text Available Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the major risk factor for death in early life. However, little is known about predictors of LBW in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the incidence and determinants of LBW in a rural population of Ethiopia.An observational cohort study on pregnant women was conducted from December 2009 to November 2010. During the study period 1295 live birth were registered and the weights of 956 children were measured within 24 hours after birth. Socio-demographic, economic, maternal and organizational factors were considered as a predicators of LBW, defined as birth weight below 2500g. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data, odds ratio (OR and confidence intervals (CI are reported.The incidence of LBW was 28.3%. It is significantly associated with poverty [OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.42, 3.05], maternal Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC less than 23 cm [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.19], not attending ANC [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.28], mother's experience of physical violence during pregnancy [OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.48], and longer time to walk to health facility [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.40].The incidence of LBW was high in Kersa. Babies born to women who were poor, undernourished, experienced physical violence during pregnancy and who had poor access to health services were more likely to be LBW in this part of the country. In this largely poor community where ANC coverage is low, to reduce the incidence of LBW, it is essential to improve access for maternal health care. The involvement of husbands and the community at large to seek collective action on LBW is essential.

  3. Trends in birth weight-specific and -adjusted infant mortality rates in Taiwan between 2004 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fu-Wen; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Li-Hua; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lue, Hung-Chi; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2018-06-01

    A yearly increase in the proportion of very low birth weight (VLBW) live births has resulted in the slowdown of decreasing trends in crude infant mortality rates (IMRs). In this study, we examined the trends in birth weight-specific as well as birth weight-adjusted IMRs in Taiwan. We linked three nationwide datasets, namely the National Birth Reporting Database, National Birth Certification Registry, and National Death Certification Registry databases, to calculate the IMRs according to the birth weight category. Trend tests and mortality rate ratios in the periods 2010-2011 and 2004-2005 were used to examine the extent of reduction in birth weight-specific and birth weight-adjusted IMRs. The proportion of VLBW (births increased from 0.78% in 2004-2005 to 0.89% in 2010-2011, thus exhibiting a 15% increase. The extents of the decreases in birth weight-specific IMRs in the 500-999, 1000-1499, 1500-1999, 2000-2499, and 2500-2999 g birth weight categories were 15%, 33%, 43%, 30%, and 28%, respectively, from 2004-2005 to 2010-2011. The reduction in IMR in each birth weight category was larger than the reduction in the crude IMR (13%). By contrast, the IMR in the birth weight category exhibited a 56% increase during the study period. The IMRs were calculated by excluding all live births with a birth weight of birth weight-adjusted IMRs, which were calculated using a standard birth weight distribution structure for adjustment, exhibited similar extent reductions. In countries with an increasing proportion of VLBW live births, birth weight-specific or -adjusted IMRs are more appropriate than other indices for accurately assessing the real extent of reduction in IMRs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Declines in Birth weight and Fetal Growth Independent of Gestational Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Esplin, M. Sean; Varner, Michael W.; Henry, Erick; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Objective Birth weight is decreasing in the US and elsewhere, even among term singletons, although trends in most maternal characteristics should contribute to increased birth weight. Some studies have attributed this decline to the simultaneous decrease in gestational length. Methods Using data from Intermountain Healthcare, where a successful initiative reduced the number of early term (37–38 week) elective deliveries, we examined trends in birth weight, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) among 219,694 singleton infants born July 2000 to December 2008 at 37–41 weeks gestation. Results Over the 8.5 years, births through scheduled deliveries at 37–38 weeks decreased (9.4% to 4.4%), but overall scheduled deliveries increased (29% to 34%) and mean gestational age at birth (39.1 weeks) did not change. Mean birth weight (3410g to 3383g) and LGA (9.0% to 7.4%) both decreased, whereas SGA increased (7.5% to 8.2%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, birth weight decreased (36g; 95% CI: 31, 42), especially among infants born at 37–38 weeks (40g; 30, 49) or that had medical indications for urgent deliveries (48g; 34, 63). Odds of LGA decreased (0.84; 0.80, 0.88) and odds of SGA increased (1.14; 1.08, 1.20). Conclusion Even in a population where gestation length did not change, birth weight and fetal growth declined. Decrease in not only gestational length but in fetal growth as well is likely to be contributing to the widely observed recent decrease in birth weight. PMID:23262927

  5. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to confirm the association.

  6. Birth weight by gestational age and congenital malformations in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Nigatu, Balkachew; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-03-29

    Studies on birth weight and congenital anomalies in sub-Saharan regions are scarce. Data on child variables (gestational age, birth weight, sex, and congenital malformations) and maternal variables (gravidity, parity, antenatal care, previous abortions, maternal illness, age, medication, and malformation history) were collected for all neonates delivered at Ayder referral and Mekelle hospitals (Northern Ehthiopia) in a prospective study between 01-12-2011 and 01-05-2012. The total number of deliveries was 1516. More female (54%) than male neonates were born. Birth weights were 700-1,000 grams between 26 and 36 weeks of pregnancy and then increased linearly to 3,500-4,000 grams at 40 weeks. Thirty-five and 54% of neonates were very-low and low birth weight, respectively, without sex difference. Very-low birth-weight prevalence was not affected by parity. Male and female neonates from parity-2 and parity-2-4 mothers, respectively, were least frequently under weight. Sixty percent of newborns to parity -3 mothers weighed less than 2,500 grams, without sex difference. The percentage male neonates dropped from ~50% in parity-1-3 mothers to ~20% in parity-6 mothers. Diagnosed congenital malformations (~2%) were 2-fold more frequent in boys than girls. The commonest malformations were in the central nervous system (CNS; ~1.5% of newborns). Parity, low birth weight, gestational age less than 35 weeks, male sex, and lack of antenatal care were the most significant risk factors for congenital anomalies. The high prevalence of neonates with low birth weight and CNS anomalies in Northern Ethiopia was very high. The findings may reflect the harsh conditions in the past 2 decades and suggest environmental and/or nutritional causes. Male sex and parity affected the outcome of pregnancy negatively.

  7. Sub-optimal birth weight in newborns of a high socioeconomic status population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Aparecida de Mattos Segre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sub-optimal birth weight (2,500 to 2,999 g term newborns to appropriate for gestational age (birth weight ≥ 3,000 g term newborns, regarding maternal data and newborn morbidity and mortality. Methods: Single term newborns, appropriate for gestational age from a high socioeconomic population (n = 1,242 with birth weight ranging from 2,500 to 2,999 g (Group I were compared to 4,907 newborns with birth weight ≥ than 3,000 g (Group II. Maternal and newborn characteristics were compared between the groups. The Mann-Whitney test, χ2 test and multivariate analysis were used. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. Rresults: The frequency of sub-optimal birth weight newborns in the population studied was 20.2%. There was a significant association between sub-optimal birth weight and maternal weight before pregnancy and body mass index, maternal weight gain, height, smoking habit and hypertension. Newborns’ 1-minute Apgar score, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia and hospital stay were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05. A significant relationship could not be established with the 5-minute Apgar score and pulmonary hypertension in both groups. Neonatal mortality did not differ between the groups. Cconclusions: Socioeconomic status was not a risk factor for sub-optimal birth weight in the studied population. Genetic and environmental factors were associated to sub-optimal weight and neonatal diseases. According to these data, this group of newborns should receive special attention from the health team.

  8. Birth weight and special educational needs: results of a population-based study in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettge, Susanne; Oberwöhrmann, Sylke; Brockstedt, Matthias; Bührer, Christoph

    2014-05-09

    Preterm infants are at higher risk for developmental problems. The aim of this study is to quantify the relation between birth weight and special educational needs. We analyzed data from the pre-school examinations of 134 313 children in Berlin aged 5 to 6 who were examined between 2007 and 2011. Special educational needs were diagnosed in 8058 children (6.0%), 4943 (61%) of whom had weighed 3000 g or more at birth. The percentage of children with special educational needs rose steadily with decreasing birth weight (2250-2499 g, 9.2%; 1250-1499 g, 21.1%; less than 750 g, 35.6%). Logistic regression analysis yielded odds ratios and 99% confidence intervals for special educational needs that ranged from 1.32 [1.17-1.47] for birth weight 2750-2999 g to 12.83 [7.48-22.03] for birth weight less than 750 g. Further risk factors were male sex (1.88 [1.75-2.03]), low social status (5.96 [5.21-6.82]), an immigrant background associated with poor German language skills in the family (1.63 [1.43-1.86]), and being raised by a single parent (1.21 [1.12-1.31]). On the other hand, nursery school and/or kindergarten enrollment for at least two years before entering school (0.82 [0.73-0.91]) and an immigrant background with good German skills in the family (0.39 [0.34-0.45]) were associated with lower rates of special educational needs. The risk of special educational needs increases already with moderately decreased birth weight. The most important factor other than birth weight is the family's social status. Although children of very low birth weight have a much higher rate of special educational needs than other children, they still make up only a small percentage of all children with special educational needs.

  9. Prenatal mercury exposure and infant birth weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejrup, Kristine; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle K; Magnus, Per; Alexander, Jan; Kvalem, Helen E; Meltzer, Helle M; Haugen, Margaretha

    2014-09-01

    To examine the association between calculated maternal dietary exposure to Hg in pregnancy and infant birth weight in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Exposure was calculated with use of a constructed database of Hg in food items and reported dietary intake during pregnancy. Multivariable regression models were used to explore the association between maternal Hg exposure and infant birth weight, and to model associations with small-for-gestational-age offspring. The study is based on data from MoBa. The study sample consisted of 62 941 women who answered a validated FFQ which covered the habitual diet during the first five months of pregnancy. Median exposure to Hg was 0·15 μg/kg body weight per week and the contribution from seafood intake was 88 % of total Hg exposure. Women in the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile of Hg exposure delivered offspring with 34 g lower birth weight (95 % CI -46 g, -22 g) and had an increased risk of giving birth to small-for-gestational-age offspring, adjusted OR = 1·19 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·30). Although seafood intake was positively associated with increased birth weight, stratified analyses showed negative associations between Hg exposure and birth weight within strata of seafood intake. Although seafood intake in pregnancy is positively associated with birth weight, Hg exposure is negatively associated with birth weight. Seafood consumption during pregnancy should not be avoided, but clarification is needed to identify at what level of Hg exposure this risk might exceed the benefits of seafood.

  10. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  11. Maternal short stature: A risk factor for low birth weight in neonates

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    Vipin Chandra Kamathi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW is the most common cause of perinatal mortality, causing almost 30 percent of neonatal deaths. On the other hand, maternal short stature is known to cause a lot of obstetric complications like cephalopelvic disproportion and arrest of labor, intrauterine asphyxia, intrauterine growth retardation. The objective of our study was to find out whether there was any significant statistical association between maternal height and the birth weight of the neonate. We identified a group of low birth weight neonates (n=54 and a control group (n=51 of normal weight neonates at term in Mediciti Hospital over a period of 1 year and retrospectively looked the maternal heights for both groups. Inclusion criteria being mothers who delivered at term, mothers who had a hemoglobin level more than 10 gm/dl, mothers with relatively uneventful antenatal without any significant obstetric or medical complications during the pregnancy, and neonates with relatively uneventful post-natal periods without any significant pediatric or medical complications. The odds of having been born of a mother of short stature are more than three times greater for a low birth weight baby than a normal weight baby. The mean of birth weights of babies born to mothers of normal height is more than the mean of birth weights of babies born to mothers of short stature by 277.01 gm. This study reaffirms the observation that maternal height has a direct effect on the weight of the newborn and we propose that maternal short stature be identified as an independent risk factor for low birth weight.

  12. What has high fertility got to do with the low birth weight problem in Africa?

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    Ivy Kodzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There has been much concern about adverse individual and societal consequences of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. One concern is that children of high birth orders may have low birth weight. However, the evidence for such an effect is not strong. OBJECTIVE Our objective is to investigate whether a woman's high parity status might increase her risks of having a baby with low birth weight. METHODS Pooling 60 Demographic and Health Surveys data-sets from 32 sub-Saharan countries, we selected children of mothers who had at least two births of order two or higher within the five years preceding the surveys. We modeled the probability of having a child with low birth weight and controlled for all mother-specific, household, or community characteristics that are constant over the period of analysis, by including fixed-effects for the mother. We also controlled for salient factors including sex, maternal age, preceding birth interval, and whether prenatal care was received. RESULTS We found no adverse effect of increasing parity on the odds of having a child with low birth weight at normative ranges; such effects only manifest at extremely high parities - nine or more children. At moderately high parities, the chance of low birth weight is actually lower than at very low parities. CONCLUSIONS While high fertility may lead to various adverse outcomes for African families, low birth weight appears not to be among these outcomes. Other factors, such as adolescent childbearing, poverty, and inadequate prenatal care may be more important determinants of low birth weight in Africa.

  13. An analysis of timing and frequency of malaria infection during pregnancy in relation to the risk of low birth weight, anaemia and perinatal mortality in Burkina Faso

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    Valea Innocent

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prospective study aiming at assessing the effect of adding a third dose sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to the standard two-dose intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women was carried out in Hounde, Burkina Faso, between March 2006 and July 2008. Pregnant women were identified as earlier as possible during pregnancy through a network of home visitors, referred to the health facilities for inclusion and followed up until delivery. Methods Study participants were enrolled at antenatal care (ANC visits and randomized to receive either two or three doses of SP at the appropriate time. Women were visited daily and a blood slide was collected when there was fever (body temperature > 37.5°C or history of fever. Women were encouraged to attend ANC and deliver in the health centre, where the new-born was examined and weighed. The timing and frequency of malaria infection was analysed in relation to the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and perinatal mortality. Results Data on birth weight and haemoglobin were available for 1,034 women. The incidence of malaria infections was significantly lower in women having received three instead of two doses of SP. Occurrence of first malaria infection during the first or second trimester was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight: incidence rate ratios of 3.56 (p p = 0.034, respectively. After adjusting for possible confounding factors, the risk remained significantly higher for the infection in the first trimester of pregnancy (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.07, p = 0.002. The risk of maternal anaemia and perinatal mortality was not associated with the timing of first malaria infection. Conclusion Malaria infection during first trimester of pregnancy is associated to a higher risk of low birth weight. Women should be encouraged to use long-lasting insecticidal nets before and throughout their pregnancy.

  14. An analysis of timing and frequency of malaria infection during pregnancy in relation to the risk of low birth weight, anaemia and perinatal mortality in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou; Drabo, Maxime K; Huybregts, Lieven; Sorgho, Hermann; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemde, Robert T; van Geertruyden, Jean Pierre; Kolsteren, Patrick; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2012-03-16

    A prospective study aiming at assessing the effect of adding a third dose sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to the standard two-dose intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women was carried out in Hounde, Burkina Faso, between March 2006 and July 2008. Pregnant women were identified as earlier as possible during pregnancy through a network of home visitors, referred to the health facilities for inclusion and followed up until delivery. Study participants were enrolled at antenatal care (ANC) visits and randomized to receive either two or three doses of SP at the appropriate time. Women were visited daily and a blood slide was collected when there was fever (body temperature > 37.5°C) or history of fever. Women were encouraged to attend ANC and deliver in the health centre, where the new-born was examined and weighed. The timing and frequency of malaria infection was analysed in relation to the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and perinatal mortality. Data on birth weight and haemoglobin were available for 1,034 women. The incidence of malaria infections was significantly lower in women having received three instead of two doses of SP. Occurrence of first malaria infection during the first or second trimester was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight: incidence rate ratios of 3.56 (p pregnancy (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 2.07, p = 0.002). The risk of maternal anaemia and perinatal mortality was not associated with the timing of first malaria infection. Malaria infection during first trimester of pregnancy is associated to a higher risk of low birth weight. Women should be encouraged to use long-lasting insecticidal nets before and throughout their pregnancy.

  15. Cancer incidence among workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquavella, J.J.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Wiggs, L.D.; Reyes-Waxweiler, M.; Key, C.R.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of cancer incidence among Los Alamos workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society. Cancer incidence was especially low among Anglo-American males for cancer of the lung and oral cancer, cancer sites commonly associated with cigarette smoking. No cases of cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pancreas, or bladder were observed among Anglo-American females in the population. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterine corpus exceeded one; however, these findings were not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with expectation for a population of high socioeconomic class, such as the Laboratory work force. Therefore, working conditions at the Laboratory do not appear to have affected cancer incidence in this population. 1 reference, 2 tables

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  17. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  18. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  19. Association of Timing of Weight Gain in Pregnancy With Infant Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnakaran, Ravi; Wen, Shi Wu; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Shujin; Ye, Chang; Shen, Minxue; Smith, Graeme N; Walker, Mark C

    2018-02-01

    Gestational weight gain is a determinant of infant birth weight, but it is unclear whether its timing in pregnancy may hold implications in this regard. Previous studies have yielded conflicting findings on the association of maternal weight gain in early pregnancy with birth weight. However, as these studies have typically recruited women during the first trimester, they are inherently limited by a reliance on self-reported pregravid weight. To evaluate the associations of directly measured maternal pregravid weight and the timing of subsequent weight gain across pregnancy with infant birth weight. In this prospective, preconception, observational cohort study, 1164 newly married women in Liuyang, China, underwent pregravid evaluation at a median of 19.9 weeks before a singleton pregnancy during which they underwent serial weight measurements. The study was conducted from February 1, 2009, to November 4, 2015. Data analysis was performed between September 1, 2016, and May 6, 2017. Maternal weight gain was calculated for the following 10 gestational intervals: from pregravid to less than 14, 14 to 18, 19 to 23, 24 to 28, 29 to 30, 31 to 32, 33 to 34, 35 to 36, 37 to 38, and 39 to 40 weeks. Associations of pregravid weight and weight gain within each of the 10 gestational intervals with the outcome of infant birth weight. The mean (SD) age of the 1164 women included in the study was 25.3 (3.1) years. Pregravid weight was consistently associated with infant birth weight. However, among the 10 gestational intervals, only weight gain from pregravid to 14 weeks and from 14 to 18 weeks was associated with birth weight. Birth weight increased by 13.6 g/kg (95% CI, 3.2-24.1 g/kg) of maternal weight gain from pregravid to 14 weeks and by 26.1 g/kg (95% CI, 3.8-48.4 g/kg) of maternal weight gain from 14 to 18 weeks. Maternal weight only in the first half of gestation is a determinant of infant birth weight. Before pregnancy and early gestation may be a critical window for

  20. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy

  1. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araz, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)

  2. Prevalence and risk factors affecting low birth weight in a district hospital at Perambalur, Tamilnadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Hanumant Dandekar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The low birth weight is an index of our status of public health in general and of maternal health and nutrition in particular. The major challenge in the field of public health is to identify the factors influencing low birth weight and to institute remedial measures. This hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted to know the prevalence and to identify risk factors affecting low birth weight in a District Hospital at Perambalur, Tamilnadu during six months period. All pregnant mothers who delivered babies in District Hospital were included in this study. Sample size 300 was calculated by taking 25% as the minimum prevalence of low birth weight with 20% permissible error. The statistical analysis was done by Epi Info™ 7 (7.1.2 software packages. The prevalence of LBW was found as 11.67% in 300 mothers while it was 21.5% in NFHS-3. Significant association was found between Low birth weight and weight gain in pregnancy. Though the prevalence of LBW is lower than national level, it is the need of the hour to strengthen the existing maternal services at the basic level of community.

  3. The Study of Mothers’ Periodontal Status and Newborn’s Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirinzad

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recent studies have presented evidence that periodontal disease in pregnant women may be a determining factor for newborn’s low birth weight. The present investigation was carried out to verify whether there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight of newborns.Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 330 women, containing 110 mothers having live newborns with weight 2500 g (control group. The existence of an association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight was evaluated by means of analytic statistics that considered other risk factors for low weight. The two groups were compared with regard to urinary infection, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membrane, placenta previa, primiparous, smoking, age, height, socioeconomic status and periodontal disease.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups for any of the covariables (P>0.05, but there was significant differences for principal independent variable (periodontal disease P<0.05.Conclusion: Results indicated a positive association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight. Thus periodontal disease is a possible risk factor for low birth weight.

  4. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Govarts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures.

  6. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  7. Variants in ADCY5 and near CCNL1 are associated with fetal growth and birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freathy, Rachel M; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Sovio, Ulla; Prokopenko, Inga; Timpson, Nicholas J; Berry, Diane J; Warrington, Nicole M; Widen, Elisabeth; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Kaakinen, Marika; Lange, Leslie A; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kerkhof, Marjan; Marsh, Julie A; Mägi, Reedik; Chen, Chih-Mei; Lyon, Helen N; Kirin, Mirna; Adair, Linda S; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Bennett, Amanda J; Borja, Judith B; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Charoen, Pimphen; Coin, Lachlan J M; Cousminer, Diana L; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Deloukas, Panos; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Froguel, Philippe; Glaser, Beate; Groves, Christopher J; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holly, Jeff M P; Hyppönen, Elina; Kanoni, Stavroula; Knight, Bridget A; Laitinen, Jaana; Lindgren, Cecilia M; McArdle, Wendy L; O'Reilly, Paul F; Pennell, Craig E; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Shields, Beverley M; Strachan, David P; Surakka, Ida; Taanila, Anja; Tiesler, Carla; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wijga, Alet H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F; Steegers, Eric A P; Hattersley, Andrew T; Eriksson, Johan G; Peltonen, Leena; Mohlke, Karen L; Grant, Struan F A; Hakonarson, Hakon; Koppelman, Gerard H; Dedoussis, George V; Heinrich, Joachim; Gillman, Matthew W; Palmer, Lyle J; Frayling, Timothy M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Smith, George Davey; Power, Chris; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; McCarthy, Mark I

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH To identify genetic variants associated with birth weight, we meta-analyzed six genome-wide association (GWA) studies (N=10,623 Europeans from pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up two lead signals in thirteen replication studies (N=27,591). Rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 (P=2×10−35), and rs9883204 in ADCY5 (P=7×10−15) were robustly associated with birth weight. Correlated SNPs in ADCY5 were recently implicated in regulation of glucose levels and type 2 diabetes susceptibility,1 providing evidence that the well described association between lower birth weight and subsequent type 2 diabetes2,3 has a genetic component, distinct from the proposed role of programming by maternal nutrition. Using data from both SNPs, the 9% of Europeans with 4 birth weight-lowering alleles were, on average, 113g (95%CI 89-137g) lighter at birth than the 24% with 0 or 1 allele (Ptrend=7×10−30). The impact on birth weight is similar to that of a mother smoking 4-5 cigarettes per day in the third trimester of pregnancy.4 PMID:20372150

  8. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Lima Neto, Pedro Martins; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Bettiol, Heloisa

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestational diabetes, gestational weight gain, and type of delivery as determinants of the baby's birth weight. RESULTS For a gain of 4 kg/m2 (1 Standard Deviation [SD]) in pre-pregnancy body mass index, there was a 0.126 SD increase in birth weight, corresponding to 68 grams (p gestational weight gain represented a 0.280 SD increase in newborn weight, correponding to 151.2 grams (p weight was direct (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.202; p weight gain during pregnancy (SC = -0.070, p weight gain during pregnany on birth weight was predominantly direct (SC = 0.269, p gained less weight during pregnancy (p gestational weight gain on the increase in birth weight was greater than that of pre-pregnancy body mass index.

  9. An interaction between NDE1 and high birth weight increases schizophrenia susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegelius, Asko; Pankakoski, Maiju; Tomppo, Liisa; Lehto, Ulriika; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana; Paunio, Tiina; Hennah, William

    2015-12-15

    Pre- and perinatal environmental factors have been shown to increase schizophrenia risk particularly when combined with genetic liability. The investigation of specific gene environment interactions in the etiology of psychiatric disorders has gained momentum. We used multivariate GEE regression modeling to investigate the interaction between genes of the DISC1 pathway and birth weight, in relation to schizophrenia susceptibility in a Finnish schizophrenia family cohort. The study sample consisted of 457 subjects with both genotype and birth weight information. Gender and place of birth were adjusted for in the models. We found a significant interaction between birth weight and two NDE1 markers in relation to increased schizophrenia risk: a four SNP haplotype spanning NDE1 (b=1.26, SE=0.5, p=0.012) and one of its constituent SNPs rs4781678 (b=1.33, SE=0.51, p=0.010). Specifically, high birth weight (>4000g) was associated with increased schizophrenia risk among subjects homozygous for the previously identified risk alleles. The study was based on a family study sample with high genetic loading for schizophrenia and thus our findings cannot directly be generalized as representing the general population. Our results suggest that the functions mediated by NDE1 during the early stages of neurodevelopment are susceptible to the additional disruptive effects of pre- and perinatal environmental factors associated with high birth weight, augmenting schizophrenia susceptibility. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Birth weight and fetal growth in infants born to female hairdressers and their sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmon, A; Rylander, L

    2009-03-01

    To investigate birth weight and fetal growth in female hairdressers, while controlling for intergenerational effects and effects related to childhood exposures. A cohort of women who had attended vocational schools for hairdressers were compared to their sisters with respect to birth weight and fetal growth (measured as small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA), respectively) in their infants. In total, 6223 infants born to 3137 hairdressers and 8388 infants born to 3952 hairdressers' sisters were studied. Among the infants born to the hairdressers' sisters, the distribution of birth weights were wider than that among the infants born to the hairdressers. This was also reflected in that hairdresser cohort affiliation tended to be protective against both SGA (odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.31) and LGA (0.77; 0.54 to 1.09). For LGA, this effect was even more pronounced among women who had actually worked as hairdressers during at least one pregnancy (0.60; 0.39 to 0.92). The infants born to these women also had a significantly lower mean birth weight (3387 g vs 3419 g; p = 0.033). The results from the present study suggest that infants born to hairdressers have a decreased risk of being LGA. This is most likely not caused by a shift in birth weight distribution or abnormal glucose metabolism.

  11. [Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. There were 972 subjects (males: 50.7%, mean age: (46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data analysis. The 2 h PG in low birth weight group was (7.6±3.2) mmol/L , which was higher than that in normal birth weight group (6.9±2.1) mmol/L and high birth weight group (6.4±1.3) mmol/L (F=3.88, P=0.021). After adjustment for genders, age, body length, gestation age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and duration of follow-up, subjects with overweight and obesity at adulthood had 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) =2.06- 3.62) times risk

  12. Comprehensive maternal characteristics associated with birth weight: Bayesian modeling in a prospective cohort study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mansourian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we aimed to determine comprehensive maternal characteristics associated with birth weight using Bayesian modeling. Materials and Methods: A total of 526 participants were included in this prospective study. Nutritional status, supplement consumption during the pregnancy, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometric measures, physical activity, and pregnancy outcomes were considered as effective variables on the birth weight. Bayesian approach of complex statistical models using Markov chain Monte Carlo approach was used for modeling the data considering the real distribution of the response variable. Results: There was strong positive correlation between infant birth weight and the maternal intake of Vitamin C, folic acid, Vitamin B3, Vitamin A, selenium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium as micronutrients, and fiber and protein as macronutrients based on the 95% high posterior density regions for parameters in the Bayesian model. None of the maternal characteristics had statistical association with birth weight. Conclusion: Higher maternal macro- and micro-nutrient intake during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of delivering low birth weight infants. These findings support recommendations to expand intake of nutrients during pregnancy to high level.

  13. Preterm birth and low birth weight continue to increase the risk of asthma from age 7 to 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Melanie C; D Olhaberriague, Ana López-Polín; Burgess, John A; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Johns, David P; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-08-01

    Perinatal events can influence the development of asthma in childhood but current evidence is contradictory concerning the effects on life-time asthma risk. To assess the relationship between birth characteristics and asthma from childhood to adulthood. All available birth records for the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort, born in 1961 were obtained from the Tasmanian State Archives and Tasmanian hospitals. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as less than 2500 grams. Preterm birth was defined as delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a birth weight below the 10 th percentile for a given gestational age. Multivariate logistic and cox regression were used to examine associations between birth characteristics and lifetime risk of current and incident asthma, adjusting for confounders. The prevalence of LBW was 5.2%, SGA was 13.8% and preterm was 3.3%. LBW (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.12,2.44) and preterm birth (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 0.99, 3.31) were both associated with an increased risk of current asthma between the ages of 7 to 43 years. There was no association between SGA and current asthma risk. However, SGA was associated with incident asthma (HR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.00, 1.74), and there was an interaction with sex (p value = 0.08), with males having a greater risk of incident asthma (HR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.16-2.49) than females (HR = 1.04, 95%CI 0.70-1.54). Preterm birth and LBW were associated with an increased risk of current asthma into middle-age. These findings are the first to demonstrate the continuing impact of these characteristics on asthma risk into middle-age.

  14. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  15. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Jeon, Jihyun; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions.

  16. Black/white differences in very low birth weight neonatal mortality rates among New York City hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Hebert, Paul; Chatterjee, Samprit; Kleinman, Lawrence C; Chassin, Mark R

    2008-03-01

    We sought to determine whether differences in the hospitals at which black and white infants are born contribute to black/white disparities in very low birth weight neonatal mortality rates in New York City. We performed a population-based cohort study using New York City vital statistics records on all live births and deaths of infants weighing 500 to 1499 g who were born in 45 hospitals between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2001 (N = 11 781). We measured very low birth weight risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates for each New York City hospital and assessed differences in the distributions of non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white very low birth weight births among these hospitals. Risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates for very low birth weight infants in New York City hospitals ranged from 9.6 to 27.2 deaths per 1000 births. White very low birth weight infants were more likely to be born in the lowest mortality tertile of hospitals (49%), compared with black very low birth weight infants (29%). We estimated that, if black women delivered in the same hospitals as white women, then black very low birth weight mortality rates would be reduced by 6.7 deaths per 1000 very low birth weight births, removing 34.5% of the black/white disparity in very low birth weight neonatal mortality rates in New York City. Volume of very low birth weight deliveries was modestly associated with very low birth weight mortality rates but explained little of the racial disparity. Black very low birth weight infants more likely to be born in New York City hospitals with higher risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates than were very low birth weight infants, contributing substantially to black-white disparities.

  17. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na

  18. Epigenetic Consequences of Low Birth-Weight and Preterm Birth in Adult Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua

    2018-01-01

    could be detrimental to health later in life. Current epigenetic studies using genome-wide DNA methylation profiling have discovered molecular evidence confirming that, as important early life events, both low birth-weight and premature birth can result in long-lasting epigenetic consequences...... that impact health at adult ages. Results from our epigenome-wide association studies indicate that the two moderately correlated traits of adverse pregnancy outcome could be linked to increased susceptibility to different health problems with low birth-weight more relevant to metabolic disorders, while......Adverse birth outcomes including low birth-weight and preterm birth are associated with long-term morbidity and health consequences at adult ages. Molecular mechanisms including epigenetic modification may have been involved in the adaptation to the stressful condition in peridelivery period which...

  19. Stress, Pregnancy, and Motherhood: Implications for Birth Weights in the Borderlands of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2017-03-01

    We argue that changes over time in how ideas of stress are incorporated into understandings of pregnancy and motherhood among Mexican immigrant women living in the United States may affect the documented increase of low birth weight infants born to those women. Stress has consistently been linked to low birth weight, and pregnant Mexican American and Mexican immigrant women differ in levels of perceived social stress. What is lacking is an explanation for these differences. We utilize a subset of 36 ethnographic interviews with pregnant immigrant women from northern Mexico and Mexican Americans living in south Texas to demonstrate how meanings of pregnancy and motherhood increasingly integrate notions of stress the longer immigrant Mexican women live in the United States. We situate our results within anthropological and sociological research on motherhood in the United States and Mexico, anthropological research in the U.S.-Mexico borderlands, and interdisciplinary research on Hispanic rates of low birth weight. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  20. Development skills of children born premature with low and very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Camila da Costa; Pachelli, Mariane Regina de Oliveira; Amaral, Natalie Camillo de Oliveira; Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin

    2017-01-30

    To compare the performance of children born premature with low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth-weight (VLBW) with that of children born at term, within the age range of one to three years, regarding child development in the gross motor, fine motor-adaptive, personal-social and language domains. This is a cross-sectional study in a cohort of 150 infants born premature (experimental group) and at term (control group) divided into eight groups with respect to weight (low birth weight: motor, fine motor-adaptive, personal-social and language domains. In this study, the preterm groups presented different performances, i.e., normative, average, and below average performances were observed within the same group.

  1. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L; De Silva, N Maneka G; Wood, Andrew R; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A; McCarthy, Mark I; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Tim D; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F A; Nohr, Ellen A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T; Scholtens, Denise M; Davey Smith, George; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Frayling, Timothy M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Freathy, Rachel M

    2016-03-15

    Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, vitamin D status, and adiponectin level. Offspring birth weight from 18 studies. Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The maternal genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2-g (95% CI, 0 to 3 g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P = .008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were also associated with birth weight with effect sizes of 8 g (95% CI, 6 to 10 g) per glucose-raising allele (P = 7 × 10(-14)) and -4 g (95% CI, -6 to -2 g) per SBP-raising allele (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. A 1-SD ( ≈ 4 points) genetically higher maternal BMI was associated with a 55-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 17 to 93 g). A 1-SD ( ≈ 7.2 mg/dL) genetically higher maternal fasting glucose concentration was associated with 114-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 80 to 147 g). However, a 1-SD ( ≈ 10 mm Hg) genetically higher maternal SBP was associated with a 208-g

  2. Fat-free mass mediates the association between birth weight and aerobic fitness in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, C L; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Anderssen, S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To investigate whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of later aerobic fitness, and whether fat-free mass may mediate this association. Methods. The European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is a population-based cohort of two age groups (9 and 15 years) from Denmark...... test. Physical activity was collected in a subset (n = 1 505) using a hip-worn accelerometer and defined as total activity counts/wear time, all children with >600 minutes/day for ≥3 days of wear were included. Results. Lower birth weight was associated with lower aerobic fitness, after adjusting...... may have long-term influences on fat-free mass and differences in fat-free mass mediate the observed association between birth weight and aerobic fitness....

  3. Sports and leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Petersson, K; Hedegaard, M

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sports and other leisure-time physical activities during pregnancy and birth weight of babies born after 37 completed weeks of gestation. All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics, Aarhus University......, light, and moderate to heavy) and birth weight were examined by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as smoking, parity, schooling, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational age. The results showed that pregnant women who practiced sports or were...... moderate to heavy leisure-time physical active during the early second or the early third trimester gave birth to infants with a similar birth weight as inactive women. The proportion of newborns with a low (/=4500 g) was also unchanged. In conclusion, in this large population-based study, we found...

  4. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  5. Colorectal cancer incidence in 5 Asian countries by subsite: An analysis of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (1998-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Min; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Jung, Sun Jae; Jung, Kyu-Won; Shin, Hai-Rim; Shin, Aesun

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer in Asia. However, the trends in colorectal cancer incidence by subsite have not been analyzed across Asian countries. We used the most recent, high quality data from 6 cancer registries for two 5-year periods, 1998-2002 and 2003-2007, from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents to estimate colorectal cancer incidence by subsite in 5 Asian countries. Cases with overlapping lesions or otherwise unspecified colon cancer were re-distributed as proximal or distal colon cancer. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) per 100,000 population and incidence rate ratios from 1998 to 2002 to 2003-2007 were calculated for each subsite. For 2003-2007, men in Miyagi, Japan, had the highest ASR for cancer in the proximal colon, distal colon and rectum. Men of Jewish ancestry in Israel had a high ASR for proximal and distal colon cancer, but the lowest ASR for rectal cancer. The proportion of rectal cancer was highest among Korean men (51.39%) and lowest among Israeli women (26.6%). From 1998-2002 to 2003-2007, rectal cancer incidence did not significantly change in most registries, except for men in Miyagi, Japan, and both sexes in Korea. However, during the same period cancer incidence in the proximal and distal colon increased in most registries. In conclusion, there was substantial variation in subsite distributions of colorectal cancer in Asian registries and increases in overall incidence of colorectal cancer could be attributed to increases in colon cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advancing maternal age and infant birth weight among urban African Americans: the effect of neighborhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Simon, Dyan M; Jackson, Tara A; Drolet, Aimee

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether neighborhood poverty modifies the relationship between maternal age and infant birth weight among urban African Americans. Stratified analyses were performed on the vital records of African Americans born in Chicago by means of 1992-1995 computerized birth file with appended 1990 US Census income and 1995 Chicago Department of Public Health data. Four neighborhood-level variables (low median family income, high rates of unemployment, homicide, and lead poisoning) were analyzed. This is a population-based study. Twenty-one percent (n=21,811) of women resided in nonimpoverished neighborhoods (zero ecologic risk factors); 23% (n=24,914) of women lived in extremely impoverished neighborhoods (four ecologic risk factors). In nonimpoverished neighborhoods, 30-34 year old women had a moderately low birth weight (1500-2499 g) rate of 13.9% compared to 10.3% for women aged 20-24 years; risk difference (95% confidence interval [CI])=3.5 (2.2-4.6). In contrast, extremely impoverished women aged 30-34 years had a moderately low birth weight rate of 19.8% compared to 11.8% for women aged 20-24 years; risk difference (95% CI)=7.7 (6.1-9.3). This trend persisted among women who received early prenatal care and were primagravids or of low parity. Neighborhood poverty did not modify the association of advancing maternal age and the risk of very low birth weight (poverty accelerates the rise in moderately low birth weight but not very low birth weight; rates were associated with advancing maternal age among urban African Americans.

  7. Prepregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and birth weight in the BRISA cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina Jansen Cutrim Propp Lima

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the effects of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy on the baby's birth weight. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study with 5,024 mothers and their newborns using a Brazilian birth cohort study. In the proposed model, estimated by structural equation modeling, we tested socioeconomic status, age, marital status, pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking habit and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, hypertension and gestational diabetes, gestational weight gain, and type of delivery as determinants of the baby's birth weight. RESULTS For a gain of 4 kg/m2 (1 Standard Deviation [SD] in pre-pregnancy body mass index, there was a 0.126 SD increase in birth weight, corresponding to 68 grams (p < 0.001. A 6 kg increase (1 SD in gestational weight gain represented a 0.280 SD increase in newborn weight, correponding to 151.2 grams (p < 0.001. The positive effect of pre-pregnancy body mass index on birth weight was direct (standardized coefficient [SC] = 0.202; p < 0.001, but the negative indirect effect was small (SC = -0.076, p < 0.001 and partially mediated by the lower weight gain during pregnancy (SC = -0.070, p < 0.001. The positive effect of weight gain during pregnany on birth weight was predominantly direct (SC = 0.269, p < 0.001, with a small indirect effect of cesarean delivery (SC = 0.011; p < 0.001. Women with a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index gained less weight during pregnancy (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS The effect of gestational weight gain on the increase in birth weight was greater than that of pre-pregnancy body mass index.

  8. Physical activity during pregnancy and infant's birth weight: results from the 3D Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Michèle; Croteau, Jordie; Guinhouya, Benjamin C; Bujold, Emmanuel; Audibert, François; Fraser, William D; Marc, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between maternal physical activity and infant's birth weight or risk of inappropriate weight for gestational age (GA), and whether this association differs by infant's sex, maternal body mass index (BMI) or pregnancy complications in a prospective cohort study. 1913 pregnant women from the 3D Birth Cohort (Québec, Canada) completed the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire at each trimester. Energy expenditure (metabolic equivalent of task (MET)*hours/week) for total activity, sports and exercise and vigorous intensity activities was calculated. The associations with birth weight and risk of inappropriate weight for GA were evaluated by regression modelling. Interactions were tested with infant's sex, maternal prepregnancy BMI, gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders and prematurity. Each 1 MET/hours/week increase in sports and exercise in the first trimester was associated with a 2.5 g reduction in infant's birth weight (95% CI -4.8 to -0.3) but was not associated with the risk of small weight for GA. In contrast, although not significant, a 17% reduction in the risk of large weight for GA was observed with increasing sports and exercise. Furthermore, in women with subsequent pre-eclampsia (but not normotensive or hypertensive women), each 1 MET/hours/week increment spent in any vigorous exercise in the first trimester reduced the infant's birth weight by 19.8 g (95% CI -35.2 to -4.3). Pregnant women with higher sports and exercise levels in the first trimester delivered infants with a lower birth weight. The risk of reducing infant's birth weight with vigorous exercise in women who develop pre-eclampsia later in pregnancy requires evaluation.

  9. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Fiji 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Rebecca; Fong, James; Taylor, Richard; Gyaneshwar, Rajanishwar; Carter, Karen

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer and most common cause of cancer mortality among women in Fiji. There is little published data on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Pacific countries. To determine the incidence 2003-2009 of, and mortality 2003-2008 from, cervical cancer by ethnicity and period in Fiji, identify evidence of secular change and relate these data to other Pacific countries, Australia and New Zealand. Counts of incident cervical cancer cases (2003-2009) and unit record mortality data (2003-2008) from the Fiji Ministry of Health were used to calculate age-standardised (to the WHO World Population) cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, and cervical or uterine cancer mortality rates, by ethnicity, with 95% confidence intervals. On the basis of comparison of cervical cancer mortality with cervical or uterine cancer mortality in Fiji with similar populations, misclassification of cervical cancer deaths is unlikely. There is no evidence of secular change in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates for the study period. For women of all ages and ethnicities, the age-standardised incidence rate of cervical cancer (2003-2009) was 27.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 25.4-29.8) and the age-standardised mortality rate (2003-2008) was 23.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 21.5-26.4). The mortality/incidence ratio was 87%. Fijians had statistically significant higher age-standardised incidence and mortality rates than Indians. Fiji has one of the highest estimated rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the Pacific region. Cervical cancer screening in Fiji needs to be expanded and strengthened. © 2012 The Authors ANZJOG © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. RESULTS: Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty.......82 ng/g lipid), respectively; and MOiNP was associated with higher birth weight (46 g; 95% CI: -5, 97 per 2.22 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that several of the environmental contaminants, belonging to three chemical classes, may be independently associated with impaired fetal growth...

  11. Association of light-to-moderate alcohol drinking in pregnancy with preterm birth and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Poulsen, Gry; Bech, Bodil Hammer

    2017-01-01

    Women who drink light-to-moderately during pregnancy have been observed to have lower risk of unfavourable pregnancy outcomes than abstainers. This has been suggested to be a result of bias. In a pooled sample, including 193 747 live-born singletons from nine European cohorts, we examined...... alcohol. This decreased to 39% in 2000–2004, and 14% in 2005–2011. Before 2000, every additional drink was associated with reduced mean birth weight, whereas in 2005–2011, the mean birth weight increased with increasing intake. The period-specific associations between low-to-moderate drinking and birth...

  12. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  13. Sharing the science on human milk feedings with mothers of very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy A; Miracle, Donna J; Meier, Paula P

    2005-01-01

    Mother's milk provides protection from serious and costly morbidity for very-low-birth-weight infants (nosocomial infection, and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, NICU and maternity nurses may be hesitant to encourage mothers to initiate lactation because of a reluctance to make mothers feel guilty or coerced. This article reviews the evidence for the health outcomes of mothers' milk feeding in very-low-birth-weight infants and provides examples of ways to share this science with mothers so that they can make an informed feeding decision.

  14. Birth Weight and Risk of Adiposity among Adult Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille Falberg; Smith, Lærke Steenberg; Andersen, Gregers Stig

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Inuit population in Greenland has undergone rapid socioeconomic and nutritional changes simultaneously with an increasing prevalence of obesity. Therefore, the objective was to examine fetal programming as part of the aetiology of obesity among Inuit in Greenland by investigating...... circumference, FMI, FFMI and SAT with generally weaker associations among women compared to men. Birth weight was only associated with VAT after additional adjustment for waist circumference and appeared to be specific and inverse for men only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher birth weight among Inuit was associated...... with adiposity in adulthood. More studies are needed to explore a potential inverse association between birth size and VAT....

  15. Variants in ADCY5 and near CCNL1 are associated with fetal growth and birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Freathy, RM; Mook-Kanamori, DO; Sovio, U; Prokopenko, I; Timpson, NJ; Berry, DJ; Warrington, NM; Widen, E; Hottenga, JJ; Kaakinen, M; Lange, LA; Bradfield, JP; Kerkhof, M; Marsh, JA; Mägi, R

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo identify genetic variants associated with birth weight, we meta-analyzed six genome-wide association (GWA) studies (n = 10,623 Europeans from pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up two lead signals in 13 replication studies (n = 27,591). rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 (P = 2 × 10 35) and rs9883204 in ADCY5 (P = 7 × 10 15) were robustly associated with birth weight. Correlated SNPs in ADCY5 were recently implicated in regulation of glucose levels and susceptibility to type 2 di...

  16. Birth weight and risk of asthma in 3-9-year-old twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindlund, Karin; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2010-01-01

    length and Apgar score, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.65), p=0.027. The risk tended to be higher in monozygotic co-twins compared with dizygotic co-twins, especially for high birth weight differences. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight is a risk factor for asthma independently of gestational age, sex, birth...... length and Apgar score, but this may be due, in part, to residual non-genetic confounding factors. This finding lends support to the "fetal origins hypothesis" suggesting undisclosed prenatal determinants for the risk of asthma....

  17. The impact of birth weight and gestational age on the management of juvenile essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogas Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension in children is a very important biological aspect in child pathology, caused by the synergic action of multiple risk factors, with an increasing prevalence. Since there is not much knowledge about juvenile essential hypertension in childhood, in this paper we will clarify the existing data about this pathology and its management, mainly by referring to the correlations during different stages. We found significant correlations between hypertension and the individual values of birth weight and gestational age, which suggest that there is an important relationship between birth weight and gestational age, as important biological markers vs. the different stages of essential hypertension.

  18. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  19. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  20. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124...... among girls and boys and at all ages between 6 and 13 years. Furthermore, the association between birth weight and increased risk of overweight in childhood remained stable across a 48-year period. DISCUSSION: The increase in the prevalence of overweight could not be explained by time trends...... in the distribution of birth weight or by changes in the association between birth weight and the later risk of overweight over time. This implies that, unless the prenatal environment influences the later risk of overweight without increasing birth weight, the environmental influences contributing to the obesity...

  1. Obesity-susceptibility loci have a limited influence on birth weight: a meta-analysis of up to 28,219 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpelaeinen, T. O.; den Hoed, M.; Ong, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    High birth weight is associated with adult body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that birth weight and BMI may partly share a common genetic background.......High birth weight is associated with adult body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that birth weight and BMI may partly share a common genetic background....

  2. Ethnic differences in Colon and Rectal Cancer incidence in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If moving from a location of low colorectal cancer incidence to one of high colorectal cancer incidence predisposes one to develop the disease, could not the converse apply and those with a predisposition to developing the disease experience some protection when they live or interact with those with negligible ...

  3. Trends in low birth weight: a comparison of two birth cohorts separated by a 15-year interval in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, A. A.; Barbieri, M. A.; Gomes, U. A.; Bettiol, H.

    1998-01-01

    The incidence and some determinants of low birth weight (LBW) were studied in two population-based cohorts of singletons born live to families in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. The first cohort comprised infants born between June 1978 and May 1979 (6750 births--population survey) and the second, infants born between May and August 1994 (2990 births--sample survey). The incidence of LBW was 7.2% in 1978-79 and 10.6% in 1994. After adjustment for confounding factors, the following det...

  4. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    Objective: The registration data of local cancer registries in 2014 were collected by National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR)in 2017 to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in China. Methods: The data submitted from 449 registries were checked and evaluated, and the data of 339 registries out of them were qualified and selected for the final analysis. Cancer incidence and mortality were stratified by area, gender, age group and cancer type, and combined with the population data of 2014 to estimate cancer incidence and mortality in China. The age composition of standard population of Chinese census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence and mortality in China and worldwide, respectively. Results: Total covered population of 339 cancer registries (129 in urban and 210 in rural) in 2014 were 288 243 347 (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The mortality verified cases (MV%) were 68.01%. Among them, 2.19% cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), and the mortality to incidence ratio was 0.61. There were about 3, 804, 000 new cases diagnosed as malignant cancer and 2, 296, 000 cases dead in 2014 in the whole country. The incidence rate was 278.07/100, 000 (males 301.67/100, 000, females 253.29/100, 000) in China, age-standardized incidence rates by Chinese standard population (ASIRC) and by world standard population were 190.63/100, 000 and 186.53/100, 000, respectively, and the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 21.58%. The cancer incidence and ASIRC in urban areas were 302.13/100, 000 and 196.58/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 248.94/100, 000 and 182.64/100, 000, respectively. The cancer mortality in China was 167.89/100, 000 (207.24/100, 000 in males and 126.54/100, 000 in females), age-standardized mortality rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by world standard population were 106.98/100, 000 and 106.09/100, 000, respectively. And

  5. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairakova, A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  6. Sirolimus use and cancer incidence among US kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, E L; Gustafson, S K; Kasiske, B L; Israni, A K; Snyder, J J; Hess, G P; Engels, E A; Segev, D L

    2015-01-01

    Sirolimus has anti-carcinogenic properties and can be included in maintenance immunosuppressive therapy following kidney transplantation. We investigated sirolimus effects on cancer incidence among kidney recipients. The US transplant registry was linked with 15 population-based cancer registries and national pharmacy claims. Recipients contributed sirolimus-exposed time when sirolimus claims were filled, and unexposed time when other immunosuppressant claims were filled without sirolimus. Cox regression was used to estimate associations with overall and specific cancer incidence, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers (not captured in cancer registries). We included 32,604 kidney transplants (5687 sirolimus-exposed). Overall, cancer incidence was suggestively lower during sirolimus use (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70-1.11). Prostate cancer incidence was higher during sirolimus use (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-3.02). Incidence of other cancers was similar or lower with sirolimus use, with a 26% decrease overall (HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.96, excluding prostate cancer). Results were similar after adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics. This modest association does not provide strong evidence that sirolimus prevents posttransplant cancer, but it may be advantageous among kidney recipients with high cancer risk. Increased prostate cancer diagnoses may result from sirolimus effects on screen detection. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  8. References of Birth Weights for Gestational Age and Sex from a Large Cohort of Singleton Births in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  9. The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshibly, Eltahir M; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2008-07-18

    In Africa low birth weight (LBW) (birth weight. In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference) and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002) with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p birth weight. A maternal height of birth weight, while the number of years of education was positively correlated with birth weight (p = 0.01). The LBW rate decreased from 9.2% for 12 years of education. Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

  10. Cancer incidence in Canada: trends and projections (1983-2032

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this monograph, we present historical and projected cancer incidence frequencies and rates for Canada, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers (i.e. basal and squamous carcinomas, in 1983 to 2032. The information is intended to help in planning strategy and allocating resources and infrastructure for future cancer control and health care. Projected changes in cancer incidence rates: From 2003-2007 to 2028-2032, the agestandardized incidence rates (ASIRs for all cancers combined are predicted to decrease in Canadian males by 5%, from 464.8 to 443.2 per 100 000 population, and increase in Canadian females by 4%, from 358.3 to 371.0 per 100 000. The overall decrease in cancer rates in males will be driven by the decrease in lung cancer rates in men aged 65Endnote * or older and in prostate cancer rates in men aged 75 or older. The overall increase in cancer rates in females reflects the predicted rise in lung cancer rates in women aged 65 or older. The increase also represents the expected increase in cancers of the uterus, thyroid, breast (in females under 45, leukemia, pancreas, kidney and melanoma. The largest changes in ASIRs projected over the 25-year forecasting horizon are increases in thyroid cancer (55% in males and 65% in females and liver cancer in males (43% and decreases in larynx cancer (47% in males and 59% in females, lung cancer in males (34% and stomach cancer (30% in males and 24% in females. The incidence rate of lung cancer in females is projected to continue to rise by 2% from 2003-2007 to 2008-2012 and then start to decrease in the last 20 projection years, by 18%. Breast cancer incidence is expected to change the least (an increase of less than 1% of all cancers in females. The predicted changes in the rates for colorectal cancer are below the medians in all cancers, with a decrease of 6% for both males and females during the entire projection period. The rates for prostate cancer are projected to be stable, based on an

  11. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries.

  12. [Description and evaluation of creative thinking in preterm low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, L; Di Filippo, T; Firrigno, L; La Grutta, S; Testa, D; Roccella, M

    2007-04-01

    Since the 1950s, the problem of how to evaluate creativity has been addressed in studies on the definition of measurement criteria and on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. Many revealed cognitive and relational disorders in preterm infants, particularly in preterm very low birth weight infants (birth weight 2500 g. The test battery included: Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TCTT); WISC-R intelligence test; Goodenough Human Figure Drawing Test. Statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney U test) showed a statistically significant difference (P>0.05) between the 2 groups; scores for figure originality, figure fluidity and figure elaboration were consistently higher in the control group. Within the low birth weight group, there was a significant correlation (Spearman r) between verbal IQ and verbal fluidity and verbal flexibility subscale scores and between IQ performance and figure elaboration. Scores on the figure drawing tests showed higher creative ability in the control group. In children born preterm with low birth weight, emotive dynamics and flow of affection may influence the channels of communication between child and family. The low figure originality subscale scores support the hypothesis that psychodynamic and relational factors (worry about the preterm condition, overprotective behaviour by parents and others) could lead to diminished autonomy, flexibility and manipulatory interest in the child.

  13. Birth Weight and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whincup, Peter H.; Kaye, Samantha J.; Owen, Christopher G.; Huxley, Rachel; Cook, Derek G.; Anazawa, Sonoko; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Birgisdottir, Bryndís E.; Carlsson, Sofia; de Rooij, Susanne R.; Dyck, Roland F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Falkner, Bonita; Fall, Caroline; Forsén, Tom; Grill, Valdemar; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hulman, Sonia; Hyppönen, Elina; Jeffreys, Mona; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Leon, David A.; Minami, Junichi; Mishra, Gita; Osmond, Clive; Power, Chris; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Syddall, Holly; Thorsdottir, Inga; Vanhala, Mauno; Wadsworth, Michael; Yarbrough, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Context Low birth weight is implicated as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, the strength, consistency, independence, and shape of the association have not been systematically examined. Objective To conduct a quantitative systematic review examining published evidence on the association of

  14. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.R. Tyrrell; R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); T.M. Palmer (Tom); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); J. Rangarajan (Janani); S. Metrustry (Sarah); A. Cavadino (Alana); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); L.L. Armstrong (Loren L.); N.M.G. De Silva (N. Maneka G.); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); F. Geller (Frank); R. Myhre (Ronny); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); I. Huikari (Ille); J.N. Painter (Jodie N.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); C. Allard (Catherine); D. Berry (Diane); L. Bouchard (Luigi); S. Das (Shikta); D.M. Evans (David); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); M.G. Hayes (M. Geoffrey); J. Heikkinen (Jani); A. Hofman (Albert); B.A. Knight (Bridget); P.A. Lind (Penelope); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); G. Mcmahon (George); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Melbye (Mads); A.P. Morris (Andrew); M. Nodzenski (Michael); C. Reichetzeder (Christoph); S.M. Ring (Susan); S. Sebert (Sylvain); V. Sengpiel (Verena); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Power (Christine); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); H. Bisgaard (Hans); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); C. Nohr (Christian); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); B. Jacobsson (Bo); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey C.); B. Hocher (Berthold); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); G.D. Smith; M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J.F. Felix (Janine); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.L. Lowe Jr. (William); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To test for genetic

  15. Decision-making under risk and ambiguity in low-birth-weight pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, Eimear; Kraak, Lynn; van den Broek, Jan; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) in humans is a risk factor for later cognitive, behavioural and emotional problems. In pigs, LBW is associated with higher mortality, but little is known about consequences for surviving piglets. Alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in LBW pigs suggests

  16. Mid-upper arm circumference in pregnant women and its relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricalde Anamaría E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to determine the relationship between some maternal anthropometric indicators and birth weight, crown-heel length and newborn's head circumference, 92 pregnant women were followed through at the prenatal service of hospital in S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The following variables were established for the mother: weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and Quetelet's index. For the newborn the following variables were recorded: birth weight, crown-heel length, head circumference and gestational age by Dubowitz's method. RESULTS: Significant associations were noted between gestational age and newborn variables. In addition, maternal mid-arm circumference (MUAC and pre-pregnancy weight were found to be positively correlated to birth weight (r=0.399; r=0.378, respectively. The multivariate linear regression shows that gestational age, mother's arm circumference and pre-pregnancy weight continue to be significant predictors of birth weight. On the other hand, only gestational age and mother's age was associated with crown-heel length. Similarly MUAC was significantly associated with crown-heel length (r= 0.306; P=0.0030. CONCLUSION: Maternal mid-upper arm circumference is a potential indicator of maternal nutritional status. It could be used in association with other anthropometric measurements, instead of pre-pregnancy weight, as an alternative indicator to assess women at risk of poor pregnancy outcome.

  17. Genome-wide associations for birth weight and correlations with adult disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Beaumont, Robin N; Day, Felix R

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) has been shown to be influenced by both fetal and maternal factors and in observational studies is reproducibly associated with future risk of adult metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. These life-course associations have often been...

  18. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the ... In sub-Saharan Africa, infant morbidity and mortality are excessively high and reductions in mortality rates .... lower respiratory infection for children under two months of age, for older infants, a cut-off value of 50 per ...

  19. Genome-wide associations for birth weight and correlations with adult disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Horikoshi (Momoko); Beaumont, R.N. (Robin N.); F.R. Day (Felix); N.M. Warrington (Nicole); M.N. Kooijman (Marjolein ); J. Fernandez-Tajes (Juan); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); N.R. Van Zuydam (Natalie R.); K. Gaulton (Kyle); N. Grarup (Niels); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); D.P. Strachan (David); Li-Gao, R. (Ruifang); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); Kreiner, E. (Eskil); Rueedi, R. (Rico); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); Y. Wu (Ying); E. Thiering (Elisabeth); C.A. Wang (Carol A.); C.T. Have (Christian T.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); N. Vilor-Tejedor (Natàlia); P.K. Joshi (Peter); Boh, E.T.H. (Eileen Tai Hui); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); N. Pitkanen (Niina); A. Mahajan (Anubha); E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); R. Joro (Raimo); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); M. Nodzenski (Michael); Diver, L.A. (Louise A.); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); M. Bustamante (Mariona); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J.M. Mercader (Josep); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); N. Rahmioglu (Nilufer); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); Ma, R.C.W. (Ronald C. W.); Tam, C.H.T. (Claudia H. T.); Tam, W.H. (Wing Hung); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); S.E. Jones (Samuel E.); P.-R. Loh (Po-Ru); K.S. Ruth (Katherine S.); Tuke, M.A. (Marcus A.); A.W.R. Tyrrell; A.R. Wood (Andrew); H. Yaghootkar (Hanieh); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); I. Prokopenko (Inga); P. Kovacs (Peter); M. Atalay (Mustafa); S.M. Willems (Sara); Panoutsopoulou, K. (Kalliope); X. Wang (Xu); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); F. Geller (Frank); Schraut, K.E. (Katharina E.); M. Murcia (Mario); C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt (Toos); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); Appel, E.V.R. (Emil V. R.); Fonvig, C.E. (Cilius E.); Trier, C. (Caecilie); Tiesler, C.M.T. (Carla M. T.); E. Standl (Eberhard); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); S. Bonàs-Guarch (Silvia); D.M. Hougaard (David); Sánchez, F. (Friman); D. Torrents (David); J. Waage (Johannes); M.V. Hollegaard (Mads V); H.G. De Haan (Hugoline G.); F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); Medina-Gomez, C. (Carolina); S.M. Ring (Susan); G. Hemani; G. Mcmahon (George); N.R. Robertson (Neil); C.J. Groves (Christopher); C. Langenberg (Claudia); J. Luan (Jian'An); R.A. Scott (Robert); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); F.D. Mentch (Frank); MacKenzie, S.M. (Scott M.); R.M. Reynolds (Rebecca); W.L. Lowe Jr. (William); A. Tönjes (Anke); M. Stumvoll (Michael); V. Lindi (Virpi); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); W. Kieß (Wieland); A. KöRner (Antje); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Niinikoski, H. (Harri); K. Pahkala (Katja); Raitakari, O.T. (Olli T.); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); G.V. Dedoussis (George); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); Saw, S.-M. (Seang-Mei); M. Melbye (Mads); H. Campbell (Harry); J.F. Wilson (James F.); M. Vrijheid (Martine); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); H.N. Kadarmideen (Haja N.); J.-C. Holm (Jens-Christian); T. Hansen (T.); S. Sebert (Sylvain); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); L.J. Beilin (Lawrence); J.P. Newnham (John); C.E. Pennell (Craig); J. Heinrich (Joachim); L.S. Adair (Linda); J.B. Borja (Judith); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); K. Hagen (Knut); E. Widen (Elisabeth); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); P. Vollenweider (Peter); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); H. Bisgaard (Hans); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); Hofman, A. (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); Pisinger, C. (Charlotta); O. Pedersen (Oluf); C. Power (Christopher); E. Hypponen (Elina); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); Davies, E. (Eleanor); Walker, B.R. (Brian R.); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); Vaag, A.A. (Allan A.); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); G.D. Smith; A.P. Morris (Andrew); K.K. Ong (Ken); J.F. Felix (Janine); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); J.R.B. Perry (John); D.M. Evans (David); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBirth weight (BW) has been shown to be influenced by both fetal and maternal factors and in observational studies is reproducibly associated with future risk of adult metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease1. These lifecourse associations have often

  20. The relation of birth weight and gestational age to biological, occupational and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velonakis, E G; Maghiorakos, P; Tzonou, A; Barrat, J; Proteau, J; Ladopoulos, I

    1997-01-01

    The data of the 2,040 single births, born during 1987 at the "Saint Antoine" Hospital in Paris, were analysed in order to identify the impact of various biological, occupational, and socioeconomic factors on gestational age and birth weight. Birth weight is associated with the height of the mother and the weight gained during pregnancy. It is lower for mothers with preeclampsia during the current or previous pregnancies or with urogenital infections during the current pregnancy and for mothers with one or more induced abortions. Girls weigh less than boys. Parity has a positive relation to the baby's weight, while manual work seems to have a negative one. APGAR score and duration of the pregnancy are associated with the birth weight. Placenta previa, preeclampsia and urinary infections affect the gestational age. A short pause period in work is related to a shorter gestational age. Weight gain is associated with a prolonged duration of the pregnancy. Gestational age and birth weight are associated with the nationality of the mother, especially in some ethnic groups, and with marital status.

  1. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight - are some women more vulnerable than others?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831344; Slama, Rémy; Pedersen, Marie

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term

  2. Individual Heterosis for Birth Weight of N'dama Crossbred Calves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth weight records of 1137 calves of which 94 were straight bred and 1043 were crossbred (545 males and 592 females) from crosses with two indigenous breeds Muturu and Keteku and seven breeds, Brahman, Angus, Charolais, German Brown, Hereford, Jersey and Santa Getrudis collected from Fasola Stock Farm ...

  3. Contribution of low Birth –Weight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between low and very low birth weight infants and perinatal mortality at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: A retrospective study of the hospital records in the labour ward and the Newborn Special Care Unit (N.B.S.C.U), of the UNTH was carried out for the ...

  4. Medical, nutritional, and dental considerations in children with low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Susan; O'Connell, Anne; O'Mullane, Elaine; Hoey, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that 8 to 26 percent of infants are born with low birth weight (LBW) worldwide. These children are at risk for medical problems in childhood and adulthood and often have poor oral health. The influence of fetal growth on birth weight and its relevance to childhood growth and future adult health is controversial. Evidence now indicates that the postnatal period is a critical time when nutrition may predispose the child to lifelong metabolic disturbance and obesity. Given the lack of consensus on optimum infant nutrition for LBW, premature, and small-for-gestational-age infants, many such infants may be suboptimally managed. This may result in rapid postnatal weight gain and ongoing health problems. The purpose of this review was to summarize medical terminology and issues related to fetal growth, morbidity associated with being born low birth weight, premature, or small for gestational age, and the importance of appropriate nutrition in such infants. Pediatric dentists can play an important role in supporting healthy feeding practices and improving long-term health in these children. Early integrated medical and dental care should be encouraged for all children with low birth weight.

  5. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Offspring Birth Weight: A Genetically-Informed Approach Comparing Multiple Raters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopik, Valerie S.; Marceau, Kristine; Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Smith, Taylor F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is a significant public health concern with adverse consequences to the health and well-being of the fetus. There is considerable debate about the best method of assessing SDP, including birth/medical records, timeline follow-back approaches, multiple reporters, and biological verification (e.g., cotinine). This is particularly salient for genetically-informed approaches where it is not always possible or practical to do a prospective study starting during the prenatal period when concurrent biological specimen samples can be collected with ease. In a sample of families (N = 173) specifically selected for sibling pairs discordant for prenatal smoking exposure, we: (1) compare rates of agreement across different types of report—maternal report of SDP, paternal report of maternal SDP, and SDP contained on birth records from the Department of Vital Statistics; (2) examine whether SDP is predictive of birth weight outcomes using our best SDP report as identified via step (1); and (3) use a sibling-comparison approach that controls for genetic and familial influences that siblings share in order to assess the effects of SDP on birth weight. Results show high agreement between reporters and support the utility of retrospective report of SDP. Further, we replicate a causal association between SDP and birth weight, wherein SDP results in reduced birth weight even when accounting for genetic and familial confounding factors via a sibling comparison approach. PMID:26494459

  6. Combined exposure to low doses of pesticides causes decreased birth weights in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2017-01-01

    Decreased birth weight is a common effect of many pesticides in reproductive toxicity studies, but there are no empirical data on how pesticides act in combination on this endpoint. We hypothesized that a mixture of six pesticides (cyromazine, MCPB, pirimicarb, quinoclamine, thiram, and ziram) wo...... to avoid potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on prenatal development and pregnancy in humans....

  7. Medical, nutritional, and dental considerations in children with low birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Susan

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that 8 to 26 percent of infants are born with low birth weight (LBW) worldwide. These children are at risk for medical problems in childhood and adulthood and often have poor oral health. The influence of fetal growth on birth weight and its relevance to childhood growth and future adult health is controversial. Evidence now indicates that the postnatal period is a critical time when nutrition may predispose the child to lifelong metabolic disturbance and obesity. Given the lack of consensus on optimum infant nutrition for LBW, premature, and small-for-gestational-age infants, many such infants may be suboptimally managed. This may result in rapid postnatal weight gain and ongoing health problems. The purpose of this review was to summarize medical terminology and issues related to fetal growth, morbidity associated with being born low birth weight, premature, or small for gestational age, and the importance of appropriate nutrition in such infants. Pediatric dentists can play an important role in supporting healthy feeding practices and improving long-term health in these children. Early integrated medical and dental care should be encouraged for all children with low birth weight.

  8. Scrotal enteric fistula in an extremely low birth weight premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A. Smith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital inguinal hernia is a common condition in the pediatric population. Incarceration of inguinal hernias is known to result in significant morbidity such as necrotic bowel, and if not recognized promptly, has the potential to present as a scrotal fecal fistula. We present an extremely low birth weight premature male infant who developed spontaneous fecal drainage from his right scrotum.

  9. Birth weight and creatinine clearance in young adult twins: influence of genetic, prenatal, and maternal factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, Marij; Pinto-Sietsma, Sara-Joan; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Loos, Ruth J.; Fagard, Robert; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Beunen, Gaston; Derom, Catherine; Vlietinck, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for renal impairment in adult life. The effects of LBW and renal function were studied by using twins, which allows distinguishing among fetoplacental, maternal, and genetic influences. Perinatal data were obtained at birth,

  10. A functional approach to cerebral visual impairments in very preterm/very-low-birth-weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldof, C.J.A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.G.; Dik, M.; Kok, J.H.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a major cause of visual impairment, with very preterm birth/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) being a major risk factor. There is no generally accepted definition of CVI. This study aims to investigate the usefulness of an empirically-based functional

  11. A functional approach to cerebral visual impairments in very preterm/very-low-birth-weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldof, Christiaan J. A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; Dik, Marjolein; Kok, Joke H.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a major cause of visual impairment, with very preterm birth/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) being a major risk factor. There is no generally accepted definition of CVI. This study aims to investigate the usefulness of an empirically-based functional definition of

  12. Delivery of the extremely low-birth- weight vertex-presenting baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-02

    Dec 2, 2010 ... rise in the caesarean section rate.1 This rise has been disproportionate to ... a possible extremely low-birth-weight infant the risks of mortality and short- and .... the US Health Statistics data from 1999 to 2000 using multivariate ...

  13. Epidemiological and birth weight characteristics of triplets: a study from the Dutch twin register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; Eriksson, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    From 112 triplet sets, born in The Netherlands from the end of 1986 to the beginning of 1991 and registered in the Dutch Twin Register, several details such as birth weight, gestational age, zygosity, and etiology were assessed by questionnaire, which was filled out by the mother. For 33 triplet

  14. General movements in the first fourteen days of life in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, N. K. S.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Bos, A. F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of general movements (GMs) in the first fourteen days of life in relation to obstetric and postnatal risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study design: The GMs of nineteen infants were assessed on days 2, 4, 6, 10

  15. Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight infants in the New Born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight (LBW) infants at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) has previously been found to be high. Other centres have shown that even with lack of neonatal intensive care facilities, selective interventions can be implemented that improve neonatal survival rates. It is important to ...

  16. The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh Mannem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and children born prematurely or with low birth weight has been increasingly investigated, showing positive and negative results, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the association between Maternal Periodontitis and Preterm delivery or Low Birth Weight. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 104 pregnant women without systemic disease or other risk factors for preterm labor were chosen. The control group (n = 52 had term labor (infants ≥37 weeks and the case group (n = 52 had preterm labor (infants <37 weeks. Plaque index, bleeding index, and birth weight were measured. Results: The data of plaque index (cases 1.21±0.56; controls 0.63±0.31, bleeding index (cases, 2.08±0.62; controls, 1.52±0.61, birth weight (cases, 2.01±0.36; controls 2.87±0.32, and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD ≥4mm and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL ≥3mm in at least 4 teeth (odds ratio 137.50, P value < 0.0001 revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups P< 0.05. Conclusions: A noticeable relationship between periodontal health and duration of pregnancy; periodontal disease could be a risk factor for preterm labor. Oral hygiene maintenance should be a part of prenatal care protocol.

  17. Correlation among periodontal health status, maternal age and pre-term low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Francesca; Vozza, Iole; Capuccio, Veronica; Vestri, Anna Rita; Polimeni, Antonella; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2016-08-01

    To assess correlations between periodontal status, maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-term and low birth weight in a sample of pregnant women. Study population was represented by outpatient pregnant women, gestational age > 26 weeks. Medical history questionnaires were administered to all participants who underwent clinical evaluation; clinical obstetric outcome records were collected after delivery. A questionnaire was administered regarding personal information, socio-economic status, oral hygiene habits, and oral health conditions. A clinical oral examination was performed to collect Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Pregnancy outcome records included: delivery week, kind and causes of delivery, any relevant complications, and birth weight. Descriptive statistics were used to depict the data from the questionnaire while the relationship between delivery week, birth weight, maternal age and periodontal status was evaluated through multivariate tests of significance. 88 pregnant women were enrolled in the study. The results showed a statistically significant correlation (Pperiodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. No statistical correlation was found among pre-term and low birth weight, smoking, ethnicity and educational level of mothers. The results highlight the importance of including a routine oral and periodontal health examination in pregnant women older than 40 years of age. The correlation between periodontal status and adverse pregnancy outcomes in older mothers indicates the need for routine oral health examination and periodontal status assessment and care in pregnant women older than 40 years of age.

  18. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  19. Prevalence and determinants of low birth weight: the situation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional birth attendant delivers majority of pregnant women in Nigeria. Objective: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for delivery of low birth weight (LBW) neonates in a Traditional Birth Home (TBH)in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 780 pregnant women ...

  20. Predicting Factors of INSURE Failure in Low Birth Weight Neonates with RDS; A Logistic Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Najafian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Respiratory Distress syndrome is the most common respiratory disease in premature neonate and the most important cause of death among them. We aimed to investigate factors to predict successful or failure of INSURE method as a therapeutic method of RDS.Methods:In a cohort study,45 neonates with diagnosed RDS and birth weight lower than 1500g were included and they underwent INSURE followed by NCPAP(Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. The patients were divided into failure or successful groups and factors which can predict success of INSURE were investigated by logistic regression in SPSS 16th version.Results:29 and16 neonates were observed in successful and failure groups, respectively. Birth weight was the only variable with significant difference between two groups (P=0.002. Finally logistic regression test showed that birth weight is only predicting factor for success (P: 0.001, EXP[β]: 0.009, CI [95%]: 1.003-0.014 and mortality (P: 0.029, EXP[β]: 0.993, CI [95%]: 0.987-0.999 of neonates treated with INSURE method.Conclusion:Predicting factors which affect on success rate of INSURE can be useful for treating and reducing charge of neonate with RDS and the birth weight is one of the effective factor on INSURE Success in this study.

  1. Predicting Factors of INSURE Failure in Low Birth Weight Neonates with RDS; A Logistic Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Najafian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Respiratory Distress syndrome is the most common respiratory disease in premature neonate and the most important cause of death among them. We aimed to investigate factors to predict successful or failure of INSURE method as a therapeutic method of RDS. Methods:In a cohort study,45 neonates with diagnosed RDS and birth weight lower than 1500g were included and they underwent INSURE followed by NCPAP(Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. The patients were divided into failure or successful groups and factors which can predict success of INSURE were investigated by logistic regression in SPSS 16th version. Results:29 and16 neonates were observed in successful and failure groups, respectively. Birth weight was the only variable with significant difference between two groups (P=0.002. Finally logistic regression test showed that birth weight is only predicting factor for success (P: 0.001, EXP[β]: 0.009, CI [95%]: 1.003-0.014 and mortality (P: 0.029, EXP[β]: 0.993, CI [95%]: 0.987-0.999 of neonates treated with INSURE method. Conclusion:Predicting factors which affect on success rate of INSURE can be useful for treating and reducing charge of neonate with RDS and the birth weight is one of the effective factor on INSURE Success in this study.

  2. The Peculiarities of Observation of Preterm Babies with Very Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Alifanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of follow-up of 59 preterm babies with very low birth weight during the first year of life. It was found that the most frequent causes of disability are cerebral palsy, retinopathy of prematurity, sensorineural deafness, congenital malformations. The main tasks and the algorithm of observation of these children in policlinic are described.

  3. Correction for Prematurity and Its Consequences for the Assessment of the Very Low Birth Weight Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Linda S.

    1983-01-01

    Examines (1) whether and when the development of preterm children of very low birth weight would begin to approximate that of demographically matched full-term children, and (2) whether test scores corrected for degree of prematurity or those based on chronological age would be the more accurate predictors of subsequent development. (RH)

  4. Thiamine supplementation to prevent induction of low birth weight by conventional therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Gans, ROB

    Conventional treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus increases the proportion of infants born with a low birth weight, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in later life. Thiamine supplementation during pregnancy may be shown to be a safe preventive measure. During

  5. A Secular Trend in Birth Weight and Delivery Practices in Periurban Vietnam During 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Duc Minh; Nguyen, Anh Duy; Nguyen, Chuong Canh; Le, Vui Thi; Hoang, Son Ngoc; Bui, Ha Thi Thu

    2017-07-01

    The remarkable increase in Vietnamese economic conditions can increase the birth weight in neonates and better delivery practices among women. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System started in 2004. An open cohort of data consisting of about 57 561 people from 17 993 households has been followed primarily with respect to demography, economy, and education. The aim of this research is to study secular trends in delivery practice and birth weight in the past decade (2005-2012) in Chi Linh. We found a significant change in delivery rates at hospitals and cesarean section rates, but the birth weights over a decade of drastic economic development were stable. Furthermore, the findings show significant associations of birth weight and delivery practices with the child's sex, mother's age, and household income. Our results might be considered as representative for other similar periurban settings in Vietnam. We suggest that appropriate policies should be developed given the reduction in the use of delivery services in commune health centers in urban areas.

  6. Mid-upper arm circumference in pregnant women and its relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaría E. Ricalde

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to determine the relationship between some maternal anthropometric indicators and birth weight, crown-heel length and newborn's head circumference, 92 pregnant women were followed through at the prenatal service of hospital in S. Paulo, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The following variables were established for the mother: weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and Quetelet's index. For the newborn the following variables were recorded: birth weight, crown-heel length, head circumference and gestational age by Dubowitz's method. RESULTS: Significant associations were noted between gestational age and newborn variables. In addition, maternal mid-arm circumference (MUAC and pre-pregnancy weight were found to be positively correlated to birth weight (r=0.399; r=0.378, respectively. The multivariate linear regression shows that gestational age, mother's arm circumference and pre-pregnancy weight continue to be significant predictors of birth weight. On the other hand, only gestational age and mother's age was associated with crown-heel length. Similarly MUAC was significantly associated with crown-heel length (r= 0.306; P=0.0030. CONCLUSION: Maternal mid-upper arm circumference is a potential indicator of maternal nutritional status. It could be used in association with other anthropometric measurements, instead of pre-pregnancy weight, as an alternative indicator to assess women at risk of poor pregnancy outcome.

  7. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476

  8. Anemia Prevalence among Pregnant Women and Birth Weight in Five Areas in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.Y.; Wang, Q.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the current prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in different areas of China and the association with birth weight and educational level. Methods: A total of 6,413 women aged 24-37 in the third trimester of pregnancy from five areas were randomly selected from all

  9. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I.; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J. G.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Painter, Rebecca C.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2014-01-01

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to

  10. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  11. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  12. Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.

  13. Prevalence and determinants of low birth weight: the situation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.0001). Maternal anaemia was identified as a risk factor for the delivering of LBW neonates (OR = 2.797; 95% CI = 1.555, ... Keywords: low birth weight, risk factors, TBH, Nigeria. ..... rogenic burns in a newborn due to unskilled delivery: A.

  14. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... 1.15 kg, 70 boars) and greater birth weight (GBW) (mean: 1.59 kg, 70 boars). Testes volume .... The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the MIXED procedure. The model for all ..... Frontiers. 3,. 62-67.

  15. Transcriptome profiling of liver of non-genetic low birth weight and long term health consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Bedate, Alberto; López-Cardona, Angela P; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Calle, Alexandra; López-Vidriero, Irene; Pintado, Belén; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is believed that the main factors of low prenatal growth in mammals are genetic and environmental. We used isogenic mice maintained in standard conditions to analyze how natural non-genetic microsomia (low birth weight) is produced in inbred mice and its long term effect on health. To

  16. Surgical insertion of central venous catheters in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Neonatal central vascular access (CVA) represents a daily practice in neonatal intensive care unit. Low birth weight (LBW) neonates pose a challenge to anesthetists who try the landmark technique to cannulate central veins. We reported our experience of open surgical cutdown (OSC) to insert catheters through right ...

  17. Cyst(e)ine requirements in enterally fed very low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedijk, Maaike A; Voortman, Gardi; van Beek, Ron H T; Baartmans, Martin G A; Wafelman, Leontien S; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2008-03-01

    Optimal nutrition is of utmost importance for the preterm infant's later health and developmental outcome. Amino acid requirements for preterm infants differ from those for term and older infants, because growth rates differ. Some nonessential amino acids, however, cannot be sufficiently synthesized endogenously. Cyst(e)ine is supposed to be such a conditionally essential amino acid in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to determine, at 32 and 35 weeks' postmenstrual age, cyst(e)ine requirements in fully enterally fed very low birth weight preterm infants with gestational ages of ine requirement was determined with the indicator amino acid oxidation technique ([1-(13)C]phenylalanine) after 24-hour adaptation. Fractional [1-(13)C]phenylalanine oxidation was established in 47 very low birth weight preterm infants (mean gestational age: 28 weeks +/- 1 week SD; birth weight: 1.07 kg +/- 0.21 kg SD). Increase in dietary cyst(e)ine intake did not result in a decrease in fractional [1-(13)C]phenylalanine oxidation. These data do not support the hypothesis that endogenous cyst(e)ine synthesis is limited in very low birth weight preterm infants with gestational ages of ine requirement is ine is probably not a conditionally essential amino acid in these infants.

  18. Low birth weight. A risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Tarnow, L; Nielsen, F S

    1995-01-01

    for expression of renal disease after exposure to potentially injurious renal stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine if low birth weight is a risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy. In a case-control study, we investigated 184 (110 men) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients...

  19. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN YOUNG MEN FROM MAPUTO CITY, MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eugénio Tchamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years were divided into four groups (low birth weight 3.999 g, HBW, n = 31. Anthropometry and body composition were measured. Physical fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, and running speed. Results: IBW showed lower values of body mass and fat free mass while LBW and HBW had high values of hip circumference, suprailiac, subscapular and abdominal skinfold when compared to NBW. LBW and HBW showed a high percentage of individuals with low performance in flexibility, right handgrip, agility, abdominal resistance, arms strength, and horizontal long jump. Around 70% of HBW showed low performance in the running speed test. Conclusion: Both low and high birth weight can influence adult adiposity and the performance in physical fitness tests.

  20. Effect of maternal smoking on birth weight of twins: a study from the Dutch Twin Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Bleker, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Since twins weigh about 20% less than singletons at birth, maternal smoking may be a more severe risk for them than for singletons. Therefore, the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on birth weight was investigated in a group of 5376 twins. All necessary information was collected by a

  1. Growth of preterm low birth weight infants until 24 months corrected age: effect of maternal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. Kiy

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Preterm low birth weight born infants to hypertensive mothers have an increased risk of overweight at 24 months CA. Being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the 1st year of life are risk factors for growth disorders at 24 months CA.

  2. Umbilical choline and related methylamines betaine and dimethylglycine in relation to birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, M.; Heijer, M. den; Semmekrot, B.A.; Sporken, J.M.J.; Ueland, P.M.; Blom, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for the newborn and risk of chronic disease in adulthood. Choline plays an essential role in the integrity of cell membranes, methylation reactions, and memory development. We examined whether choline, betaine,

  3. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proaño, Alvaro; Aragón, Romina Elena; Rivera, Fabiola; Zegarra, Jaime

    2016-03-29

    To determine the actual nutritional intake of very low birth weight infants and their growth outcome during the first month of life. Additionally, we identified factors that account for a negative neonatal outcome in this population. A case-series study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012 and the data was obtained from medical records. No feeding protocol was used during this study. Daily fluids, energy and protein intakes were documented and weekly weight z-scores were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for an adverse outcome, defined as neonatal mortality or extra-uterine growth restriction, during the first 28 days of life. After applying selection criteria, 76 participants were included. The nutritional intakes were similar to standard values seen in the literature, but protein intakes were suboptimal in all of the four weeks. Birth weight z-score was associated with an adverse outcome (p=0.035). It was determined that having a birth weight z-score under -1.09 predicted a negative outcome with an area under the curve of 96.8% [93.5%, 100%] with a 95% confidence interval. Protein intakes are widely deficient in the population of this study. Nevertheless, an adverse outcome during the neonatal period is more associated with a poor birth weight z-score than nutrition-related factors.

  4. Skin cancer in Puerto Rico: a multiannual incidence comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Lugo, Eneida M; Figueroa, Luz D; Sánchez, Jorge L; Morales-Burgos, Adisbeth; Conde, Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of skin cancer continues to increase worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico in a selected year (2005) and to compare these findings with those previously reported for Puerto Rico in 1974 and 1981 and with other countries. The data was collected from the pathology reports corresponding to the period of January to December 2005 of 21 participating Pathology Laboratories throughout Puerto Rico. The rate and distribution of the main types of skin cancer was calculated based on sex, age, anatomic location and laterality. The incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico for 2005 was 6,568 cases, which represent a rate of 167.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The most common type of skin cancer was basal-cell carcinoma. Skin cancer was more common in males except for melanoma, which was more common in females. The incidence increases with age on all types of skin cancer. The head and neck area was the most frequent location, except for melanoma in women, which was more common on the legs. The incidence rate was 41.5/100,000 in 1974, 52.5/100,000 in 1981 and 167.9/100,000 in 2005, a 305% increase. We found an increasing incidence of skin cancer in Puerto Rico when compared with previous reported data. This analysis provides a comprehensive evaluation of the epidemiology of skin cancer in Puerto Rico.

  5. Cancer incidence in kidney transplant recipients: a study protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Valdes-Cañedo, Francisco; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Seoane-Pillado, Maria Teresa; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Different publications show an increased incidence of neoplasms in renal transplant patients. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of cancer in the recipients of renal transplants performed in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain) during the period 1981–2007. During the study period 1967 kidney transplants were performed, corresponding to 1710 patients. Patients with neoplasms prior to the transplant will be excluded (n = 38). A follow-up study was carried out in order to estimate cancer incidence after transplantation. For each patient, information included donor and recipient characteristics, patients and graft survival and cancer incidence after transplantation. Incident cancer is considered as new cases of cancer after the transplant with anatomopathological confirmation. Their location will be classified according to the ICD-9. The analysis will be calculated using the indirect standardisation method. Age-adjusted cancer incidence rates in the Spanish general population will be obtained from the Carlos III Health Institute, the National Epidemiology Centre of the Ministry of Science and Technology. Crude first, second and third-year post-transplantation cancer incidence rates will be calculated for male and female recipients. The number of cases of cancer at each site will be calculated from data in the clinical records. The expected number of cancers will be calculated from data supplied by the Carlos III Health Institute. For each tumour location we will estimate the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using sex-specific cancer incidence rates, by dividing the incidence rate for the transplant patients by the rate of the general population. The 95% confidence intervals of the SIRs and their associated p-values will be calculated by assuming that the observed cancers follow a Poisson distribution. Stratified analysis will be performed to examine the variation in the SIRs with sex and length of follow-up. Competing risk survival analysis

  6. Plastic bags for prevention of hypothermia in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadford, Alicia E; Warren, Jamie B; Manasyan, Albert; Chomba, Elwyn; Salas, Ariel A; Schelonka, Robert; Carlo, Waldemar A

    2013-07-01

    Hypothermia contributes to neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially in preterm and low birth weight infants in developing countries. Plastic bags covering the trunk and extremities of very low birth weight infants reduces hypothermia. This technique has not been studied in larger infants or in many resource-limited settings. The objective was to determine if placing preterm and low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth maintains normothermia. Infants at 26 to 36 weeks' gestational age and/or with a birth weight of 1000 to 2500 g born at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized by using a 1:1 allocation and parallel design to standard thermoregulation (blanket or radiant warmer) care or to standard thermoregulation care plus placement inside a plastic bag at birth. The primary outcome measure was axillary temperature in the World Health Organization-defined normal range (36.5-37.5°C) at 1 hour after birth. A total of 104 infants were randomized. At 1 hour after birth, infants randomized to plastic bag (n = 49) were more likely to have a temperature in the normal range as compared with infants in the standard thermoregulation care group (n = 55; 59.2% vs 32.7%; relative risk 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.81; P = .007). The temperature at 1 hour after birth in the infants randomized to plastic bag was 36.5 ± 0.5°C compared with 36.1 ± 0.6°C in standard care infants (P 38.0°C) did not occur in any infant. Placement of preterm/low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth compared with standard thermoregulation care reduced hypothermia without resulting in hyperthermia, and is a low-cost, low-technology tool for resource-limited settings.

  7. Birth weight and characteristics of endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures from human umbilical cord vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurbe Empar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight has been related to an increased risk for developing high blood pressure in adult life. The molecular and cellular analysis of umbilical cord artery and vein may provide information about the early vascular characteristics of an individual. We have assessed several phenotype characteristics of the four vascular cell types derived from human umbilical cords of newborns with different birth weight. Further follow-up studies could show the association of those vascular properties with infancy and adulthood blood pressure. Methods Endothelial and smooth muscle cell cultures were obtained from umbilical cords from two groups of newborns of birth weight less than 2.8 kg or higher than 3.5 kg. The expression of specific endothelial cell markers (von Willebrand factor, CD31, and the binding and internalization of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and the smooth muscle cell specific α-actin have been evaluated. Cell culture viability, proliferation kinetic, growth fraction (expression of Ki67 and percentage of senescent cells (detection of β-galactosidase activity at pH 6.0 have been determined. Endothelial cell projection area was determined by morphometric analysis of cell cultures after CD31 immunodetection. Results The highest variation was found in cell density at the confluence of endothelial cell cultures derived from umbilical cord arteries (66,789 ± 5,093 cells/cm2 vs. 45,630 ± 11,927 cells/cm2, p 2, p Conclusion The analysis of umbilical cord artery endothelial cells, which demonstrated differences in cell size related to birth weight, can provide hints about the cellular and molecular links between lower birth weight and increased adult high blood pressure risk.

  8. Outcome of Very Low Birth Weight Infants Over 3 Years Report From an Iranian Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afjeh, Seyyed-Abolfazl; Sabzehei, Mohammad-Kazem; Fallahi, Minoo; Esmaili, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are at high risk for morbidity and mortality. This article determines the frequency of disease, rate od survival, complications and risk factors for morbidity and mortality in VLBW neonates admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran. Methods This cross-sectional retrospective study was performed from April 2007 to March 2010 on all hospitalized VLBW neonates. Relevant pre- and peri-natal data up to the time of discharge from the hospital or death, including complications during the course of hospitalization, were collected from the case notes, documented on a pre-designed questionnaire and analyzed. Findings Out of 13197 neonates, 564 (4.3%) were VLBW with 51.4% males. Mean gestational age was 29.6±2.5 weeks; mean birth weight 1179±257 grams. Mean birth weight, gestational age and Apgar scores were significantly higher in babies who survived than in those who died, (1275±189 vs. 944±253 grams; 30.5±2.2 vs. 27.5±2 weeks and 6.9±1.7 vs. 5±2.1 respectively, P<0.001 in all instances). Overall survival was 70.9%; in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) newborns this figure was 33.3% rising to 84.1% in infants weighing between 1001-1500 grams. Respiratory failure resulting from RDS in ELBW babies was the major factor leading to death. Need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hemorrhage and gastro-intestinal bleeding were also significant predictive factors for mortality. Conclusion Birth weight and mechanical ventilation are the major factors predicting VLBW survival. PMID:24800021

  9. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Lindenmeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight <1,500 g and gestational age <32 weeks admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7 ± 1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7 ± 222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.0035. The mean intraocular pressure (P10-P90 decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.5222.16 at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28-18.92 at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased.

  10. Interrelationships between Cd, Zn and birth weight in neonates of women who smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnert, B.R.; Kuhnert, P.M.; Groh-Margo, S.; Webster, S.; Erhard, P.

    1986-01-01

    A study was designed to test the hypothesis that the increased cadmium level in pregnant women who smoke alters the metabolism of zinc in the maternal-fetal unit, and that this altered Zn metabolism may contribute to lower birth weight infants. One hundred-thirty mother/infant pairs were studied. Maternal whole blood and placental Cd were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry; maternal and fetal plasma, red blood cell and placental Zn by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Maternal plasma thiocyanate (SCN) levels were used as an index of smoking status. Zn intake was estimated by diet history in a subgroup of 34 patients. The data were analyzed using t-tests, correlation and stepwise multiple regression techniques. No differences in Zn intake were found between pregnant women who smoked and those who did not. The average daily intake of Zn was 10.2 +/- 5 mg; this is less than the RDA for Zn during pregnancy. The data show that there are significant positive correlations between SCN levels and levels of whole blood Cd, placental Cd, and placental Zn. Cord vein samples from infants of mothers who smoked had decreased red blood cell Zn. This was particularly true in nulliparous patients. In all patients, maternal whole blood Cd was found to be negatively related to birth weight and cord vein red blood cell Zn was positively related to birth weight. The results support the hypothesis of a Cd-Zn interaction in pregnant women who smoke. Additional findings suggest an effect of parity on the interaction between Cd and Zn. Placental Cd was found to be negatively related to birth weight in nulliparous patients (n=21). In multiparous patients (n=109) placental Zn was inversely related to birth weight. In patients with parity 2 or greater (n=54), placental Cd was directly predictive of placental Zn. These results may reflect a less favorable Zn nutritional status with increasing parity

  11. Culture media influenced laboratory outcomes but not neonatal birth weight in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tai-lang; Zhang, Yi; Li, Sai-jiao; Zhao, Meng; Ding, Jin-li; Xu, Wang-ming; Yang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Whether the type of culture media utilized in assisted reproductive technology has impacts on laboratory outcomes and birth weight of newborns in in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was investigated. A total of 673 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI and giving birth to live singletons after fresh embryo transfer on day 3 from Jan. 1, 2010 to Dec. 31, 2012 were included. Three types of culture media were used during this period: Quinn's Advantage (QA), Single Step Medium (SSM), and Continuous Single Culture medium (CSC). Fertilization rate (FR), normal fertilization rate (NFR), cleavage rate (CR), normal cleavage rate (NCR), good-quality embryo rate (GQER) and neonatal birth weight were compared using one-way ANOVA and χ (2) tests. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of culture media on laboratory outcomes and birth<