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Sample records for birth weights vlbw

  1. Memory function and hippocampal volumes in preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanes, Synne; Bjuland, Knut Jørgen; Skranes, Jon; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2015-01-15

    The hippocampi are regarded as core structures for learning and memory functions, which is important for daily functioning and educational achievements. Previous studies have linked reduction in hippocampal volume to working memory problems in very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤ 1500 g) children and reduced general cognitive ability in VLBW adolescents. However, the relationship between memory function and hippocampal volume has not been described in VLBW subjects reaching adulthood. The aim of the study was to investigate memory function and hippocampal volume in VLBW young adults, both in relation to perinatal risk factors and compared to term born controls, and to look for structure-function relationships. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-III and MRI, we included 42 non-disabled VLBW and 61 control individuals at age 19-20 years, and related our findings to perinatal risk factors in the VLBW-group. The VLBW young adults achieved lower scores on several subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, resulting in lower results in the immediate memory indices (visual and auditory), the working memory index, and in the visual delayed and general memory delayed indices, but not in the auditory delayed and auditory recognition delayed indices. The VLBW group had smaller absolute and relative hippocampal volumes than the controls. In the VLBW group inferior memory function, especially for the working memory index, was related to smaller hippocampal volume, and both correlated with lower birth weight and more days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Our results may indicate a structural-functional relationship in the VLBW group due to aberrant hippocampal development and functioning after preterm birth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuroimaging of decoding and language comprehension in young very low birth weight (VLBW adolescents: Indications for compensatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene van Ettinger-Veenstra

    Full Text Available In preterm children with very low birth weight (VLBW ≤ 1500 g, reading problems are often observed. Reading comprehension is dependent on word decoding and language comprehension. We investigated neural activation-within brain regions important for reading-related to components of reading comprehension in young VLBW adolescents in direct comparison to normal birth weight (NBW term-born peers, with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We hypothesized that the decoding mechanisms will be affected by VLBW, and expect to see increased neural activity for VLBW which may be modulated by task performance and cognitive ability. The study investigated 13 (11 included in fMRI young adolescents (ages 12 to 14 years born preterm with VLBW and in 13 NBW controls (ages 12-14 years for performance on the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children; and for semantic, orthographic, and phonological processing during an fMRI paradigm. The VLBW group showed increased phonological activation in left inferior frontal gyrus, decreased orthographic activation in right supramarginal gyrus, and decreased semantic activation in left inferior frontal gyrus. Block Design was related to altered right-hemispheric activation, and VLBW showed lower WISC Block Design scores. Left angular gyrus showed activation increase specific for VLBW with high accuracy on the semantic test. Young VLBW adolescents showed no accuracy and reaction time performance differences on our fMRI language tasks, but they did exhibit altered neural activation during these tasks. This altered activation for VLBW was observed as increased activation during phonological decoding, and as mainly decreased activation during orthographic and semantic processing. Correlations of neural activation with accuracy on the semantic fMRI task and with decreased WISC Block Design performance were specific for the VLBW group. Together, results suggest

  3. [Gaussian distribution of intelligence in VLBW preterm infants at age 5: very low correlation with very low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baalen, A; Ross, C; Kewitz, G; Mildenberger, E; Berns, M; Bartsch, M; Kössel, H; Kruppa, E; Bohn, R; Versmold, H

    2008-04-01

    Preterm infants with very low birth weight intelligence values, we studied the distribution of intelligence at preschool age in VLBW infants and the risk factors influencing this distribution. A prospective cohort study of 277 VLBW infants intelligence (Kaufman-Assessment Battery for Children) at age 5. Statistical methods employed were: explorative data analysis, correlation, chi (2)- and t-tests; the tested variables were: small for gestational age ( 0.21 > or = 36 weeks), intraventricular hemorrhage, ventricular dilation, periventricular leukomalacia, seizures, abnormal acoustic evoked potentials, and hyperexcitability at discharge. The distribution of intelligence in 137 VLBW infants intelligence increased very slightly with birth weight (Pearson correlation: 0.172; p = 0.045) and was significantly lower in children with hypoglycemia after the first day of life (- 13.35; 95 % confidence interval: - 20.08 to - 6.63; p = 0.002), hyperexcitability at discharge (- 16.28; 95 % confidence interval: - 25.26 to - 7.31; p = 0.005), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (- 7.00; 95 % confidence interval - 11.71 to - 2.29; p = 0.039). At preschool age, the intelligence of VLBW infants is normally distributed and correlates only slightly with the very low birth weight. Hypoglycemia after the first day of life and bronchopulmonary dysplasia are risk factors for lower intelligence. Hyperexcitability at discharge seemed to represent a promising prognostic factor for a later intelligence reduction.

  4. Use of a computerized C-reactive protein (CRP based sepsis evaluation in very low birth weight (VLBW infants: a five-year experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Coggins

    Full Text Available Serial C-reactive protein (CRP values may be useful for decision-making regarding duration of antibiotics in neonates. However, established standard of practice for its use in preterm very low birth weight (<1500 g, VLBW infants are lacking.Evaluate compliance with a CRP-guided computerized decision support (CDS algorithm and compare characteristics and outcomes of compliant versus non-compliant cases. Measure correlation between CRPs and white blood count (WBC indices.We examined 3 populations: 1 all preterm VLBW infants born at Vanderbilt 2006-2011 - we assessed provider compliance with CDS algorithm and measured relevant outcomes; 2 all patients with positive blood culture results admitted to the Vanderbilt NICU 2006-2012 - we tested the correlation between CRP and WBC results within 7 days of blood culture phlebotomy; 3 1,000 randomly selected patients out of the 7,062 patients admitted to the NICU 2006-2012 - we correlated time-associated CRP values and absolute neutrophil counts.Of 636 VLBW infants in cohort 1, 569 (89% received empiric antibiotics for suspected early-onset sepsis. In 409 infants (72% the CDS algorithm was followed; antibiotics were discontinued ≤48 hours in 311 (55% with normal serial CRPs and continued in 98 (17% with positive CRPs, resulting in significant reduction in antibiotic exposure (p<0.001 without increase in complications or subsequent infections. One hundred sixty (28% were considered non-compliant because antibiotics were continued beyond 48 hours despite negative serial CRPs and blood cultures. Serial CRPs remained negative in 38 (12% of 308 blood culture-positive infants from cohort 2, but only 4 patients had clinically probable sepsis with single organisms and no immunodeficiency besides extreme prematurity. Leukopenia of any cell type was not linked with CRPs in cohorts 2 and 3.CDS/CRP-guided antibiotic use is safe and effective in culture-negative VLBW infants. CRP results are not affected by low WBC

  5. Recombinant Activated Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) Treatment in Very-Low-Birth-Weight (VLBW) Premature Infants with Acute Pulmonary Hemorrhage: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Hese; Isik, Halil; Cakır, Salih Cagrı; Yar, Nese; Goksen, Bulent; Tokbay, Hakan; Kertmen, Hasan; Erdoğan, Nihal; Durak, Ikbal

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous administration of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) for acute pulmonary hemorrhage treatment in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. This study was carried out retrospectively in premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage that were ≤30 weeks gestational age or hemorrhage who were hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit between 01 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were evaluated. Group 1 (n = 21) received rFVIIa support within the first 30 min of pulmonary hemorrhage plus conventional treatment, while Group 2 (n = 21) received conventional treatment only. The number of patients whose pulmonary hemorrhage was stopped within the first 2 h was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (n = 14 vs n = 4; p = 0.002). After pulmonary hemorrhage, hemoglobin values of Group 1 were higher than Group 2 (11.12 ± 1.06 vs 10.14 ± 1.59 g/dL; p = 0.024). Erythrocyte suspension (1.43 ± 4.51 vs 5.71 ± 7.46 mL/kg; p = 0.030) and fresh frozen plasma use (5.71 ± 8.10 vs 19.52 ± 12.44 mL/kg; p hemorrhage after 72 h, overall mortality, mortality from pulmonary hemorrhage, surfactant use, intubation time, hospitalization duration, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), severe IVH, patent ductus arteriosus rates, or short-term complication rates. rFVIIa administration was observed to be effective in stopping pulmonary hemorrhage, reducing blood product requirement, and improving coagulation test parameters. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy, reliability, and long-term results of rFVIIa in the prevention and treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage in premature infants.

  6. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of enteral feeds in the first days of their life in order to prevent NEC. Uhing reported that preterm infants ... where: SS = required sample size; Z = 95% confidence interval. (standard value of 1.96); P ... The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been.

  7. Vertical and horizontal transmission of Candida albicans in very low birth weight infants using DNA fingerprinting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Joseph M; Basavegowda, Kumar P; Watson, Wendy J; Sheikh, Asad U; Ryan, Rita M

    2008-03-01

    Very low birth weight infants (VLBW, point, only 41% (11/27) became colonized by vertical transmission. Both vertical and horizontal transmission contribute to Candida colonization of VLBW infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  8. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  9. Longitudinal Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, E. M.; Northam, E.; Doyle, L. W.; Callanan, C.; Anderson, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk and protective factors for adult psychiatric disorders in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight less than 1,501 g) survivors. 79 of 154 (51%) VLBW subjects recruited at birth were assessed in early adulthood (24-27 years). Participants were screened for a psychiatric disorder; those elevated were…

  10. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To

  11. Attention in 3-Year-Old Children with VLBW and Relationships with Early School Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Houtzager, Bregje; Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid van; Koldewijn, Karen; Nollet, Frans; Kok, Joke

    2016-01-01

    To compare attention skills of children with a very low birth weight (VLBW) with children with a normal birth weight (NBW) when entering primary school, and explore the association of attention skills with school career 2 years later. Participants were 151 children with VLBW and 41 with NBW.

  12. Neonatal treatment philosophy in Dutch and German NICUs: health-related quality of life in adulthood of VP/VLBW infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; Pal. S. van der; Verrips, G.H.W.; Baumann, N.; Bartmann, P.; Wolke, D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although survival after very preterm birth (VP)/very low birth weight (VLBW) has improved, a significant number of VP/VLBW individuals develop physical and cognitive problems during their life course that may affect their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We compared HRQoL in VP/VLBW

  13. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  14. Guidelines for feeding very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourabh; Singh, Balpreet; Chessell, Lorraine; Wilson, Jennifer; Janes, Marianne; McDonald, Kimberley; Shahid, Shaneela; Gardner, Victoria A; Hjartarson, Aune; Purcha, Margaret; Watson, Jennifer; de Boer, Chris; Gaal, Barbara; Fusch, Christoph

    2015-01-08

    Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW) neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  15. Very Low Birth Weight and Perinatal Periods of Risk: Disparities in St. Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Xaverius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Very low birth weight (VLBW is a significant issue in St. Louis, Missouri. Our study evaluated risk factors associated with VLBW in this predominantly urban community. Methods. From 2000 to 2009, birth and fetal death certificates were evaluated (n=160, 189, and mortality rates were calculated for perinatal periods of risk. The Kitagawa method was used to explore fetoinfant mortality rates (FIMR in terms of birth weight distribution and birthweight specific mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the magnitude of association of selected risk factors with VLBW. Results. VLBW contributes to 50% of the excess FIMR in St. Louis City and County. The highest proportion of VLBW can be attributed to black maternal race (40.6% in St. Louis City, inadequate prenatal care (19.8%, and gestational hypertension (12.0% among black women. Medicaid was found to have a protective effect for VLBW among black women (population attributable risk (PAR = −14.5. Discussion. Interventions targeting the health of women before and during conception may be most successful at reducing the disparities in VLBW in this population. Interventions geared towards smoking cessation and improvements in Medicaid and prenatal care access for black mothers and St. Louis City residents can greatly reduce VLBW rates.

  16. Psychological and psychophysiological functioning of young adults born preterm: The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Pyhälä, Riikka

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in neonatal intensive care during the last few decades have led to a remarkable improvement in the survival rates of preterm infants born with very low birth weight (< 1500 g; VLBW). However, VLBW may have a cost for the physical, psychosocial and cognitive development of the survivors. Nevertheless, there has been little research into the long-term consequences of VLBW that last till or emerge in adulthood. In addition, there have been relatively few studies on whether the adult...

  17. Two year neurological outcomes of very low birth weight infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High risk newborns such as the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) require long term follow up to ascertain their subsequent survival and quality of life (based on neurological intactness). Though such data is now standard in the developed world, little is known in published literature about the situation in resource ...

  18. Growth pattern and final height of very preterm vs. very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dommelen, P. van; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundBoth very preterm (VP; i.e., gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e., birth weight <1,500 g) are used as inclusion criteria by studies on preterm birth. We aimed to quantify the impact of these entities on postnatal growth until final height.MethodsSubjects born VP

  19. Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

  20. Social variables predict gains in cognitive scores across the preschool years in children with birth weights 500 to 1250 grams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manley, Brett J.; Roberts, Robin S.; Doyle, Lex W.; Schmidt, Barbara; Anderson, Peter J.; Barrington, Keith J.; Böhm, Birgitta; Golan, Agneta; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; Davis, Peter G.; D'Ilario, Judy; Cairnie, Janice; Dix, Joanne; Adams, Beth Anne; Warriner, Erin; Kim, Mee-Hai Marie; Anderson, Peter; Davis, Peter; Doyle, Lex; Argus, Brenda; Callanan, Catherine; Davis, Noni; Duff, Julianne; McDonald, Marion; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Hohn, Denise; Lacy, Maralyn; Haslam, Ross; Barnett, Christopher; Goodchild, Louise; Lontis, Rosslyn Marie; Fraser, Simon; Keng, Julie; Saunders, Kerryn; Opie, Gillian; Kelly, Elaine; Woods, Heather; Marchant, Emma; Turner, Anne-Marie; Magrath, Emma; Williamson, Amanda; Bairam, Aida; Bélanger, Sylvie; Fraser, Annie; Blayney, Marc; Lemyre, Brigitte; Frank, Jane; Solimano, Alfonso; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E.; Hubber-Richard, Philippa; Rogers, Marilyn; Mackay, Margot; Petrie-Thomas, Julianne; Butt, Arsalan; Nuytemans, Debbie; Houtzager, Bregje; van Sonderen, Loekie; Regev, Rivka; Itzchack, Netter; Arnon, Shmuel; Chalaf, Adiba; Ohlsson, Arne; O'Brien, Karel; Hamilton, Anne-Marie; Chan, May Lee; Sankaran, Koravangattu; Proctor, Pat; Goldsch-Lerman, Esther; Reynolds, Graham; Dromgool, Barbara; Meskell, Sandra; Parr, Vanessa; Maher, Catherine; Broom, Margaret; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Ringland, Cathy; McMillan, Douglas; Spellen, Elizabeth; Sauve, Reginald S.; Christianson, Heather; Anseeuw-Deeks, Deborah; Creighton, Dianne; Heath, Jennifer; Alvaro, Ruben; Chiu, Aaron; Porter, Ceceile; Turner, Gloria; Moddemann, Diane; Granke, Naomi; Penner, Karen; Bow, Jane; Mulder, Antonius; Wassenberg, Renske; van der Hoeven, Markus; Clarke, Maxine; Parfitt, Judy; Parker, Kevin; Nwaesei, Chukwuma; Ryan, Heather; Saunders, Cory; Schulze, Andreas; Wermuth, Inga; Hilgendorff, Anne; Flemmer, Andreas W.; Herlenius, Eric; Legnevall, Lena; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Matthew, Derek; Amos, Wendy; Tulsiani, Suresh; Tan-Dy, Cherrie; Turner, Marilyn; Phelan, Constance; Shinwell, Eric S.; Levine, Michael; Juster-Reicher, Ada; Khairy, May; Grier, Patricia; Vachon, Julie; Perepolkin, Larissa; Sinha, Sunil Kumar; Tin, Win; Fritz, Susan; Walti, Herve; Royer, Diane; Halliday, Henry; Millar, David; Mayes, Clifford; McCusker, Christopher; McLaughlin, Olivia; Fahnenstich, Hubert; Tillmann, Bettina; Weber, Peter; Wariyar, Unni; Embleton, Nicholas; Swamy, Ravi; Bucher, Hans U.; Fauchere, Jean-Claude; Dietz, Vera; Harikumar, Chidambara; Asztalos, Elizabeth V.; Dewey, Deborah; Gent, Michael; Fraser, William; Hey, Edmund; Perlman, Max; Thorpe, Kevin; Gray, Shari; Chambers, Carole; Costantini, Lorrie; Yacura, Wendy; McGean, Erin; Scapinello, Lori

    2015-01-01

    To determine the extent that social variables influence cognitive development of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants across the preschool years. Participants were VLBW (500-1250 g) children enrolled in the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity randomized trial between 1999 and 2004. We investigated the

  1. Nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants

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    V Vamsi Sivarama Raju, Jayashree Purkayastha, Leslie Lewis, Ramesh Bhat Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to find out the incidence and risk factors of nosocomial infections in VLBW neonates and to explore the microbiologic flora, sensitivity pattern and outcome. Methods: A prospective, observational study was performed in a neonatal intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. VLBW infants excluding those diagnosed with early onset sepsis, admitted to the unit between August 2012 and March 2013 were followed up for evidence of nosocomial sepsis. Results: Of 92 VLBW infants, 23 developed nosocomial sepsis, incidence rate being 25%. Decreasing birth weight (1251-1500 g, 10.9%; 1001-1250 g, 28%; 751-1000 g, 50%; P33wks, 0%; 29-32wks, 21.3%; 26-28 wks, 66.7%; p<.001 were found to be associated with statistically significant increase in nosocomial sepsis rate. On multivariate logistic regression, only peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line was independently associated with increased risk of nosocomial sepsis (aOR 13.33, 95% CI 3.58-49.5 in VLBW. A predominance of Gram negative over Gram positive nosocomial sepsis (75% vs. 25% with higher mortality in the Gram negative group (55% vs. 0% was observed. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant microbe (33.4%. All microbes were sensitive to first line antibiotics except Elizabeth kingia meningoseptica and one episode of K. pneumoniae. Seven (30.4% VLBW neonates with nosocomial sepsis died. Conclusions: Among VLBW infants, the incidence of nosocomial sepsis was 25%. Lower birth weight, lesser gestational age and PICC line were important risk factors. Gram negative nosocomial sepsis was associated with higher mortality compared to Gram positive sepsis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(1: 7-12

  2. Very Low Birth Weight Infants as Young Adults : Focus on aspects of cognition, behavior and sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Strang-Karlsson, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Major advances in the treatment of preterm infants have occurred during the last three decades. Survival rates have increased, and the first generations of preterm infants born at very low birth weight (VLBW; less than 1500 g) who profited from modern neonatal intensive care are now in young adulthood. The literature shows that VLBW children achieve on average lower scores on cognitive tests, even after exclusion of individuals with obvious neurosensory deficits. Evidence also exists for an i...

  3. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  4. Parental bonding after preterm birth: child and parent perspectives in the Helsinki study of very low birth weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyhälä, Riikka; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Hovi, Petteri; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Andersson, Sture; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Kajantie, Eero

    2011-02-01

    To examine whether parenting behavior recalled by very low birth weight (VLBW) adults or their parents differs from that of term-born control subjects or their parents. A total of 164 VLBW and 172 control adults (mean age 22.5 years, SD 2.2) assessed retrospectively the parenting behavior of their parents by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which includes dimensions of care, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. A subgroup of 190 mothers and 154 fathers assessed their own parenting behavior by the Parent Behavior Inventory, which includes dimensions of supportive and hostile parenting. The VLBW women assessed their mothers as more protective and authoritarian than the control women. The VLBW and control men did not differ from each other. Both mothers and fathers of the VLBW adults assessed their own parenting as more supportive than those of the control subjects. Preterm birth at VLBW may promote a more protective, as well as more supportive, parenting style. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neonatal treatment philosophy in Dutch and German NICUs: Health-Related Quality of Life in Adulthood of VP/VLBW infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; van der Pal, Sylvia; Verrips, Gijsbert; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Although survival after very preterm birth (VP) / very low birth weight (VLBW) has improved, a significant number of VP/VLBW individuals develop physical and cognitive problems during their life course that may affect their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We compared HRQoL in

  6. Cognition, academic progress, behavior and self-concept at 14 years of very low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickards, A L; Kelly, E A; Doyle, L W; Callanan, C

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare cognition, academic progress, behavior, and self-concept children of very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight 2,499 g). At 14 years of age, 130 (84.4%) of 154 VLBW and 42 (70.0%) of 60 NBW children were assessed. Ten VLBW children and one NBW child who had cerebral palsy were excluded. VLBW children scored at a significantly lower level on all three composite scales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd Edition. VLBW children were also significantly disadvantaged on more specific cognitive processes, including tests of visual processing and visual memory and on subtests reflecting learning and problem solving. Only in arithmetic was a difference between the groups discerned on tests of achievement. Significantly more VLBW children were rated by teachers as socially rejected and by their parents as having learning problems at school. VLBW children had significantly reduced self-esteem. VLBW children had more cognitive, academic, and behavioral problems and lower self-esteem at 14 years of age than NBW control subjects.

  7. Sustained developmental effects of the infant behavioral assessment and intervention program in very low birth weight infants at 5.5 years corrected age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hus, Janeline W. P.; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Koldewijn, Karen; Geldof, Christiaan J. A.; Kok, Joke H.; Nollet, Frans; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants on cognitive, neuromotor, and behavioral development at 5.5 years corrected age (CA). In a randomized controlled trial, 86 VLBW infants received post discharge IBAIP

  8. The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability in very-low-birth-weight infants : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P. F.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Vegt, Ina M.; van der Molen, Hilda R. A.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion. Glutamine depletion has negative effects on intestinal integrity. The lower infection rate in VLBW infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may originate from improved intestinal integrity, as

  9. The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability in very-low-birth-weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P. F.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Vegt, Ina M.; van der Molen, Hilda R. A.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion. Glutamine depletion has negative effects on intestinal integrity. The lower infection rate in VLBW infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may originate from improved intestinal integrity, as

  10. Hope in Parents of Very-Low Birth Weight Infants and its Association with Parenting Stress and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordheim, Trond; Rustøen, Tone; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Nakstad, Britt

    Being a parent of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant can be stressful. We aimed to describe parental hope 42months after the birth of a VLBW infant and determine whether there is an association between hope and parenting stress with quality of life (QoL), respectively. Fifty-nine parents of VLBW infants completed questionnaires about hope, parenting stress and QoL. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and linear regression models were used to examine the relationship between the selected variables. To compare groups, t-test was used and Cohen's d for effect size was calculated. Parents of VLBW infants were more hopeful than the general population (phope were both independently associated with QoL (phope (p=0.041) and higher parenting stress (p=0.041) than parents of infants with birth weight 1000-1500g. Hope and parenting stress were both independent determinants of QoL. Parents of the presumably sickest infants had less hope and higher parenting stress than parents of VLBW infants with a birth weight over 1000g. Hope should be further explored as a coping mechanism in parents of VLBW infants. The clinical implications of the strong association between hope, parenting stress and QoL remain to be determined, but reducing stress and strengthening hope seem to be important. This should be taken into account both at hospital discharge and at follow-up, especially for lower-birth-weight infants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Disparities in Perinatal Quality Outcomes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Eileen T; Staiger, Douglas; Horbar, Jeffrey; Kenny, Michael J; Patrick, Thelma; Rogowski, Jeannette A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if hospital-level disparities in very low birth weight (VLBW) infant outcomes are explained by poorer hospital nursing characteristics. Data Sources Nurse survey and VLBW infant registry data. Study Design Retrospective study of 8,252 VLBW infants in 98 Vermont Oxford Network hospital neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) nationally. NICUs were classified into three groups based on their percent of infants of black race. Two nurse-sensitive perinatal quality standards were studied: nosocomial infection and breast milk. Data Collection Primary nurse survey (N = 5,773, 77 percent response rate). Principal Findings VLBW infants born in high-black concentration hospitals had higher rates of infection and discharge without breast milk than VLBW infants born in low-black concentration hospitals. Nurse understaffing was higher and practice environments were worse in high-black as compared to low-black hospitals. NICU nursing features accounted for one-third to one-half of the hospital-level health disparities. Conclusions Poorer nursing characteristics contribute to disparities in VLBW infant outcomes in two nurse-sensitive perinatal quality standards. Improvements in nursing have potential to improve the quality of care for seven out of ten black VLBW infants who are born in high-black hospitals in this country. PMID:25250882

  12. Oral Ibuprofen versus Intravenous Indomethacin for Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Han Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: In infants with VLBW, oral ibuprofen is as effective as intravenous indomethacin for closure of PDA and is associated with significantly fewer cases of necrotizing enterocolitis among infants with birth body weights <1250 g and significantly lower rates of elevated creatinine levels among neonates with birth body weights ranging from 1000 to 1500 g.

  13. Morbidity in early adulthood among low-risk very low birth weight children in Turkey: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Gülay; Bilgin, Leyla; Tatli, Burak; Saydam, Reyhan; Coban, Asuman; Ince, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess low-risk very low birth weight (VLBW) children, before the era of modern neonatal intensive care in Turkey, during adolescence. Forty-one VLBW adolescents were compared with 40 adolescents who had normal birth weight. The physical and neuromotor development, educational achievement and psychosocial status were assessed at a mean age of 17 +/- 1.6 years. VLBW adolescents were shorter than normal birth weight adolescents (p = 0.01). A major neurological abnormality (cerebral palsy) was seen in 12% and a minor neurological abnormality (tremor, coordination, behavioral and speech disorders) in 17%. VLBW adolescents had higher rates of visual problems (56% vs. 5%). School failure was present in 27%. There were no differences in behavioral problems or quality of life between the two groups, but VLBW adolescents did have a lower self-esteem score. Neurodevelopment and growth sequelae were a significant problem in VLBW adolescents. As early intervention might help to prevent or ameliorate potential problems, long-term follow-up is essential.

  14. The contribution of very low birth weight death to infant mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infant mortality remains high in many developing countries in which the contribution of deaths among infants born very low birth weight (VLBW) may be considerable. This contribution has however not been quantified in most such countries. This paper explores a model that can be used in this respect.

  15. The emergence of grammar in very-low-birth-weight Finnish children at two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomäki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-03-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children (N = 156) and full-term controls (N = 146). At a group level, the grammatical skills of the VLBW children were significantly weaker than those of the controls. However, when the effect of lexicon size and premature birth on the emergence of grammar was analyzed in detail, few significant differences were found between the groups. The results suggest that even though grammar emerges more slowly for the VLBW children, it emerges in a manner comparable to that of the controls, when the effect of lexicon size is taken into consideration.

  16. Different Risk Factors for Very Low Birth Weight, Term-Small-for-Gestational-Age, or Preterm Birth in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available From 1985 to 2013, the mean birth weight of infants in Japan decreased from 3120 g to 3000 g, and the low-birth-weight rate among live births increased from 6.3% to 9.6%. No prospective study has elucidated the risk factors for poor fetal growth and preterm birth in recent Japanese parents, such as increased parental age, maternal body figure, assisted reproductive technology (ART, and socioeconomic status. Participants were mother–infant pairs (n = 18,059 enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan from 2002 to 2013. Parental characteristics were obtained via self-reported questionnaires during pregnancy. Medical records helped identify very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <1500g, term-small-for-gestational-age (term-SGA, and preterm-birth (PTB; <37 weeks infants. We calculated relative risks (RRs for PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA birth based on parental characteristics. The prevalence of PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA was 4.5%, 0.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. Aged parents and ART were risk factors for PTB and VLBW. Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy increased the risk; a parental educational level of ≥16 years reduced risk of term-SGA. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI of <18.5 kg/m2 increased the risk of PTB and term-SGA. The RR for low BMI was highest among mothers who have low educational level. Among various factors, appropriate nutritional education to maintain normal BMI is important to prevent PTB and term-SGA in Japan.

  17. Personality of young adults born prematurely: the Helsinki study of very low birth weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Heinonen, Kati; Andersson, Sture; Hovi, Petteri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero

    2008-06-01

    Today, the first generations of very low birth weight (VLBW personality traits, associated with both psychopathological vulnerability and resilience. In this cohort study we compared personality traits among young adults (age range 18 to 27 years, mean 21.4, SD 2.19) with VLBW (n = 158) with those of term-born controls (n = 168) of same gender, age, and maternity hospital. The participants completed the Neo-Personality Inventory. Of the five main traits, the VLBW participants scored significantly higher in conscientiousness (MD .1, 95% CI .0 to .3; p personality profiles among the VLBW subjects (p assessment, parental education, individual school grade average, and maternal pre-eclampsia and smoking during pregnancy. Young adults born with VLBW showed markedly different personality traits compared with their controls. The VLBW group displayed less negative emotions, were more dutiful and cautious, and displayed more warmth in their social relationships than their term-born peers. We present two potential mechanisms underlying these findings. The first relates to parental influences and the other to evidence linking biological mechanisms associated with prematurity with personality characteristics in adulthood.

  18. Blood Culture Proven Early Onset Sepsis and Late Onset Sepsis in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Chang, Meayoung; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal sepsis remains one of the most important causes of death and co-morbidity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to determine the current incidences of early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS), the distribution of pathogens, and the impact of infection on co-morbidities in VLBW infants. We analyzed the data including sepsis episode from 2,386 VLBW infants enrolled in Korean Neonatal Network from January 2013 to June 2014. We defined EOS as a positive blood culture occurring between birth and 7 days of life and LOS after 7 days of life. Sepsis was found in 21.1% of VLBW infants. The risk of sepsis was inversely related to birth weight and gestational age. EOS was found in only 3.6% of VLBW infants, however the mortality rate was as high as 34.1%. EOS was associated with the increased odds for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrhage. The vast majority of EOS was caused by Gram-positive organisms, particularly coagulase-negative staphylococci (30.6%). LOS developed in 19.4% of VLBW infants with a 16.1% mortality rate. Pathogens in LOS were dominated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (38.3%). Twenty-five percent and fifty percent of first LOS episode occurred after 12 days and 20 days from birth, respectively. Younger and smaller VLBW infants showed the earlier occurrence day for the 25% of first LOS episode. This study provides a recent nationwide epidemiology of sepsis in VLBW infants in Korea. Based on this study, successful strategies to reduce infections would improve survival and reduce morbidity.

  19. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Shim, So-Yeon; Sung, In Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Here, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and mortality of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea and assess the associated factors of PHH. This cohort study used prospectively collected data from the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN). Among 2,386 VLBW infants in the KNN database born between January 2013 and June 2014, 63 infants who died without brain ultrasonography results were excluded. Maternal demographics and neonatal clinical characteristics were assessed. The overall incidence of IVH in all the VLBW infants was 42.2% (987 of 2,323), while those of IVH grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 25.1%, 7.0%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively. The incidence and severity of IVH showed a negatively correlating trend with gestational age and birth weight. PHH developed in 0%, 3.5%, 36.1%, and 63.8% of the surviving infants with IVH grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Overall, in the VLBW infants, the IVH-associated mortality rate was 1.0% (24/2,323). Only IVH grade severity was proven to be an associated with PHH development in infants with IVH grades 3-4. This is the first Korean national report of IVH and PHH incidences in VLBW infants. Further risk factor analyses or quality improvement studies to reduce IVH are warranted.

  20. Cerebral MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight and small-for-gestational-age children at 15 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skranes, Jon S.; Brubakk, Ann-Mari [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children' s and Women' s Health, Trondheim (Norway); Martinussen, Marit; Smevik, Olaug; Myhr, Gunnar [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Imaging, Trondheim (Norway); Indredavik, Marit [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Neuroscience, Trondheim (Norway); Vik, Torstein [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-08-01

    A high prevalence of abnormal cerebral MRI findings has been reported in low-birth-weight children. To compare MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children with controls in early adolescence. Cerebral MRI was used to examine 55 VLBW, 54 SGA and 66 controls at 15 years of age. The MR images were qualitatively assessed, and size of ventricles, white-matter and grey-matter abnormalities were reported. The VLBW teenagers had a higher prevalence of various MRI abnormalities than SGA children and controls. Dilation of the ventricular system, especially of the occipital horns, was found in 82% of the VLBW group, in 19% of the SGA group and in 21% of controls. White-matter reduction was found in 53% of the VLBW, in 6% of the SGA and in 2% of controls. Corpus callosum thinning was found in 47% of the VLBW, in 2% of the SGA and in 6% of controls. Periventricular gliosis was found in 29% of the VLBW, in 4% of the SGA and in 8% of controls. Cerebral MRI pathology in white matter is a common finding in VLBW teenagers. The findings may indicate minor perinatal PVL with resulting loss of white-matter tissue and ventricular dilation. (orig.)

  1. Cerebral MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight and small-for-gestational-age children at 15 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skranes, Jon S.; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Martinussen, Marit; Smevik, Olaug; Myhr, Gunnar; Indredavik, Marit; Vik, Torstein

    2005-01-01

    A high prevalence of abnormal cerebral MRI findings has been reported in low-birth-weight children. To compare MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children with controls in early adolescence. Cerebral MRI was used to examine 55 VLBW, 54 SGA and 66 controls at 15 years of age. The MR images were qualitatively assessed, and size of ventricles, white-matter and grey-matter abnormalities were reported. The VLBW teenagers had a higher prevalence of various MRI abnormalities than SGA children and controls. Dilation of the ventricular system, especially of the occipital horns, was found in 82% of the VLBW group, in 19% of the SGA group and in 21% of controls. White-matter reduction was found in 53% of the VLBW, in 6% of the SGA and in 2% of controls. Corpus callosum thinning was found in 47% of the VLBW, in 2% of the SGA and in 6% of controls. Periventricular gliosis was found in 29% of the VLBW, in 4% of the SGA and in 8% of controls. Cerebral MRI pathology in white matter is a common finding in VLBW teenagers. The findings may indicate minor perinatal PVL with resulting loss of white-matter tissue and ventricular dilation. (orig.)

  2. Postpartum anxiety and adjustment disorders in parents of infants with very low birth weight: Cross-sectional results from a controlled multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Nadine; Barkmann, Claus; Ehrhardt, Stephan; von der Wense, Axel; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Bindt, Carola

    2016-04-01

    Both preterm delivery and survival rates of very low birth weight (VLBW: anxiety in parents after VLBW birth. Parents with VLBW infants and parents with term infants were recruited into the longitudinal HaFEn-study at the three largest centers of perinatal care in Hamburg, Germany. State anxiety was assessed with the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory and anxiety and adjustment disorders with a clinical interview one month postpartum. Psychiatric lifetime diagnoses, social support, trait anxiety, stress during birth, socioeconomic status, risks during pregnancy, and mode of delivery were also evaluated. To examine predictors of postpartum state anxiety in both parents simultaneously a multiple random coefficient model was used. 230 mothers and 173 fathers were included. The risk for minor/major anxiety symptoms and adjustment disorders was higher in parents with VLBW infants compared to the term group. The risk for anxiety disorders was not higher in parents with VLBW infants. The most important predictors for postpartum state anxiety were high trait anxiety, the birth of a VLBW infant, high stress during birth, and low social support. Data reported here are cross-sectional. Thus, temporal relationships cannot be established. Our results emphasize the importance of early screening for postpartum anxiety in both parents with VLBW infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul; Lequin, Maarten; Pul, Carola van; Buijs, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm 2 ) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  4. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pul, Carola van [Maxima Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  5. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J.; Brindle, Mary; Daneman, Alan

    2005-01-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  6. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto (Canada); Brindle, Mary [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Daneman, Alan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  7. VitaminA, E, and D deficiencies in tunisian very low birth weight neonates: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Samira; Sethom, Mohamed Marouane; Khouaja-Mokrani, Chahnez; Jabnoun, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2014-06-01

    Preterm neonates are at high risk of vitamin deficiencies, which may expose them to increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies in Tunisian very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. A total of 607 VLBW and 300 term neonates were included in the study. Plasma vitamins A and E were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography and vitamin D was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Prevalence of vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies were dramatically elevated in VLBW neonates and were significantly higher than term neonates (75.9% vs. 63.3%; 71.3% vs. 55.5%; and 65.2% vs. 40.4%, respectively). In VLBW neonates, the prevalence of vitamin deficiencies was significantly higher in lower classes of gestational age and birth weight. Vitamin E deficiency was associated with pre-eclampsia [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, 95% CI), 1.56 (1.01-2.44); p E, and D deficiencies are very common in Tunisian VLBW neonates and are associated with pre-eclampsia. Improved nutritional and health support for pregnant women and high dose vitamins A, E, and D supplementation in VLBW neonates are strongly required in Tunisia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Line K; Vik, Torstein; Lydersen, Stian; Løhaugen, Gro C C; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Indredavik, Marit S

    2012-12-05

    Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g), 55 term SGA (birth weight Quotient (AQ), the Short Form 36 Health Survey, the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Revised, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale III assessment. The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW) and social acceptance (SGA). Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

  9. Factors Affecting the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay Duration in Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Niknajad, Akram; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Sattarzadeh, Niloufar; Bashar Hashemi, Fazileh; Dezham Khoy Shahgholi, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Improved survival of very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants requires urgent intensive care, professional nursing and medical care. On the other hand, long hospital stay period imposes emotional and economic burdens on the family and society. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the most important factors affecting their hospitalization duration to lessen unwanted outcomes of premature birth and to eliminate or relieve the problems. Methods: In a descri...

  10. Efficacy of Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine Varies by Infant Birth Weight with Greatest Relative Efficacy in Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupte

    Full Text Available Latest World Health Organization guidelines recommend weight-based nevirapine prophylaxis for all HIV-exposed infants in resource-limited settings, yet low birth weight (LBW infants (2000 g and ≤ 2500 g, and normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g. Outcomes were HIV-1 infection, HIV-1 infection or death by 12 months, and severe adverse events (SAEs. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate probability of efficacy outcomes in birth weight groups, and differential effects of SWEN by birth weight group were examined using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for independent risk factors for HIV maternal-to-child transmission and significant covariates. Among 50 VLBW, 249 MLBW, and 433 NBW infants, 50% were randomized to SWEN; median gestational age was 36, 38 and 38 weeks, respectively; and there was no difference in breastfeeding duration (p = 0.99. Compared to SD: SWEN-treated VLBW had lower estimates of HIV-1 infection (13% vs. 38%, p = 0.004 and HIV-1 infection or death (13% vs. 41%, p = 0.002; SWEN-treated MLBW had lower estimated HIV-1 infection (13% vs. 17%, p = 0.042; and efficacy endpoints were similar by treatment arm in NBW. In multivariate analysis, SWEN was associated with reduced risk of HIV-1 infection or death by 83% (p = 0.03 in VLBW versus 45% (p = 0.05 in MLBW. SAE frequency was similar by treatment arm in VLBW (68% vs. 76%, p = 0.53 and MLBW (37% vs. 36%, p = 0.93. SWEN may safely increase HIV-free survival among HIV-exposed LBW infants with greatest protective advantage among infants ≤ 2000 g.

  11. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Line K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g, 55 term SGA (birth weight  Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ. The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW and social acceptance (SGA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

  12. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, J.F.; Oosterlaan, J.; van Zwol, A.; Boehm, G.; Lafeber, H.N.; van Elburg, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    In very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g birth weight) children, serious neonatal infections are among the main causes of poor developmental outcomes later in childhood. The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the incidence of serious neonatal

  13. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Zwol, Annelies; Boehm, Guenther; Lafeber, Harrie N.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2012-01-01

    In very preterm ( < 32 weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g birth weight) children, serious neonatal infections are among the main causes of poor developmental outcomes later in childhood. The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the incidence of serious neonatal

  14. Mineral balance studies in very low birth weight infants fed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanler, R.J.; Abrams, S.A.; Garza, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mineral homeostasis often is disrupted in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant fed either human milk or commercial formula that contains insufficient quantities of available calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Alterations in mineral homeostasis include abnormal patterns of serum (Ca and P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity) and urine (Ca and P) biochemical markers, low net Ca and P retentions in comparison with intrauterine estimates of mineral accretion, and decreased bone mineral content. A two-phase study was conducted in our laboratory to test for these alterations in mineral homeostasis. In phase 1, VLBW infants fed a preparation of fortified human milk (either human milk-derived fortifier I or II or cow milk-derived fortifier) or cow milk-based formula specially designed for VLBW infants were evaluated during their hospitalization. In phase 2, after hospitalization, these infants were evaluated during the first 6 months of life when fed either their mother's milk or routine formula exclusively. The bioavailability of Ca and P from the tested preparations varied widely. Although the fortification of human milk resulted in both an improved biochemical pattern and net retention of Ca and P, optimal intrauterine mineral accretion was not achieved in any group tested. Longitudinal assessments of bone mineralization, by single photon absorptiometry, demonstrated that human milk-fed former VLBW infants had reduced bone mineral content. These investigations suggest that former VLBW infants fed human milk exclusively may be at risk for Ca and P deficiencies

  15. Birth weight effects on children's mental, motor, and physical development: evidence from twins data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Jacknowitz, Alison

    2009-11-01

    To determine the effect of very low birth weight (VLBW; motor development and physical growth during the first 2 years of life and whether VLBW and MLBW babies catch up to normal birth weight (NBW; > or =2500 g) children by age 2. We use data on dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twins and singleton births from the first two waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative dataset of children born in the US in 2001. We estimate the effects of VLBW and MLBW on children's mental and motor development scores, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height, and length-for-age z-scores at 9 months and 2 years. We examine whether differences in outcomes within twin pairs are related to differences in their birth weights. The within-twins analysis is conducted on samples of DZ and MZ twins. For comparison, we also estimate birth weight effects on child outcomes from multivariate linear regression models using the full singleton and twins' sample. We also estimate the effect of being small-for-gestational age (SGA; birth weight development, motor development, and growth at 9 months and 2 years of age. However, results from within-twin models with DZ twins that control for shared maternal and environmental factors showed much less effect of birth weight on mental or motor development, but continued large effects on growth for the VLBW group. Within-twin models with MZ twins that control for shared maternal, environmental, and genetic factors showed statistically insignificant effects of birth weight on mental and motor development, but continued effects on growth. Similar patterns were found when examining the effects of SGA. After controlling for the influence of maternal, environmental, and genetic factors, low birth weight has at most a small negative effect on children's mental and motor development in their first 2 years of life. However, low birth weight is a major risk factor for children's physical growth in

  16. Glycerin Suppositories Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shalinkumar; Dereddy, Narendra; Talati, Ajay J; Gaston, Kan; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To study the characteristics of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glycerin suppositories (GS) and evaluate the association of GS use with outcomes. Study Design  This is a retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Infants with birth weight between 500 and 1,499 g were evaluated. We evaluated the frequency of GS use and compared the characteristics and outcomes of the GS group with the no-GS group. Multivariate analyses controlling for gestational age and small for gestational age status were performed to study the effect of GS on outcomes. Results  A total of 1,073 infants were included in the study. Out of those, 527 (49.1%) infants received GS. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis was not significantly different between the two groups, while days to reach full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were significantly longer in the GS group. Conclusion  Frequent use of GS warrants further prospective studies to evaluate its safety and efficacy in view of our study showing association with longer time to reach full enteral feeds. We speculate that GS use could be a marker for gastrointestinal dysmotility and hence the association with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eAntonides

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction due to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients supply to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (short-term and reference memory (long-term in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46-54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed a better reference memory performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, the vLBW piglets fell back less in working memory scores than the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition.

  18. Comparing two motor assessment tools to evaluate neurobehavioral intervention effects in infants with very low birth weight at 1 year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hus, Janeline W. P.; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Koldewijn, Karen; van Sonderen, Loekie; Kok, Joke H.; Nollet, Frans; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.

    2013-01-01

    Infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for motor deficits, which may be reduced by early intervention programs. For detection of motor deficits and to monitor intervention, different assessment tools are available. It is important to choose tools that are sensitive to

  19. A Randomized controlled trial of enteral glutamine supplementation in very low birth weight infants: Plasma amino acid concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Teerlink, T.; Lafeber, Harrie N.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Fetter, Willem P. F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Glutamine depletion has negative effects on the functional integrity of the gut and leads to immunosuppression. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion, as enteral nutrition is limited in the first weeks of life. Enteral glutamine supplementation may

  20. Serum 25 Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Oral Vitamin D Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Upender K; Graziano, Pauline D; Meunier, Kara; Ludke, Jennifer; Rios, Angel

    2017-11-03

    Vitamin D supplementation in preterm infants has been recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) however its efficacy and safety has not been well studied. To study 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) levels as a marker of vitamin D status of very low birth weight infants while on vitamin D supplementation during NICU hospitalization. Retrospective study of preterm infants with birth weight supplementation. Serum 25OHD level were checked at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of age or before discharge and the levels were stratified as deficient 100 ng/ml. 301 infants were enrolled, 186 very low birth weight VLBW (1000 -1499 g) infants and 115 extremely low birth weight ELBW (supplementation VLBW infants increased their 25OHD levels significantly by 8 and 12 weeks of age while ELBW infants lagged behind at 8 weeks and increased their 25OHD levels by 12 weeks of age. Eighty percent of ELBW and VLBW infants have either deficient or insufficient vitamin D status at 4 weeks of age. Vitamin D supplementation helps in improving the vitamin D levels, VLBW infants significantly more than ELBW infants. AAP recommendation appears to be safe, however if using higher supplement dosing, 25OHD level should be monitored to avoid high and very high vitamin D levels.

  1. Long-term effects of neonatal glutamine-enriched nutrition in very-low-birth-weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, Annelies; Neu, Josef; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants have investigated the effect of parenteral or enteral glutamine supplementation on morbidity, mortality, and outcome in the neonatal period. No evidence of toxicity of glutamine supplementation was found in these clinical trials, but the

  2. A randomized controlled trial of enteral glutamine supplementation in very low birth weight infants: plasma amino acid concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.; van Elburg, R.M.; Teerlink, T.; Lafeber, H.N.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Fetter, W.P.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Glutamine depletion has negative effects on the functional integrity of the gut and leads to immunosuppression. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion, as enteral nutrition is limited in the first weeks of life. Enteral glutamine supplementation may

  3. Intestinal microbiota in allergic and nonallergic 1-year-old very low birth weight infants after neonatal glutamine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, A.; van den Berg, A.; Knol, J.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Fetter, W. P. F.; van Elburg, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Previously, glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants (VLBW) decreased the incidence of atopic dermatitis at age 1 year. The aim of this study was to determine whether this effect is related to changes in intestinal bacterial species that are associated with allergy,

  4. Meta-analysis of neurobehavioral outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Sequelae of academic underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor executive function (EF) have been extensively reported for very preterm (≤33 weeks' gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW) (≤1500 g) children. Great variability in the published results, however,

  5. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  6. Prevalence and pathogen distribution of neonatal sepsis among very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Ho; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Chu, Shih-Ming; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Yang, Peng-Hong

    2012-08-01

    Neonatal sepsis contributes to great mortality and morbidity among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Prevalence and pathogen distribution of sepsis in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) vary with time and geographic location. Such information serves as a guide for selection of empirical antibiotics coverage. This is a case series study performed by retrospective chart review of VLBW infants (birth body weight, BBW, <1500 g) in a medical center during a 5-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. Episodes of positive blood cultures, pathogen distribution and related clinical manifestations were described. A total of 158 episodes of sepsis were identified from 1042 VLBW infants. Sepsis rate was 152 per 1000 live births. The vast majority of infections (60.7%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms [G(+)], and overall Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (52.5%) were the most common pathogen identified. Prevalence for early-onset sepsis (EOS) was 1% and for late-onset sepsis (LOS) was 14.2%. Infants with EOS had a much higher case fatality rate than LOS (40% vs. 4.7%). Escherichia coli (40%) were the leading pathogen of EOS while CoNS (54.7%) was the leading pathogens of LOS. Overall, apnea and/or bradycardia and/or cyanosis (65.8%), poor activity (48.7%), and increased respiratory effort (43.0%) were the most common presenting features of sepsis. Unlike term infants, Gram-negative organism and E coli were the leading pathogen of EOS among VLBW infants. Judicious and timely use of antibiotic therapy is crucial in the care of VLBW infants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Neonatal treatment philosophy in Dutch and German NICUs: health-related quality of life in adulthood of VP/VLBW infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D; van der Pal, Sylvia; Verrips, Gijsbert H W; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-04-01

    Although survival after very preterm birth (VP)/very low birth weight (VLBW) has improved, a significant number of VP/VLBW individuals develop physical and cognitive problems during their life course that may affect their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We compared HRQoL in VP/VLBW cohorts from two countries: The Netherlands (n = 314) versus Germany (n = 260) and examined whether different neonatal treatment and rates of disability affect HRQoL in adulthood. To analyse whether cohorts differed in adult HRQoL, linear regression analyses were performed for three HRQoL outcomes assessed with the Health Utilities Index 3 (HUI3), the London Handicap Scale (LHS), and the WHO Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF). Stepwise hierarchical linear regression was used to test whether neonatal physical health and treatment, social environment, and intelligence (IQ) were related to VP/VLBW adults' HRQoL and cohort differences. Dutch VP/VLBW adults reported a significantly higher HRQoL on all three general HRQoL measures than German VP/VLBW adults (HUI3: .86 vs .83, p = .036; LHS: .93 vs. .90, p = .018; WHOQOL-BREF: 82.8 vs. 78.3, p VP/VLBW infants received more intensive treatment that may have affected their cognitive development. Our findings stress the importance of examining effects of different neonatal treatment policies for VP/VLBW adults' life.

  8. Retinopathy of Prematurity among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea: Incidence, Treatment, and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jong Hee; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to describe the incidence, risk factors, and current treatment status of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants registered in the Korean Neonatal Network database. Medical records of 2,009 VLBW infants born between January 2013 and June 2014 who underwent examination by an ophthalmologist were reviewed. The total incidence of ROP was 34.1%. Of the patients, 11.6% showed ROP stage ≥ 3 and 11.5% received treatment of VLBW. Among all infants who received treatment of ROP, 63.6% underwent operation only; 16.9%, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment only; and 19.5%, both operation and anti-VEGF treatment. The mean gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) were significantly lower and the prevalence rates of respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), invasive ventilator duration, and sepsis were significantly higher in the VLBW infants with ROP than in those without ROP. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, PDA (odd ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.79) and invasive ventilator duration (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02) were significant risk factors of ROP and ROP stage ≥ 3. In conclusion, the high incidence of ROP is associated with low GA and BW, and attempt to reduce the aforementioned risk factors could reduce the incidence of ROP stage ≥ 3 in VLBW infants.

  9. Early relations between language development and the quality of mother-child interaction in very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, S; Korja, R; Matomäki, J; Lapinleimu, H; Haataja, L; Lehtonen, L

    2014-05-01

    It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intraventricular hemorrhage risk factors in very low birth weight newborns: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of variables that affect the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Methods: Analytic case-control study, in a population consisting of all VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a maternity hospital, between January 2002 and December 2007. The authors considered as cases all VLBW newborns with severe IVH (grade ≥ 3, and control all VLBW newborns without IVH. Independent variables included obstetric, perinatal and neonatal diagnosis and therapy. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Rresults: During this period, of the 864 VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, 9.7% had severe IVH. With bivariate analysis an association between severe IVH, gestational age and birth weight was found. Prenatal care and pre-eclampsia were associated with a decrease in the incidence of severe IVH. Amnionitis, being outborn, vaginal delivery, male gender, intubation in the delivery room, surfactant, hyaline membrane disease, pneumothorax, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC perforation and oscillatory high frequency ventilation were associated with an increased incidence of severe IVH. By multivariate logistic regression, the variables associated with increased risk of severe IVH were: pneumothorax (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 1.7-8.3, NEC with perforation (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 1.7-45.0, vaginal delivery (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.0-4.1 and high frequency ventilation (OR = 4.8; 95%CI = 1.3-17.3. The following were protective of severe IVH: gestational age (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.52-0.72, patent ductus arteriosus treatment with indomethacin (OR = 0.26; 95%CI = 0.11-0.6 and fertility treatment (OR = 0.24; 95%CI = 0.06-0.94. Cconclusion: These data outline the importance of improvement of pre and neonatal care to reduce severe IVH.

  11. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  12. [A follow-up on first-year growth and development of 61 very low birth weight preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ying; Xiong, Fei; Wu, Meng-Meng; Yang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the physical growth and psychomotor development of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants in the first year after birth and related influencing factors. A total of 61 VLBW preterm infants received growth and development monitoring for 12 months. Z score was used to evaluate parameters for physical growth, and Denver Development Screen Test (DDST) was used for development screening. Among the 61 VLBW preterm infants, 27 (44.3%) were small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, and 34 (55.7%) were appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. During the 1-year follow-up, the median weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), height-for-age Z-score (HAZ), head circumference-for-age Z-score (HCZ), and weight-for-height Z score (WHZ) were >-1 SD in all age groups. The peaks of body mass index-for-age Z-score (BAZ) and WHZ appeared at 1 month of corrected age. At a corrected age of 40 weeks, the incidence rates of underweight, growth retardation, emaciation, microcephalus, overweight, and obesity were 15%, 16%, 11%, 13%, 20%, and 10%, respectively. Compared with those with a corrected age of 40 weeks, the infants with a corrected age of 6 months or 9-12 months had a significantly reduced incidence rate of overweight (3%) (P<0.05). Up to 1 year after birth, 15 infants (25%) had abnormal developmental quotient (DQ). The SGA group had a significantly higher incidence rate of abnormal DQ than the AGA group (P<0.05). SGA was the independent risk factor for retarded growth in the first year after birth in VLBW preterm infants. VLBW preterm infants experience an obvious growth deviation within 3 months of corrected age. Within the first year after birth, the proportion of infants with abnormal DQ screened by DDST is high.

  13. Skin blood flow as a predictor of intraventricular hemorrhage in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Akio; Suzuki, Keiji; Sekine, Takashi; Sudo, Yousuke; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Itoh, Kanako; Kanai, Masayo; Kato, Ineko; Sobajima, Hisanori; Tamura, Masanori

    2014-02-01

    Cardiovascular instability immediately after birth is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. For circulatory management, evaluation of organ blood flow is important. In this study, the relationship between peripheral perfusion within 48 h after birth and IVH was evaluated in VLBW infants. In this prospective observational study involving 83 VLBW infants, forehead blood flow (FBF) and lower-limb blood flow (LBF) were measured for 48 h after birth using a laser Doppler flowmeter. Blood flow was compared between infants with and without IVH. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for IVH. IVH developed in nine infants. In eight of these patients, IVH occurred after 24 h. LBF was lower in infants with IVH at 18 and 24 h and increased to the same level as that of infants without IVH at 48 h. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a correlation only between LBF and IVH at 18 h. These findings were consistent with the hypoperfusion-reperfusion theory, which states that IVH develops after reperfusion subsequent to hypoperfusion. We speculate that measurement of skin blood flow in addition to systemic and cerebral circulation may be helpful in predicting IVH.

  14. Peak Bone Mass and Bone Microarchitecture in Adults Born With Low Birth Weight Preterm or at Term: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Chandima N D; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Mosti, Mats P; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Jacobsen, Geir W; Indredavik, Marit S; Schei, Berit; Stunes, Astrid Kamilla; Syversen, Unni

    2017-07-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is regarded as the most important determinant of osteoporosis. Growing evidence suggests a role of intrauterine programming in skeletal development. We examined PBM and trabecular bone score (TBS) in adults born preterm with very low birth weight (VLBW) or small for gestational age (SGA) at term compared with term-born controls. This follow-up cohort study included 186 men and women (25 to 28 years); 52 preterm VLBW (≤1500 g), 59 term-born SGA (10th percentile). Main outcome was bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral content (BMC), TBS, and serum bone markers. VLBW adults had lower BMC and BMD vs controls, also when adjusted for height, weight, and potential confounders, with the following BMD Z-score differences: femoral neck, 0.6 standard deviation (SD) (P = 0.003); total hip, 0.4 SD (P = 0.01); whole body, 0.5 SD (P = 0.007); and lumbar spine, 0.3 SD (P = 0.213). The SGA group displayed lower spine BMC and whole-body BMD Z-scores, but not after adjustment. Adjusted odds ratios for osteopenia/osteoporosis were 2.4 and 2.0 in VLBW and SGA adults, respectively. TBS did not differ between groups, but it was lower in men than in women. Serum Dickkopf-1 was higher in VLBW subjects vs controls; however, it was not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Both low-birth-weight groups displayed lower PBM and higher frequency of osteopenia/osteoporosis, implying increased future fracture risk. The most pronounced bone deficit was seen in VLBW adults. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  15. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  16. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the urinary retinol excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Bettina; Longardt, Ann Carolin; Loui, Andrea; Bührer, Christoph; Raila, Jens; Schweigert, Florian J

    2016-03-01

    Despite high-dose vitamin A supplementation of very low birth weight infants (VLBW, supplementation on the urinary vitamin A excretion in VLBW infants was investigated. Sixty-three VLBW infants were treated with vitamin A (5000 IU intramuscular, 3 times/week for 4 weeks); 38 untreated infants were classified as control group. On days 3 and 28 of life, retinol, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and Tamm-Horsfall protein were quantified in urine. On day 3 of life, substantial retinol and RBP4 losses were found in both groups, which significantly decreased until day 28. Notwithstanding, the retinol excretion was higher (P supplementation as compared to infants of the control group. On day 28 of life, the urinary retinol concentrations were predictive for serum retinol concentrations in the vitamin A treated (P supplementation efficacy in VLBW infants. Advanced age and thus postnatal kidney maturation seems to be an important contributor in the prevention of urinary retinol losses.

  17. Effects of a Birth Hospital's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Level and Annual Volume of Very Low-Birth-Weight Infant Deliveries on Morbidity and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erik A; Lorch, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    The annual volume of deliveries of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants has a greater effect on mortality risk than does neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) level. The differential effect of these hospital factors on morbidity among VLBW infants is uncertain. To assess the independent effects of a birth hospital's annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries and NICU level on the risk of several neonatal morbidities and morbidity-mortality composite outcomes that are predictive of future neurocognitive development. Retrospective, population-based cohort study (performed in 2014) of all VLBW infants without severe congenital anomalies delivered in all hospitals in California, Missouri, and Pennsylvania between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2009 (N = 72,431). Risk-adjusted odds ratios and risk-adjusted probabilities were determined by logistic regression. The primary study outcomes were the individual composites of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Among the 72,431 VLBW infants in the present study, birth at a hospital with 10 or less deliveries of VLBW infants per year was associated with the highest risk-adjusted probability of death (15.3% [95% CI, 14.4%-16.3%]), death or severe intraventricular hemorrhage (17.5% [95% CI, 16.5%-18.6%]), and death or necrotizing enterocolitis (19.3% [95% CI, 18.1%-20.4%]). These complications were also more common among infants born at hospitals with a level I or II NICU compared with infants delivered at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU. The risk-adjusted probability of death or retinopathy of prematurity was highest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU and lowest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIA NICU. When the effects of NICU level and annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries were evaluated simultaneously, the annual volume of deliveries was the stronger contributor to the risk of death, death or

  18. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Prediction of low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Frøkjær, Jens B

    2017-01-01

    operating characteristic curves demonstrated a significantly higher performance of T2* (AUC of 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98) than UtA PI (AUC of 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89) in the prediction of low birth weight (p = 0.010). Placental pathological findings were closely related to the T2* values. CONCLUSIONS...... placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 100 singleton pregnancies included at 20-40 weeks......' gestation. Placental T2* was obtained using a gradient recalled multi-echo MRI sequence and UtA PI was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Placental pathological examination was performed in 57 of the pregnancies. Low birth weight was defined by a Z-score ≤ -2.0. RESULTS: The incidence of low birth weight...

  20. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Using Aminophylline for the Treatment of Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Shu-Leei; Lee, Wei-Te; Lee, Pei-Lun; Lu, Chu-Chong; Chen, Hsiu-Lin

    2016-02-01

    Aminophylline has been widely used in the treatment of apneic episodes in premature infants. Animal models suggest caution in the use of aminophylline as it may increase the cerebral metabolic rate and decrease the rate of anoxic survival in neonates. This study aimed to evaluate the neurological outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants treated with aminophylline for apnea in our neonatal intensive care unit. All VLBW infants (body birth weight prematurity, and necrotizing enterocolitis were not significantly different between the two groups. Only bronchopulmonary dysplasia remained significantly higher in the aminophylline group after adjusting for risk factors (48.08% vs. 21.15%; adjusted odds ratio: 12.50; p apnea of prematurity had no apparent and additional risk on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of VLBW infants at a corrected age of 18 months. Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the adverse neurological effects of aminophylline treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Oral L-arginine supplementation and faecal calprotectin levels in very low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycarpou, E; Zachaki, S; Papaevangelou, V; Tsolia, M; Kyriacou, A; Kostalos, C; Kafetzis, D

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the potential effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on intestinal inflammation in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates, as estimated by faecal calprotectin levels. The study enrolled 83 VLBW neonates with birth weight ≤1500 g and gestational age ≤34 weeks. In this double-blind study, 40 neonates received daily oral L-arginine supplementation of 1.5 mmol kg(-1) per day between the 3rd and 28th day of life, and 43 neonates placebo. Stool samples were collected on days 3, 14 and 28, and calprotectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Calprotectin values significantly decreased over time in both groups (P=0.032). No difference in faecal calprotectin values was recorded between neonates receiving arginine supplementation and neonates receiving placebo at days 3, 14 and 28. Faecal calprotectin values decrease with increasing postnatal age in VLBW infants, but this is not related to arginine supplementation.

  2. Profiling the preterm or VLBW born adolescent; implications of the Dutch POPS cohort follow-up studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Pal, S.M. van der; Verloove-Vanhoricka, S.P.; Walther, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1983, data of a unique nationwide cohort of 1338 very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) or VLBW (birth weight < 1500 g) infants in the Netherlands was collected and followed at several ages until they reached the age of 19 years. At 19 years of age a more extensive follow-up study was done,

  3. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Very Low Birth Weight in a Large Urban Area, Stratified by Adequacy of Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaverius, Pamela; Alman, Cameron; Holtz, Lori; Yarber, Laura

    2016-03-01

    This study examined risk and protective factors associated with very low birth weight (VLBW) for babies born to women receiving adequate or inadequate prenatal care. Birth records from St. Louis City and County from 2000 to 2009 were used (n = 152,590). Data was categorized across risk factors and stratified by adequacy of prenatal care (PNC). Multivariate logistic regression and population attributable risk (PAR) was used to explore risk factors for VLBW infants. Women receiving inadequate prenatal care had a higher prevalence of delivering a VLBW infant than those receiving adequate PNC (4.11 vs. 1.44 %, p < .0001). The distribution of risk factors differed between adequate and inadequate PNC regarding Black race (36.4 vs. 79.0 %, p < .0001), age under 20 (13.0 vs. 33.6 %, p < .0001), <13 years of education (35.9 vs. 77.9 %, p < .0001), Medicaid status (35.7 vs. 74.9, p < .0001), primiparity (41.6 vs. 31.4 %, p < .0001), smoking (9.7 vs. 24.5 %, p < .0001), and diabetes (4.0 vs. 2.4 %, p < .0001), respectively. Black race, advanced maternal age, primiparity and gestational hypertension were significant predictors of VLBW, regardless of adequate or inadequate PNC. Among women with inadequate PNC, Medicaid was protective against (aOR 0.671, 95 % CI 0.563-0.803; PAR -32.6 %) and smoking a risk factor for (aOR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.49; PAR 40.1 %) VLBW. When prematurity was added to the adjusted models, the largest PAR shifts to education (44.3 %) among women with inadequate PNC. Community actions around broader issues of racism and social determinants of health are needed to prevent VLBW in a large urban area.

  5. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants. Design of a double-blind randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN73254583

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Fetter, Willem P. F.

    2004-01-01

    Enteral feeding of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is a challenge, since metabolic demands are high and administration of enteral nutrition is limited by immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract. The amino acid glutamine plays an important role in maintaining functional integrity of the gut. In

  6. The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal microflora in very low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.; van Elburg, R.M.; Westerbeek, E.A.; van der Linde, E.G.; Knol, J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Fetter, W.P.F.

    2007-01-01

    Background & aims: In a previous study, we have found that glutamine supplementation decreased the infection rate in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. In this study, we investigated whether this beneficial effect originated from increased number of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the

  7. The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal microflora in very low birth weight infants: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Linde, Esmeralda G. M.; Knol, J.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Fetter, Willem P. F.

    2007-01-01

    In a previous study, we have found that glutamine supplementation decreased the infection rate in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. In this study, we investigated whether this beneficial effect originated from increased number of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal microflora of

  8. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very-low-birth-weight infants and effects on feeding tolerance and infectious morbidity: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Fetter, Willem P. F.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Glutamine depletion has negative effects on the functional integrity of the gut and leads to immunosuppression. Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion because nutrition is limited in the first weeks of life. Objective: The objective was to determine

  9. Trends in mortality and morbidity for very low birth weight infants, 1991-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbar, Jeffrey D; Badger, Gary J; Carpenter, Joseph H; Fanaroff, Avroy A; Kilpatrick, Sarah; LaCorte, Meena; Phibbs, Roderic; Soll, Roger F

    2002-07-01

    Medical care for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and their mothers has changed dramatically during the 1990s, yet it is unclear how these changes have affected mortality and morbidity. We used the Vermont Oxford Network Database to identify trends in clinical practice and patient outcomes for VLBW infants born from 1991 to 1999. Logistic regression was used to evaluate temporal trends in practices and outcomes while adjusting for patient characteristics and accounting for clustering of cases within hospitals. There were 118 448 infants 501 to 1500 g from 362 neonatal intensive care units enrolled in the Network Database from 1991 to 1999. Prenatal care, cesarean section, multiple births, antenatal steroids, and 1-minute Apgar scores increased during this period, as did the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure, high-frequency ventilation, surfactant, and postnatal steroids. The proportion of white infants decreased; the proportions of Hispanic infants and those of other races increased. The crude and adjusted rates of mortality, pneumothorax, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and severe IVH declined from 1991 to 1995, whereas from 1995 to 1999, the rates of mortality, IVH, and severe IVH did not change significantly, and pneumothorax increased. There have been major changes in both obstetric and neonatal care during the 1990s. These changes were associated with decreases in mortality and morbidity for VLBW infants during the first half of the decade. However, since 1995, no additional improvements in mortality or morbidity have been seen, ending a decades-long trend of improving outcomes for these infants.

  10. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  11. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  12. Association of late-onset neonatal sepsis with late neurodevelopment in the first two years of life of preterm infants with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Hentges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the influence of late-onset sepsis on neurodevelopment of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, according to the etiologic agent METHOD: This was a cohort of newborns with birth weight < 1,500 g and gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to the institutional intensive care unit (ICU with up to 48 hours of life, and followed-up at the outpatient follow-up clinic for preterm infants with VLBW until 2 years of corrected age. Exclusion criteria: death within the first 72 hours of life, congenital malformations and genetic syndromes, children with congenital infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, congenital infection (STORCH, presence of early-onset spesis and cases with more than one pathogen growth in blood cultures. Septic and non-septic infants were compared regarding neonatal outcomes and mortality. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale (BSDI-II at 18 to 24 months of corrected age. RESULTS: 411 preterm infants with VLBW were eligible; the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,041 ± 281grams. Late-onset sepsis occurred in 94 preterm infants with VLBW (22.8%. VLBW infants with Gram-positive infection showed motor deficit when compared to the non-septic group, 68.8% vs. 29.3%, respectively (OR 6; 1.6-21.8, p = 0.006; the cognitive development was similar between the groups. The overall mortality rate from infection was 26.7%; considering the pathogens, the rates were 18.7% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 21.8% for Gram-positive bacteria, and 50% for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. CONCLUSION: Neonatal sepsis has a significant influence on late neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants with VLBW, and Gram-positive infections are associated with motor deficit.

  13. Association of late-onset neonatal sepsis with late neurodevelopment in the first two years of life of preterm infants with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, Cláudia Regina; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann; Carvalho, Clarissa Gutierrez; Filipouski, Gabriela Ribeiro; Fuentefria, Rubia Nascimento; Marquezotti, Fernanda; Terrazan, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    To establish the influence of late-onset sepsis on neurodevelopment of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW), according to the etiologic agent. This was a cohort of newborns with birth weight<1,500 g and gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to the institutional intensive care unit (ICU) with up to 48 hours of life, and followed-up at the outpatient follow-up clinic for preterm infants with VLBW until 2 years of corrected age. death within the first 72 hours of life, congenital malformations and genetic syndromes, children with congenital infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), congenital infection (STORCH), presence of early-onset sepsis and cases with more than one pathogen growth in blood cultures. Septic and non-septic infants were compared regarding neonatal outcomes and mortality. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale (BSDI-II) at 18 to 24 months of corrected age. 411 preterm infants with VLBW were eligible; the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,041 ± 281 grams. Late-onset sepsis occurred in 94 preterm infants with VLBW (22.8%). VLBW infants with Gram-positive infection showed motor deficit when compared to the non-septic group, 68.8% vs. 29.3%, respectively (OR 6; 1.6-21.8, p=0.006); the cognitive development was similar between the groups. The overall mortality rate from infection was 26.7%; considering the pathogens, the rates were 18.7% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 21.8% for Gram-positive bacteria, and 50% for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Neonatal sepsis has a significant influence on late neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants with VLBW, and Gram-positive infections are associated with motor deficit. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Mother-toddler play interaction in extremely, very low birth weight, and full-term children: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Salvatori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although preterm birth represents a risk factor for early mother-infant interactions, few studies have focused on toddlerhood, an important time for the development of symbolic play, autonomous skills, and child’s socialization competences. Moreover, no study has looked at the effect of birth weight on mother-child interactions during this period. Expanding on the available literature on prematurity, the main objective of this study was to explore the quality of mother-toddler interactions during play, using a longitudinal research design, as well as taking into account the effect of birth weight.Method: 16 Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW, 24 Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW, 25 full-term children, and their mothers were recruited for the present study. Mother-child dyads were evaluated at 18, 24, and 30 months of child age. Ten minutes of mother-child play interaction were recorded and later coded according to the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS. Furthermore, the child’s level of development was assessed through the Griffiths Scale, and its contribution controlled for. Results: ELBW dyads showed an overall lower level of emotional availability, compared to VLBW and full-term dyads, but no main effect of birth weight was found on specific EA dimensions. Moreover, a significant effect of child age emerged. Overall scores, and Child Responsiveness and Involvement scores improved over time, independently of birth weight. Lastly, a significant effect of the interaction between birth weight and child age was found. Between 18 and 30 months, the overall quality of the interaction significantly increased in ELBW and VLBW dyads. Additionally, between 18 and 30 months, VLBW children significantly improved their responsiveness, while their mothers’ sensitivity, structuring, and non-intrusive behaviors improved. In contrast, no change emerged in full-term dyads, although scores were consistently higher than those of the other groups

  15. Effects of maternal sensitivity on low birth weight children's academic achievement: a test of differential susceptibility versus diathesis stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekel, Julia; Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-06-01

    Differential Susceptibility Theory (DST) postulates that some children are more affected - for better and for worse - by developmental experiences, including parenting, than others. Low birth weight (LBW, 1,500-2,499 g) may not only be a predictor for neurodevelopmental impairment but also a marker for prenatally programmed susceptibility. The aim was to test if effects of sensitive parenting on LBW and very LBW (VLBW, academic achievement are best explained by a differential susceptibility versus diathesis-stress model of person-X-environment interaction. Nine hundred and twenty-two children ranging from 600 g to 5,140 g birth weight were studied as part of a prospective, geographically defined, longitudinal investigation of neonatal at-risk children in South Germany (Bavarian Longitudinal Study). Sensitive parenting during a structured mother-child interaction task was observed and rated at age 6 years. Academic achievement was assessed with standardized mathematic, reading, and spelling/writing tests at age 8 years. Maternal sensitivity positively predicted the academic achievement of both LBW (n = 283) and VLBW (n = 202) children. Confirmatory-comparative and model-fitting analysis (testing LBW vs. NBW and VLBW vs. NBW) indicated that LBW and VLBW children were more susceptible than NBW to the adverse effects of low-sensitive, but not beneficial effects of high-sensitive parenting. Findings proved more consistent with the diathesis stress than differential-susceptibility model of person-X-environment interaction: LBW and VLBW children's exposure to positive parenting predicted catch-up to their NBW peers, whereas exposure to negative parenting predicted much poorer functioning. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Selenium Supplementation for Prevention of Late-Onset Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rahul; Gathwala, Geeta; Yadav, Sudesh; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-06-01

    Neonatal mortality continues to be a significant problem in the Indian setting, especially in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Selenium (Se) has been shown to possess antioxidant properties, and some recent studies have shown a reduction in the sepsis-attributable neonatal mortality with its use. India is a Se-deficient country. Blood Se concentrations in newborns are lower than those of their mothers and lower still in preterm infants. To evaluate the efficacy of Se in preventing the first episode of late-onset sepsis in VLBW preterm neonates. Ninety neonates weighing birth and admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) in the first 12 h of birth with no maternal risk factors for sepsis were analyzed in the study. Se or placebo was supplemented orally once daily from 1st to 28th day of life to the test (n = 45) or control (n = 45) groups, respectively, followed by daily clinical assessment for signs or symptoms of sepsis in the hospital and weekly after discharge. Preterm VLBW neonates (mean birth weight 1464.22 ± 50.14 g and mean gestational age 221.75 ± 4 days) are Se deficient at birth, with mean (SD) Se levels 31.1 ± 14.8 µg/l. Se supplementation at 10 µg/day increased serum Se levels significantly (63.9 ± 13.9 µg/l on Day 28 in Se vs. 40.9 ± 17.3 on Day 28 in placebo; p supplementation. [7/45 (15.55%) in Se vs. 22/45 (48.88%) in placebo; p = 0.001]. Preterm VLBW neonates are Se deficient at birth. Se supplementation at 10 µg/day resulted in getting the Se levels into the acceptable normal level and reduced the incidence of the first episode of late-onset sepsis in these neonates. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Impaired prospective memory but intact episodic memory in intellectually average 7- to 9-year-olds born very preterm\\ud and/or very low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Ruth M.; Griffiths, Sarah; Neulinger, Kerryn; Andrews, Glenda; Shum, David H. K.; Gray, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about episodic memory (EM: memory for personally-experienced events) and prospective memory (PM: memory for intended actions) in children born very preterm (VP)or with very low birth weight (VLBW). This study evaluates EM and PM in mainstream-schooled 7- to 9-year-olds born VP (≤ 32 weeks)and/or VLBW (< 1500 g) and matches full-term children for comparison(n = 35 and n = 37, respectively). Additionally, participants were assessed for verbal and non-verbal ability, e...

  18. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale to early identify very low-birth-weight infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yu; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Shan-Tair; Huang, Chao-Ching

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) is able to identify very low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) as early as 6 months of corrected age. Longitudinal follow-up AIMS assessments were done at 6, 12, and 18 months old for 35 VLBW infants with cystic PVL (cPVL(+)), 70 VLBW infants without cystic PVL (cPVL(-)), and 76 term infants (healthy controls: HC). Corrected age was used for the preterm infants. The cPVL(+) group had significantly lower prone, supine and sitting subscales at age 6, 12, and 18 months than the cPVL(-) group (all p<0.05). The cPVL(-) group showed significantly lower supine, prone, sitting, and standing subscales than the HC group only at age 6 months. At age 6 months, the areas under the receiver operator curve used to discriminate the cPVL(+) infants from cPVL(-) infants were 0.82±0.04 for prone, 0.93±0.02 for supine, 0.83±0.05 for sitting, and 0.62±0.07 for standing. The AIMS may help early identify VLBW infants with cystic PVL at age 6 months old. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal Cytomegalovirus-Specific Immune Responses and Symptomatic Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Transmission in Very Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Elizabeth P.; Webster, Emily M.; Kang, Helen H.; Cangialose, Aislyn; Simmons, Adam C.; Barbas, Kimberly H.; Burchett, Sandra K.; Gregory, Mary L.; Puopolo, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) via breast milk can lead to severe acute illness in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Although the majority of CMV-seropositive women shed CMV in milk, symptomatic postnatal infection of VLBW infants occurs infrequently, suggesting that virologic or immunologic factors in milk may be associated with the risk and severity of postnatal CMV infection. Methods. We investigated the magnitude of CMV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in milk of 30 seropositive mothers of VLWB preterm infants and assessed their relationship to milk CMV load and symptomatic CMV transmission. Results. Milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity was inversely correlated to milk CMV load (r = −0.47; P = .009). However, milk CMV load and CMV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were similar in mothers of VLBW infants with and those without symptomatic postnatal CMV infection. Conclusions. Similar immunologic parameters in milk of CMV-seropositive mothers of VLBW infants with and without symptomatic postnatal CMV infection indicate that screening milk by these parameters may not predict disease risk. However, the inverse correlation between milk CMV IgG avidity and CMV load may suggest that enhancement of maternal CMV-specific IgG responses could aid in reduction of CMV shedding into breast milk. PMID:21984738

  1. Visual search and attention in five-year-old very preterm/very low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, Christiaan J A; de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Dik, Marjolein; Kok, Joke H; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to establish visual search performance and attention functioning in very preterm/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) children using novel and well established measures, and to study their contribution to intellectual functioning. Visual search and attention network efficiency were assessed in 108 VP/VLBW children and 72 age matched term controls at 5.5 years corrected age. Visual search performance was investigated with a newly developed paradigm manipulating stimulus density and stimulus organization. Attention functioning was studied using the Attention Network Test (ANT). Intellectual functioning was measured by a short form of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Data were analyzed using ANOVAs and multiple regression analyses. Visual search was less efficient in VP/VLBW children as compared to term controls, as indicated by increased search time (0.31 SD, p = .04) and increased error rate (0.36 SD, p = .02). In addition, VP/VLBW children demonstrated poorer executive attention as indicated by lower accuracy for the executive attention measure of the ANT (0.61 SD, p attention measures (0.13 SD, p = .42). Visual search time and error rate, and executive attention, collectively, accounted for 14% explained variance in full scale IQ (R(2) = .14, p attention. Visual attention dysfunctions contributed to intelligence, suggesting the opportunity to improve intellectual functioning by using interventions programs that may enhance attention capacities. © 2013.

  2. Serum cortisol values, superior vena cava flow and illness severity scores in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that high cortisol concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Neonatal illness severity and mortality risk scores are reliable in predicting morbidity and mortality. The objectives were (i) to assess the correlation between serum cortisol levels and clinical assessment of multi-organ dysfunction\\/illness severity scores (CRIB II, SNAPPE-II and neonatal multiple organ dysfunction score (NEOMOD)) in first 24 h in VLBW infants and (ii) to assess the relationship between surrogates of end organ blood flow and serum cortisol levels. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight <1500 g were eligible for enrollment. Echocardiography evaluation of superior vena cava (SVC) flow was carried out in the first 24 h life. Cortisol levels were measured simultaneously and appropriate clinical scores were calculated. RESULT: A total of 54 VLBW neonates were enrolled following parental consent. Two patients were excluded because of congenital malformations. In 14 babies the cortisol value was not simultaneously obtained. The mean birth weight was 1.08 kg, mean gestational age was 27.8 weeks. There was a significant correlation between cortisol and NEOMOD score (P=0.006). There was no correlation between cortisol and CRIB II score (P=0.34), SVC flow (P=0.49) and mean arterial blood pressure respectively (P=0.35). CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between SVC flow and cortisol values or between cortisol and mean blood pressure values. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels and neonatal organ dysfunction score evaluated suggesting that stressed VLBW infants do mount a cortisol response.

  3. Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006-2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves.Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants.There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes.

  4. Mortality and management of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Melissa A; Fisher, Jeremy G; Gutierrez, Ivan M; Jones, Brian A; Kang, Kuang Horng; Kenny, Michael; Zurakowski, David; Modi, Biren P; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Jaksic, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of death in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. The overall mortality of NEC is well documented. However, those requiring surgery appear to have increased mortality compared with those managed medically. The objective of this study was to establish national birth-weight-based benchmarks for the mortality of surgical NEC and describe the use and mortality of laparotomy vs peritoneal drainage. There were 655 US centers that prospectively evaluated 188,703 VLBW neonates (401 to 1,500 g) between 2006 and 2010. Survival was defined as living in-hospital at 1-year or hospital discharge. There were 17,159 (9%) patients who had NEC, with mortality of 28%; 8,224 patients did not receive operations (medical NEC, mortality 21%) and 8,935 were operated on (mortality 35%). On multivariable regression, lower birth weight, laparotomy, and peritoneal drainage were independent predictors of mortality (p 750 g; medical NEC mortality fell consistently with increasing birth weight. For example, in neonates weighing 1,251 to 1,500 g, mortality was 27% in surgical vs 6% in medical NEC (odds ratio [OR] 6.10, 95% CI 4.58 to 8.12). Of those treated surgically, 6,131 (69%) underwent laparotomy only (mortality 31%), 1,283 received peritoneal drainage and a laparotomy (mortality 34%), and 1,521 had peritoneal drainage alone (mortality 50%). Fifty-two percent of VLBW neonates with NEC underwent surgery, which was accompanied by a substantial increase in mortality. Regardless of birth weight, surgical NEC showed a plateau in mortality at approximately 30%. Laparotomy was the more frequent method of treatment (69%) and of those managed by drainage, 46% also had a laparotomy. The laparotomy alone and drainage with laparotomy groups had similar mortalities, while the drainage alone treatment cohort was associated with the highest mortality. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Racial disparities in health-related quality of life in a cohort of very-low-birth-weight 2- and 3-year-olds with and without asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth Marie; Robert, Stephanie; Albanese, Aggie; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari

    2012-07-01

    Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk for low health-related quality of life (HRQoL), compared with normal-birth-weight peers, and racial disparities may compound the difference. Asthma is the most pervasive health problem among VLBW children and is also more common among black than white children, partly due to unfavourable environmental exposures. This study explores racial disparities in HRQoL among VLBW children and examines whether potential disparities can be explained by asthma and neighbourhood disadvantage. The study population was the Newborn Lung Project, a cohort of infants (n=660) born VLBW in 2003-2004 in Wisconsin, USA, who were followed up at age 2-3. Multilevel linear regression models were used to examine the contributions of asthma, neighbourhood disadvantage, and other child and family socio-demographic covariates, to racial disparities in HRQoL at age 2-3. A child's HRQoL was measured using the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. VLBW, black, non-Hispanic children, on average, score nearly 4 points lower (p0.05). The authors found no evidence that the relationship between asthma and HRQoL differs by race. The interaction between neighbourhood disadvantage and asthma is statistically significant, with further examination suggesting that racial disparities are particularly pronounced in the most advantaged neighbourhoods. The authors found that the black disadvantage in HRQoL among 2-3-year-old VLBW children likely stems from a high prevalence of asthma. Neighbourhood attributes did not further explain the disparity, as the racial difference was particularly pronounced in advantaged neighbourhoods.

  6. Enteral L-arginine supplementation for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates: a double-blind randomized pilot study of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycarpou, Elena; Zachaki, Sophia; Tsolia, Maria; Papaevangelou, Vasiliki; Polycarpou, Nicodemos; Briana, Despina D; Gavrili, Stavroula; Kostalos, Christos; Kafetzis, Dimitrios

    2013-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired gastrointestinal disease in premature infants and has high mortality and morbidity. Endothelial nitric oxide is an important regulator of vascular perfusion and is synthetized from the amino acid L-arginine. Hypoargininemia is frequently observed in preterm neonates and may predispose them to NEC. Our objective was to determine the effect of enteral L-arginine supplementation on the incidence and severity of NEC in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. We conducted a parallel blind randomized pilot study, comprising VLBW neonates with birth weight ≤1500 g and gestational age ≤34 weeks. VLBW neonates were randomly assigned to receive enteral L-arginine supplementation (1.5 mmol/kg/d bid) between the 3rd and 28th day of life or placebo. Diagnosis and classification of NEC were done according to modified Bell's criteria. Eighty-three neonates were randomized to the arginine (n = 40) or placebo (n = 43) group. No adverse effects were observed in neonates receiving L-arginine supplementation. The incidence of NEC stage III was significantly lower in the arginine-supplemented group (2.5% vs 18.6%, P = .030). Enteral L-arginine supplementation of 1.5 mmol/kg/d bid can be safely administered in VLBW neonates from the 3rd to the 28th day of life. Enteral L-arginine supplementation appears to reduce the incidence of stage III NEC in VLBW infants. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the effect of L-arginine supplementation in preventing NEC in VLBW infants.

  7. Lower conditioning leisure-time physical activity in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight.

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    Nina Kaseva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g have elevated levels of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Preliminary observations suggest that this could partly be explained by lower rates of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess physical activity in healthy young adults born preterm at very low birth weight compared with term-born controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 94 unimpaired young adults, aged 21-29 years, born at VLBW and 101 age-, sex-, and birth hospital-matched term-born controls from one regional center in Southern Finland. The participants completed a validated 30-item 12-month physical activity questionnaire and the NEO-Personality Inventory based on the Big Five taxonomy, the most commonly used classification of personality traits. Yearly frequency, total time, total volume and energy expenditure of conditioning and non-conditioning leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and commuting physical activity were compared between VLBW and term-born subjects. A subset of participants underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurement. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Compared with controls, VLBW participants had lower frequency [-38.5% (95% CI; -58.9, -7.7], total time [-47.4% (95% CI; -71.2, -4.1], total volume [-44.3% (95% CI; -65.8, -9.2] and energy expenditure [-55.9% (95% CI; -78.6, -9.4] of conditioning LTPA when adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, parental education and personality traits. Adjusting for lean body mass instead of body mass index attenuated the difference. There were no differences in non-conditioning LTPA or commuting physical activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Compared with term-born controls, unimpaired VLBW adults undertake less frequent LTPA with lower total time and volume of exercise resulting in lower energy expenditure. Differences in personality that exist between the

  8. Risk Factor Models for Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children Born Very Preterm or With Very Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsell, Louise; Malouf, Reem; Morris, Joan; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Marlow, Neil

    2017-04-01

    The prediction of long-term outcomes in surviving infants born very preterm (VPT) or with very low birth weight (VLBW) is necessary to guide clinical management, provide information to parents, and help target and evaluate interventions. There is a large body of literature describing risk factor models for neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT/VLBW children, yet few, if any, have been developed for use in routine clinical practice or adopted for use in research studies or policy evaluation. We sought to systematically review the methods and reporting of studies that have developed a multivariable risk factor model for neurodevelopment in surviving VPT/VLBW children. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases from January 1, 1990, to June 1, 2014, and identified 78 studies reporting 222 risk factor models. Most studies presented risk factor analyses that were not intended to be used for prediction, confirming that there is a dearth of specifically designed prognostic modeling studies for long-term outcomes in surviving VPT/VLBW children. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the research methodology and reporting to date, and provide recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies seeking to analyze risk prediction or develop prognostic models for VPT/VLBW children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Impaired prospective memory but intact episodic memory in intellectually average 7- to 9-year-olds born very preterm and/or very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Ruth M; Griffiths, Sarah; Neulinger, Kerryn; Andrews, Glenda; Shum, David H K; Gray, Peter H

    2017-11-01

    Relatively little is known about episodic memory (EM: memory for personally-experienced events) and prospective memory (PM: memory for intended actions) in children born very preterm (VP) or with very low birth weight (VLBW). This study evaluates EM and PM in mainstream-schooled 7- to 9-year-olds born VP (≤ 32 weeks) and/or VLBW (children for comparison (n = 35 and n = 37, respectively). Additionally, participants were assessed for verbal and non-verbal ability, executive function (EF), and theory of mind (ToM). The results show that the VP/VLBW children were outperformed by the full-term children on the memory tests overall, with a significant univariate group difference in PM. Moreover, within the VP/VLBW group, the measures of PM, verbal ability and working memory all displayed reliable negative correlations with severity of neonatal illness. PM was found to be independent of EM and cognitive functioning, suggesting that this form of memory might constitute a domain of specific vulnerability for VP/VLBW children.

  10. Preeclampsia and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Population-Based Study.

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    Hsin-Chung Huang

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are associated with impaired angiogenesis. Previous studies on the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP have produced conflicting results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal preeclampsia and ROP using a large population-based cohort of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants from 21 neonatal departments registered in the database of the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for preeclampsia with reference to ROP and severe ROP. A total of 5,718 VLBW infants (844 cases with maternal preeclampsia were included for analysis. The overall incidences of mild and severe ROP were 36.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Univariable analysis showed lower GA and lower birth weight, vaginal delivery, non-SGA, RDS, PDA, sepsis, transfusion, and absence of maternal preeclampsia to be associated with mild and severe ROP development. However, OR (95% CI adjusted for the variables that were significant according to univariable analysis showed the risks of developing any-stage ROP and severe ROP for maternal preeclampsia to be 1.00 (0.84-1.20 and 0.89 (0.63-1.25, respectively. The results remained unchanged in stratified analyses according to SGA status. Our data showed that maternal preeclampsia was not associated with the subsequent development of any stage or severe ROP in VLBW infants.

  11. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18......-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as birth weight...... was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams...

  12. Serious congenital heart disease and necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jeremy G; Bairdain, Sigrid; Sparks, Eric A; Khan, Faraz A; Archer, Jeremy M; Kenny, Michael; Edwards, Erika M; Soll, Roger F; Modi, Biren P; Yeager, Scott; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Jaksic, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Infants with serious congenital heart disease (CHD) appear to be at increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This study aimed to quantify the incidence and mortality of NEC among very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates with serious CHD, and identify specific CHD diagnoses at the highest risk for developing NEC. Data were prospectively collected on 257,794 VLBW (401 to 1,500 g) neonates born from 2006 to 2011 and admitted to 674 Vermont Oxford Network US centers. Entries were coded for specific CHD diagnoses and reviewed for completeness and consistency. Survival was defined as alive in-hospital at 1 year or discharge. Of eligible neonates, 1,931 had serious CHD. Of these, 253 (13%) developed NEC (vs 9% in infants without CHD, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.80, p<0.0001). Mortality for neonates with CHD and no NEC was 34%, vs 55% for those with CHD and NEC (p<0.0001). Both groups of CHD patients had higher mortality than infants with NEC without CHD (28%, p<0.0001). Although NEC mortality overall decreases with higher birth weight, mortality for NEC and CHD together does not. The incidence of NEC is significantly higher in VLBW neonates when CHD is present. The mortality of CHD and NEC together is substantially higher than that with each disease alone. Infants with atrioventricular canal appear to have higher risk for developing NEC than other CHD diagnoses. In addition to providing benchmark incidence and mortality data, these findings may have utility in the further study of the pathophysiology of NEC. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of and risk factors for cranial ultrasound abnormalities in very-low-birth-weight infants at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital

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    Azra Ghoor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH and cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL contribute to neonatal mortality and morbidity. Low birth weight and gestational age are among the risk factors for IVH and cPVL. Objectives. To assess how many very low birth weight (VLBW infants had cranial ultrasound screening at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH and to determine the prevalence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities. To compare the characteristics and risk factors of those VLBW infants with cranial ultrasound abnormalities to those with normal cranial ultrasound findings. Methods. This was a retrospective case-controlled study of infants <1 500 g admitted to CMJAH from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. Cases were identified as infants with IVH or cPVL. Controls were matched 1:2 based on birth weight and gender. Results. Only 55% (856/1 562 of VLBW infants had undergone cranial ultrasound screening. The final sample included 803 VLBW infants. IVH was identified in 26.7% of cases (n=215; 95% confidence interval (CI 23.8 - 29.9 and 0.9% had cPVL (n=8; 95% CI 0.5 - 1.9. A total of 197 cases were identified and matched with 394 controls. Antenatal care attendance was lower in the cases (71% v. 79%; p=0.039. Sepsis, ventilation, metabolic acidosis and patent ductus arteriosus were all significantly higher in the cases. The use of antenatal steroids was significantly higher in the grades I - II IVH/no-IVH group v. grades III - IV IVH group (44% v. 25%; p=0.017. Conclusion. The prevalence of IVH in our setting was consistent with that of developed countries. Improving antenatal care, infection control, and adequate early resuscitation could decrease the incidence of IVH and cPVL. All VLBW infants should undergo cranial ultrasound screening

  14. Total and carboxylated osteocalcin associate with insulin levels in young adults born with normal or very low birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi M Paldánius

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Osteocalcin (OC, a bone-derived protein, has been implicated in the regulation of glucose and energy metabolism. Young adults born with very low birth weight (VLBW have altered glucose regulation and lower bone mineral density (BMD compared with those born at term. The aim of this study was to explore the association between bone and glucose metabolism in healthy young adults born prematurely or at term. METHODS: The cohort of this cross-sectional study comprised 332 non-diabetic young adults (age 18 to 27 years born either preterm with VLBW (n = 163 or at term (n = 169. OC, carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC and markers of glucose metabolism were measured at fasting and after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. RESULTS: VLBW adults were shorter, had lower BMD (p<0.001 and higher fasting OC (p = 0.027 and cOC (p = 0.005 than term-born subjects. They also had higher 2-hour insulin (p = 0.001 and glucose (p = 0.037 concentrations. OGTT induced a significant reduction in OC (p<0.001, similar in both groups. OC reduction was not associated with OGTT-induced increases in insulin (p = 0.54. However, fasting total OC and cOC correlated negatively with fasting insulin after adjustment for age, gender, BMD and VLBW status (r = -0.182, p = 0.009 and r = -0.283, p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adults born with VLBW have higher OC and cOC than their peers born at term. This may in part reflect the mechanisms that underlie their lower BMD and decreased insulin sensitivity. Serum OC appears to be negatively associated with long-term glucose regulation whereas acute changes during OGTT may be mediated via other mechanisms.

  15. Modeling birth weight neonates and associated factors

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    Mansour Rezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonate with abnormal weight is at risk of increased mortality and morbidity. Many factors affect pregnancy outcome. Because of the importance and vital role in birth weight, in this study, some of the factors associated with birth weight in a sample of Iranians neonates were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 245 newborns in a sample of Iranians neonates in the year 2013 were selected, and characteristics of neonate and their mothers were derived. Birth weights were registered by the neonatal scale. To identify the direct and indirect factors affecting birth weight, we used path analysis (PA and IBM AMOS and SPSS software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of weight in girls (3200 ± 421 g less than boys (3310 ± 444 g significantly (P = 0.04. Gestational age (P < 0.001, birth rank (P = 0.012, distance from a previous pregnancy (P = 0.028, and mother weight (P = 0.04 had a statistical significant relationship with birth weight. In the final PA model, gestational age has a highest total effect, type of delivery with gestational age-mediated had the highest indirect effect and type of delivery, and gestational age had the greatest total impact on the birth weight. Conclusion: Gestational age, sex, distance from a previous pregnancy, maternal weight, type of delivery, number of abortion, and birth rank were related with birth weight. Due to the termination of pregnancy and avoid unnecessary deliveries through cesarean section and other related factors should be further consideration by childbirth experts. In addition, factors affecting these variables are carefully identified and prevented as much as possible.

  16. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality Among Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004 were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02, low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001, Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001, resuscitation at birth (P=0.001, respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001 need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001, neurological complications (P=0.001 and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  17. RISK FACTORS FOR THE EARLY NEONATAL MORTALITY IN NEWBORNS WITH VERY LOW AND EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

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    О. V. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the association of perinatal factors with the early neonatal mortality in newborns with very low (VLBW and extremely low birth weight (ELBW.Methods: The statistical data was carried out, that is analysis of 17 perinatal factors of 28 newborns with an ELBW with gestation of 23–27 weeks and 18 newborns with a VLBW with gestation of 28–32 weeks, who died in the first 7 days of life. The comparison group consisted of 25 newborns with an ELBW and 56 children with a VLBW with gestation of 25–27 and 28–32 weeks, respectively, who survived the early neonatal period. The association of risk factors with the early neonatal mortality was assessed by means of a multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. A critical p error level was set equal to 0.05. Results: In newborns with a VLBW the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality depended on a gestation term (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.56–11.71; р = 0.002 and emergency Caesarean section (OR 7.48, 95% CI 1.28–43.74; р = 0.008. A vaginal birth increased the survival chance (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01–0.86; р = 0.032. Newborns with an ELBW had the following factors of the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality: gestational age (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.06–7.73; р = 0.038, Apgar score at the 5th minute (OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.99–3.69; р = 0.050 and presence of chorioamnionitis (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.0–29.53; p = 0.048. An elective Caesarean section increased the survival chance (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.001–0.44; p = 0.048. Conclusion: Summarizing the obtained data, we can conclude that besides a gestational age the risk of early neonatal mortality in newborns with a VLBW may be increased due to the emergency Caesarean section, with an ELBW — due to a low Apgar score at the 5th minute and the presence of mother's chorioamnionitis. A vaginal birth in newborns with a VLBW and an elective Caesarean section in children with an ELBW increase survival chances.

  18. The relationship between multiple developmental difficulties in very low birth weight children at 3½ years of age and the need for learning support at 5 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether multiple developmental difficulties are more frequent in very low birth weight (VLBW) children than in those born full term. The association between multiple developmental difficulties assessed at 3½ years of age and educational provision for the child at 5½ years was

  19. Extensive cardiopulmonary resuscitation for VLBW and ELBW infants: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, P S

    2009-10-01

    Studies of the outcomes of preterm infants after the receipt of extensive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) at birth or in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have yielded varied results. A systematic review of the outcomes of very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants who received extensive resuscitation at birth or in the NICU was carried out. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL databases were searched for studies of extensive CPR in the delivery room (DR-CPR) and in NICU (NICU-CPR) that have reported neonatal or long-term outcomes. A total of 20 eligible studies were identified (11 of DR-CPR, 7 of NICU-CPR and 2 had combined data). DR-CPR was associated with an increased risk of mortality (odds ratio (OR) 2.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.92, 4.16) and severe neurological injury (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.40, 3.67) compared with infants who did not receive extensive CPR. NICU-CPR was associated with an increased risk of mortality (OR 55, 95% CI 15, 195) compared with infants who did not receive CPR; however, confidence limits were wide. The long-term outcome of survivors was reported in a limited number of studies. Extensive CPR at birth or in the NICU for VLBW or ELBW infants was associated with higher risk of mortality.

  20. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

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    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  1. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight.

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    Nina Kaseva

    Full Text Available Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST, in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g.The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD, 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet.With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0, P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0, P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1 was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8, P = 0.97].Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth.

  2. Cerebral tissue oxygenation index and superior vena cava blood flow in the very low birth weight infant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Superior vena cava (SVC) flow assesses blood flow from the upper body, including the brain. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides information on brain perfusion and oxygenation. AIM: To assess the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) and cardiac output measures in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant in the first day of life. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight less than 1500 g (VLBW) were eligible for enrollment. Newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital malformations and greater than Papile grade1 Intraventricular Haemorrhage on day 1 of life were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Low SVC flow states were defined as a flow less than 40 mL\\/kg\\/min. cTOI was measured using NIRO 200 Hamamatsu. RESULTS: Twenty-seven VLBW neonates had both echocardiography and NIRS performed. The median (range) gestation was 29\\/40 (25 + 3 to 31 + 5 weeks) and median birth weight was 1.2 kg (0.57-1.48 kg). The mean (SD) TOI was 68.1 (7.9)%. The mean (SD) SVC flow was 70.36(39.5) mLs\\/kg\\/min. The correlation coefficient of cerebral tissue oxygenation and SVC flow was r = 0.53, p-value 0.005. There was a poor correlation between right and left ventricular output and cTOI which is not surprising considering the influence of intra- and extracardiac shunts. CONCLUSION: There is a positive relationship between cerebral TOI values and SVC flow in the very low birth infant on day one of life.

  3. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...

  4. Effect of Environmental Factors on Low Weight in Non-Premature Births: A Time Series Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Díaz

    Full Text Available Exposure to pollutants during pregnancy has been related to adverse birth outcomes. LBW can give rise to lifelong impairments. Prematurity is the leading cause of LBW, yet few studies have attempted to analyse how environmental factors can influence LBW in infants who are not premature. This study therefore sought to analyse the influence of air pollution, noise levels and temperature on LBW in non-premature births in Madrid during the period 2001-2009.Ecological time-series study to assess the impact of PM2.5, NO2 and O3 concentrations, noise levels, and temperatures on LBW among non-premature infants across the period 2001-2009. Our analysis extended to infants having birth weights of 1,500 g to 2,500 g (VLBW and less than 1,500 g (ELBW. Environmental variables were lagged until 37 weeks with respect to the date of birth, and cross-correlation functions were used to identify explaining lags. Results were quantified using Poisson regression models.Across the study period 298,705 births were registered in Madrid, 3,290 of which had LBW; of this latter total, 1,492 were non-premature. PM2.5 was the only pollutant to show an association with the three variables of LBW in non-premature births. This association occurred at around the third month of gestation for LBW and VLBW (LBW: lag 23 and VLBW: lag 25, and at around the eighth month of gestation for ELBW (lag 6. Leqd was linked to LBW at lag zero. The RR of PM2.5 on LBW was 1.01 (1.00 1.03. The RR of Leqd on LBW was 1.09 (0.99 1.19(p<0.1.The results obtained indicate that PM2.5 had influence on LBW. The adoption of measures aimed at reducing the number of vehicles would serve to lower pregnant women's exposure. In the case of noise should be limited the exposure to high levels during the final weeks of pregnancy.

  5. Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Mahony, Rhona; Malone, Fergal D

    2011-07-01

    To establish the level of birth weight discordance at which perinatal morbidity increases in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancy. This prospective multicenter cohort study included 1,028 unselected twin pairs recruited over a 2-year period. Participants underwent two weekly ultrasonographic surveillance from 24 weeks of gestation with surveillance of monochorionic twins two-weekly from 16 weeks. Analysis using Cox proportional hazards compared a composite measure of perinatal morbidity (including any of the following: mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or sepsis) at different degrees of birth weight discordance with adjustment for chorionicity, gestational age, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, birth order, gender, and growth restriction. Perinatal outcome data were recorded for 977 patients (100%) who continued the study with both fetuses alive beyond 24 weeks, including 14 cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Adjusting for gestation at delivery, twin order, gender, and growth restriction, perinatal mortality, individual morbidity, and composite perinatal morbidity were all seen to increase with birth weight discordance exceeding 18% for dichorionic pairs (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.9, Pbirth weights were appropriate for gestational age. : The threshold for birth weight discordance established by this prospective study is 18% both for dichorionic twin pairs and for monochorionic twins without twin-twin transfusion syndrome. This threshold is considerably lower than that defined by many retrospective series as pathologic. We suggest that an anticipated difference of 18% in birth weight should prompt more intensive fetal monitoring.

  6. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Magnus et al.[12] reported that paternal birth weight has a greater influence on offspring birth weight than maternal birth weight. In contrast, Grifith et al.,[13] in a more recent study, concluded that maternal weight contributed more significantly to offspring's birth weight than paternal weight. Such discrepancies might be a ...

  7. The infant behavioral assessment and intervention program in very low birth weight infants; outcome on executive functioning, behaviour and cognition at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Houtzager, Bregje; Koldewijn, Karen; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Nollet, Frans; Kok, Joke

    2012-08-01

    The Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP©) improved motor function at 24 months, and mental and behavioural development in high risk subgroups of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine IBAIP's effects on executive functioning, behaviour and cognition at preschool age. Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial (RCT). At 44 months corrected age, all 176 VLBW infants were invited for follow-up. Forty-one term born children were assessed for comparison. Visual Attention Task (VAT), Gift delay, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III-NL (PPVT), Visual motor integration tests and Miller assessment for preschoolers. Parents completed Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). At preschool age, 76 (88%) children of the intervention group and 75 (83%) children of the control group participated. There were no significant differences between the intervention and the control group. However, positive interaction effects between intervention and infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants born at gestational agechildren. The 151 VLBW children performed significantly worse than the term born children on the VAT, BRIEF-P and CBCL. IBAIP effects in VLBW children did not sustain until preschool age on executive functioning, behaviour and cognition. However, the most vulnerable children had a clinical relevant profit from IBAIP. VLBW children performed worse than the term born children. This study is a follow-up at preschool age of the multi-centre RCT of IBAIP versus usual care in VLBW infants. The RCT was performed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands (IBAIP). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of volume and frequency advancement feeding protocols in very low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Afaq; Rehman, Abdur; Fatima, Nazia

    2018-01-01

    To determine the outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates receiving volume advancement versus frequency advancement feeding protocols. This controlled clinical trial was conducted in Children Hospital Multan within duration of 6 months from February 2017 to August 2017. VLBW neonates having weight group was to give 1 ml/kg human or pre-formula milk after every 8 hours and in volume advancement (VA) group after every 3 hours initially. After three days, in FA group duration of feeds was decreased gradually from 8 to 2 hours and feed volume of 10 ml.kg -1 .day -1 until full-recommended dose of feeding i.e. 150 ml.kg -1 .day -1 reached. While in VA group, volume of 20 ml.kg -1 .day -1 was given until full-recommended dose of feeding reached. Days to achieve full feed, weight gain, and length of hospital stay were primary study outcomes. Baseline weight of neonates was 1148 (111) grams in VA 1179 (106) grams in FA groups (p-value 0.18). In VA group, full feed was achieved in 11.04 (2.38) days versus 15.76 (2.48) days in FA group (P-value group versus 9.4 (7.6) in VA group (p-value feeding protocol was significantly higher in VA group 1440 (78) grams versus 1284 (99) grams in FA group (P-value group. Volume advancement (VA) feeding is better as compared to frequency advancement (FA) feeding in very low birth weight neonates.

  9. Growth and development of very low birth weight infants aged 18-24 months at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangtawesin, Varaporn; Singarj, Yupayao; Kanjanapattanakul, Wiboon

    2011-08-01

    The number of very low birth weight (VLBW) births is increasing worldwide. Despite better care in recent years, they have a high incidence of delayed growth and development. There are no previous studies regarding the growth and development of these infants at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH). To study growth and developmental outcome of VLBW infants, aged 18-24 months who were discharged from QSNICH. VLBW infants who were discharged from QSNICH during the year 2007 were recruited in the study. Patients with chromosomal abnormalities, major congenital anomalies, definite congenital infections and positive maternal anti-HIV tests were excluded. At the corrected age of 18-24 months, the parents were called upon to bring their infants for complete physical examination and developmental evaluation on 2 occasions, two months apart. There were 111 cases of VLBW infants who were discharged from QSNICH during the year 2007. Fifty-four patients were eligible for the present study. Thirty cases (55.56%) were contacted for the first examination. During this examination, there were 3 cases (10%) with low head circumference, 1 case (3.33%) with poor weight gain, 5 cases (16.67%) with visual defect, 1 case (3.33%) with moderately severe hearing loss, 1 case (3.33%) with cerebral palsy and 7 cases (23.33%) with delayed development. Twenty-one cases could be recalled for a second evaluation. Two of the 5 cases had delayed language development. There were no cases with hydrocephalous, blindness or profound hearing loss. VLBW infants at QSNICH had much better survival during recent years. Most of these survivors had normal growth and development. Those with delayed growth and development need aggressive intervention and long-term follow-up for enhancement of quality of their lives.

  10. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  11. Respiratory severity score and extubation readiness in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroun J. Mhanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The respiratory severity score (RSS is a byproduct of mean airway pressure (MAP and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2. We sought to determine whether RSS could be used as a screening tool to predict extubation readiness in very low birth weight (VLBW infants. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, medical records of all VLBW infants admitted to our unit (6/1/09–2/28/12 were reviewed for infants' demographics, prenatal characteristics, and medication use. Also, records were reviewed for unplanned vs. planned extubation, blood gas, ventilator parameters and signs of severe respiratory failure [RF, defined as partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 > 65, pH  50%, and MAP > 10 cm] on the day of extubation. Results: During the study period 31% (45/147 failed extubation. Overall, infants who failed extubation had a lower birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA, and on the day of extubation had a higher RSS and percentage of having one or more signs of severe RF. In a logistic regression model, adjusting for BW, GA, RSS and RF, RSS remained the only risk factor associated with extubation failure [adjusted OR 1.63 (95% CI: 1.10–2.40; p = 0.01]. RSS had a sensitivity of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.72–0.94 at a cutoff of 1.26 and a specificity of 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80–0.94 at a cutoff of 2.5. There was no difference in extubation failure between unplanned vs. planned extubation [41% (9/22 vs. 29% (36/125; p = 0.25]. Conclusion: An elevated RSS is associated with extubation failure. Successful unplanned extubation is common in VLBW infants. Key Words: very low birth weight, extubation, mechanical ventilation, respiratory severity score

  12. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colaizy Tarah T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9 and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064 were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, th percentile at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54. Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal, 21% (mixed, p = 0.08. Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk.

  13. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.0001), but BMI was not (ρ = 0.025, P = 0.61). On regression analysis, gestational weight gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  14. Influence of air pollution on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

  15. Relation of neural structure to persistently low academic achievement: a longitudinal study of children with differing birth weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caron A C; Fang, Hua; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Filipek, Pauline A; Juranek, Jenifer; Bangert, Barbara; Hack, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the relation of cerebral tissue reductions associated with VLBW to patterns of growth in core academic domains. Children born 2,500 g completed measures of calculation, mathematical problem solving, and word decoding at time points spanning middle childhood and adolescence. K. A. Espy, H. Fang, D. Charak, N. M. Minich, and H. G. Taylor (2009, Growth mixture modeling of academic achievement in children of varying birth weight risk, Neuropsychology, Vol. 23, pp. 460-474) used growth mixture modeling to identify two growth trajectories (clusters) for each academic domain: an average achievement trajectory and a persistently low trajectory. In this study, 97 of the same participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in late adolescence, and cerebral tissue volumes were used to predict the probability of low growth cluster membership for each domain. Adjusting for whole brain volume (wbv), each 1-cm(3) reduction in caudate volume was associated with a 1.7- to 2.1-fold increase in the odds of low cluster membership for each domain. Each 1-mm(2) decrease in corpus callosum surface area increased these odds approximately 1.02-fold. Reduced cerebellar white matter volume was associated specifically with low calculation and decoding growth, and reduced cerebral white matter volume was associated with low calculation growth. Findings were similar when analyses were confined to the VLBW groups. Reduced volume of structures involved in connectivity, executive attention, and motor control may contribute to heterogeneous academic trajectories among children with VLBW.

  16. The human milk project: a quality improvement initiative to increase human milk consumption in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura; Auer, Christine; Smith, Carrie; Schoettker, Pamela J; Pruett, Raymond; Shah, Nilesh Y; Kotagal, Uma R

    2012-08-01

    Human milk has well-established health benefits for preterm infants. We conducted a multidisciplinary quality improvement effort aimed at providing at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in the first 14 days of life to very low birth weight (VLBW) (milk program, and twice-daily physician evaluation of infants' ability to tolerate feedings. The number of infants receiving at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in their first 14 days of life increased from 50% to 80% within 11 months of implementation, and this increase has been sustained for 4 years. Infants who met the feeding goal because they received donor milk increased each year. Since September 2007, infants have received, on average, 1,111 mL of human milk/kg. Approximately 4% of infants did not receive any human milk. Respiratory instability was the most frequent physiological reason given by clinicians for not initiating or advancing feedings in the first 14 days of life. Our quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher consumption of human milk in VLBW infants in the first 14 days of life. Other clinicians can use these described quality improvement methods and techniques to improve their VLBW babies' consumption of human milk.

  17. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... has not been studied. Aim We aimed to investigate the association between BW, GA, and infantile colic. Methods We studied 62,785 singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information on infantile colic symptoms and possible confounders was collected by computer-assisted telephone......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...

  18. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr. faki

    birth weight data. This study was carried out to determine recall of birth weight and delivery complications among mothers in Unguja West District of Zanzibar. Methods: .... Considering confidence level of 95% and response rate of 90%, the ... delivery, delivery complications, child's birth date, birth's order and birth weight.

  19. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paternal weight, parity and maternal weight might improve accuracy of prediction of low birth weight or macrosomic babies and therefore a reduction in perinatal failure. Keywords: Birth weight, anthropometrics, macrosomia, predictability, Nigeria ...

  20. Survival and morbidity of very low birth weight infant in a South American neonatal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rocío; D'Apremont, Ivonne; Domínguez, Angélica; Tapia, José L

    2014-10-01

    To analyze survival and relevant morbidity by gestational age (GA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (Neonatal Network (Red Neonatal Neocosur) between January 2001 and December 2011. Data on 8234 VLBW with a GA between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks were analyzed. Overall mortality was 26% (95% CI: 25.0-26.9), including 2.6% of deaths in the delivery room. Fact sheets for survival and morbidity for each week of gestation were developed based on collected data. Survival at discharge increased from 29% at 24 weeks of GA to 91% at 31 weeks of GA (p neonatal morbidity was inversely related to GA (p hemorrhage, and 4.6% periventricular leukomalacia. Among survivors, 47.3% had none of these five conditions. A tool for use in a clinical setting was developed based on updated regional data for establishing week-to-week survival and morbidity of newborn infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks of GA. This information could be used to make decisions related to perinatal care and for counseling parents.

  1. Cerebral metabolite differences in adolescents with low birth weight: assessment with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathen, Tone F.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Trondheim (Norway); Sjoebakk, Torill E. [Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Martinussen, Marit [St. Olavs Hospital HF, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children' s and Women' s Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Vik, Torstein [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Public Health and General Practise, Trondheim (Norway); Myhr, Gunnar E. [St. Olavs University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trondheim (Norway); Axelson, David [MRi Consulting, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW) have a significantly increased risk of later neurodevelopmental problems, while infants born small for gestational age (SGA) at term are also at some risk of developing neurological impairment. To investigate possible brain metabolite differences in adolescents with VLBW, SGA at term and controls by proton in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 1.5 T. MR spectra were acquired from volumes localized in the left frontal lobe, containing mainly white matter (54 subjects). Peak areas of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) were determined, and the peak area ratio of NAA to Cr, total Cho to Cr, or NAA to Cho calculated. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) analysis was performed utilizing the chemical shift region containing resonances from NAA, Cho and Cr as inputs. No significant difference in the peak area ratios could be found using the Kruskal-Wallis test. By application of PNN, a correct classification of 52 of the 54 adolescents with a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 93% for all groups was achieved. Small, yet systematic, differences in brain metabolite distribution among the groups were confirmed by PNN analysis. (orig.)

  2. Cerebral metabolite differences in adolescents with low birth weight: assessment with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathen, Tone F.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S.; Sjoebakk, Torill E.; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Martinussen, Marit; Vik, Torstein; Myhr, Gunnar E.; Axelson, David

    2006-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW) have a significantly increased risk of later neurodevelopmental problems, while infants born small for gestational age (SGA) at term are also at some risk of developing neurological impairment. To investigate possible brain metabolite differences in adolescents with VLBW, SGA at term and controls by proton in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 1.5 T. MR spectra were acquired from volumes localized in the left frontal lobe, containing mainly white matter (54 subjects). Peak areas of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) were determined, and the peak area ratio of NAA to Cr, total Cho to Cr, or NAA to Cho calculated. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) analysis was performed utilizing the chemical shift region containing resonances from NAA, Cho and Cr as inputs. No significant difference in the peak area ratios could be found using the Kruskal-Wallis test. By application of PNN, a correct classification of 52 of the 54 adolescents with a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 93% for all groups was achieved. Small, yet systematic, differences in brain metabolite distribution among the groups were confirmed by PNN analysis. (orig.)

  3. Reduced mortality and increased BPD with histological chorioamnionitis and leukocytosis in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D A; Zook, K; Mackley, A; Locke, R G

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the association between leukocytosis, mortality and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBW) born to mothers with histological chorioamnionitis. A retrospective cohort study from a single level 3 neonatal intensive care unit. The study sample included infants born to mothers with histological chorioamnionitis (n=252). Total white blood cells (WBCs) after birth were measured. Leukocytosis was defined as a total WBC count >30 000 per mm(3) in the first 2 days of life. Outcomes investigated included BPD and death. Both unadjusted and multivariable analyses were carried out. After controlling for potential confounding variables, infants who developed a leukocytosis after birth had increased odds of BPD (4.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.0 to 10.3), but decreased odds of death (0.3, 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.90). In our population of VLBW infants born to mothers with histological chorioamnionitis, leukocytosis after birth is associated with a decrease in mortality but an increase in BPD.

  4. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  5. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  6. Association of timing of initiation of breastmilk expression on milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II among mothers of very low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Leslie A; Sullivan, Sandra; Krueger, Charlene; Mueller, Martina

    2015-03-01

    Feeding breastmilk to premature infants decreases morbidity but is often limited owing to an insufficient milk supply and delayed attainment of lactogenesis stage II. Early initiation of milk expression following delivery has been shown to increase milk production in mothers of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Although recommendations for milk expression in this population include initiation within 6 hours following delivery, little evidence exists to support these guidelines. This study compared milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II in mothers of VLBW infants who initiated milk expression within 6 hours following delivery versus those who initiated expression after 6 hours. Forty mothers of VLBW infants were grouped according to when they initiated milk expression following delivery. Group I began milk expression within 6 hours, and Group II began expression after 6 hours. Milk volume was measured daily for the first 7 days and on Days 21 and 42. Timing of lactogenesis stage II was determined through mothers' perceptions of sudden breast fullness. Group I produced more breastmilk during the initial expression session and on Days 6, 7, and 42. No difference in timing of lactogenesis stage II was observed. When mothers who began milk expression prior to 1 hour following delivery were removed from analysis, benefits of milk expression within 6 hours were no longer apparent. Initiation of milk expression within 6 hours following delivery may not improve lactation success in mothers of VLBW infants unless initiated within the first hour.

  7. A Randomized Trial Comparing Efficacy of Bubble and Ventilator Derived Nasal CPAP in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates with Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sheetal; Maria, Arti; Roy, Mahesh K; Verma, Ankit

    2016-09-01

    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) has an established role in the care of Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) babies with respiratory distress. Bubble CPAP (BCPAP) is a cheap alternative for countries where resources are limited. However, data comparing efficacy of BCPAP with conventional ventilator derived (VCPAP) is limited. To compare CPAP failure rates between BCPAP and VCPAP among VLBW, with moderate respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to compare the rates of Intraventricular Haemorrhage (IVH), pulmonary air leaks and deaths between the two groups and determine the predictors of CPAP failure. VLBW babies with moderate respiratory distress (Silverman Anderson score 4-7), born or admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) within 28 days of life were randomized to receive either BCPAP (n=34) or VCPAP (n=34). CPAP failure rate in both the groups was compared. The baseline characteristics were similar in both the groups. Five out of 34 (14.70%) babies in BCPAP group and 11 out of 34 (32.35%) in VCPAP failed CPAP (p=0.08). IVH (BCPAP group 24% and VCPAP group 9%, p= 0.10) and mortality (BCPAP group 6% and VCPAP group 9%, p=0.642) were comparable in both the groups. Factors such as gestational age CPAP failure in our study. The CPAP failure rates in VLBW babies with moderate respiratory distress were found to be similar whether bubble CPAP or ventilator CPAP was used. There was no difference in complication rates of IVH or mortality with either method of CPAP.

  8. Review of interventional procedures in the very low birth-weight infant (<1.5 kg): complications, lessons learned and current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffan, Eoghan E. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada); McNamara, Patrick J.; Whyte, Hilary; L' Herault, Johanne [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; John, Philip; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Image-Guided Therapy Unit, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    Interventional radiology (IR) procedures in very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants (<1.5 kg) are challenging due to size, immaturity, comorbidities and lack of devices of suitable size. Infants are moved from the neonatal intensive care unit to the IR suite, further exposing them to risk. Our purpose was to review our experience of interventional procedures in VLBW infants, specifically complications and potential risks. VLBW infants referred for image-guided therapy between 1998 and 2005 were identified and medical records reviewed. ''Complications'' were divided into: major or minor, periprocedural or postprocedural, and intervention-/device-related, patient-related or equipment-related. Transport risk index of physiological stability (TRIPS) scores were calculated. A total of 116 infants (68 male, 48 female) underwent 176 procedures (159 vascular access-related and 17 nonvascular). Of 158 complications identified, 116 were major and 42 were minor. Major complications included hypothermia (n=33), line manipulations/removals (n=25), bleeding (n=12), thrombosis (n=4), cardiac arrest (n=3), tamponade (n=2), and multiorgan failure (n=1). Of the complications, 119 were categorized as intervention-/device-related, 32 patient-related and 7 equipment-related. There were no significant differences between pre- and postprocedural TRIPS scores. Successful completion of IR procedures in the VLBW infant is possible, but complications still occur in these fragile infants. (orig.)

  9. Routine Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG administration in VLBW infants: a retrospective, 6-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Paolo; Lista, Gianluca; Gallo, Elena; Marangione, Paola; Priolo, Claudio; Fontana, Paola; Guardione, Roberta; Farina, Daniele

    2011-03-01

    In preterm neonates, use of probiotic mixtures is increasingly popular and is effective in preventing NEC, fungal colonization, and improving feeding tolerance. However, concerns exist about safety and tolerability of long-lasting administration of living microrganisms to not-immunocompetent hosts. We report a 6-year, two-NICUs experience of routinary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) use in VLBW infants. Clinical charts review, retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to two Italian NICUs in the years 2003-2008. Standard protocol of LGG administration consisted of 3 x 10⁹ CFU/day, in single oral dose, since 4th day-of-life, for 4-to-6-week courses. Nutritional policy relied on administration of fresh, expressed mother's milk, supplementation with preterm formula if needed. Data about LGG safety and tolerability, infections, feeding tolerance, microbiological clinical and surveillance cultures were retrieved and analysed. Complete data were obtained for 743 of 811 VLBW infants. Mean birth-weight was 1056 g; mean gestational age 29.5 weeks. A total of 17,108 LGG doses were administered (mean 23.1/infant). No adverse effects or intolerances putatively attributable to LGG occurred. Overall, 5350 clinical and surveillance cultures from 13 different sites/devices were performed (mean: 7.2 cultures from 6.5 different sites/infant). None ever grew LGG, or other Lactobacilli. No clinical sepsis episode was attributable to LGG. Full enteral feeding was achieved at 19.2 mean days-of-life; 73% of infants were exclusively/partially breastfed. Fourteen NEC cases occurred (=1.9%), with 5 (=0.7%) being>2b stage. Routinary supplementation of probiotic LGG in a large, 6-year VLBW infants Italian cohort proved microbiologically safe and clinically well tolerated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Birth weight is one of the key predictor for survival, health and future development of a child. In developing countries data on birth weights are limited to obtain due to difficulties in keeping records especially among rural women. Maternal recall of birth weight can therefore become a useful source of birth weight ...

  11. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  12. Comparing two motor assessment tools to evaluate neurobehavioral intervention effects in infants with very low birth weight at 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hus, Janeline W P; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; Koldewijn, Karen; Van Sonderen, Loekie; Kok, Joke H; Nollet, Frans; Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G

    2013-11-01

    Infants with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for motor deficits, which may be reduced by early intervention programs. For detection of motor deficits and to monitor intervention, different assessment tools are available. It is important to choose tools that are sensitive to evaluate the efficacy of intervention on motor outcome. The purpose of this study was to compare the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and the Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Dutch Second Edition (BSID-II-NL) in their ability to evaluate effects of an early intervention, provided by pediatric physical therapists, on motor development in infants with VLBW at 12 months corrected age (CA). This was a secondary study in which data collected from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) were used. At 12 months CA, 116 of 176 infants with VLBW participating in an RCT on the effect of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program were assessed with both the AIMS and the PDI. Intervention effects on the AIMS and PDI were compared. Corrected for baseline differences, significant intervention effects were found for AIMS and PDI scores. The highest effect size was for the AIMS subscale sit. A significant reduction of abnormal motor development in the intervention group was found only with the AIMS. No Dutch norms are available for the AIMS. The responsiveness of the AIMS to detect intervention effects was better than that of the PDI. Therefore, caution is recommended in monitoring infants with VLBW only with the PDI, and the use of both the AIMS and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development is advised when evaluating intervention effects on motor development at 12 months CA.

  13. Routine Supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Risk of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Andrea F; Bhatia, Anisha D; Denning, Patricia W; Shane, Andi L; Patel, Ravi Mangal

    2018-02-02

    To evaluate if routine supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 (LGG) is associated with a decreased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Retrospective observational cohort study of VLBW (supplementation with Culturelle at a dose of 2.5 to 5 × 10 9 CFU/day began in 2014. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the association between LGG supplementation and necrotizing enterocolitis (modified Bell stage IIA or greater), after adjusting for potential confounders. We also compared changes in necrotizing enterocolitis incidence before and after implementation of LGG using a statistical process control chart. We evaluated 640 VLBW infants with a median gestational age of 28.7 weeks (IQR 26.3-30.6); 78 (12%) developed necrotizing enterocolitis. The median age at first dose of LGG was 6 days (IQR 3-10), and duration of supplementation was 32 days (IQR 18-45). The incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in the epoch before LGG implementation was 10.2% compared with 16.8% after implementation. In multivariable analysis, LGG supplementation was associated with a higher risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (aOR 2.10, 95 % CI 1.25-3.54, P = .005). We found no special cause variation in necrotizing enterocolitis after implementation of LGG supplementation. There were no episodes of Lactobacillus sepsis during 5558 infant days of LGG supplementation. In this study, routine LGG supplementation was not associated with a decreased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Our findings do not support the use of the most common probiotic preparation currently supplemented to VLBW infants in the US. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  15. Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the effect of human milk, maternal and donor, on in-hospital growth of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. We performed a retrospective cohort study comparing in-hospital growth in VLBW infants by proportion of human milk diet, including subgroup analysis by maternal or donor milk type. Primary outcome was change in weight z-score from birth to hospital discharge. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Results 171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, 75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor −0.84, maternal −0.56, mixed −0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08). Conclusions VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk. PMID:22900590

  16. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Montague, Erica Q.; Maclean, Peggy C.; Bancroft, Mary E.; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very low birth weight (Play is an important developmental outcome to the extent that child’s play and social communication are related to later development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as indexed by play sophistication. Addressing these association

  17. Changes in outcome and complication rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in one tertiary center in southern Taiwan between 2003 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-Dar; Lin, Yung-Chieh; Lu, Chin-Li; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal intensive care has changed dramatically over the past few decades and the survival of infants has generally improved in many countries. The purpose of this study was to explore the recent evolution of mortality and morbidities among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in southern Taiwan. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of VLBW (birth weight BBW), gestational age (GA), Apgar score, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy, chronic lung disease (CLD), inguinal hernia, and sepsis. The length of stay (LOS) in hospital was compared between the two cohorts. A total of 420 (212 male) VLBW infants were enrolled with 52 (12.4%) deaths. Compared to surviving infants, deceased infants had significantly lower GA, Apgar scores, and BBW. The mortality of VLBW infants remained static between the two birth cohorts, but the incidence of major morbidities generally decreased. The LOS for overall surviving infants and the proportion of LOS > 60 days were both reduced in the period of 2007-2010. With further stratification by BBW, the major reduction of long LOS was only found in the group of BBW ≥ 1000 g. The multivariate logistic regression model found PDA, CLD, and BBW < 1000 g were major complications to be associated with long LOS among surviving infants. Periodic evaluation of the mortality and morbidity of preterm infants can help to understand the changes and trends of our neonatal care. Further study using the national dataset to provide more representative information is warranted. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Early Caffeine Prophylaxis and Risk of Failure of Initial Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi M; Zimmerman, Kanecia; Carlton, David P; Clark, Reese; Benjamin, Daniel K; Smith, P Brian

    2017-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that early caffeine treatment on the day of birth, compared with later treatment in very low birth weight (VLBW, caffeine in the first week of life. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to compare the risk of CPAP failure, defined as invasive mechanical ventilation or surfactant therapy on DOL 1-6, by timing of caffeine treatment as either early (initiation on DOL 0) or routine (initiation on DOL 1-6). We identified 11 133 infants; 4528 (41%) received early caffeine and 6605 (59%) received routine caffeine. Median gestational age was lower in the early caffeine group, 29 weeks (25th, 75th percentiles; 28, 30) vs the routine caffeine group, 30 weeks (29, 31); P caffeine groups: 22% vs 21%; adjusted OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.18). Early caffeine treatment on the day of birth was not associated with a decreased risk of CPAP failure in the first week of life for VLBW infants initially treated with CPAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mortality and Length of Stay of Very Low Birth Weight and Very Preterm Infants: A EuroHOPE Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Numerato

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to compare health outcomes and hospital care use of very low birth weight (VLBW, and very preterm (VLGA infants in seven European countries. Analysis was performed on linkable patient-level registry data from seven European countries between 2006 and 2008 (Finland, Hungary, Italy (the Province of Rome, the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden. Mortality and length of stay (LoS were adjusted for differences in gestational age (GA, sex, intrauterine growth, Apgar score at five minutes, parity and multiple births. The analysis included 16,087 infants. Both the 30-day and one-year adjusted mortality rates were lowest in the Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden and Norway and Scotland and highest in Hungary and the Netherlands. For survivors, the adjusted average LoS during the first year of life ranged from 56 days in the Netherlands and Scotland to 81 days in Hungary. There were large differences between European countries in mortality rates and LoS in VLBW and VLGA infants. Substantial data linkage problems were observed in most countries due to inadequate identification procedures at birth, which limit data validity and should be addressed by policy makers across Europe.

  20. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  1. Central diabetes insipidus: alert for dehydration in very low birth weight infants during the neonatal period. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlin, Maria Lúcia Silveira; Sales, Débora Simone; Celini, Fábia Pereira Martins; Martinelli Junior, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare cause of hypernatremia during the neonatal period. The diagnosis is particularly difficult in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. We report on a preterm newborn who presented CDI soon after birth. On the third day of life, signs of dehydration were present despite normal fluid supply. The diuresis rate was 4.4 ml/kg/h. Although the fluid supply was then increased, the dehydration continued, with hypernatremia, normal glycemia, diuresis of 7.4 ml/kg/h and urine density of 1005 mOsmol/l. Thus, a diagnostic hypothesis of diabetes insipidus was raised. A test with a nasal vasopressin analogue (dDAVP) was performed and CDI was confirmed. Reduction of the fluid supply became possible through appropriate treatment. The diagnosis of CDI is rarely made during the neonatal period, especially in VLBW newborns, because of the difficulty in detecting elevated diuresis. Persistent hypernatremia, usually accompanied by hyperthermia despite abundant fluid supply, weight loss and low urine osmolality are important signs of alert.

  2. Association of Red Blood Cell Transfusion, Anemia, and Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ravi M; Knezevic, Andrea; Shenvi, Neeta; Hinkes, Michael; Keene, Sarah; Roback, John D; Easley, Kirk A; Josephson, Cassandra D

    2016-03-01

    Data regarding the contribution of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and anemia to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are conflicting. These associations have not been prospectively evaluated, accounting for repeated, time-varying exposures. To determine the relationship between RBC transfusion, severe anemia, and NEC. In a secondary, prospective, multicenter observational cohort study from January 2010 to February 2014, very low-birth-weight (VLBW, ≤1500 g) infants, within 5 days of birth, were enrolled at 3 level III neonatal intensive care units in Atlanta, Georgia. Two hospitals were academically affiliated and 1 was a community hospital. Infants received follow-up until 90 days, hospital discharge, transfer to a non-study-affiliated hospital, or death (whichever came first). Multivariable competing-risks Cox regression was used, including adjustment for birth weight, center, breastfeeding, illness severity, and duration of initial antibiotic treatment, to evaluate the association between RBC transfusion, severe anemia, and NEC. The primary exposure was RBC transfusion. The secondary exposure was severe anemia, defined a priori as a hemoglobin level of 8 g/dL or less. Both exposures were evaluated as time-varying covariates at weekly intervals. Necrotizing enterocolitis, defined as Bell stage 2 or greater by preplanned adjudication. Mortality was evaluated as a competing risk. Of 600 VLBW infants enrolled, 598 were evaluated. Forty-four (7.4%) infants developed NEC. Thirty-two (5.4%) infants died (all cause). Fifty-three percent of infants (319) received a total of 1430 RBC transfusion exposures. The unadjusted cumulative incidence of NEC at week 8 among RBC transfusion-exposed infants was 9.9% (95% CI, 6.9%-14.2%) vs 4.6% (95% CI, 2.6%-8.0%) among those who were unexposed. In multivariable analysis, RBC transfusion in a given week was not significantly related to the rate of NEC (adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.17-1.12]; P = .09). Based

  3. Effect of early breast milk expression on milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II among mothers of very low birth weight infants: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L A; Sullivan, S; Krueger, C; Kelechi, T; Mueller, M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this randomized pilot study was to collect preliminary data regarding the feasibility and effects of early initiation of milk expression on the onset of lactogenesis stage II and milk volume in mothers of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Twenty women were randomized to initiate milk expression within 60 min (group 1) or 1 to 6 h (group 2) following delivery. Milk volume and timing of lactogenesis stage II was compared between groups using Wilcoxon's rank sum tests. Group 1 produced statistically significantly more milk than group 2 during the first 7 days (P=0.05) and at week 3 (P=0.01). Group 1 also demonstrated a significantly earlier lactogenesis stage II (P=0.03). Initiation of milk expression within 1 h following delivery increases milk volume and decreases time to lactogenesis stage II in mothers of VLBW infants.

  4. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charact...

  5. Analysis of the parameters of postnatal growth in infants with very low body weight at birth in neonatal intensive care and special care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunko Ye.Ye.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the rates of increase in body weight (BW, body length (BL and head circumference (HC in infants with VLBW; define significant factors affecting the rates of postnatal growth (PG for each parameter; identify correlations between the factors and PG parameters. Patients and methods. The assessment of PG of infants with VLBW (n=92 and ELBW (n=34 was carried out during three time intervals: in the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU, in the special care nursery and from birth until the hospital discharge. Results. Average PG rates in infants with VLBW and ELBW (the growth of BW, BL and HC in NICU amounted to 8.63 g/day, 0.89 cm/week and 0.4 cm/week respectively; in the special care nursery: 24.2 g/day, 0.94 cm/week, 0.7 cm/week respectively; during the entire treatment period: 18.23 g/day, 0.92 cm/week and 0.6 cm/week respectively. The growth of BW and HC in infants with VLBW and ELBW during the entire treatment period was directly proportional to the growth of BW, BL and HC in NICU; the growth of BW, BL and HC in the special care nursery, as well as the BL growth during the entire treatment period. The growth of PG parameters was inversely proportional to the BW, BL and HC at birth. Conclusion. The PG rates are directly proportional to the growth of all PG parameters and inversely proportional to the PG parameters at birth.

  6. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight.

  7. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  8. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  9. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  10. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men...... birth weight and adult height; for subjects with birth weight or = 4,501 g, mean height was 184.1 cm. A positive association was also found between birth length and adult height. For subjects with birth length ... adult height was 175.2 cm, increasing to 184.3 cm at birth length > 56 cm. The associations between birth length and adult height persisted after adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, and other confounders, while the associations between birth weight and adult height almost disappeared when...

  11. Teamwork in the NICU setting and its association with healthcare-associated infections in very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Jochen; Sharek, Paul J.; Kan, Peiyi; Rigdon, Joseph; Desai, Manisha; Nisbet, Courtney C.; Tawfik, Daniel S.; Thomas, Eric J.; Lee, Henry C.; Sexton, J. Bryan

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objective Teamwork may affect clinical care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting. The objective of this study was to assess teamwork climate across NICUs and to test scale level and item level associations with healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods Cross-sectional study of the association between HAI rates, defined as any bacterial or fungal infection during the birth hospitalization, among 6663 VLBW infants cared for in 44 NICUs between 2010 and 2012. NICU HAI rates were correlated with teamwork climate ratings obtained in 2011 from 2073 of 3294 eligible (response rate 63%) NICU health professionals. The relation between HAI rates and NICU teamwork climate was assessed using logistic regression models including NICU as a random effect. Results Across NICUs, 36 to 100% (mean 66%) of respondents reported good teamwork. HAI rates were significantly and independently associated with teamwork climate (OR [95% CI] 0.82 [0.73-0.92], p = 0.005), such that the odds of an infant contracting a HAI decreased by 18% with each 10% rise in NICU respondents reporting good teamwork. Conclusion Improving teamwork may be an important element in infection control efforts. PMID:28395366

  12. Infections reported in newborns with very low birth weight who required surgical treatment. Data from the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Helwich, Ewa; Borszewska-Kornacka, Maria; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Gulczyńska, Ewa; Kordek, Agnieszka; Pawlik, Dorota; Szczapa, Jerzy; Domańska, Joanna; Klamka, Jerzy; Heczko, Piotr B

    2013-01-01

    To determine the risk of various forms of infections appearing in very low birth weight newborns (VLBW) during the period of 30 days after surgical treatment in hospitals which have perinatal care departments with neonatal intensive care units that form the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network (PNSN). Continuous prospective monitoring of infections was carried out from January 1st to December 31st 2009 in six neonatal intensive care units which form the Polish Neonatal Surveillance Network. (PNSN). 910 newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW) were included in the study programme. 91 (10%) of this group underwent 118 surgical interventions. 12 newborns needed two or more surgeries. The most common procedure was the closure of persistent ductus artesiosus (PDA) and photocoagulation of vascular damage in the eye fundus. In the period of 30 days after surgery the following were diagnosed: in 3 newborns - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), in 22 newborns - sepsis (BSI) and in 54 newborns - pneumonia (PNEU). Symptoms of BSI and PNEU were on average observed on the 10th day after surgical intervention, while in the case of NEC on the 17th day. The highest incidence of infection (148.4%) was observed after PDA closure and in connection with introducing a drain into the pleural cavity through the intercostal space. The incidence of PN EU (37.3%) was twice as high as the incidence of BSI (18.6%). Surgical procedure was a factor significantly increasing the risk of infection and morbidity (RR 2.1, P<001) In our investigations there was no case of the local infection of a surgical site. 11 newborns died (mortality was 12.1%). The most common bacterial strains found in our investigation were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Escherichia Coli. Taking into consideration the fact that surgical procedure in VLBW-newborns significantly increases the risk of pneumonia and to a minor degree the risk of NEC and BSI, further detailed investigation in the field of perisurgical

  13. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... determine the effect of the year and season, age of the lamb, weight of the lamb, birth type and sex on the birth weight ... lambs, while sheep in the middle age (4 to 5 years) gave birth to lambs with the heaviest body weight. However, the ..... extensive lamb production systems in New Zealand. Livest. Prod.

  14. Respiratory morbidity in very preterm and very low birth weight infants: the first 2 years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory morbidity in the first two years of life, including recurrent symptoms and frequent hospitalizations, is a common problem in very preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW infants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study aiming to describe the respiratory morbidity at 2 years of corrected age for very preterm and VLBW infants and to identify potential risk factors for its development in a Portuguese based population born in a tertiary referral center between 2009 and 2011. Data were collected from patient’s clinical files and using a standardized questionnaire-based clinical interview for parents. A total 59 children were included. Thirteen (22.0% had recurrent respiratory symptoms and 12 (20.3% were using chronic respiratory medication. Health care utilization for respiratory causes was frequent (57.6%, particularly emergency department attendance (50.8%. Twenty seven (45.8% had additional outpatient visits for respiratory causes and hospital admission was necessary for 8 (13.6% patients. Factors associated with increased recurrent respiratory symptoms included maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, umbilical artery flow disturbances, being small for gestational age, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage and a weight percentile below 3 at 6, 12 and 24 months of corrected age. Premature rupture of membranes was negatively associated with respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity at 2 years of age is a common problem in very preterm and VLBW children from our population. Several perinatal and developmental risk factors were identified for respiratory morbidity. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of these factors, as they can lead to changes in healthcare guidelines.

  15. An Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Weight Gain of Very Low Birth Weight Babies with or without Addition of Coconut Oil to Breast Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Sumitha; Kumar, Manish; Paul, Thomas; Thomas, Nihal; Mathai, Sarah; Rebekah, Grace; Thomas, Niranjan

    2018-03-23

    Nutritional guidelines involving the feeding of very low birth weight babies (VLBW) recommend addition of Human Milk Fortifiers to breast milk. Owing to financial constraints, it is a practice in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to add coconut oil to aid better weight gain. There are inadequate data on improvement of growth parameters with oral coconut oil supplementation of breast milk. In this randomized controlled trial, we measured growth parameters and body composition of 60 babies who received either breast milk with coconut oil or breast milk alone. Randomization was stratified according to intrauterine growth appropriate for gestational age (n = 30) and small for gestational age (n = 30). There was no difference in weight gain between the two groups. The weight gain velocity was 15 ± 3.6 and 14.4 ± 3.4 g/kg/day (p value = 0.49) in the breast milk alone and in the breast milk with coconut oil group, respectively. There was no difference in increase in head circumference and length. Triceps skinfold thickness (n = 56) was similar in both groups, but subscapular skinfold thickness was significantly more in the coconut oil group. Total body fat percentage did not differ between the groups (25.2 ± 4.3 vs. 25.5 ± 4.3%, p = 0.79). Oral supplementation of coconut oil along with breast milk did not increase growth parameters or result in change in body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) babies.

  16. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudova I

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova,1 Martina Kasparova,2 Daniela Markova,3 Jana Zemankova,4 Stepanka Beranova,1 Tomas Urbanek,5 Michal Hrdlicka1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Charles University First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 4Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 5Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Studies of children with very low birth weight (VLBW, 1,000–1,500 g and extremely low birth weight (ELBW, less than 1,000 g indicate that this population seems to be at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Methods: Parents of 101 VLBW and ELBW children (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity agreed to participate in the study and signed informed consents; however, parents of only 75 children (44 boys, 31 girls completed the screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT, Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC, and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP. Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently invited for a detailed assessment. Results: Thirty-two children (42.7% screened positive on at least one of the screening questionnaires. The screening tool with the most positive results was the CSBS-DP-ITC (26 positive screens, followed by the M-CHAT (19 positive screens and the ITSP (11 positive screens. Of the 32 children who tested positive, 19 participated in the detailed follow-up assessment. A

  17. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  18. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  19. Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Longitudinal assessment during the first 15 months of corrected age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalisch Gerd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birth weight (VLBW infants ( Methods Comprehensive lung function assessment was performed at about 50, 70, and 100 weeks of postmenstrual age in 55 sedated VLBW infants (29 with former BPD [O2 supplementation was given at 36 weeks of gestational age] and 26 VLBW infants without BPD [controls]. Mean gestational age (26 vs. 29 weeks, birth weight (815 g vs. 1,125 g, and the proportion of infants requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 d (55% vs. 8%, differed significantly between BPD infants and controls. Results Both body weight and length, determined over time, were persistently lower in former BPD infants compared to controls, but no significant between-group differences were noted in respiratory rate, respiratory or airway resistance, functional residual capacity as determined by body plethysmography (FRCpleth, maximal expiratory flow at the FRC (V'max FRC, or blood gas (pO2, pCO2 levels. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory compliance, and FRC determined by SF6 multiple breath washout (representing the lung volume in actual communication with the airways were significantly lower in former BPD infants compared to controls. However, these differences became non-significant after normalization to body weight. Conclusions Although somatic growth and the development of some lung functional parameters lag in former BPD infants, the lung function of such infants appears to develop in line with that of non-BPD infants when a body weight correction is applied. Longitudinal lung function testing of preterm infants after discharge from hospital may help to identify former BPD infants at risk of incomplete recovery of respiratory function; such infants are at risk of later respiratory problems.

  20. The Effect of Assisted Exercise Frequency on Bone Strength in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Erez, Hedva; Eliakim, Alon; Bauer-Rusek, Sofia; Arnon, Shmuel; Regev, Rivka H; Sirota, Gisela; Nemet, Dan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to assess whether a twice daily assisted exercise interventional program will have a greater effect on bone strength compared to a once daily intervention or no intervention in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Thirty-four very VLBW preterm infants (mean BW 1217 ± 55 g and mean gestational age 28.6 ± 1.1 weeks) were randomly assigned into one of three study groups: twice daily interventions (n = 13), a once daily intervention (n = 11), and no intervention (control, n = 10). The intervention was initiated at a mean of 8 ± 2.4 days of life and continued for 4 weeks. It included passive extension and flexion range-of-motion exercise of the upper and lower extremities. Bone strength was measured at enrollment and after 2 and 4 weeks using quantitative ultrasound of tibial bone speed of sound (SOS, Sunlight Omnisense™). At enrollment, the mean bone SOS was comparable between the twice daily interventions, once daily intervention and control groups (2918 ± 78, 2943 ± 119, and 2910 ± 48 m/s, respectively). As expected, the bone SOS declined in all groups during the study period (-23.6 ± 24, -68.8 ± 28, and -115.8 ± 30 m/s, respectively, p strength in the twice daily intervention group (p = 0.03). A twice daily intervention program of assisted range-of-motion exercise attenuates the decrease in bone strength and may decrease the risk of osteopenia and future fractures in VLBW preterm infants.

  1. Contribution of low BirthWeight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between low and very low birth weight infants and perinatal mortality at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: A retrospective study of the hospital records in the labour ward and the Newborn Special Care Unit (N.B.S.C.U), of the UNTH was carried out for the ...

  2. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, D.J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Vink, J.M.; Haak, M.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on

  3. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Haak, Monique C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background

  4. Hypoglycaemia in fasting low birth weight infants in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) infants are commonly at risk of hypoglycaemia. The prevalence of hypoglycaemia and its neurological features in fasting LBW infants below 24 hours of age was assessed. Methods: Low birth weight (LBW) infants seen within 24 hours of birth who had not fed or received ...

  5. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  6. Birth Weight of Infants of Mothers With Aggressive Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A.; Koertge, Thomas E.; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N.; Gunsolley, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Background It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Methods Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers’ periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. Results There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported pregnancy outcomes, we used a compromised approach using prospective data as well as weaker retrospective data assuming that disease onset was likely before the births. Our results, within the limitations of this approach, indicate no evidence that AgP in the mother predisposes low birth weights. AgP has many unique biologic characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic. PMID:21819247

  7. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n=154 Blue-faced Leicester x Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ~147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n=856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n=283), the effect of the ewes' own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes.

  8. Antioxidant response genes sequence variants and BPD susceptibility in VLBW infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Venkatesh; Garland, Jeffery S; Helbling, Daniel; Dimmock, David; Mulrooney, Neil P; Simpson, Pippa M; Murray, Jeffrey C; Dagle, John M

    2015-03-01

    Lung injury resulting from oxidative stress contributes to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) pathogenesis. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (NFE2L2) regulates cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress by inducing enzymes containing antioxidant response elements (ARE). We hypothesized that ARE genetic variants will modulate susceptibility or severity of BPD in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Blood samples obtained from VLBW infants were used for genotyping variants in the SOD2, NFE2L2, GCLC, GSTP1, HMOX1, and NQO1 genes. SNPs were genotyped utilizing TaqMan probes (Applied Biosystems (ABI), Grand Island, NY), and data were analyzed using the ABI HT7900. Genetic dominance and recessive models were tested to determine associations between SNPs and BPD. In our cohort (n = 659), 284 infants had BPD; 135 of whom developed severe BPD. Presence of the hypomorphic NQO1 SNP (rs1800566) in a homozygous state was associated with increased BPD, while presence of the NFE2L2 SNP (rs6721961) was associated with decreased severe BPD in the entire cohort and in Caucasian infants. In regression models that adjusted for epidemiological confounders, the NQO1 and the NFE2L2 SNPs were associated with BPD and severe BPD, respectively. Genetic variants in NFE2L2-ARE axis may contribute to the variance in liability to BPD observed in preterm infants. These results require confirmation in independent cohorts.

  9. Anti-Oxidant Response Genes sequence variants and BPD susceptibility in VLBW infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Venkatesh; Garland, Jeffery S.; Helbling, Daniel; Dimmock, David; Mulrooney, Neil P.; Simpson, Pippa M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Dagle, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung injury resulting from oxidative stress contributes to bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) pathogenesis. Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor-2 (NFE2L2) regulates cytoprotective responses to oxidative stress by inducing enzymes containing anti-oxidant response elements (ARE). We hypothesized that ARE genetic variants will modulate susceptibility or severity of BPD in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods Blood samples obtained from VLBW infants were used for genotyping variants in the SOD2, NFE2L2, GCLC, GSTP1, HMOX1 and NQO1 genes. SNPs were genotyped utilizing TaqMan probes (Applied Biosystems (ABI), Grand Island, NY), and data was analyzed using the ABI HT7900. Genetic dominance and recessive models were tested to determine associations between SNPs and BPD. Results In our cohort (n=659), 284 infants had BPD; 135 of whom developed severe BPD. Presence of the hypomorphic NQO1 SNP (rs1800566) in a homozygous state was associated with increased BPD while presence of the NFE2L2 SNP (rs6721961) was associated with decreased severe BPD in the entire cohort and in Caucasian infants. In regression models that adjusted for epidemiological confounders, the NQO1 and the NFE2L2 SNPs were associated with BPD and severe BPD, respectively. Conclusions Genetic variants in NFE2L2-ARE axis may contribute to the variance in liability to BPD observed in preterm infants. These results require confirmation in independent cohorts. PMID:25518008

  10. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  11. Relationship between gestational age, birth weight and deciduous tooth eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Mohamed Khalifa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Delayed tooth eruption was related to lower birth weight and prematurity. The delayed eruption in preterm babies may be related to premature birth and not to a delay in dental development.

  12. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Low socio-economic status is the underlying cause of low birth weight. Other causes include maternal malnutrition; maternal diseases like antepartum hemorrhage, anaemia, cervical incompetence; adolescent pregnancies; short birth intervals; intrauterine infections; multiple pregnancy; congenital malformations; placental.

  13. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term...... the effect of ambient air pollution. The aim of this commentary is to review the published literature on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW regarding increased vulnerability for the above-mentioned subgroups.  Results: Although more than fifty epidemiological studies have examined...... the associations between ambient air pollution and TLBW to date, we only identified six studies that examined the potential effect modification of the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW by the above listed maternal risk factors. Two studies assessed effect modification caused by smoking...

  14. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  15. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Shyam V; Kulkarni, Madhav B; Sadavarte, Vaishali S; Ashtekar, Ratna S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg) over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby’s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades. PMID:20922101

  16. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  17. [Effect of early nutrition on growth parameters and psychomotor development of children of very low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocourková, I; Sobotková, D; Pilarová, M; Dittrichová, J; Vondrácek, J; Stranák, Z

    2004-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate influence of early nutrition on growth parameters and psychomotor development of children with very low birth weight (VLBW). A prospective clinical study. Institute for Care of Mother and Child, Prague. Thirty nine children of birth weight 1,000-1,499 were followed up to one year of their corrected age in a prospective study. The group was divided in two groups according to type of nutrition: 17 children (group A) were fed with milk of own mother - "preterm milk", 22 children (group B) were orally fed with mature milk from the Bank of mother milk - "term milk", which was fortified with BMF preparation (Nutricia, Netherlands). Both groups were comparable in basic anthropometric parameters (weight, lenght, circumference of head and thotax) and in psychosocial characteristics of their mothers. Growths parameters were monitored in weekly intervals for approximatelly eight weeks. In the period between 11th and 15th month of corrected age, the children were evaluated by a clinical psychologist on a blind basis in mental a motor development by using Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II). Statistical analysis was performed by chi-square test and t-test. No statistically significant differences between the two groups in evaluating the growth parameters were observed. The psychological examination demonstrated statistically significant differences in the motor development. The psychomotor developmental index (PVI) proved to be 84.4 +/- 14.6 in the group A and 94.3 +/- 12.5 in the group B (t-test = 2.28, pdevelopment between the two groups. The mean mentel developmental index (MVI) was 98.2 +/- 10.2 in the A group and 101.0 +/- 13.3 in the group B. Result of the study indicate favorable effect of fortification of breast milk in VLBW newborns, especially in view of the observed favorable influence of fortfication on motor development of the children.

  18. The effect of kangaroo ward care in comparison with "intermediate intensive care" on the growth velocity in preterm infant with birth weight control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Oleti Tejo

    2016-10-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in preterm infants. In this study, we compared the efficacy of "baby care in kangaroo ward (KWC)" with "baby care in intermediate intensive care (IIC)" in stable preterm infants (birth weight birth weight <1100 g) infants at term gestational age. Clinical trial registry of India CTRI/2014/05/004625 WHAT IS KNOWN: • Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in VLBW infants. What is new: • Baby care by mother can be given safely in kangaroo ward from a weight of 1150 g in stable preterm infants without any adverse effects.

  19. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  20. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  1. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2014-01-01

    between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....

  2. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  3. [Early parenteral nutrition with very low and extremely low birth weight infants--practical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakrilova, L; Sluncheva, B; Emilova, Z; Pramatarova, T; Jarukova, N; Radulova, P; Chitrova, S; Petrova, G

    2010-01-01

    Newborn infants with birth weight 1500 g and less (VLBW/ELBW) have higher nutritional needs, but enteral feeding is often insufficient or impossible. Parenteral nutrition (PN) as an important component of intensive care with them minimizes the risk of nutritional deficiency. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of early PN administration in VLBW/ELBW infants. The prospective study includes 23 newborn babies with birthweight below 1500 g who were admitted to the NICU from 01.03. to 20.04. 2009. With all babies a PN was started from the first day of life with dextrose and amino acid solutions, adding lipid solutions in gradually increasing quantity on the second day. During the first 20 days of life for each baby were calculated on a daily basis the exact quantities of energy and the essential nutritional substances as well as the balance among them. All babies were followed up for weight gain, presence or absence of complications, related with parenteral nutrition as well as for: blood sugar, acid-base status, total serum protein, electrolytes, urea, triglycerides, billirubin, alkaline phosphatase, ASAT ALAT RESULTS: We found that due to the small infusion volumes during the first days, the minimal daily needed nutrition levels are reached at day 4-5. Nutritional intake at day 7-10 in most children is enough for growth. A positive mean weight gain for the whole group 6.6 g/kg/d (SD 6.2) is observed. Negative weight gain during the first 20 days is observed only with two critically ill babies with substantial reduction of infusion volume. In 9 babies a transient increase in urea levels was observed during the first week, 5 babies had an increase in triglycerides as a symptom of bad lipid tolerance. In 7 babies on prolonged total PN an increase in alkaline phosphatase is observed. Conclusions. Early and sufficient PN in newborn babies below 1500 g guarantees the daily intake of energy and essential nutritive substances for adequate growth and is a basic component of

  4. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors affecting human milk cytokines among Peruvian mothers bearing low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambruni, Mara; Villalobos, Alex; Somasunderam, Anoma; Westergaard, Sarah; Nigalye, Maitreyee; Turin, Christie G; Zegarra, Jaime; Bellomo, Sicilia; Mercado, Erik; Ochoa, Theresa J; Utay, Netanya S

    2017-04-01

    Several cytokines have been detected in human milk but their relative concentrations differ among women and vary over time in the same person. The drivers of such differences have been only partially identified, while the effect of luminal cytokines in the fine-regulation of the intestinal immune system is increasingly appreciated. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between obstetrical complications and human milk cytokine profiles in a cohort of Peruvian women giving birth to Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants. Colostrum and mature human milk samples were collected from 301 Peruvian women bearing LBW infants. The concentration of twenty-three cytokines was measured using the Luminex platform. Ninety-nine percent of women had at least one identified obstetrical complication leading to intra-uterine growth restriction and/or preterm birth. Median weight at birth was 1,420g; median gestational age 31 weeks. A core of 12 cytokines, mainly involved in innate immunity and epithelial cell integrity, was detectable in most samples. Maternal age, maternal infection, hypertensive disorders, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membranes were associated with specific cytokine profiles both in colostrum and mature human milk. Mothers of Very LBW (VLBW) neonates had significantly higher concentrations of chemokines and growth factor cytokines both in their colostrum and mature milk compared with mothers of larger neonates. Thus, maternal conditions affecting pregnancy duration and in utero growth are also associated with specific human milk cytokine signatures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Col-Araz, Nilgun

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine's Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth, and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r = 0.115, p history of disease during pregnancy (p computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p computers during pregnancy (p computers may have an effect on pre-term birth.

  6. Post-discharge body weight and neurodevelopmental outcomes among very low birth weight infants in Taiwan: A nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Ting; Chen, Chao-Huei; Wang, Teh-Ming; Hsu, Ya-Chi

    2018-01-01

    Background Premature infants are at high risk for developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction. Besides medical conditions, growth restriction is regarded as an important risk factor for cognitive and neurodevelopmental dysfunction throughout childhood and adolescence and even into adulthood. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between post-discharge body weight and psychomotor development using a nationwide dataset. Materials and methods This was a nationwide cohort study conducted in Taiwan. Total of 1791 premature infants born between 2007 and 2011 with a birth weight of less than 1500 g were enrolled into this multi-center study. The data were obtained from the Taiwan Premature Infant Developmental Collaborative Study Group. The growth and neurodevelopmental evaluations were performed at corrected ages of 6, 12 and 24 months. Post-discharge failure to thrive was defined as a body weight below the 3rd percentile of the standard growth curve for Taiwanese children by the corrected age. Results The prevalence of failure to thrive was 15.8%, 16.9%, and 12.0% at corrected ages of 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. At corrected ages of 24 months, 12.9% had low Mental Developmental Index (MDI) scores (MDIfailure to thrive was significantly associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. After controlling for potential confounding factors (small for gestational age, extra-uterine growth retardation at discharge, cerebral palsy, gender, mild intraventricular hemorrhage, persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, surfactant use and indomethacin use), post-discharge failure to thrive remained a risk factor. Conclusion This observational study observed the association between lower body weight at corrected age of 6, 12, and 24 months and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes among VLBW premature infants. There are many adverse factors

  7. Early neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants with mild intraventricular hemorrhage or those without intraventricular hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Rak Choi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; This study aimed to assess early development in very low birth weight (VLBW infants with mild intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH or those without IVH and to identify the perinatal morbidities affecting early neurodevelopmental outcome. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II was used for assessing neurological development in 49 infants with a birth weight &lt;1,500 g and with low grade IVH (?#167;rade II or those without IVH at a corrected age of 12 months. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; Among the 49 infants, 19 infants (38.8% showed normal development and 14 (28.6% showed abnormal mental and psychomotor development. Infants with abnormal mental development (n=14 were mostly male and had a longer hospitalization, a higher prevalence of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, and were under more frequent postnatal systemic steroid treatment compared with infants with normal mental development (n=35, P&lt;0.05. Infants with abnormal psychomotor development (n=29 had a longer hospitalization and more associated PDA compared to infants with normal psychomotor development (n=20, P&lt;0.05. Infants with abnormal mental and psychomotor development were mostly male and had a longer hospitalization and a higher prevalence of PDA and BPD compared to infants with normal mental and psychomotor development (n=19, P&lt;0.05. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, a longer duration of hospitalization and male gender were found to be significant risk factors. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; Approximately 62% of VLBW infants with low grade IVH or those without IVH had impaired early development.

  8. Birth weight of infants of mothers with aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A; Koertge, Thomas E; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N; Gunsolley, John C

    2012-03-01

    It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers' periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported periodontal examination. For periodontally healthy controls, 13.2% of babies born to siblings of AgP patients and 12.8% of babies born to unrelated mothers weighed characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic.

  9. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and placental weight determine birth weight in normal Jamaican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, J M; Davidson, S; Hall, J S; Jackson, A A

    1999-12-01

    Birth weight is related to neonatal health and long-term risk of chronic disease. Since animal studies have shown that birth outcome is related to placental function, the present project was designed to explore the relationship between birth weight and placental growth and composition with maternal factors during pregnancy among normal term pregnancies in 51 primiparous and 40 multiparous women delivering at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Both groups were followed from 15 weeks of gestation to term. The primiparous group was generally younger than the multiparous (mean age 22 +/- 4 versus 31 +/- 5 yr). They were significantly lighter (55 +/- 8 versus 61 +/- 9 kg) with a lower body mass index (21 +/- 3 versus 23 +/- 4 kg/m2) during early pregnancy, but gained more weight during pregnancy, 11 kg compared with 8 kg, respectively. The duration of pregnancy was similar for both groups. Although the size of the placenta was not significantly different between the two groups, the mean weight of the multiparous placentae was more than that of the primiparous placentae. Also, for all mothers both placental weight and initial maternal weight related directly to birth weight. Placental non collagen protein (NCP), sodium and potassium contents were significantly higher for multiparous women and were related to birth weight. The primiparous group had babies who were significantly lighter, 3.03 kg compared with 3.36 kg, for the multiparous and this could be attributed to differences in placental function and maternal weight. When account was taken of the difference in maternal weight at the start of pregnancy and the difference in placental weight, parity no longer explained any of the differences in birth weight. It is concluded that maternal body weight at the time of becoming pregnant and the early development of the placenta determine the efficiency with which nutrients might be delivered to the foetus and hence foetal growth. The difference in birth weight

  10. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial of Slow Versus Rapid Enteral Feeding Advancements on the Clinical Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F; Mannan, M A; Dey, A C; Nahar, N; Hasan, Z; Jahan, I; Dey, S K; Shahidullah, M

    2017-04-01

    Starting and advancement of feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are big challenges for the neonatal practitioners. Wide variations in volume of feed advancement have observed in earlier trials both in slow and rapid advancement groups. Volume advancement in slow advancement groups have ranged from 10ml/kg/day to 23ml/kg/day and in rapid advancement groups have ranged from 15ml/kg/day to 45ml/kg/day in earlier different studies. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from April 2013 to July 2014 to evaluate the effects of slow versus rapid rates of feeding advancements on the clinical outcomes in very low birth weight infants. A total 95 infants were enrolled into two strata according to their birth weight. Infants of each stratum were randomly allocated to either slow or rapid advancement group during initiation of feeding. After gut priming over five days, feeding was advanced daily 10ml/kg in slow and 15ml/kg in rapid advancement group for 1000 - rapid advancement group. The primary outcome variable was time taken to achieve full enteral feed. Total 82 infants completed the trial. Demographically both groups were same. Infants in the rapid feeding advancement group achieved full enteral feedings before the slow advancement group, had significantly fewer days of parenteral nutrition and regained birth weight earlier. There were no statistical differences in episodes of feed interruption, number of infants with apnea, feed intolerance or diagnosis of sepsis. Rapid enteral feeding advancements were well tolerated by very low birth weight infants.

  12. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  13. Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a a a print email share Facebook Twitter Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight ... Article Body ​​​​​​​​A study in Pediatrics found giving iron supplements to low birth weight infants reduces the ...

  14. Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight. HE Onah, ACC Ikeme, PO Nkwo. Abstract. In a prospective cross-sectional study, the correlation between symphysiofundal height (SFH) and birth weight was evaluated in 2646 consecutive parturients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, ...

  15. Parental socioeconomic status and birth weight distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Birth weight is one of the most impor- tant determinants of perinatal well. -being and survival. It may be influenced by socioeconomic status among other factors. Objective: To evaluate the influ- ence of parental socioeconomic status on birth weight distribution of term infants. Patients ...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight in Jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ademu

    The World Health. Organization (WHO) then conducted a study on eighteen different countries at different stages of development. This revealed that babies could be classified into three main groups based on their birth weight and gestational age: small for gestational age, appropriate for age, large for age. Low birth weight ...

  17. Factors predisposing to low birth weight in Jimma Hospital South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight continues to remain a major public health problem in Ethiopia in contrast to what is observed in many developing countries. Objectives: To assess some of the predisposing factors to low birth weight among deliveries in Jimma hospital. Design: Cross-sectional case referent study.

  18. Intrapartum prediction of birth weight using maternal anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This prospective study was conducted at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Nigeria, between April 1st and 31st of July, 2013 to predict birth weight in labour using four clinical methods and ultrasound scan independently and comparatively to determine which is closest to the actual birth weight. The four clinical methods are ...

  19. Factors influencing birth weights in Cameroon | Ngassa | Clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After gestational age has been shown to be significantly correlated with mean birth weights in Cameroon, the aim of this study was to determine other factors which can also influence birth weights. This was a cross sectional study carried out in the obstetrics and gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in Yaoundé during the ...

  20. Birth Weight does not Associate with Gestational Physical Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise during pregnancy has been a subject of debate and whether gestational physical activity profile affects birth weight is an important issue as birth weight is an indicator of fetal, neo-natal and post-natal mortality. This study was carried at three hospitals in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria to determine the difference between ...

  1. Patterns of birth weight at a community level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    fill this gap and issues related to representativeness a community based study that identified a one-year live ... and type of latrine facility showed variation in low birth weight rates. These factors also showed independent and significant effect on birth weight patterns. ... were based on health facility records. According the ...

  2. Economic Benefits and Costs of Human Milk Feedings: A Strategy to Reduce the Risk of Prematurity-Related Morbidities in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tricia J.; Patel, Aloka L.; Bigger, Harold R.; Engstrom, Janet L.; Meier, Paula P.

    2014-01-01

    Infants born at very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight Human milk has been shown to reduce both the incidence and severity of some of these morbidities and, therefore, has an indirect impact on the cost of the NICU hospitalization. Furthermore, human milk may also directly reduce NICU hospitalization costs, independent of the indirect impact on the incidence and/or severity of these morbidities. Although there is an economic cost to both the mother and institution for providing human milk during the NICU hospitalization, these costs are relatively low. This review describes the total cost of the initial NICU hospitalization, the incremental cost associated with these prematurity-related morbidities, and the incremental benefits and costs of human milk feedings during critical periods of the NICU hospitalization as a strategy to reduce the incidence and severity of these morbidities. PMID:24618763

  3. Timing of nutritional interventions in very-low-birth-weight infants: optimal neurodevelopment compared with the onset of the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafeber, Harrie N; van de Lagemaat, Monique; Rotteveel, Joost; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam

    2013-08-01

    Recent nutritional research in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants is focused on the prevention of protein malnutrition during the first postnatal weeks. At this early age, nutritional protein fortification depends on amino acid infusion via a central vein because of the immature gastrointestinal tract. In 2010 new guidelines on nutrition were proposed by the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition nutrition committee. In particular, the relative increase in the protein fraction in the nutrition of these infants aims to prevent early postnatal weight loss, to prevent morbidity, and to stimulate neurodevelopment. On the other hand, an increasing number of follow-up studies in VLBW infants indicate that, in particular, those infants who show rapid growth after preterm birth are at risk of metabolic consequences and cardiovascular disease later in life. In this review, we describe the quest to develop a customized diet that offers optimal nutrition at several time points of growth and development during the first year of life. This diet should prevent early malnutrition, enhance neurodevelopment, and limit the increase in total body fat during the first 6 mo. We question whether one type of early diet suffices for normal neurodevelopment with a normal body composition in later life or whether we need several types of diet at various stages of development.

  4. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight......, gestational age, TSH, and smoking) did not change the findings of nonsignificant regression coefficients. CONCLUSION: Low birth weight per se has no evident role in the etiology of thyroid autoimmunity....

  5. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  6. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  7. Epigenetic Consequences of Low Birth-Weight and Preterm Birth in Adult Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua

    2018-01-01

    Adverse birth outcomes including low birth-weight and preterm birth are associated with long-term morbidity and health consequences at adult ages. Molecular mechanisms including epigenetic modification may have been involved in the adaptation to the stressful condition in peridelivery period whic...

  8. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  9. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  10. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been several publications from different countries on the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, such reports from Nigeria are lacking in literature. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight ...

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging of the cortical plate and subplate in very-low-birth-weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; Zwol, Arjen L. van; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes B. van; Buijs, Jan; Lequin, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Many intervention studies in preterm infants aim to improve neurodevelopmental outcome, but short-term proxy outcome measurements are lacking. Cortical plate and subplate development could be such a marker. Our aim was to provide normal DTI reference values for the cortical plate and subplate of preterm infants. As part of an ongoing study we analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of 19 preterm infants without evidence of injury on conventional MRI, with normal outcome (Bayley-II assessed at age 2), and scanned in the first 4 days of life. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the frontal and temporal subplate and cortical plate were measured in single and multiple voxel regions of interest (ROI) placed on predefined regions. Using single-voxel ROIs, statistically significant inverse correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and FA of the frontal (r = -0.5938, P = 0.0058) and temporal (r = -0.4912, P = 0.0327) cortical plate. ADC values had a significant positive correlation with GA in the frontal (r = 0.5427, P = 0.0164) and temporal (r = 0.5540, P = 0.0138) subplate. Diffusion tensor imaging allows in vivo exploration of the evolving cortical plate and subplate. We provide FA and ADC values of the subplate and cortical plate in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with normal developmental outcome that can be used as reference values. (orig.)

  12. Diffusion tensor imaging of the cortical plate and subplate in very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; Zwol, Arjen L. van; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes B. van [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam, Zuid-holland (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Many intervention studies in preterm infants aim to improve neurodevelopmental outcome, but short-term proxy outcome measurements are lacking. Cortical plate and subplate development could be such a marker. Our aim was to provide normal DTI reference values for the cortical plate and subplate of preterm infants. As part of an ongoing study we analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of 19 preterm infants without evidence of injury on conventional MRI, with normal outcome (Bayley-II assessed at age 2), and scanned in the first 4 days of life. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the frontal and temporal subplate and cortical plate were measured in single and multiple voxel regions of interest (ROI) placed on predefined regions. Using single-voxel ROIs, statistically significant inverse correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and FA of the frontal (r = -0.5938, P = 0.0058) and temporal (r = -0.4912, P = 0.0327) cortical plate. ADC values had a significant positive correlation with GA in the frontal (r = 0.5427, P = 0.0164) and temporal (r = 0.5540, P = 0.0138) subplate. Diffusion tensor imaging allows in vivo exploration of the evolving cortical plate and subplate. We provide FA and ADC values of the subplate and cortical plate in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with normal developmental outcome that can be used as reference values. (orig.)

  13. The relationship between multiple developmental difficulties in very low birth weight children at 3½ years of age and the need for learning support at 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Gijs; Jeukens-Visser, Martine; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid; Kok, Joke; Nollet, Frans

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether multiple developmental difficulties are more frequent in very low birth weight (VLBW) children than in those born full term. The association between multiple developmental difficulties assessed at 3½ years of age and educational provision for the child at 5½ years was also investigated, with 'educational provision' referring to the curriculum, school placement and the level of learning support. There were 143 VLBW children without cerebral palsy (CP) and 41 term-born peers assessed at 3½ years of age. The assessment included 6 measures of development: word comprehension, visual motor integration, visual perception, motor coordination, executive functioning and behaviour. Educational provision was determined at age 5½ years. A mildly abnormal score (score difficulties (>1 difficulty score) in each child. This study showed that at 3½ years of age, the VLBW children had significantly more difficulty with motor coordination than their term-born peers. In addition, 27% of the VLBW children had multiple difficulties compared to 10% in the term-born group. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that of the difficulties, impaired motor coordination was most strongly associated with the requirement for learning support two years later. Regression analyses showed that having multiple difficulties was significantly associated with the need for learning support (Odds Ratio of 3.4 (95% CI: 1.5-7.8). These results show that the presence of multiple difficulties in a VLBW child of preschool age, can impact the child's educational provision two years later. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). METHODS: First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations...... of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age childhood asthma outcomes. RESULTS: Younger gestational...... age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal...

  15. Analysis of the association between necrotizing enterocolitis and transfusion of red blood cell in very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Yeong Bak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the association between necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC and red blood cell transfusions in very low birth weight (VLBW preterm infants. Methods: We studied were 180 VLBW preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of CHA Gangnam Hospital from January of 2006 to December of 2009. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: an NEC group (greater than stage II on the modified Bell’s criteria and a control group (less than stage II on the modified Bell’s critieria. We defined red blood cell transfusion before NEC diagnosis as the frequency of transfusion until NEC diagnosis (mean day at NEC diagnosis, day 18 in the NEC group and the frequency of transfusion until 18 days after birth in the control group. Results: Of the 180 subjects, 18 (10% belonged to the NEC group, and 14 (78% of these 18 patients had a history of transfusion before NEC diagnosis. The NEC group received 3.1±2.9 transfusions, and the control group received 1.0±1.1 transfusions before the NEC diagnosis (P =0.005. In a multivariate logistic regression corrected for gestational age, Apgar score at 1 minute, the presence of respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, premature rupture of membrane, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and death were confounding factors. The risk of NEC increased 1.63 times (95% confidence interval, 1.145 to 2.305; P =0.007 with transfusion before the NEC diagnosis. Conclusion: The risk for NEC increased significantly with increased transfusion frequency before the NEC diagnosis.

  16. Maternal Factors for Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth At Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neebha Ojha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight and preterm birth are the major community health problems in developing countries. They are the major determinants of perinatal survival and infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and the maternal risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth among hospital deliveries in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of TUTH. Maternal risk factors like age, parity, ethnicity, history of previous abortion, history of previous cesarean section, antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were studied. Information on all births that occurred was extracted from maternity case notes and delivery registers.  Results: During the study period, there were 685 singleton live births. Among these 78(11.4% were low birth weight and 47(6.9% were preterm birth. The mean birth weight was 2950±488 gm. The mean weight of female was statistically less compared to male babies (p=0.032. The signi cant risk factors for LBW were primiparity (OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.25-3.58, Indo-Aryan ethnicity (OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.12-3.45 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.08; 95%CI 1.17-8.12. As for PTB antepartum hemorrhage (OR 8.63; 95%CI 1.99-37.30 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.04-.89 were signi cant risk factors.  Conclusions: Parity, ethnicity, and medical disorders were the main risk factors for low birth weight. Antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were signi cant risk factors for preterm birth. Keywords: low birth weight; preterm birth; risk factors.

  17. Correlation between several anthropometric measurements to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nur

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality remains one of the factors leading to child mortality, even for crude death as a whole. Therefore, good perinatal care is considered to be useful for reducing this mortality. Low birth weight is one of neonatal morbidity cause; previous studies reported correlation between birth weight to several anthropometric measurements and their predictive value. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between birth length, head, chest, abdominal, calf and mid arm circumferences as well as to foot length to birth weight. A cross sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital Medan between November 1st 1998 to January 31st 1999. All babies without clear moulage, caput succedaneum or cephal hematoma were studied. Birth weight was measured by TANITA weighing scale within the first 24 hours after delivery. Birth length by somatometer and head, chest, abdominal, calf and mid arm circumferences as well as foot length were measured 3 times by using plastic measuring tape. It was evident a positive correlation of birth weight to all such anthropometric measurements with the highest correlation coefficient for calf circumference (r : 0.92. Calf circumference of 9,8 cm is predictor of low birth weight.

  18. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Growth and development are similar in VLBW children born appropriate and small for gestational age: an interim report on 97 preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, Michael B; Vollmer, Brigitte; Traunecker, Richard; Wollmann, Hartmut A; Goelz, Rangmar R; Seibold-Weiger, Karin; Speer, Christian P; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg

    2007-09-01

    To investigate growth and development in a cohort of children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) treated at a single tertiary neonatal unit. We studied 97 children born between January 1995 and July 1997 with BW development were collected. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as weight and/or length at birth <10th percentile; shortness at follow-up was defined as height <10th percentile. Comparison was made between the appropriate for gestational age (AGA) (n = 46) and SGA (n = 51) groups. At follow-up, 23 AGA and 35 SGA children were short, had a smaller head circumference (-1.9 vs -0.8 SDS), were lighter at birth (BW -1.3 vs -0.7 SDS), and had a higher rate of broncho-pulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (28 vs 12); no differences in neonatal characteristics or neurological status were evident. A higher frequency of motor delay occurred in the 'short' group. Short children also had a smaller head circumference (HC) (-1.6 vs -0.7). Short SGA children had a higher frequency of BPD, smaller HC (-2.1 vs -1.0), and a slightly higher proportion of suspicious neurological findings, motor delay, and speech and language delay (n.s.). Preterm VLBW infants, whether AGA or SGA at birth, face the risk of being short at preschool age. Height outcome is probably influenced by postnatal factors. Our data also suggest that short stature is associated with developmental difficulties in this population.

  20. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araz, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)

  1. Impaired kidney growth in low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Chellakooty, Marla; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is an important risk factor for hypertension and unfavorable prognoses of a number of renal diseases. It is also associated with reduced kidney size and nephron number. A differentiation between the effects of low birth weight versus being born premature or small...... for gestational age has, however, not been addressed. METHODS: The influence of weight for gestational age (percentage deviation from expected mean), gestational age, birth weight, and early diet on kidney growth was studied in 178 children born pre- or postmature and/or small or large for gestational age......, comparing them to 717 mature children, birth weight appropriate for gestational age. Kidney size was determined by bilateral ultrasonography measuring length, width and depth, using the equation of an ellipsoid for volume calculation. The examinations were performed at 0, 3, and 18 months of age together...

  2. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skranes, J.S. [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Central Hospital of Aust-Agder, Sykehusvn 1, N-4800 Arendal (Norway); Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O. [MR Center, Medical Section, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway); Vik, T. [Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, University of Trondheim (Norway); Brubakk, A.M. [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatal Medicine, University Hospital of Trondheim (Norway)

    1998-06-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.

  3. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skranes, J.S.; Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O.; Vik, T.; Brubakk, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  4. Birth Weight and Intelligence in Young Adulthood and Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-06-01

    We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow-up assessments, with intelligence scores increasing across 4 birth weight categories and declining for the highest birth weight category. The adjusted differences between those in the 5 IQ points at all 3 follow-up assessments, corresponding to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident across the normal birth weight range and so were not accounted for by low birth weight only. The association between birth weight and intelligence is stable from young adulthood into midlife. These long-term cognitive consequences may imply that even small shifts in the distribution of birth size, in normal-sized infants as well, may have a large impact at the population level. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Teamwork in the NICU Setting and Its Association with Health Care-Associated Infections in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, Jochen; Sharek, Paul J; Kan, Peiyi; Rigdon, Joseph; Desai, Manisha; Nisbet, Courtney C; Tawfik, Daniel S; Thomas, Eric J; Lee, Henry C; Sexton, J Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Background and Objective  Teamwork may affect clinical care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting. The objective of this study was to assess teamwork climate across NICUs and to test scale-level and item-level associations with health care-associated infection (HAI) rates in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Methods  Cross-sectional study of the association between HAI rates, defined as any bacterial or fungal infection during the birth hospitalization, among 6,663 VLBW infants cared for in 44 NICUs between 2010 and 2012. NICU HAI rates were correlated with teamwork climate ratings obtained in 2011 from 2,073 of 3,294 eligible NICU health professionals (response rate 63%). The relation between HAI rates and NICU teamwork climate was assessed using logistic regression models including NICU as a random effect. Results  Across NICUs, 36 to 100% (mean 66%) of respondents reported good teamwork. HAI rates were significantly and independently associated with teamwork climate (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.92, p  = 0.005), such that the odds of an infant contracting a HAI decreased by 18% with each 10% rise in NICU respondents reporting good teamwork. Conclusion  Improving teamwork may be an important element in infection control efforts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2012-12-23

    Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  7. Evaluation of within-litter birth weight variation in piglets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VaZindove

    2014-03-23

    Mar 23, 2014 ... Canario, L., Lundgren, H., Haandlykken, M. & Rydhmer, L., 2010. Genetics of growth in piglets and the association with homogeneity of weight within litters. J. Anim. Sci. 88, 1240-1247. Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K. & Bhebhe, E., 2006. Genetic determination of individual birth weight, litter weight and litter size ...

  8. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight. Nondiabetic women were recruited after ultrasonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Maternal body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the strongest predictors of birth weight, with multiple logistic regression analysis performed to assess predictors of birth weight greater than 4 kg. Data were analyzed for 2,618 women, of whom 49.6% (n=1,075) were primigravid and 16.5% (n=432) were obese based on a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. In univariable analysis, maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, smoking, fat mass, and fat-free mass all correlated significantly with birth weight. In multivariable regression analysis, fat-free mass remained a significant predictor of birth weight (model R=0.254, standardized β=0.237; Prelationship was found between maternal fat mass and birth weight. After adjustment for confounding variables, women in the highest fat-free mass quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.64 (95% confidence interval 2.34-5.68) for a birth weight more than 4 kg compared with those in the lowest quartile. Based on direct measurements of body composition, birth weight correlated positively with maternal fat-free mass and not adiposity. These findings suggest that, in nondiabetic women, interventions intended to reduce fat mass during pregnancy may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates and revised guidelines for gestational weight gain in obese women may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates. : III.

  9. biostatistical analysis of birth weight and head circumference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    URCHMAN

    maturity of the neonate and health status of the mother. It is also an important determinant of prenatal mortality, it is known to increase with successive birth order up to the fourth or fifth rank in other words, and babies tend to outweigh their immediate elder siblings. The birth weight of a newborn infant is influenced by various ...

  10. Hyponatraemia in very low birth weight infants | Ndwiga | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. Design: Comparative cohort study. Setting: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during ...

  11. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random-effects m...

  12. Birth weights and gestational ages of Malawian newborns at Queen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the distributions of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) and calculate rates of still birth (SB) of four years delivery in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital( QECH). Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out on data of deliveries conducted between January 2000 and December 2003.

  13. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  14. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...

  15. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, Stephen; Mens, Pètra F.; Karema, Corine; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Kaligirwa, Nadine; Vyankandondera, Joseph; de Vries, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence

  16. Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second phase LBW women (cases) were compared with a double number of women who gave birth to normal birth weight infants. Results: Among 939 women eligible for the study, the incidence of LBW was 7.8%. Reproductive age lower than 25 years, gestational age lower than 40 weeks, history of previous ...

  17. Nationwide Twin Birth Weight Percentiles by Gestational Age in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jan Hu

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: This is the first nationwide birth weight norm for twins in Taiwan, which is particularly useful for investigation into the predictors and outcomes of altered fetal growth through twin studies in the Taiwanese population.

  18. Sex Specific Genetic and Environmental Trends in Birth Weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant. Estimation of sex specific variance components had no significant influence on the direction and magnitude of genetic trends indicating of homogeneity of variance by sex for birth weight in this population. Keywords: Breeding values ...

  19. Post discharge formula fortification of maternal human milk of very low birth weight preterm infants: an introduction of a feeding protocol in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer El Sakka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW. Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430, length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027, and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217 in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls, P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources.

  20. Efficacy of Probiotics Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, T.; Ali, M.M.; Hossain, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of orally administered probiotics in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study Design: Arandomized double blind controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The Paediatrics Department of Sylhet M.A.G. Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet Bangladesh, from July 2012 to June 2015. Methodology: Preterm (28 - 33 weeks gestation) VLBW (birth weight 1000 - 1499 g) neonates were enrolled. The study group was fed with probiotics once daily with breast milk from first feeding, and the control group with only breast milk without the addition of probiotics. Both the groups received other standard care. The primary outcome was the development of NEC (stage II and III), categorized by modified Bell's classification. Result: In 108 neonates, development of NEC was significantly lower in the study group than that of control group [1 (1.9 percent) vs. 6 (11.5 percent); p=0.044]. Age of achievement of full oral feeding was significantly earlier in the study group than that in the control group (14.88 ±3.15 and 18.80 ±4.32 days; p < 0.001). Duration of hospital stay was significantly short in the study group compared to the control group (15.82 ±2.94 days vs. 19.57 ±4.26 days; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation reduces the frequency of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm neonates with very low birth weight. It is also associated with faster achievement of full oral feeding and short duration of hospital stay. (author)

  1. Vitamin A supplementation for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very-low-birth-weight premature Thai infants: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan; Jirapradittha, Junya; Panthongviriyakul, M Charnchai; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2014-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one ofthe most significant complications among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of BPD in VLBWinfants. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in VLBW premature Thai infants. Randomized control trial. Eighty premature infants weighing supplementation at 24 hours ofage-admitted to Neonatal units ofSrinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand-were assigned to receive either intramuscular vitaminA 5, 000 IU3 times/week (treatment group) or sham procedure (control group) for four weeks. Serum vitamin A levels were measured before and after administration of the vitamin A. The baseline of mean serum vitamin A levels were similar in both groups. The mean serum level of vitamin A was significantly higher in the vitamin A supplemented infants than in the control infants on day 7 (1.41 +/- 0.48 vs. 0.92+0.38 pmol/ L, psupplementation. None of the infants in the vitamin A supplemented group, compared to 5% of the infants in the control group, had vitamin A level supplemented group required oxygen supplementation at 36 weeks postmenstrual age than in the control group albeit not statistically significant (22.5 vs. 35% relative risk 0.71; 95% CI 0.40 +/- 1.26; p = 0.21). Supplementation with vitamin A was also associated with a significant reduction in the duration ofintubation (10.8 +/- 3.1 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 26.1 +/- 6.4 days control group, p = 0.03), days on oxygen therapy (29.8 +/- 5.1 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 58.2 +/- 9.1 days control group, p = 0.01) and length of hospital stay (61.9 +/- 4.2 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 88.3 +/- 7.2 days control group, p = 0.002). The dose of vitamin A used in this study reduced biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency and, without complications, resulted in reducing duration of intubation, days of oxygen therapy, and length of

  2. Bedside detection of low systemic flow in the very low birth weight infant on day 1 of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between the clinical and biochemical parameters of perfusion and superior vena cava (SVC) flow in a prospective observational cohort study of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Newborns with congenital heart disease were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Capillary refill time (forehead, sternum and toe), mean blood pressure, urine output and serum lactate concentration were also measured simultaneously. Thirty-eight VLBW infants were examined. Eight patients (21%) had SVC flow less than 40 ml\\/kg\\/min. There was a poor correlation between the capillary refill time (in all sites), mean blood pressure, urine output and SVC flow. The correlation coefficient for the serum lactate concentration was r = -0.28, p = 0.15. The median serum lactate concentration was 3.5 (range 2.8-8.5) vs. 2.7 (range 1.2-6.9) mmol\\/l (p = 0.01) in low flow versus normal flow states. A serum lactate concentration of >2.8 was 100% sensitive and 60% specific for detecting a low flow state. Combining a capillary refill time of >4 s with a serum lactate concentration of >4 mmol\\/l had a specificity of 97% for detecting a low SVC flow state. Serum lactate concentrations are higher in low SVC flow states. A capillary refill time of >4 s combined with serum lactate concentrations >4 mmol\\/l increased the specificity and positive and negative predictive values of detecting a low SVC flow state.

  3. Early motor repertoire in very low birth weight infants in India is associated with motor development at one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adde, Lars; Thomas, Niranjan; John, Hima B; Oommen, Samuel; Vågen, Randi Tynes; Fjørtoft, Toril; Jensenius, Alexander Refsum; Støen, Ragnhild

    2016-11-01

    Most studies on Prechtl's method of assessing General Movements (GMA) in young infants originate in Europe. To determine if motor behavior at an age of 3 months post term is associated with motor development at 12 months post age in VLBW infants in India. 243 VLBW infants (135 boys, 108 girls; median gestational age 31wks, range 26-39wks) were video-recorded at a median age of 11wks post term (range 9-16wks). Certified and experienced observers assessed the videos by the "Assessment of Motor Repertoire - 2-5 Months". Fidgety movements (FMs) were classified as abnormal if absent, sporadic or exaggerated, and as normal if intermittently or continually present. The motor behaviour was evaluated by repertoire of co-existent other movements (age-adequacy) and concurrent motor repertoire. In addition, videos of 215 infants were analyzed by computer and the variability of the spatial center of motion (C SD ) was calculated. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales was used to assess motor development at 12 months. Abnormal FMs, reduced age adequacy, and an abnormal concurrent motor repertoire were significantly associated with lower Gross Motor and Total Motor Quotient (GMQ, TMQ) scores (p < 0.05). The C SD was higher in children with TMQ scores <90 (-1SD) than in children with higher TMQ scores (p = 0.002). Normal FMs (assessed by Gestalt perception) and a low variability of the spatial center of motion (assessed by computer-based video analysis) predicted higher Peabody scores in 12-month-old infants born in India with a very low birth weight. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large-for-gestation......Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large...

  5. The role of serum and urinary urea in the evaluation of enteral protein intake in adequate and small-for-gestational-age very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Darcie

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight (VLBW infants have special nutritional needs. There is a current tendency to individualize their protein needs. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of serum and urinary urea as indicators for protein intake in adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA and small-for-gestational-age (SGA VLBW infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the nursery attached to the Maternity Ward of the "Prof. Pedro de Alcântara" Children's Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Seventy-two VLBW infants (mean protein intake = 3.7 mg/kg/day were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in two groups: AGA (n = 34 and SGA (n = 38. Blood samples, six-hour urine (6hUr collections and urine sample tests (STUr were obtained for urea and creatinine assays at three and five weeks of life. Statistical analysis: Student's t test, Pearson correlation and linear regression (p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for serum urea, 6hUr and STUr, or between two assessments within each group. Serum urea correlated with 6hUr in both AGA and SGA, and to STUr in SGA; 6hUr correlated with STUr in both AGA and SGA. There was no correlation between protein intake and serum or urine urea. CONCLUSIONS: Serum and urinary urea did not reflect protein intake when mean intakes of 3.7 g/kg/day were used. Sample tests of urinary urea can be as reliable as urea from urine collected over longer periods.

  6. Post-discharge body weight and neurodevelopmental outcomes among very low birth weight infants in Taiwan: A nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ting Hsu

    Full Text Available Premature infants are at high risk for developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction. Besides medical conditions, growth restriction is regarded as an important risk factor for cognitive and neurodevelopmental dysfunction throughout childhood and adolescence and even into adulthood. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between post-discharge body weight and psychomotor development using a nationwide dataset.This was a nationwide cohort study conducted in Taiwan. Total of 1791 premature infants born between 2007 and 2011 with a birth weight of less than 1500 g were enrolled into this multi-center study. The data were obtained from the Taiwan Premature Infant Developmental Collaborative Study Group. The growth and neurodevelopmental evaluations were performed at corrected ages of 6, 12 and 24 months. Post-discharge failure to thrive was defined as a body weight below the 3rd percentile of the standard growth curve for Taiwanese children by the corrected age.The prevalence of failure to thrive was 15.8%, 16.9%, and 12.0% at corrected ages of 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. At corrected ages of 24 months, 12.9% had low Mental Developmental Index (MDI scores (MDI<70, 17.8% had low Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI scores (PDI<70, 12.7% had cerebral palsy, and 29.5% had neurodevelopmental impairment. Post-discharge failure to thrive was significantly associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. After controlling for potential confounding factors (small for gestational age, extra-uterine growth retardation at discharge, cerebral palsy, gender, mild intraventricular hemorrhage, persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, surfactant use and indomethacin use, post-discharge failure to thrive remained a risk factor.This observational study observed the association between lower body weight at corrected age

  7. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  8. Umbilical Cord Blood Use for Admission Blood Tests of VLBW (Very Low Birth Weight) Preterm Neonates: A Multi-center Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    use of umbilical cord blood for admission lab tests. Our objective is to compare the use of umbilical cord vs. infant blood as a strategy to decrease...from umbilical cord blood. Labs from the control arm are drawn from the infant. The primary outcomes are absolute hemoglobin concentration and percent

  9. Fosfluconazole for Antifungal Prophylaxis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective case series study to evaluate the safety of fosfluconazole prophylaxis for preventing invasive fungal infection in VLBW infants with a central vascular access. Fosfluconazole was administered intravenously at a dose of 6 mg/kg everyday during which time a central venous catheter was placed. A total of 23 infants met the criteria for enrollment in our study. No cases of fungal infection were detected during the central venous catheter placement in the group. None of the infants had an elevated β-D-glucan, and all of them were still alive at discharge. Regarding the liver and renal function, no statistically significant differences were observed before and at the end of fosfluconazole prophylaxis. The results of this study demonstrate that fosfluconazole prophylaxis in preventing invasive fungal infection was well tolerated by VLBW infants. This is a first report to describe antifungal prophylaxis using fosfluconazole for VLBW infants.

  10. Updated birth weight centiles for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tom; Seaton, Sarah E; Manktelow, Brad N; Baker, Philip N; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Field, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Smith, Lucy K

    2017-12-07

    Construct updated birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts for use in the UK and compare these to the currently used UK-WHO charts. Secondary analysis of national birth data. Centiles were constructed using 1 269 403 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2013-2014 as part of the MBRRACE-UK national perinatal surveillance programme. These were then validated using 642 737 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2015. Sex-specific birth weight-for-gestational age centiles. Centiles were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method via the GAMLSS package in R. This method transforms the skewed birth weight distribution to approximate a normal distribution, allowing any birth weight centile to be produced. The new centiles performed well in the validation sample, with the observed and expected proportion of births below a given centile in agreement. Overall, driven by the predominance of term births, the UK-WHO charts classify a smaller proportion of infants as below a given centile. For example, the UK-WHO estimates classified only 1.32% (8035/606 430) of term infants born in 2015 as below the second centile, compared with 1.97% (11 975/606 430) using the new MBRRACE-UK centiles. At the earliest gestational ages, however, the opposite is observed, with the UK-WHO classifying a larger proportion of infants as below a given centile, particularly at the lower end of the birthweight distribution. We have constructed and validated updated birth weight-for-gestational age centiles using a contemporary sample of births occurring in England and Wales. The benefits of these updated centiles will be first to assist the national surveillance of perinatal mortality programme by improving the identification of the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by intrauterine growth restriction and, second, to aid clinicians by more accurately identifying babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth.

  11. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  12. Low birth weight: risk factors in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Y.S.A.; Bataineh, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights (LBW) in Irbid, Jordan, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in Prince Rashed Hospital (PRH). Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 15-45 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive in PRH during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is also a need to discourage early pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy. (author)

  13. Relationship Among Mothers' Glycemic Level, Periodontitis, and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Eliesita C; Cruz, Simone S; Adan, Luis Fernando F; Vianna, Maria Isabel P; Passos-Soares, Johelle S; Trindade, Soraya C; Oliveira, Ernesto P; Oliveira, Michelle T; Cerqueira, Eneida de M M; Pereira, Antonio Luis; Barreto, Maurício L; Seymour, Gregory John

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of glycemic level on the relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was conducted with 372 females divided into cases (109 mothers of newborns with birth weight periodontal status. Results were analyzed using logistic regression. The likelihood of having children with LBW among the mothers with periodontitis was six times greater than that observed among mothers without periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR adjusted] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47 to 15.17), even after adjustment. There was also a strong, statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and LBW in both the normal glycemic-level group (HbA1c levels Periodontitis and glycemic levels appeared to have opposing influences on birth weight, with periodontitis being associated with LBW and the magnitude of the association being altered depending on maternal blood glucose level.

  14. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamal, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)

  15. Is Biology Destiny? Birth Weight and Differential Parental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Time diaries of sibling pairs from the PSID-CDS are used to determine whether maternal time investments compensate for or reinforce birth-weight differences among children. The findings demonstrate that the direction and degree of differential treatment vary by mother's education. Less-educated mothers devote more total time and more educationally oriented time to heavier-birth-weight children, whereas better-educated mothers devote more total and more educationally oriented time to lower-birth-weight children. The compensating effects observed among highly educated mothers are substantially larger than the reinforcing effects among the least-educated mothers. The findings show that families redistribute resources in ways that both compensate for and exacerbate early-life disadvantages. PMID:22865101

  16. Birth weight and intelligence in young adulthood and midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident......OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. METHODS: The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members...... of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. RESULTS: Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow...

  17. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  18. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  19. Birth weight curves tailored to maternal world region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Joel G; Sgro, Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Glazier, Richard H; Bocking, Alan; Hilliard, Robert; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2012-02-01

    Newborns of certain immigrant mothers are smaller at birth than those of domestically born mothers. Contemporary, population-derived percentile curves for these newborns are lacking, as are estimates of their risk of being misclassified as too small or too large using conventional rather than tailored birth weight curves. We completed a population-based study of 766 688 singleton live births in Ontario from 2002 to 2007. Smoothed birth weight percentile curves were generated for males and females, categorized by maternal world region of birth: Canada (63.5%), Europe/Western nations (7.6%), Africa/Caribbean (4.9%), Middle East/North Africa (3.4%), Latin America (3.4%), East Asia/Pacific (8.1%), and South Asia (9.2%). We determined the likelihood of misclassifying an infant as small for gestational age (≤ 10th percentile for weight) or as large for gestational age (≥ 90th percentile for weight) on a Canadian-born maternal curve versus one specific to maternal world region of origin. Significantly lower birth weights were seen at gestation-specific 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles among term infants born to mothers from each world region, with the exception of Europe/Western nations, compared with those for infants of Canadian-born mothers. For example, for South Asian babies born at 40 weeks' gestation, the absolute difference at the 10th percentile was 198 g (95% CI 183 to 212) for males and 170 g (95% CI 161 to 179) for females. Controlling for maternal age and parity, South Asian males had an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.68) of being misclassified as small for gestational age, equivalent to approximately 116 in 1000 newborns; for South Asian females the OR was 2.41 (95% CI 2.34 to 2.48), equivalent to approximately 106 per 1000 newborns. Large for gestational age would be missed in approximately 61 per 1000 male and 57 per 1000 female South Asian newborns if conventional rather than ethnicity-specific birth weight curves were used. Birth weight curves

  20. Pilot study on growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers in very low birth weight preterm infants fed human milk fortified with either human milk fortifier or post discharge formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorana, Meera; Jiamsajjamongkhon, Chanin

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition is an important aspect in the care of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Human milk fortified with human milk fortifiers (HMF) is best for enteral feeding of premature infants. HMF is expensive and not easily available in Thailand. Post discharge formula (PDF) has been routinely used to fortify human milk at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH) but there is lack of supportive data regarding efficacy and safety. To study and compare anthropometrics, biochemical markers and complications in VLBW infants fed human milk fortified with either HMF or PDF. This was a prospective, randomized pilot study conducted in the neonatal unit of QSNICH from 1 March 2010 to 28 February 2011. Very low birth weight neonates, whose mothers had adequate breast milk within 96 hours of birth, were enrolled in the study and received parenteral nutrition and enteral feeding as per protocol. Once the babies were feeding 100 cc/kg/day of human milk, they were randomly divided into two groups: the human milk fortified group (HMF group) and the post discharge formula fortified group (PDF group). Body weight was recorded daily while head circumference and length were recorded weekly. Hematocrit, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, electrolytes (including phosphorus and calcium), alkaline phosphatase and albumin were checked at the beginning of the study (feeding 100 cc/kg/day), 3 weeks later and when on full oral breast feeding or reached a weight of 2,000 grams, which ever came first. Thirty-eight infants were enrolled in the study but eventually only 33 remained (18 in HMF group, 15 in PDF group). Both groups had similar baseline demographic data, nutritional management, postnatal morbidities and length of stay. There were no statistically significant differences in growth parameters and serum biochemical markers between the groups. Definite NEC was not different between the groups. Other complications of prematurity including osteopenia of

  1. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. NEONATAL SEPTICAEMIA IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... Conclusion: Case fatality rate for low birth weight infants with sepsis is high. Gram negative organisms are the predominant pathogens. No maternal risk factors were identified. Antibiotic sensitivity shows adequate sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins. INTRODUCTION.

  3. Periventricular-intraventricular haetnorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAN 1994. Periventricular-intraventricular haetnorrhage in low-birth-weight infants at Baragwanath Hospital ... dation,IO while many women delivering premature infants have not received proper antenatal care. .... required mechanical ventilation and one-third of those who did not, allocated by random number generation,.

  4. Ramadan during pregnancy and birth weight of newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I.; Amelia, Dwirani; Painter, Rebecca C.; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    P= 0·44), although there was a non-significant trend towards lower birth weight with fasting in the second and third trimester. Women who fasted had significantly lower total energy, macronutrient and water intake as compared with women who did not. Women's intake was also lower during Ramadan

  5. Combating low birth weight due to malaria infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, James G; Scoullar, Michelle J L; Boeuf, Philippe

    2018-03-07

    Decreased l-arginine and nitric oxide bioavailability in pregnant women with malaria contributes to low birth weight, suggesting that l-arginine supplementation could be a potential treatment (McDonald et al ). Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Direct Maternal Genetic Effects and Birth Weight Trends of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correlation between direct and maternal effects was negative implying that selection should be directed at both components, considering the maternal heritability estimate, which was moderate. The environmental parameter records of the study area suggest that birth weight was not depressed by the tropical semi arid ...

  7. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    :: We investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years...

  8. Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital in Atwima ... Journal of the Ghana Science Association ... pregnancy. Intensification of health education efforts to improve maternal nutrition at ANC (Ante natal clinic) is recommended.

  9. Variation in individual piglet birth weights in a Large White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CVBWT) was 17.6% and ranged from 0.47% to 50.7%. The distribution of CVBWT in the herd was positively skewed. CVBWT increased as NBA increased. Multiparous sows farrowed litters with higher ...

  10. Improved appetite of pregnant rats and increased birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition and pathogenic colonization of the vagina are two major contributors to preterm labour, newborn survival and low birth weight babies. Hypothetically, the use of probiotics as food supplements might improve the appetite and health of the mother and their newborn babies. Sprague-Dawley albino rats were ...

  11. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2 Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa. University ... Conclusion: - The association of low birth weight with substance use was strong, particularly, with maternal khat chewing, cigarette ... the magnitude of alcohol drinking habit among women in reproductive ...

  12. Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We, therefore, investigated effects of exposure to biomass fuels on reduced birth weight in the Malawian population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using secondary data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey with a total of 9124 respondents. Information on exposure to biomass fuels, ...

  13. Successful management of a set of preterm, low birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: We report a case of successful management of preterm, low birth weight quadruplets (QI, QII, QIII, and QIV) delivered at 32 weeks by Caesarean section to a 30 year old primiparous mother. QIII and QIV developed septicaemia with conjugated bilirubinaemia and were managed with intravenous antibiotics, and ...

  14. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (PV-IVH) aInong very-low-birthweight infants at Baragwanath Hospital has not been well docwnented. In this prospective study, a total of 282 live-born infants with birth weights of 1 000 - 1 749 g were studied over a 41/2-month period. Every infant had at least ...

  15. Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish standard ranges and curve of mean gestational birth weights validated by ultrasonography for the Cameroonian population in Yaoundé. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in the metropolis between March 5 and ...

  16. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...

  17. Prediction of low birth weight from other anthropometric parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight is a global problem but presents a major burden on the neonatal services in developing countries such as Nigeria, and brings to bear a greater strain on the meagre resources available for health care delivery and family financing. In a resourceconstrained setting as ours, proper weighing of all ...

  18. Association between maternal gingivitis, low birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between maternal gingivitis and pregnancy outcome, including low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery. This prospective study was conducted among 300 randomly selected pregnant women aged 20-34 years attending the antenatal clinic, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ...

  19. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; P= 0.01). There is need of increasing promotion of reproductive health services in relation to safe motherhood at community level in order to reduce risk fac- tors of LBW. Key words: Low birth weight, pregnancy, risk factors, hospital, Tanzania.

  20. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  1. Early Postnatal Growth Of Preterm Low Birth Weight, Appropriately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postnatal growth monitoring is useful in assessing the health of preterm babies but their growth patterns have not been sufficiently studied in Africans. Aim: To describe the growth achievements of preterm, low birth weight, appropriately-sized, Nigerian infants. Study design: The subjects were prospectively ...

  2. Cytomegalovirus infections among low birth weight infants in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of congenital infections, which can lead to severe foetal anomalies or even foetal loss. In order to determine the incidence of congenital HCMV infection in low birth weight neonates and the most prevalent genotype, cord blood samples were collected from a ...

  3. Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria, Nigeria. B Danborno, A Afegbua. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy Vol. 5(1) 2006: 21-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2 Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa. University; email.negdaysun@yahoo.com, Corresponding author: Negussie Deyessa. Original article. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public hospitals: A case control study. Emebet Dendir1 ...

  5. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  6. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  7. References of Birth Weights for Gestational Age and Sex from a Large Cohort of Singleton Births in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  8. A randomised controlled trial of early insulin therapy in very low birth weight infants, "NIRTURE" (neonatal insulin replacement therapy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornette Luc

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in adult intensive care have highlighted the importance of insulin and improved glucose control on survival, with 32% reduction in mortality, 22% reduction in intensive care stay and halving of the incidence of bacteraemia. Very low birth weight infants requiring intensive care also have relative insulin deficiency often leading to hyperglycaemia during the first week of life. The physiological influences on insulin secretion and sensitivity, and the potential importance of glucose control at this time are not well established. However there is increasing evidence that the early postnatal period is critical for pancreatic development. At this time a complex set of signals appears to influence pancreatic development and β cell survival. This has implications both in terms of acute glucose control but also relative insulin deficiency is likely to play a role in poor postnatal growth, which has been associated with later motor and cognitive impairment, and fewer β cells are linked to risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. Methods A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of early insulin replacement in very low birth weight babies (VLBW, birth weight Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78428828. EUDRACT Number 2004-002170-34

  9. Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen

    2006-04-01

    Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.

  10. Birth outcomes among Arab Americans in Michigan before and after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman; Hadley, Craig; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    To assess whether the incidence of adverse birth outcomes among Arab Americans in Michigan changed after September 11, 2001. Birth data were collected on all births in Michigan from September 11, 2000, to March 11, 2001, and from September 11, 2001, to March 11, 2002. Self-reported ancestry and a name algorithm were used to determine Arab American ethnicity. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between birth before/after September 11 and birth outcomes. Main outcome measures were low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), and preterm birth (PTB). We observed no association between birth before/after September 11 and risk of adverse birth outcomes among Arab Americans in Michigan by using either the name algorithm or self-reported ancestry to determine Arab American ethnicity. Arab name was significantly associated with lower risk of VLBW and PTB in adjusted and unadjusted models. Arab ancestry was significantly associated with lower risk of VLBW and PTB in adjusted and unadjusted models and significantly associated with lower risk of LBW in an unadjusted model. In contrast to previous findings in California, we observed no difference in adverse birth outcomes before and after the events of September 11, 2001, among Arab Americans in Michigan. Arab American ethnicity is associated with lower risk of adverse birth outcomes compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

  11. Secular trends in seasonal variation in birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Jensen, Camilla; Gamborg, Michael; Raymond, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been shown to influence birth weight (BW) and one of these are season of birth. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variation in BW in Denmark during 1936-1989, and to see if the variation could be explained by sunshine...... exposure during pregnancy. METHODS: The study population was selected from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register and included 276 339 children born between 1936 and 1989. Seasonal variation was modeled using a non-stationary sinusoidal model that allowed the underlying trend in BW and the amplitude...

  12. The neglected sociobehavioral risk factors of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the most important health indicators in the world. It has certain known and unknown causes. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of socio-behavioral factors on neonatal birth weight.Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on 300 eligible neonates (150 LBW infants as cases and 150 normal body weight infants as controls in 2015. The national pregnancy care forms of the neonates kept in heath care centers in Kerman were used. The data was analyzed running Independent samples t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher’s Exact test in SPSS. The significance level was set as 0.05.Results: Preterm birth (P<0.001, number of primary care during pregnancy (P=0.001, mother’s age (P=0.049, consumption of supplements during pregnancy (P=0.03, and history of substance abuse in mothers (P=0.03 were found to have significant roles in having LBW neonate.Conclusion: Identifying the sociobehavioral risk factors of Preterm labor and modifying them to prevent preterm birth are essential approaches to prevent LBW. Governments should pay special attention to nutritional status of teenage and young girls to have healthy mothers and babies in the future. Women of childbearing age should be screened and educated about risky behaviors. Pregnancy care and support should be delivered to all pregnant women according to the standard methods.Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Risk Factors; Behavior; Preterm Labor

  13. Birth weight following pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David M; Reid, Colleen E; Jesdale, Bill M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-09-01

    In late October 2003, a series of wildfires exposed urban populations in Southern California to elevated levels of air pollution over several weeks. Previous research suggests that short-term hospital admissions for respiratory outcomes increased specifically as a result of these fires. We assessed the impact of a wildfire event during pregnancy on birth weight among term infants. Using records for singleton term births delivered to mothers residing in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) during 2001-2005 (n = 886,034), we compared birth weights from pregnancies that took place entirely before or after the wildfire event (n = 747,590) with those where wildfires occurred during the first (n = 60,270), second (n = 39,435), or third (n = 38,739) trimester. The trimester-specific effects of wildfire exposure were estimated using a fixed-effects regression model with several maternal characteristics included as covariates. Compared with pregnancies before and after the wildfires, mean birth weight was estimated to be 7.0 g lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.8, -2.2] when the wildfire occurred during the third trimester, 9.7 g lower when it occurred during the second trimester (95% CI: -14.5, -4.8), and 3.3 g lower when it occurred during the first trimester (95% CI: -7.2, 0.6). Pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California wildfires was associated with slightly reduced average birth weight among infants exposed in utero. The extent and increasing frequency of wildfire events may have implications for infant health and development.

  14. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  15. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael

    2007-01-01

    prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...

  16. HEALTH STATUS OF EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN AT AGE 8 YEARS: CHILD AND PARENT PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen; Forrest, Christopher B; Schluchter, Mark; Taylor, H. Gerry; Drotar, Dennis; Holmbeck, Grayson; Andreias, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Context Parental proxy reports have indicated poorer health for preterm children as compared to normal birth weight controls. The perspective of their children may however differ. Objective To compare the self reported health of preterm children to normal birth weight controls and the children’s perspective to that of their parents. Design Study of extremely low birth weight (<1kg) and normal birth weight children and their parents conducted 2006–2009. Setting Children’s hospital. Participants Eight year old extremely low birth weight (n=202) and normal birth weight (n=176) children of similar sociodemographic status. Main Outcome Measures The Child Health and Illness Profile child and parent reports. Results There was poor agreement between the parent and child ratings of health for both the extremely low birth weight and normal birth weight cohorts. Extremely low birth weight children rated their health similar to normal birth weight children. In contrast parents of extremely low birth weight children reported significantly poorer health for their children than parents of normal birth weight controls including poorer Satisfaction with health, Comfort and Achievement and less Risk avoidance. Conclusion There is poor agreement between child and parent reports of health. Eight year old extremely low birth weight children rate their health similar to that of normal birth weight controls. Their parents however report significantly poorer health. Both child and parent perspective needs to be considered when making health care decisions. PMID:21969395

  17. Birth weight, sex, and celiac disease: a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuja-Halkola R

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Kuja-Halkola,1 Benjamin Lebwohl,1,2 Jonas Halfvarson,3 Louise Emilsson,4–6 Patrik K Magnusson,1 Jonas F Ludvigsson1,2,7,8 1Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4Department of Health Management and Health Economy, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 6Centre for Clinical Research, Vårdcentralen Värmlands Nysäter, County Council of Värmland, Värmland, 7Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Objective: Earlier research suggests that birth weight may be associated with celiac disease (CD, but the direction of association has been unclear potentially due to confounding effect from genetic and intrafamilial factors. Through within-twin analyses, we aimed to minimize confounding effects such as twins that share genetic and early environmental exposures.Materials and methods: Using the Swedish Twin Registry, we examined the birth weight of 146,830 twins according to the CD status. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to a small intestinal biopsy reports.Results: The prevalence of diagnosed CD was 0.5% (n=669, and we included 407 discordant pairs of CD–non-CD twins. Comparing the 669 CD patients with non-CD twins, the association between birth weight and future CD was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] per 1000 g increase in birth weight: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.97–1.38. In males, the association was positive and statistically significant (OR=1.50; 95% CI

  18. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations...... of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. RESULTS: 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence...... of 16.9 per 10,000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (phypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68...

  19. Prevalence and Pathogen Distribution of Neonatal Sepsis Among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Ho Lim

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: Unlike term infants, Gram-negative organism and E coli were the leading pathogen of EOS among VLBW infants. Judicious and timely use of antibiotic therapy is crucial in the care of VLBW infants.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  1. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  2. [Very low birth weight neonates. Results of management. Future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriette, G; De Gamarra, E; Cukier-Hemeury, F; Murat, I; Bordarier, C; Relier, J P

    1982-10-01

    70 neonates with birth weights (BW) less than 1 250 g were treated at the intensive care unit for neonates (USINN), hôpital Port-Royal, from April 1st 1976 to July 31st 1977. 16 of them had intra-uterine growth retardation. In 20, BW cas under 1 000 g. Assisted ventilation was necessary in 54 (77%). 43 children (61%) survived, those who were born in the same hospital did so more often (88%) than those who came from other hospitals (53%) (p less than 0.01). These results show the needs and risks of the management of very low birth weight neonates: preventing hypothermia, assisted ventilation of long duration and risk of persisting ductus arteriosus, prolonged parenteral nutrition, risk of intracranial hemorrhage more especially as respiratory distress is more severe. In survivors, the high rate of respiratory sequellae (around 30%) suggests that the duration and intensity of assisted ventilation should be reduced as much as possible.

  3. Persisting behavior problems in extremely low birth weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Hack, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    To describe behavior problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) adolescents born 1992 through 1995 based on parent ratings and adolescent self-ratings at age 14 years and to examine changes in parent ratings from ages 8-14. Parent ratings of behavior problems and adolescent self-ratings were obtained for 169 ELBW adolescents (mean birth weight 815 g, gestational age 26 wk) and 115 normal birth weight (NBW) controls at 14 years. Parent ratings of behavior at age 8 years were also available. Behavior outcomes were assessed using symptom severity scores and rates of scores above DSM-IV symptom cutoffs for clinical disorder. The ELBW group had higher symptom severity scores on parent ratings at age 14 years than NBW controls for inattentive attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and social problems (all p's < .01). Rates of parent ratings meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for inattentive ADHD were also higher for the ELBW group (12% vs. 1%, p < .01). In contrast, the ELBW group had lower symptom severity scores on self-ratings than controls for several scales. Group differences in parent ratings decreased over time for ADHD, especially among females, but were stable for anxiety and social problems. Extremely low birth weight adolescents continue to have behavior problems similar to those evident at a younger age, but these problems are not evident in behavioral self-ratings. The findings suggest that parent ratings provide contrasting perspectives on behavior problems in ELBW youth and support the need to identify and treat these problems early in childhood.

  4. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....

  5. Association of DNA adducts and genetic polymorphisms with birth weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Chvátalová, Irena; Solanský, I.; Topinka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 608, - (2006), s. 121-128 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : pregnancy outcomes * birth weight * genetic polymorphism Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2006

  6. Renal Calcification in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yang Chang

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of renal calcification in very low birth weight infants in this study was relatively low, and the calcification was transient in one-half of the infants. Extremely premature, sick infants requiring long-term ventilation, and those receiving furosemide or dexamethasone were more likely to have renal calcification. Clinicians should be aware that renal calcification may develop beyond the neonatal stage.

  7. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (BW) has been associated with poor bone health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BW and bone mass and metabolism in adult BW discordant monozygotic twins (MZ). METHODS: 153 BW extremely discordant MZ twin-pairs were...... individuals using regression analyses with or without adjustment for height, weight, age, sex, and intra-pair correlation. Within-pair differences were assessed using Student's T-test and fixed-regression models. RESULTS: BW was not associated with BTMs, LS-, TH-, FN- or WB-BMD, but BW was associated with WB...

  8. Vitamin D supplementation, cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hypovitaminosis D, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L, is frequent in pregnant women and neonates worldwide and has been associated with both low birth weight (BW) and placental weight (PW) as well as reduced placental development. We aimed to assess th......, and PW/BW ratio were associated to higher cord s-25(OH)D levels with a suggested cut-off at 60 nmol/L. More studies are encouraged to elucidate the impact of cord s-25(OH)D levels on offspring health and to establish optimal cut-offs for these outcomes....

  9. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...

  11. Birth weight and the risk of histological subtypes of ovarian and endometrial cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabert, Britton; Aarestrup, Julie; Ulrich, Lian G

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of birth weight associations with ovarian and endometrial cancer risks are limited with inconsistent results, and none has evaluated associations by histologic subtype. We utilized prospectively collected birth weight information to investigate the association with risk of ova...

  12. Extreme Temperatures May Increase Risk for Low Birth Weight at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may increase risk for low birth weight at term, NIH study suggests Monday, February 27, 2017 Extreme ... may increase the risk that infants born at term will be of low birth weight, according to ...

  13. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  14. Ecological analysis of secular trends in low birth weight births and adult height in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Urayama, Kevin Yuji; Yoshii, Keisuke; Subramanian, S V; Yokoya, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight (LBW) births since the 1970s. We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 115 249 live births included the vital statistics (1969-2014), as well as trends in average height among 3 145 521 adults born between 1969 and 1996, included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan. LBW rates exhibited a U-shaped pattern showing reductions until 1978-1979 (5.5%), after which it increased. Conversely, average adult height peaked for those born during the same period (men, 171.5 cm; women, 158.5 cm), followed by a reduction over the next 20 years. LBW rate and adult height showed a strong inverse correlation (men, r=-0.98; women, r=-0.88). A prediction model based on birth and economical characteristics estimated the national average of adult height would continue to decline, to 170.0cm (95% CI 169.6 to 170.3) for men and 157.9cm (95% CI 157.5 to 158.3) for women among those born in 2014. Adult height in Japan has started to decline for those born after 1980, a trend that may be attributed to increases in LBW births over time. Considering the known association between shorter adult height and adverse health outcomes, evidence of population-level decline in adult health due to long-term consequences of increasing LBW births in Japan is anticipated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Thrombocytopenia in the first 24 hours after birth and incidence of patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmon, Hannes; Weber, Sven C; Hüning, Britta; Stein, Anja; Horn, Peter A; Metze, Boris C; Dame, Christof; Bührer, Christoph; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Hansmann, Georg; Koehne, Petra

    2012-09-01

    Experimental studies suggest that platelet-triggered ductal sealing is critically involved in definite ductus arteriosus closure. Whether thrombocytopenia contributes to persistently patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in humans is controversial. This was a retrospective study of 1350 very low birth weight (VLBW; gender, and sepsis on PDA was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve, odds ratio, and regression analyses. Platelet numbers within the first 24 hours after birth did not differ between VLBW/ELBW infants with and without spontaneous ductal closure. Platelet numbers were not associated with subsequent PDA treatment. Low platelet counts were not related to failure of pharma-cologic PDA treatment and the need for subsequent surgical ligation. Lower gestational age or birth weight, male gender, and sepsis were linked to the presence of PDA in VLBW infants on day of life 4 to 5. Thrombocytopenia in the first 24 hours after birth was not associated with PDA in this largest VLBW/ELBW infant cohort studied to date. Impaired platelet function, due to immaturity and critical illness, rather than platelet number, might play a role in ductus arteriosus patency.

  16. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. RESULTS: Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty......BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated...... regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log-transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: -87 g (95% CI: -137, -340 per 1.70 ng/mL), -43 g (95% CI: -108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and -135 g (95% CI: -192, -78 per 1...

  17. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S.D.; Zhang, M.G.; Der, G.; Mathur, S.; Mina, T.H.; Reynolds, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EM...

  18. Low birth weights and risk of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-12-01

    mortality. This study aims to examine contribution of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in Indonesia. Methods: Data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS conducted in 2012 were used in the analysis. A total of 18021 live births in the last five years preceding the survey were reported from the mothers. Completed information of their children (14837 children were taken for this analysis. The adjusted relative risk with cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to assess the strength of association to neonatal mortality. Results: Children born in low birth weight were 9.89-fold higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children born in normal weight [adjusted relative risk (aRR = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.41 – 13.19; P = < 0.0001]. Children delivered from younger mothers (aged 15 - 19 years had 94% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children delivered from mothers aged 20-35 years. Working mothers had 81% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to unemployed mothers. Conclusion: Children born in a low birth weight and born from younger mothers had higher risk of neonatal mortality. Appropriate care and treatment for children born in low birth weight is needed to prolonged survival rates of the children. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2:113-117 Keywords: Low birth weight, neonatal mortality, Indonesia   

  19. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-09-01

    Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500-4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother's Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother's job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother's poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother's job style had the most adverse effect (B=-0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother's level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother's job style and household income (B=-0.17). According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother's job situation in order to prevent any adverse effects.

  20. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proaño, Alvaro; Aragón, Romina Elena; Rivera, Fabiola; Zegarra, Jaime

    2016-03-29

    To determine the actual nutritional intake of very low birth weight infants and their growth outcome during the first month of life. Additionally, we identified factors that account for a negative neonatal outcome in this population. A case-series study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012 and the data was obtained from medical records. No feeding protocol was used during this study. Daily fluids, energy and protein intakes were documented and weekly weight z-scores were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for an adverse outcome, defined as neonatal mortality or extra-uterine growth restriction, during the first 28 days of life. After applying selection criteria, 76 participants were included. The nutritional intakes were similar to standard values seen in the literature, but protein intakes were suboptimal in all of the four weeks. Birth weight z-score was associated with an adverse outcome (p=0.035). It was determined that having a birth weight z-score under -1.09 predicted a negative outcome with an area under the curve of 96.8% [93.5%, 100%] with a 95% confidence interval. Protein intakes are widely deficient in the population of this study. Nevertheless, an adverse outcome during the neonatal period is more associated with a poor birth weight z-score than nutrition-related factors.

  1. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1% by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman.

  2. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  3. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  4. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  5. Cord Blood Metabolome Is Highly Associated with Birth Weight, but Less Predictive for Later Weight Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellmuth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence. Methods: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA, polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform. Cord blood metabolites were related to growth factors by linear regression models adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Cord blood metabolites were highly associated with birth weight. Lysophosphatidylcholines C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C18:2, C20:4, C14:0, C16:0, C18:3, GPL-FA C20:3n-9, and GPL-FA C22:5n-6 were positively related to birth weight, while higher cord blood concentrations of NEFA C22:6, NEFA C20:5, GPL-FA C18:3n-3, and PCe C38:0 were associated with lower birth weight. Postnatal weight gain and BMI z-scores in adolescents were not significantly associated with cord blood metabolites after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: Potential long-term programming effects of the intrauterine environment and metabolism on later health cannot be predicted with profiling of the cord blood metabolome.

  6. Respiratory symptoms in the first 7 years of life and birth weight at term - The PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, Daan; Wijga, Alet; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hoekstra, Maarten; Gerritsen, Jorrit; de Jongste, Johan C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The relation between birth weight and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children remains unclear. Previous studies focused on a relation at separate ages. A longitudinal analysis may lead to a better understanding. Objectives: To estimate the effect of birth weight on the development and

  7. Validity of Self-Reported Birth Weight: Results from a Norwegian Twin Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Thomas S; Kutschke, Julia; Brandt, Ingunn; Harris, Jennifer R

    2017-10-01

    The association between birth weight and later life outcomes is of considerable interest in life-course epidemiology. Research often relies on self-reported measures of birth weight, and its validity is consequently of importance. We assessed agreement between self-reported birth weight and official birth records for Norwegian twins born 1967-1974. The intraclass correlation between self-reported birth weight and register-based birth weight was 0.91 in our final sample of 363 twins. It could be expected that 95% of self-reported birth-weight values will deviate from official records within a maximum of +446 grams and a minimum of -478 grams - around a mean deviation of 16 grams. Self-reported birth weight had a sensitivity of 0.78-0.89 and a positive predictive value of 0.59-0.85, and an overall weighted kappa of 0.71. We further assessed agreement by conducting two linear regression models where we respectively regressed self-reported birth weight and register-based birth weight on adult body mass index, a known association. The two models were not significantly different; however, there were different levels of significance in parameter estimates that warrant some caution in using self-reported birth weight. Reliability of self-reported birth weight was also assessed, based on self-reports in another sample of twins born 1935-1960 who had reported their birth weight in two questionnaires 34 years apart. The intraclass correlation was 0.86, which indicates a high degree of reliability. In conclusion, self-reported birth weight, depending on context and age when birth weight was reported, can be cautiously used.

  8. Vitamin A supplementation to prevent mortality and short- and long-term morbidity in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Brian A; Graham, P J; Rojas-Reyes, Maria Ximena

    2016-08-22

    Vitamin A is necessary for normal lung growth and the integrity of respiratory tract epithelial cells. Preterm infants have low vitamin A status at birth and this has been associated with an increased risk of developing chronic lung disease. To evaluate supplementation with vitamin A on the incidence of death or neonatal chronic lung disease and long-term neurodevelopmental disability in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants compared with a control (placebo or no supplementation), and to consider the effect of the supplementation route, dose, and timing. For the original review and subsequent updates, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. The reference lists of relevant trials, paediatric and nutrition journals, and conference abstracts and proceedings were handsearched up to 2010.For the 2016 update, we used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE via PubMed (1 May 2016), EMBASE (1 May 2016), and CINAHL (1 May 2016). We also searched clinical trials' databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised controlled trials comparing vitamin A supplementation with a control (placebo or no supplementation) or other dosage regimens in VLBW infants (birth weight ≤ 1500 grams or less than 32 weeks' gestation). Two review authors screened the search results, extracted data, and assessed the trials for risk of bias. Results were reported as risk ratios (RR), risk differences (RD), and number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB), all with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Trialists were contacted for additional data. Eleven trials met the inclusion criteria. Ten trials (1460 infants) compared vitamin A supplementation with a

  9. Individual heterosis for birth weight of N'dama crossbred calves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical model used for the analysis include sex of calf, calf genotype, year of birth, and season of birth. It also includes interaction between calf sex by year of birth and calf sex by season of birth. The effect of sex of calf, calf genotype and year of birth were highly significant (P<0.001) on birth weight. The interaction of calf ...

  10. Enteral iron supplementation in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan John; Davies, Mark W

    2012-03-14

    Preterm infants are at risk of exhausting their body iron stores much earlier than healthy term newborns. It is widespread practice to give enteral iron supplementation to preterm and low birth weight infants to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. However, it is unclear whether supplementing preterm and low birth weight infants with iron improves growth and neurodevelopment. It is suspected that excess exogenous iron can contribute to oxidative injury in preterm babies, causing or exacerbating conditions such as necrotising enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity. Additionally, the optimal dose and timing of commencement and cessation of iron supplementation are uncertain. To evaluate the effect of prophylactic enteral iron supplementation on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm and low birth weight infants. The secondary objectives were to determine whether iron supplementation results in improved haematological parameters and prevents other causes of morbidity and mortality. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1951 to August 2011), CINAHL (1982 to August 2011) and conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials that compared enteral iron supplementation with no iron supplementation, or different regimens of enteral iron supplementation in preterm or low birth weight infants or both. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Both review authors separately evaluated trial quality and data extraction. We synthesised data using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs). Where data about the methodology and results or both were lacking, we made an attempt to contact the study authors for further information. We included twenty-six studies (2726 infants) in the

  11. Birth weight--a risk factor for progression in diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P; Rossing, P; Tarnow, L

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth retardation, as seen in individuals with low weight at birth, may give rise to a reduction in nephron number. Oligonephropathy has been linked to hypertension and renal disease in adult life. We tested the concept that low weight at birth acts as a risk factor......): 8 (3-20)] with at least three measurements [9 (3-31)] of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (51Cr-EDTA). Information about birth size was obtained from midwife registrations. SETTINGS: Steno Diabetes Center, a tertiary referral centre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Loss of kidney function according to birth...... weight and weight/length ratio at birth. RESULTS: There was no correlation in univariate analysis between birth weight or weight/length ratio and rate of decline in GFR, neither in men nor in women. Furthermore, the 27 patients with birth weights below the 20th centile had a rate of decline in GFR...

  12. Bioelectrical impedance analysis during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, F; Franchi, M; Balestreri, D; Lischetti, B; Mele, M C; Alberico, S; Bolis, P

    2001-10-01

    To generate reference ranges for bioelectrical impedance indices throughout pregnancy and to investigate whether a relationship exists between these indices and the neonatal birth weight. Pregnant women with a singleton gestation, gestational age lower than 12 weeks, and absence of medical diseases before pregnancy were enrolled. Patients with pregnancy complications, such as hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and antiphospholipides syndrome were excluded. Antrophometric maternal parameters and bioelectrical impedance measurements were performed during the first, second, third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and 60 days after delivery. Height(2)/resistance (cm(2)/Omega) and height(2)/reactance (cm(2)/Omega) were utilized to estimate the total and extracellular body water amounts, respectively. Spearman rank correlations and cox proportional hazard modelling were used for statistical purposes. 169 patients completed all measurements. Total and extracellular water amounts significantly increase as pregnancy advances and return to the pre-pregnancy values within 60 days after delivery. After adjustment for gestational age at delivery, fetal sex, and smoking habits, height(2)/resistance at 25 weeks (hazard=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.06, Pweight. We have provided reference ranges for bioimpedance analysis during pregnancy, an easy, fast and non invasive method to estimate the body water composition during pregnancy. Bioelectrical impedance indices during the second trimester of pregnancy are independently related to the birth weight.

  13. Ethical issues related to caring for low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mary S; Passmore, Denise; Cline, Genieveve; Maguire, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Currently preterm births are the leading causes of newborn deaths and newborn mortality in developed countries. Infants born prematurely remain vulnerable to many acute complications and long-term disabilities. There is a growing concern surrounding the moral and ethical implications of the complex and technological care being provided to extremely low birth weight infants in neonatal intensive care units in the developed nations. The purpose of this study was to describe the ethical and moral issues that neonatal intensive care nurses experience when caring for low birth weight preterm infants and their families. A phenomenological method design was used to describe the lived experiences of nurses with ethical and moral issues encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions were used to gather data from the participants. The setting for this study was a 97-bed neonatal intensive care. A total of 16 female nurses were interviewed. Approval to conduct the research study was obtained from the institutional review board of the hospital where the study was conducted. Formal signed consent was obtained from each participant. To ensure confidentiality, each participant was asked to choose a confederate name to be used in the interview and the transcriptions. The thematic analysis identified five recurring themes: (a) at the edge of viability, (b) infant pain and discomfort, (c) crucial decisions, (d) communicating with parents, and (e) letting go. Neonatal intensive care unit nurses indicated that they often had challenges to their own sense of morality as they struggled to protect the infant from pain and unnecessary discomfort, provide care to an infant and their family whom they thought was faced with a lifetime of challenges and poor health, accepting decisions made by parents, and feeling as if parents were not adequately informed about outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  15. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppetti, Debora; Pecile, Alessandro; Palestrini, Clara; Marelli, Stefano P.; Boracchi, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Birth weight is a key factor for neonatal mortality and morbidity in most mammalian species. The great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed, as well as in skeletal and cranial conformation makes it challenging to define birth weight standards in dogs. A total of 3293 purebred pups were surveyed to study which maternal aspects can determine birth weight considering head and body shape, size, body weight and breed in bitches, as well as litter size and sex in pups. In our sample, multivariate analysis outcomes suggested that birth weight and litter size were directly proportional to maternal size. The maternal body shape influenced both birth weight and litter size, whereas the maternal head shape had impact only on birth weight. Sex differences in birth weight were found. Birth weight and litter size also varied among breeds. The results of the present study could have practical implications allowing one to identify pups in need of admission to intensive nursing care, as occurs in humans. A deeper knowledge of the factors that significantly influence birth weight could positively affect the canine breeding management helping to prevent and reduce neonatal mortality. Abstract Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001) and litter size (p < 0.05) increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and

  16. Delayed Prenatal Care and the Risk of Low Birth Weight Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, William J.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Davis, Lucy; Sturgill, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    Assessed whether the timing of prenatal care related to low birth weight delivery, adjusting for sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. Data on births to white and African American women showed no benefits for early initiation of prenatal care in reducing the risk of low birth weight.(SM)

  17. Birth weight centiles by gestational age for twins born in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Mathews, Jiji; Benjamin, Santhosh; Regi, Annie; Jose, Ruby; Kuruvilla, Anil; Mathai, Mathews

    2016-03-24

    Birth weight centile curves are commonly used as a screening tool and to assess the position of a newborn on a given reference distribution. Birth weight of twins are known to be less than those of comparable singletons and twin-specific birth weight centile curves are recommended for use. In this study, we aim to construct gestational age specific birth weight centile curves for twins born in south India. The study was conducted at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, south India. The birth records of all consecutive pregnancies resulting in twin births between 1991 and 2005 were reviewed. Only live twin births between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation were included. Birth weight centiles for gestational age were obtained using the methodology of generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Centiles curves were obtained separately for monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Of 1530 twin pregnancies delivered during the study period (1991-2005), 1304 were included in the analysis. The median gestational age at birth was 36 weeks (1st quartile 34, 3rd quartile 38 weeks). Smoothed percentile curves for birth weight by gestational age increased progressively till 38 weeks and levels off thereafter. Compared with dichorionic twins, monochorionic twins had lower birth weight for gestational age from after 27 weeks. We provide centile values of birth weight at 24 to 42 completed weeks of gestation for twins born in south India. These charts could be used both in routine clinical assessments and epidemiological studies.

  18. Full-term newborns with normal birth weight requiring special care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The level of clinical care and facilities to support the often more viable full-term newborns with normal birth weight compared with preterm/low birth weight newborns that require special care at birth are likely to be attainable in many resource-poor settings. However, the nature of the required care is not evident ...

  19. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-07-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.

  20. Outdoor air pollution and term low birth weight in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated on the association between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. However, most of the previous studies were conducted in geographically distinct areas and suffer from lack of important potential covariates. We examined the effect of ambient air pollution on term low birth weight (LBW) using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan that began in 2001. We restricted participants to term singletons (n=44,109). Air pollution concentrations during the 9months before birth were obtained at the municipality level and were assigned to the participants who were born in the corresponding municipality. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. We found that air pollution exposure during pregnancy was positively associated with the risk of term LBW. In the fully adjusted models, odds ratios following one interquartile range increase in each pollutant were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.19) for suspended particulate matter (SPM), 1.11 (0.99, 1.26) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 1.71 (1.18, 2.46) for sulfur dioxide (SO2). Specifically, effect estimates for SPM and NO2 exposure at the first trimester were higher than those at other trimesters, while SO2 was associated with the risk at all trimesters. Nonsmoking mothers were more susceptible to SPM and NO2 exposure compared with smoking mothers. Ambient air pollution increases the risk of term LBW in a nationally representative sample in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2008-01-01

    It has been speculated whether maternal immune responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens affect pregnancies negatively. This study explores, on a population level, whether previous births of boys compared with girls are associated with a decrease in birth weight...... of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...

  2. Kangaroo position in low birth weight preterm newborns: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samilly Rodrigues Farias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To describe the number of periods that very low birth weight preterm newborns were in kangaroo position during admission in the neonatal unit and to look for relations between maternal and neonatal variables with kangaroo position. A retrospective and descriptive study with all preterm newborns admitted in 2012, weighing 1500g or less and, gestational age lower than 31 weeks, classified as high clinical risk patients according to the Clinical Risk Index for Babies. We identified 38 babies whose admittance time ranged from 18 to 136 days. The beginning of kangaroo position occurred on average at 30.8 days of post-natal life (SD=18.5 and the number of periods in kangaroo position was on average 10.7 times. The occurrence of kangaroo position was less frequent than opportunities from the maternal presence, and the position was related to a higher offering of free milk demand.

  3. Kluyvera ascorbata sepsis in an extremely low birth weight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kluyvera ascorbata belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family and is a gram negative micro-organism. This bacteria is usually considered a commensal, however it can cause significant infections rarely. This organism is usually resistant to most commonly used antibiotics used as first line in neonatal units. Antimicrobial agents active against Kluyvera strains include third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. We report a case of an extremely low birth weight male infant who presented on day 4 of life with clinical features of sepsis, multi-organ dysfunction, shock and pulmonary haemorrhage. Neonatal sepsis was associated with marked elevation of C-reactive protein and a falling platelet count. Infant expired on day 5 of life in spite of aggressive supportive care and treatment with meropenem. with growth of Kluyvera ascorbataon blood culture.

  4. Anaemia and low birth weight in Medani, Hospital Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhassan Elhassan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing the incidence of Low birth weight (LBW neonates by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 is one of the major goals of the United Nations resolution "A World Fit for Children". This was a case-control study conducted between August-October 2009 in Medani Hospital, Sudan to investigate the risk factors for LBW. Cases were mothers who delivered singleton baby Findings Out of 1224 deliveries, 97 (12.6% of the neonates were LBW deliveries. While maternal socio-demographic characteristics (age, parity and mother education and anthropometrics measurements were not associated with LBW, lack of antenatal care (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.4-24.4; P = 0.01 and maternal anaemia (OR = 9.0, 95% CI = 3.4-23.8; P Conclusion Thus, more care on antenatal care and nutrition may prevent LBW.

  5. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, S D; Zhang, M G; Der, G; Mathur, S; Mina, T H; Reynolds, R M

    2017-04-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range -86-129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI -4.0-6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57-103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.

  6. [Low birth weight and obesity: causal or casual association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adolfo Monteiro; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    To present the conceptual foundations that explain how events occurring during intrauterine life may influence body development, emphasizing the interrelation between low birth weight and risk of obesity throughout life. Google Scholar, Library Scientific Electronic Online (SciELO), EBSCO, Scopus, and PubMed were the databases. "Catch-up growth", "life course health", "disease", "child", "development", "early life", "perinatal programming", "epigenetics", "breastfeeding", "small baby syndrome", "phenotype", "micronutrients", "maternal nutrition", "obesity", and "adolescence" were isolated or associated keywords for locating reviews and epidemiological, intervention and experimental studies published between 1934 and 2014, with complete texts in Portuguese and English. Duplicate articles, editorials and reviews were excluded, as well as approaches of diseases different from obesity. Within 47 selected articles among 538 eligible ones, the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, the epigenetic mechanisms and the development plasticity were identified as fundamental factors to explain the mechanisms involved in health and disease throughout life. They admit the possibility that both cardiometabolic events and obesity originate from intrauterine nutritional deficiency, which, associated with a food supply that is excessive to the metabolic needs of the organism in early life stages, causes endocrine changes. However, there may be phenotypic reprogramming for low birth weight newborns from adequate nutritional supply, thus overcoming a restrictive intrauterine environment. Therefore, catch-up growth may indicate recovery from intrauterine constraint, which is associated with short-term benefits or harms in adulthood. Depending on the nutritional adequacy in the first years of life, developmental plasticity may lead to phenotype reprogramming and reduce the risk of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  7. The Relationship between CO Ambient and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Majd H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: LBW is the strongest factor related to prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood mortality and morbidity. Air pollution is one of the risk factors that is recently gaining attention. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the CO ambient and low birth weight in women referring to Tehran hospitals in 2007-2008. Methods: In this historical cohort study 225 pregnant women having lived within 5 kilometers of a monitoring station during pregnancy and referring to selected hospitals in Tehran were investigated. An information questionnaire was used for data collection and sampling was done by multistage sampling and convenience method. Women were assigned to low exposure group and high exposure group based on mean exposure to each pollutant during pregnancy. These two groups were matched with respect to confounding factors. SPSS software version 15, T statistics, 2, Man Withnney, and Relative Risk procedures were used for data analysis.Results: The result showed that 31.6% of CO high exposure group and 7.4% of CO low exposure group had Low birth weight baby. The result also showed a significant relationship between exposure to high amount of CO and LBW (p=0.001. Relative Risk calculated with confidence interval (RR=4/67, CI=(1/76-9/43 was found to be 95% and the amount of attributable risk was 66%.Conclusion: Based on these finding, exposure to carbon monoxide pollution can cause LBW. There should be an educational program about the disadvantages of CO pollutant on pregnant women living in densely populated areas of the city. Moreover, practical approaches should be provided to reduce these pollutants.

  8. Factors affecting birth weight and growth rate in Friesian X Bunaji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calving records from 1984 - 1989 were studied to determine the influence of rearing method, sex of calf, season of birth, dam breed and year· of birth on body weight at birth, 3, 6 and 12 montl1s of age in Friesian x Bunaji calves. The mean weights of calves at birth, 3, 6 and 12 months of age were 22.0, 68.2, 96.7 and 137.4 ...

  9. Placental expression profile of imprinted genes impacts birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappil, Maya A; Green, Benjamin B; Armstrong, David A; Sharp, Andrew J; Lambertini, Luca; Marsit, Carmen J; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of imprinted genes in regulating feto-placental development has been long established. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of placental imprinted gene expression on fetal growth has yet to be conducted. In this study, we examined the association between the placental expression of 108 established and putative imprinted genes and birth weight in 677 term pregnancies, oversampled for small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants. Using adjusted multinomial regression analyses, a 2-fold increase in the expression of 9 imprinted genes was positively associated with LGA status: BLCAP [odds ratio (OR) = 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 7.82], DLK1 [OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.09], H19 [OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.77, 4.42], IGF2 [OR = 1.43, 95% CI:1.31, 2.40], MEG3 [OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.71], MEST [OR = 4.78, 95% CI: 2.64, 8.65], NNAT [OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.86], NDN [OR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.72, 3.68], and PLAGL1 [OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.44]. For SGA status, a 2-fold increase in MEST expression was associated with decreased risk [OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.58], while a 2-fold increase in NNAT expression was associated with increased risk [OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1]. Following a factor analysis, all genes significantly associated with SGA or LGA status loaded onto 2 of the 8 gene-sets underlying the variability in the dataset. Our comprehensive placental profiling of imprinted genes in a large birth cohort supports the importance of these genes for fetal growth. Given that abnormal birth weight is implicated in numerous diseases and developmental abnormalities, the expression pattern of placental imprinted genes has the potential to be developed as a novel biomarker for postnatal health outcomes.

  10. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...... risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than...... recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement: What is already known on this subject: Previous studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed...

  11. Fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction: a new population-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, H K; Grøttum, P; Økland, I; Eik-Nes, S H

    2017-04-01

    To develop a complete, population-based system for ultrasound-based fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction for use in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Using 31 516 ultrasound examinations from a population-based Norwegian clinical database, we constructed fetal size charts for biparietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference from 24 to 42 weeks' gestation. A reference curve of median birth weight for gestational age was estimated using 45 037 birth weights. We determined how individual deviations from the expected ultrasound measures predicted individual percentage deviations from expected birth weight. The predictive quality was assessed by explained variance of birth weight and receiver-operating characteristics curves for prediction of small-for-gestational age. A curve for intrauterine estimated fetal weight was constructed. Charts were smoothed using the gamlss non-linear regression method. The population-based approach, using bias-free ultrasound gestational age, produces stable estimates of size-for-age and weight-for-age curves in the range 24-42 weeks' gestation. There is a close correspondence between percentage deviations and percentiles of birth weight by gestational age, making it easy to convert between the two. The variance of birth weight that can be 'explained' by ultrasound increases from 8% at 20 weeks up to 67% around term. Intrauterine estimated fetal weight is 0-106 g higher than median birth weight in the preterm period. The new population-based birth-weight prediction model provides a simple summary measure, the 'percentage birth-weight deviation', to be used for fetal size monitoring throughout the third trimester. Predictive quality of the model can be measured directly from the population data. The model computes both median observed birth weight and intrauterine estimated fetal weight. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John

  12. High birth weight babies: Incedence and foetal outcome in a Mission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with a history of delivery of a previous baby with birth weight of 4000g, a gestational weight gain of 13-15 kg and a height >1.63m had an increased tendency towards delivery of a HBW infant. High birth weight babies were at a higher risk of foetal death and delivery by Caesarean Section. Conclusion: Incidence of ...

  13. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention with mandat......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... the initiation and termination of vitamin D fortification programmes. In total, four sets of analyses were performed. Information on birth weight was available in the Copenhagen School Health Record Register for all school children in Copenhagen. The mean birth weight was lower among the exposed than non...

  14. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  15. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Groppetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001 and litter size (p < 0.05 increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and the lightest pups, respectively (p < 0.001. Birth weight decreased with litter size (p < 0.001, and male pups were heavier than females (p < 0.001. These results suggest that canine morphotype, not only maternal size and body weight, can affect birth weight and litter size with possible practical implications in neonatal assistance.

  16. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  17. Arsenic in drinking water and adverse birth outcomes in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, Kirsten S; Turyk, Mary E; Jones, Rachael M; Rankin, Kristin; Freels, Sally; Graber, Judith M; Stayner, Leslie T

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic in drinking water has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes in areas with high levels of naturally occurring arsenic. Less is known about the reproductive effects of arsenic at lower levels. This research examined the association between low-level arsenic in drinking water and small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (term LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), preterm birth (PTB), and very preterm birth (VPTB) in the state of Ohio. Exposure was defined as the mean annual arsenic concentration in drinking water in each county in Ohio from 2006 to 2008 using Safe Drinking Water Information System data. Birth outcomes were ascertained from the birth certificate records of 428,804 births in Ohio from the same time period. Multivariable generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between arsenic and each birth outcome separately. Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the roles of private well use and prenatal care utilization in these associations. Arsenic in drinking water was associated with increased odds of VLBW (AOR 1.14 per µg/L increase; 95% CI 1.04, 1.24) and PTB (AOR 1.10; 95% CI 1.06, 1.15) among singleton births in counties where water was positively associated with VLBW and PTB in a population where nearly all (>99%) of the population was exposed under the current maximum contaminant level of 10µg/L. Current regulatory standards may not be protective against reproductive effects of prenatal exposure to arsenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [The effect of birth weight on the early postnatal vitality of piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Wähner, M; Puppe, B

    1994-10-01

    Investigations with 1248 newborn piglets in 7 farms showed a high significant influence of birth weight on parameters of early postnatal vitality. The duration between birth and first standing up was by two times, the time between birth and first udder contact by 3.5 times and the duration between birth and first colostrum intake was by 4 times longer in piglets with a low birth weight ( 2200 g). The drop in rectal temperature up to 30 minutes after birth reached 4.5 Kelvin in lightweight piglets, whereas their litter mates with a high body weight at birth had a value of 0.85 K (p vitality of newborn piglets and has a high prognostic value in relation to the risk of losses and the live weight development of neonates.

  19. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...

  20. Influence of birth weight on differences in infant mortality by social class and legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, D A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social class. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality was 4.2/1000 and 2.3/1000 respectively for social class I and 6.8/1000 and 5.6/1000 respectively for social class V. Mortality was lower among births registered within marriage (postneonatal 3.5/1000; neonatal 5.2/1000) than among those jointly registered outside marriage (5.1/1000; 6.4/1000); mortality was highest in those solely registered outside marriage (7.2/1000; 7.0/1000). For neonatal mortality the effect of social class varied with birth weight. Social class had little effect on neonatal mortality in low birthweight babies and increasing effect in heavier babies. For postneonatal mortality the effect of social class was similar for all birth weights and was almost as steep as for all birth weights combined. CONCLUSION--Birth weight mediates little of the effect of social class on postneonatal mortality. PMID:1954421

  1. Is it good to be too light? Birth weight thresholds in hospital reimbursement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Simon; Wichert, Sebastian; Wuppermann, Amelie

    2018-02-02

    Birth weight manipulation has been documented in per-case hospital reimbursement systems, in which hospitals receive more money for otherwise equal newborns with birth weight just below compared to just above specific birth weight thresholds. As hospitals receive more money for cases with weight below the thresholds, having a (reported) weight below a threshold could benefit the newborn. Also, these reimbursement thresholds overlap with diagnostic thresholds that have been shown to affect the quantity and quality of care that newborns receive. Based on the universe of hospital births in Germany from the years 2005-2011, we investigate whether weight below reimbursement relevant thresholds triggers different quantity and quality of care. We find that this is not the case, suggesting that hospitals' financial incentives with respect to birth weight do not directly impact the care that newborns receive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Growth of Very-low-birth-weight Infants at 5 Years Old in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wei Wang

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The growth of VLBW infants was lower than that of healthy full-term infants through 5 years of age. The cognitive performance for VLBW children was also decreased compared to that of the control group, and there was an association between slower growth and decreased cognitive ability.

  3. [Trendency analysis of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight in China from 1996 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hao; He, Chunhua; Miao, Lei; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Qi; Li, Xiaohong; Shen, Liqin

    2015-02-01

    To study the secular trend and characteristics of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight (IMRPL) in China from 1996 to 2013. Data used in this study was collected from the population-based Child's Health Surveillance Network of China. The Cochran-Armitage Trend test and Poisson regression were used to test the trend of IMRPL and explore the differences of the trend among different regions or areas. The nationwide IMRPL was 629.9 per 100 000 live births in 1996 and it decreased to 214.6 per 100 000 live births in 2013. The average annual decline rate was 6.14%, while the proportion of infant mortality due to premature birth or low birth weight in all infant deaths was on the rise with the average annual growth rate of 1.52%. And the proportion increased to 22.6% in 2013. IMRPLin rural and urban areas fell 28.1% and 66.6% respectively during 1996 and 2013. But the differences between urban and rural areas was obvious. During the same period, the average IMRPLin the central region was 1.40 times (95%CI:1.31-1.49) of that in the eastern region. And the average IMRPL in the western region was 2.25 times (95%CI:2.12-2.40) of that in the eastern region. The differences among different regions was obvious. Male infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight was 1.09 times (95%CI:1.05-1.14) of that in female infant from 1996 to 2013. The risk of IMRPL decreased substantially in China from 1996 to 2013. And the risk of IMRPL decreased more in rural areas than that in urban areas. The differences among different regions and areas were obvious. Premature birth or low birth weight as one of main factors has become a serious threat for health of Chinese children.

  4. Shyness and timidity in young adults who were born at extremely low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies have noted personality differences among adult survivors of very preterm birth, including higher neuroticism and cautiousness and lower extraversion. We attempted to replicate and extend these recent studies by examining personality characteristics across multiple components of personality that traditionally define personality structure in a birth cohort of young adults born at extremely low birth weight (501-1000 g), the smallest and most at-risk infants. We assessed 71 (76% of the original birth cohort) extremely low birth weight and 83 (74% of the original cohort) term normal birth weight young adults by using well-validated personality measures, indexing 4 traditional components of personality: temperament (Cheek and Buss shyness and sociability and Eysenck neuroticism and extraversion), motivation (Carver and White behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation), cognitive and affective (Coopersmith self-esteem and University of California, Los Angeles, loneliness), and socialization (Eysenck psychoticism and lie). All of the participants were right-handed and free of neurosensory and psychiatric impairments. Extremely low birth weight adults reported significantly higher shyness, behavioral inhibition, and socialization (a measure of prosocial behavior defined by risk aversion and adherence to societal mores) and lower sociability and emotional well-being than their normal birth weight counterparts, replicating and extending the findings of previous studies. Young adults who were born at extremely low birth weight and without major impairments are more cautious, shy, and risk aversive and less extraverted than their normal birth weight counterparts, possibly placing them at risk for future psychiatric and emotional problems.

  5. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  6. The Relationship between CO Ambient and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kariman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: LBW is the strongest factor related to prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood mortality and morbidity. Air pollution is one of the risk factors that is recently gaining attention. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the CO ambient and low birth weight in women referring to Tehran hospitals in 2007-2008.

     

    Methods: In this historical cohort study 225 pregnant women having lived within 5 kilometers of a monitoring station during pregnancy and referring to selected hospitals in Tehran were investigated. An information questionnaire was used for data collection and sampling was done by multistage sampling and convenience method. Women were assigned to low exposure group and high exposure group based on mean exposure to each pollutant during pregnancy. These two groups were matched with respect to confounding factors. SPSS software version 15, T statistics, c2, Man Withnney, and Relative Risk procedures were used for data analysis.

     

    Results: The result showed that 31.6% of CO high exposure group and 7.4% of CO low exposure group had Low birth weight baby. The result also showed a significant relationship between exposure to high amount of CO and LBW (p=0.001. Relative Risk calculated with confidence interval (RR=4/67, CI=(1/76-9/43 was found to be 95% and the amount of attributable risk was 66%.

     

    Conclusion: Based on these finding, exposure to carbon monoxide pollution can cause LBW. There should be an educational program about the disadvantages of CO pollutant on pregnant women living in densely populated areas of the city. Moreover, practical approaches should be provided to reduce these pollutants.

  7. A two year retrospective study of birth weight in Sidamo Regional Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madebo, T

    1994-10-01

    This is a two year retrospective analysis of 1,260 live single births at Sidamo Regional Hospital during 1989-1990. The mean birth weight was 3,243 g (SD +/- 625). There were 678(53.8%) boys and 582(46.2%) girls. The mean birth weight for boys and girls were 3,324 g (SD +/- 622) and 3147 g (SD +/- 611), respectively (t = 5.05; p < 0.001). There were significant correlations between birth weight and the age of the mother (r = 0.20; p < 0.001) as well as with parity (r = 0.15; p < 0.001). Eight per cent of the babies had birth weight less than 2,500 g. Five per cent of boys and 11% of girls had low birth weights (chi 2 = 8.8; p < 0.002). Higher proportion of low birth weight was also found among the young and primiparous mothers. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant and independent effect of maternal age and sex of the baby on birth weight. The findings are in general agreement with previous studies from Ethiopia and other developing countries. However, as this study is based on hospital data, community-based studies are needed to examine the true pattern of birth weights as hospital data may be biased.

  8. Prevalence and determinants of low birth weight: the situation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional birth attendant delivers majority of pregnant women in Nigeria. Objective: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for delivery of low birth weight (LBW) neonates in a Traditional Birth Home (TBH)in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 780 pregnant women ...

  9. Early neonatal deaths with perinatal asphyxia in very low birth weight Brazilian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M F B; Moreira, L M O; Vaz dos Santos, R M; Kawakami, M D; Anchieta, L M; Guinsburg, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of early deaths associated with birth asphyxia of very low birth weight infants between 2005 and 2010, in Brazil. This population study enrolled all live births with birth weight from 400 to 1499 g, gestational age ⩾ 22 weeks, without malformations that died up to 6 days after birth with perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was defined if intrauterine hypoxia, asphyxia at birth or meconium aspiration syndrome were written in any line of the death certificate. Active search was carried out in 27 Brazilian federative units. For every 1000 live births of very low birth weight infants without congenital malformations, 40.25 and 32.38 died with birth asphyxia in the first week after birth, respectively, in 2005 and 2010 (Pasphyxia to early neonatal death of these infants was approximately 10 to 12% all study years. Reduction of birth asphyxia in very low birth weight infants is essential to reducing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

  10. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  11. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  12. Early nasal continuous positive airway pressure versus INSURE in VLBW neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Saianda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests the INSURE strategy (INtubate-SURfactant administration and Extubate to nasal continuous positive airway pressure [nCPAP] is superior to mechanical ventilation (MV with rescue surfactant for the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in very low birth weight (VLBW neonates. There is limited data, however, to assess whether INSURE is superior to nCPAP alone. We aimed to compare these two strategies regarding early and late outcomes. Methods: Retrospective cohort study from Jan/2002 to Aug/2008. We included VLBW neonateswith gestational age (GA ≤ 30 weeks registered in the Vermont Oxford Network that used either nCPAP alone (nCPAP group, N = 40, or with INSURE (INSURE group, N = 56. We assessed early (RDS, need for rescue surfactant, and CPAP failure with MV and late outcomes (chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD, mortality, and composite outcome of mortality and/or CLD. Results: Neonates in the INSURE group had lower mean GA, while other baseline variables were comparable. The proportion of RDS was significantly superior in the nCPAP group (53% vs. 30%; adjusted OR [95% CI] – 0.2 [0.1-0.6]. Therapeutic surfactant was administered to all cases with RDS in the nCPAP group, but to none from the INSURE group. MV was more frequently required in the nCPAP group (11/ 40, 28% vs. 9/ 56, 12%; p = 0.04. No statistically significant differences were found in either of the late outcomes. Conclusion: The use of nCPAP alone in VLBW neonates with GA ≤ 30 weeks may be associated with slightly poorer early outcomes than the INSURE strategy, but there were no significant differences in CLD or mortality. Resumo: Introdução: Pretende-se determinar se a utilização do método INSURE em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso, com idade gestacional (IG ≤ 30 semanas se associa a menor morbilidade e mortalidade quando comparado com uso de nCPAP isolado. Métodos: Estudo de

  13. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  14. Birth weight and risk of adiposity among adult Inuit in Greenland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Falberg Rønn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Inuit population in Greenland has undergone rapid socioeconomic and nutritional changes simultaneously with an increasing prevalence of obesity. Therefore, the objective was to examine fetal programming as part of the aetiology of obesity among Inuit in Greenland by investigating the association between birth weight and measures of body composition and fat distribution in adulthood. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from a total of 1,473 adults aged 18-61 years in two population-based surveys conducted in Greenland between 1999-2001 and 2005-2010. Information on birth weight was collected from birth records. Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI, and visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT estimated by ultrasound. The associations to birth weight were analyzed using linear regression models and quadratic splines. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, birthplace, ancestry and family history of obesity. RESULTS: Spline analyses showed linear relations between birth weight and adult adiposity. In multiple regression analyses, birth weight was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, FMI, FFMI and SAT with generally weaker associations among women compared to men. Birth weight was only associated with VAT after additional adjustment for waist circumference and appeared to be specific and inverse for men only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher birth weight among Inuit was associated with adiposity in adulthood. More studies are needed to explore a potential inverse association between birth size and VAT.

  15. Birth Weight, School Sports Ability, and Adulthood Leisure-Time Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of birth weight with ability in school sports in adolescence and participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) across adulthood and to investigate whether associations between birth weight and LTPA change with age. Study participants were British singletons born in 1946 and followed up to age 68 yr (the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development). Birth weights were extracted from birth records. Teacher reports of ability in school sports were collected at age 13 yr. LTPA was self-reported at ages 36, 43, 53, 60-64, and 68 yr and categorized at each age as participating in sports, exercise, and other vigorous LTPA at least once per month versus no participation. Associations were examined using standard and mixed-effects logistic regression models. Relevant data were available for 2739 study participants (50.1% female). When compared with the low birth weight group (≤2.50 kg), those with heavier birth weights were more likely to be rated as above average or average at school sports (vs below average); fully adjusted odds ratio = 1.78 (95% confidence interval = 1.14-2.77). Across adulthood, those with heavier birth weights were more likely to participate in LTPA than those with low birth weight; fully adjusted odds ratio of LTPA across adulthood = 1.52 (95% confidence interval = 1.09-2.14). This association did not vary by age (P = 0.5 for birth weight by age interaction). Low birth weight was associated with lower ability in school sports and with nonparticipation in LTPA across adulthood. Identifying the underlying developmental and social processes operating across life for low birth weight infants may inform the design of appropriate interventions to support participation in LTPA across life.

  16. Birth Weight, School Sports Ability, and Adulthood Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine the associations of birth weight with ability in school sports in adolescence and participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) across adulthood and to investigate whether associations between birth weight and LTPA change with age. Methods Study participants were British singletons born in 1946 and followed up to age 68 yr (the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development). Birth weights were extracted from birth records. Teacher reports of ability in school sports were collected at age 13 yr. LTPA was self-reported at ages 36, 43, 53, 60–64, and 68 yr and categorized at each age as participating in sports, exercise, and other vigorous LTPA at least once per month versus no participation. Associations were examined using standard and mixed-effects logistic regression models. Results Relevant data were available for 2739 study participants (50.1% female). When compared with the low birth weight group (≤2.50 kg), those with heavier birth weights were more likely to be rated as above average or average at school sports (vs below average); fully adjusted odds ratio = 1.78 (95% confidence interval = 1.14–2.77). Across adulthood, those with heavier birth weights were more likely to participate in LTPA than those with low birth weight; fully adjusted odds ratio of LTPA across adulthood = 1.52 (95% confidence interval = 1.09–2.14). This association did not vary by age (P = 0.5 for birth weight by age interaction). Conclusions Low birth weight was associated with lower ability in school sports and with nonparticipation in LTPA across adulthood. Identifying the underlying developmental and social processes operating across life for low birth weight infants may inform the design of appropriate interventions to support participation in LTPA across life. PMID:27580148

  17. Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    Boy, Erick; Bruce, Nigel; Delgado, Hernán

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether domestic use of wood fuel is associated with reduced birth weight, independent of key maternal, social, and economic confounding factors. We studied 1,717 women and newborn children in rural and urban communities in rural Guatemala. We identified subjects through home births reported by traditional birth attendants in six rural districts (n = 572) and all public hospital births in Quetzaltenango city during the study period (n = 1,145). All were se...

  18. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  19. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Velusamy Saravana; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Sebastian, Tunny; Regi, Annie; Mathew, Jiji; Jose, Ruby

    2013-02-14

    The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20-39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box-Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively.In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116 grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams

  20. Metabolomic profiling in blood from umbilical cords of low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivorra Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight has been linked to an increased risk to develop obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in adult life, although the mechanisms underlying the association are not well understood. The objective was to determine whether the metabolomic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between low and normal birth weight newborns. Methods Fifty healthy pregnant women and their infants were selected. The eligibility criteria were being born at term and having a normal pregnancy. Pairs were grouped according to their birth weight: low birth weight (LBW, birth weight th percentile, n = 20 and control (control, birth weight between the 75th-90th percentiles, n = 30. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR was used to generate metabolic fingerprints of umbilical cord plasma samples. Simultaneously, the metabolomic profiles of the mothers were analysed. The resulting data were subjected to chemometric, principal component and partial least squares discriminant analyses. Results Umbilical cord plasma from LBW and control newborns displayed a clearly differentiated metabolic profile. Seven metabolites were identified that discriminate the LBW from the control group. LBW newborns had lower levels of choline, proline, glutamine, alanine and glucose than did the control newborns, while plasma levels of phenylalanine and citrulline were higher in LBW newborns (p Conclusions Low birth weight newborns display a differential metabolomic profile than those of normal birth weight, a finding not present in the mothers. The meaning and the potential utility of the findings as biomarkers of risk need to be addressed in future studies.

  1. Famine, third-trimester pregnancy weight gain, and intrauterine growth: the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A. D.; Ravelli, A. C.; Lumey, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study were analyzed to assess the influence of acute famine on the relation of maternal weight gain to birth weight, length, and ponderal index. Records were examined for 734 women receiving at least one month of prenatal care and delivering live-born

  2. Birth weight relates to blood pressure and microvascular function in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Objective The relationship between low birth weight and elevated blood pressure in adult life is well established but presently unexplained. Both microvascular dysfunction and insulin resistance have been proposed as a possible explanation. We have examined the relation between birth weight and

  3. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The model for all evaluated traits included litter size, birth weight and litter size x birth weight interaction as a fixed effects and order parity of sows in which the litters were standardized as random effect. The significance of difference. (P) between means was determined using Duncan's multiple range test.

  4. Rickets in very-Iow-birth-weight infants born at Baragwanath Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract Disturbed mineral and bone metabolism has been reported to occur frequently in very-10w-birth- weight infants fed breast-milk during the first 3 months of life. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of disturbed mineral homeostasis in a breast-milk-fed very-Iow-birth-weight popu- lation at Baragwanath ...

  5. Evidence for a Causal Association of Low Birth Weight and Attention Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with attention problems (AP) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The etiology of this association is unclear. We investigate whether there is a causal influence of birth weight (BW) on AP and whether the BW effect is mediated by catch-up growth (CUG) in low-BW children. Method:…

  6. Is low back pain in youth associated with weight at birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low back pain has been associated with an increased risk of several diseases and with poor general health. Also low birth weight has been associated with an increased susceptibility to various diseases as well as with poor general health. Thus, low birth weight could be a common fac...

  7. Birth weight in relation to leisure time physical activity in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific...

  8. Regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in adulthood is not related to birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Petersen, Inge; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults....

  9. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  10. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124...... by birth weight was calculated separately for each age, sex, and time period. RESULTS: The birth weight distribution remained relatively stable over time. Compared with children with a birth weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg, the risk of overweight increased consistently with each increase in birth weight category...... in the distribution of birth weight or by changes in the association between birth weight and the later risk of overweight over time. This implies that, unless the prenatal environment influences the later risk of overweight without increasing birth weight, the environmental influences contributing to the obesity...

  11. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W

    2005-01-01

    in the distribution of birth weight or by changes in the association between birth weight and the later risk of overweight over time. This implies that, unless the prenatal environment influences the later risk of overweight without increasing birth weight, the environmental influences contributing to the obesity......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124...... by birth weight was calculated separately for each age, sex, and time period. RESULTS: The birth weight distribution remained relatively stable over time. Compared with children with a birth weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg, the risk of overweight increased consistently with each increase in birth weight category...

  12. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  13. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612......) answered a questionnaire during 12th to 16th gestational week about their exposure to ETS at home and outside the home. RESULTS: Pregnant nonsmokers exposed to ETS both at home and outside the home gave birth to children with a birth weight of 78.9 g (95% CI -143.7 to -14.1) (P=0.02) lower than the weight...... of children born to women unexposed to ETS. There was no significant reduction in birth weight among women exposed to ETS at home only or outside the home only. A nonsignificant dose-response association was seen between increasing daily exposure to ETS and reduction in birth weight. CONCLUSION: Nonsmoking...

  14. Correlation of periodontitis during pregnancy and incidence of low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Reddy

    2012-01-01

    After delivery, gestational age (in weeks and birth weight of baby (in kg were collected from hospital records. Infants were placed into following categories by gestational age (WHO and by birth weight preterm-3,900 gm. Results: Based on the findings of the study, a significant correlation was observed between periodontitis and low birth weight and preterm low birth weight (p<_0.001 and a significant relation was observed between periodontitis and gestational age (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Periodontitis was considered a risk indicator for reduced gestational age and birth weight. Multicentric trials will greatly help to establish the independent role of periodontal disease and their relationship in terms of pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 children......, born from 1936 to 1972, from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register were followed prospectively in Danish health registers. Colon and rectal cancer cases were defined using the International Classification of Disease version 10 (colon: C18.0-18.9, rectal: 19.9 and 20.9). Only cancers classified....... No significant sex differences were observed; therefore combined results are presented. Birth weight was positively associated with colon cancers with a HR of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26) per kilogram of birth weight. For rectal cancer a significant association was not observed for birth weights below 3.5kg. Above 3...

  16. Birth weight predicts the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and pregravid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, Jarosław; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Engel, Karina; Celewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that birth weight may determine metabolic abnormalities later in life. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between birth weight and future risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregravid obesity in a homogenous sample of Caucasian Polish women. In this retrospective study, we collected the medical reports of 787 women with GDM and 801 healthy pregnant women. We analyzed the following data: birth weight, age, pregravid weight, prior GDM, prior macrosomia, parity, and family history of diabetes. Birth weight was inversely associated with the risk of GDM; for each decrease in birth weight of 500 g, the risk increased by 11% (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.21). Birth weight was a strong predictor of GDM independent of other risk factors (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31), and it was positively correlated with pregravid weight (R = 0.21; P obesity (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34 and OR, 1.35; 95% CI 1.11-1.64, respectively). Each of the traditional risk factors for GDM were also strong predictors of pregravid obesity: age (P diabetes (P obesity is associated with high birth weight. Traditional risk factors for GDM, including maternal (but not paternal) history of diabetes, are also risk factors for pregravid obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L

    2017-06-12

    Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (prematurity (RRR: 15.4, CI: 9.18-25.9); no antenatal follow-up (RRR: 6.78, CI: 2.39-19.25); and female sex (RRR: 1.77, CI: 1.13-2.77). Predictors for macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post

  18. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimarães, Armênio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW

  19. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA.Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana.Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05.This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  20. Infusoabdomen with abdominal compartment in extremely low birth weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin-Johannes Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheters (CVCs are frequently used in neonatal care. The rate of complications upon CVC use is high and the spectrum ranges from catheter tip dislocation to cardiac tamponade and death. Here we present an explanation model to the phenomenon of paravasate into human anatomical cavities based on two illustrative cases: Extremely low birth weight twins suffering from abdominal compartment syndromes due to different pathologies – one with a trans-peritoneal and one with intra-abdominal effusion. In both siblings the peripherally introduced central catheter (PICC perforated the vessel without clinical signs of bleeding and contributed to abdominal and thoracal complications. Case I (23 + 5 gestational week; 770 g; female showed clinical signs of an abdominal compartment syndrome without respective intestinal pathology upon open surgical procedure with ileostomy. Radiographic contrast examination showed retroperitoneal leakage when administered through the catheter. Replacement into the subclavian vein led to cardio-respiratory misbalance due to severe pleural effusion. Re-replacement finally led to clinical restitution after 60 days of intensive care. Case II (23 + 5 gestational week; 690 g; female showed clinical signs of an abdominal compartment syndrome, too. Radiographic contrast examination showed leakage from the PICC into the abdomen. Replacement of the PICC and invasive care led to improvement after 3 days. The 2 cases reveal that the displacement of a PICC can occur without direct clinical signs of hemodynamic imbalance i.e. bleeding or hematoma. Displacement of the catheter tip from intra-vascular, retro-peritoneal position can cause abdominal compartment syndromes either via trans-peritoneal migration of fluids or after perforation of the peritoneum via intra-abdominal administration of given infusion. Both options caused life threatening complications. Watchfulness and intensive surgical and non-surgical care are

  1. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  2. KIR and HLA-C: Immunogenetic regulation of human birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia E. Farrell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancies resulting in very small or very large babies are at higher risk of obstetric complications with increased morbidity for both mother and baby. Using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we have shown how human birth weight is still subject to stabilizing selection. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune genes have been implicated in pregnancies resulting in a low birth weight baby (<5th birth weight centile. More specifically, an inhibitory maternal KIRAA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. At the other end of the birth weight spectrum the presence of an activating maternal KIR2DS1 gene is associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p=0.005, OR=2.65. Thus, inhibitory maternal KIR combined with fetal HLA-C2 is more frequently associated with low birth weight, whereas activating maternal KIR with fetal HLA-C2 ligand is associated with increasing birth weight. Our findings using the MoBa cohort have replicated the association of KIR and HLA-C seen in poor placentation, and confirm the importance of maternal/fetal immune gene interactions in determining the outcome of pregnancy.

  3. Is obesity a risk factor for impaired cognition in young adults with low birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, M; Morgården, E; Gustafsson, J

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There is also an association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability. Since low birth weight is associated with adult metabolic disease, particularly in obese subjects, the question emerges whether obesity has an additional negative effect on cognitive function in subjects with low birth weight. The aim was to analyse whether overweight or obesity influence intellectual performance in young adults with particular focus on those with a low birth weight. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 620,834 males born between 1973 and 1988 and matched to results on intellectual performance and BMI at conscription. The risk for low intellectual performance was higher for those with high BMI compared to those with normal. The highest risk was found among subjects with low birth weight and overweight or obesity in young adulthood (odds ratios, 1.98 [1.73-2.22] and 2.59 [2.00-3.34], respectively). However, subjects with further high birth weight and a high BMI at conscription had no further increased risk. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of subnormal intellectual performance in young adult males. Subjects with low birth weight and adolescent overweight/obesity are at particular risk of subnormal performance. A high birth weight increases the risk for obesity, but a high adult BMI does not further increase the risk for subnormal performance. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. C-Reactive Protein and Procalcitonin Diagnostic Value in Congenital Infection in Newborns with Extremely Low and Very Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Mikhaylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high frequency of infectious complications in the early neonatal period of adaptation in infants with extremely low (ELBW and very low birth weight (VLBW attracts particular attention. The aim of our study was to evaluate the sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in congenital pneumonia and congenital sepsis in newborn infants with extremely low and very low birth weight.Methods. In 160 preterm newborns that were included in our prospective study, 33 had early neonatal sepsis, 42 children had congenital pneumonia, and 85 infants were without neonatal infection. A comprehensive clinical and laboratoryinstrumental examination of the newborn was done, including determining the concentration of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin at the age of 48–72 hours of life. Results. Low sensitivity of CRP at the age of 48–72 hours of life in congenital sepsis and congenital pneumonia was observed. However, under these pathological conditions CRP and PCT are characterized by high specificity. It should also be noted that PCT has a high sensitivity in children with congenital sepsis aged 48–72 hours. Moreover, PCT also has a high specificity (Sp 80,6%, which determines its advantage in the use of sepsis diagnosis in extremely premature infants compared to CRP.Conclusion. Maximum specificity reaches 100%, co-located with the assessment of CRP and PCT, which determines the feasibility of using this combination for verification of congenital infectious conditions such as sepsis and pneumonia in children ELBW and VLBW aged 48–72 hours.

  5. Effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation in preterm low birth weight newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alo, D; Shahidullah, M; Mannan, M A; Noor, K

    2010-07-01

    This interventional study was done to determine the effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation on weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis in preterm low birth weight newborns during their hospital stay. It was carried out during the period of June 2006-May 2007 in the Newborn unit of a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Sixty preterm (28-34weeks), low birth weight (1000-1800g) AGA (appropriate for gestational age) newborns were enrolled within 24 hours of birth. Intervention and control newborns were matched in terms of birth weight and gestational age. Samples were volunteers. Parenteral amino acid (5%) supplementation in addition to usual nutritional management until enteral feeding reached three fourth of total calorie intake. Usual nutritional management was 10% intravenous dextrose and subsequent enteral feeding. Main outcome measured with weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis. Weight change was observed by two parameters such as mean percentage of maximum postnatal weight loss and mean days to reach birth weight, both were significantly lower in intervention than control group (psupplementation investigated in this study has been shown to have no effect. There was no difference in incidence of sepsis between intervention and control group (p>0.05). Improved nutritional supplementation with parenteral amino acids resulted in better growth as evident by lesser degree of weight loss and earlier regaining of birth weight in the early neonatal period. Biochemical parameters are not affected by parenteral amino acid supplementation.

  6. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

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    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

  8. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-12-15

    Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on the different socio-economic backgrounds of their clients. The data on birth weight and other factors were derived from hospital records. It was observed that low birth weight is still highly prevalent (29.6%), while macrosomia (10.5%) is also increasingly becoming important. There were marginal differences in low birth weight observed across public hospitals but marked difference in low birth weight was observed in Cienfuegos Suglo Specialist Hospital (Private hospital) as compared to the public hospitals. The private hospital also had the highest prevalence of macrosomia (20.1%). Parity (0-1) (p malnutrition phenomenon, which is currently being experienced by developing and transition counties. Both low birth weight and macrosomia are risk factors, which could contribute considerably to the current and future burden of diseases. This may overstretch the already fragile health system in Ghana. Therefore, it is prudent to recommend that policies aiming at reducing diet related diseases should focus on addressing malnutrition during pregnancy and early life.

  9. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-02-01

    We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4-7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4-7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4-7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4-7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child's IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06-0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4-7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or

  10. Maternal lean body mass may be the major determinant of birth weight: A study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, B; Shatrugna, V; Balakrishna, N

    2006-11-01

    This study explored the relationship of maternal body composition parameters to the birth weight of the offspring. Maternal anthropometric parameters (weight, height) and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured in 76 women from low-income group during 12-21 days postpartum. The mean+/-s.d. height, weight of the mothers and birth weight of the newborns were 151.5+/-5.29 cm, 46.7+/-6.04 and 2.84+/-0.358 kg, respectively. When the relationship of maternal anthropometric and body composition parameters to the infants' birth weight was studied, maternal lean body mass was found to be the most important determinant of birth weight (R2 (%) = 21.3) (P < 0.001). This study highlights the importance of increasing lean body mass in young women for better pregnancy outcome.

  11. Low birth weight is associated with NIDDM in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, P; Vaag, Allan; Kyvik, K O

    1997-01-01

    between the putative "NIDDM susceptibility genotype" and a genetically determined low weight at birth. It is also unclear whether differences in gestational age, maternal height, birth order and/or sex could explain the association. Twins are born of the same mother and have similar gestational ages......Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low weight at birth and risk of later development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is not known whether this association is due to an impact of intrauterine malnutrition per se, or whether it is due to a coincidence....... Furthermore, monozygotic (MZ) twins have identical genotypes. Original midwife birth weight record determinations were traced in MZ and dizygotic (DZ) twins discordant for NIDDM. Birth weights were lower in the NIDDM twins (n = 2 x 14) compared with both their identical (MZ; n = 14) and non-identical (DZ; n...

  12. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. Methods: The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on t...

  13. Factors associated with low birth weight in Nepal using multiple imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survey data from low income countries on birth weight usually pose a persistent problem. The studies conducted on birth weight have acknowledged missing data on birth weight, but they are not included in the analysis. Furthermore, other missing data presented on determinants of birth weight are not addressed. Thus, this study tries to identify determinants that are associated with low birth weight (LBW using multiple imputation to handle missing data on birth weight and its determinants. Methods The child dataset from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011 was utilized in this study. A total of 5,240 children were born between 2006 and 2011, out of which 87% had at least one measured variable missing and 21% had no recorded birth weight. All the analyses were carried out in R version 3.1.3. Transform-then impute method was applied to check for interaction between explanatory variables and imputed missing data. Survey package was applied to each imputed dataset to account for survey design and sampling method. Survey logistic regression was applied to identify the determinants associated with LBW. Results The prevalence of LBW was 15.4% after imputation. Women with the highest autonomy on their own health compared to those with health decisions involving husband or others (adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.87, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 1.31, 2.67, and husband and women together (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.35 were less likely to give birth to LBW infants. Mothers using highly polluting cooking fuels (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.22 were more likely to give birth to LBW infants than mothers using non-polluting cooking fuels. Conclusion The findings of this study suggested that obtaining the prevalence of LBW from only the sample of measured birth weight and ignoring missing data results in underestimation.

  14. [Relationship between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and birth weight of term singleton live-birth newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L Q; Zhang, Q; Zhao, D D; Wang, L L; Chen, Y; Mi, B B; Dang, S N; Yan, H

    2017-10-10

    Objective: This study explored the association between air pollution exposure and birth weight by using the multilevel linear model, after controlling related meteorological factors and individual differences of both mothers and babies. Methods: Women of childbearing age who were pregnant in Xi'an from 2010 to 2013, were selected as objects of this study. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 4 631 subjects followed by a self-designed questionnaire survey. Data related to quality of air and meteorology were gathered from routine monitoring system. Gestational age and date of birth, together with the average levels of air pollution were calculated for each trimester on each mother, and then the impact of air pollution on birth weight was assessed. A multilevel linear model was employed to investigate the association between the levels of exposure to air pollution by birth weight. Confounding factors were under control. We established three models in this study: Model 1 which involving the variable of air pollution exposure. Model 2 was adjusted for variables in Model 1 plus some other individual differences of both mother and baby. Model 3 was adjusted for variables in Model 2 plus meteorological factors. Results: There were significant differences seen in birth weight within the subgroups of gender, gestational age, mother's reproductive age, maternal education, residential areas and family incomes ( P 0.05). Data from Model 3 indicated that a decrease of 13.3 g(10.9 g in Model 2) and 6.6 g (5.9 g in Model 2) in birth weight that were associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester; A decrease of 13.7 g (9.8 g in Model 2) in birth weight was associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) during the third trimester. Conclusion: After controlling for meteorological factors, the levels of exposure to NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester and NO(2) during the

  15. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention with mandat...... margarine and milk altered birth weight, but the effect was small and inconsistent, reaching the conclusion that vitamin D fortification seems to be clinically irrelevant in relation to fetal growth.......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... with mandatory fortification of margarine during 1961-1985 and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk between 1972 and 1976. The influence of prenatal vitamin D exposure on birth weight was investigated among 51 883 Danish children, by comparing birth weight among individuals born during 2 years before or after...

  16. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

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    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  17. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

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    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  18. Does cardiorespiratory fitness modify the association between birth weight and insulin resistance in adult life?

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    Tomoko Aoyama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. METHODS: The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females aged 20-64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject's or his/her mother's memory. RESULTS: The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.141, p = 0.003, even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = -0.148, p = 0.001, although VO2max (β = -0.376, p<0.001 was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual's low birth weight.

  19. Improved fluid management utilizing humidified incubators in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, M S; Wright, K; Lorch, K; Lorch, V; Walker, E

    2001-01-01

    To compare fluid and electrolyte management in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants nursed in humidified versus nonhumidified incubators. Setting--tertiary intensive care nursery. Subjects--all infants with birth weight incubators and survived for > 96 hours (N = 155). Intervention--retrospective comparison of daily weights, fluid intakes, urine outputs, and serum electrolytes between group 1 (n = 70, nonhumidified incubators, born 1/95 to 1/97) and group 2 (n = 85, humidified incubators, born 1/97 to 1/99) over the first 4 days after birth. Despite similar daily weight losses between groups, group 1 infants received higher fluid intakes, had lower urine outputs, and had a higher incidence of hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and azotemia (p incubators. ELBW weight infants nursed in humidified incubators have lower fluid requirements, improved electrolyte balance, and higher urine outputs during the first 4 days after birth compared to those nursed in nonhumidified incubators.

  20. Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran

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    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight and NBW (Normal Birth Weight was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015. Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  1. Mental health and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in adolescents with low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2005-01-01

    VLBW adolescents We found that the VLBW adolescents had specific emotional and cognitive traits. Some of them fit with psychiatric concepts and others do not. They had an increased risk of developing psychiatric symptoms and disorders compared with controls, especially attention deficit, anxiety and relational problems affecting their social skills and overall functioning. Academic achievement was reduced. The attention problems were widespread, but only a minority fulfilled the diagnosti...

  2. What has high fertility got to do with the low birth weight problem in Africa?

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    Ivy Kodzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There has been much concern about adverse individual and societal consequences of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. One concern is that children of high birth orders may have low birth weight. However, the evidence for such an effect is not strong. OBJECTIVE Our objective is to investigate whether a woman's high parity status might increase her risks of having a baby with low birth weight. METHODS Pooling 60 Demographic and Health Surveys data-sets from 32 sub-Saharan countries, we selected children of mothers who had at least two births of order two or higher within the five years preceding the surveys. We modeled the probability of having a child with low birth weight and controlled for all mother-specific, household, or community characteristics that are constant over the period of analysis, by including fixed-effects for the mother. We also controlled for salient factors including sex, maternal age, preceding birth interval, and whether prenatal care was received. RESULTS We found no adverse effect of increasing parity on the odds of having a child with low birth weight at normative ranges; such effects only manifest at extremely high parities - nine or more children. At moderately high parities, the chance of low birth weight is actually lower than at very low parities. CONCLUSIONS While high fertility may lead to various adverse outcomes for African families, low birth weight appears not to be among these outcomes. Other factors, such as adolescent childbearing, poverty, and inadequate prenatal care may be more important determinants of low birth weight in Africa.

  3. Clinical Outcome of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Ali Usman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a DNA virus and a marker of the herpes virus groups. This virus was found only in human and the infection occurs for a long time. The transmission of CMV infection to fetus/neonates is via congenital infections or perinatal infections. Clinical manifestation of symptomatic CMV infection of the fetus has two presentations, early and second early manifestations. Diagnosis of neonatal CMV infection may be done by serologic test based on detection of IgM of CMV infection. The objective of this study is to asses clinical outcome of CMV infection of low birth weight infants delivery with long term sequelae. An observational study was conducted since March 2010 until December 2011 in Advent and Hermina Pasteur Hospital, all subjects were low birth weight infants (LBWI. The inclusion criterias are all LBWI who were delivered in those hospital or were a referred neonates. The exclusion criterias are major congenital defect, which is not related to congenital CMV infection and neonates’ death before one week of life. Every neonate was examine both their physical and peripher blood count, glucose, Ca. Liver function test done for neonates with acute hepatitis and titre IgG and IgM CMV serial, head ultrasound serial and head CT scan/MRI used for babies with intracranial bleeding and hydrocephaly.  During the period of this study there were 50 cases of LBWI, consisted of 41 preterm babies, and 30 small for gestational age babies. Clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis were found in 20% subjects, all of them with the  elevation of liver function test. Microcephaly which occured in the first untill three weeks of life were 8%. Ventricular dilatation were 10% in the first week of life and increased up to 48% after three weeks. Cases with intracranial haemorrhage were found in 6% and 10% with cerebral calcification on head while sensorineural hearing loss were 8%. All of LBWI have 100% serorespon immune IgG. IgM CMV

  4. Does Extremely Low Birth Weight Predispose to Low-Renin Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Claessens, Jolien; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte; Levtchenko, Elena; Pauwels, Steven; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Allegaert, Karel; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-03-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are risk factors for hypertension in adulthood. Few studies in preterm or full-term born children reported on plasma renin activity (PRA). We tested the hypothesis that renin might modulate the incidence of hypertension associated with prematurity. We enrolled 93 prematurely born children with birth weight hypertension associated with extreme low birth weight were 6.43 (2.52-16.4; P hypertension, but does not affect the inverse association between PRA and BP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02147457. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The maternal periodontal disease as a risk factor of prematurity and low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Dulanto Vargas, Julissa; García Linares, Sixto; Docente del Dpto. Académico Médico Quirúrgico Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Carranza Samanez, Maynor

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the maternal periodontal disease (EP) and the premature delivery (PP) and the low birth weight (BP). The study was a case-control study with 69 mothers, 19 cases (mothers of newborns with premature deliveries and low birth weight (PPBP)), and 50 controls (mothers of babies with gestational age > 37 weeks and birth weight > 2500g) at the “Madre Niño San Bartolomé” Teaching Hospital. The mothers were interrogated and thei...

  6. Low Birth Weight as The Risk factor of Coronary Heart Diseases

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    Joko Wahyu Wibowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight, a nutritional deficiency is related to the increased in the coronary heart disease insidence. Low birth weight is correlated with the hipotalamus-pituitary-adrenal responsible for the the concentration of cortisol in sirculation, increased in homosistein, insuline resistence and increased C reactive protein playing role on the aterosclerosis process predispose the corronary disease. This paper will discuss the relationship between the low birth weight and the ateroclesoris process leading to coronary heart disesase (Sains Medika, 3(2:185-200.

  7. Preterm birth and low birth weight continue to increase the risk of asthma from age 7 to 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Melanie C; D Olhaberriague, Ana López-Polín; Burgess, John A; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Johns, David P; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-08-01

    Perinatal events can influence the development of asthma in childhood but current evidence is contradictory concerning the effects on life-time asthma risk. To assess the relationship between birth characteristics and asthma from childhood to adulthood. All available birth records for the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort, born in 1961 were obtained from the Tasmanian State Archives and Tasmanian hospitals. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as less than 2500 grams. Preterm birth was defined as delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a birth weight below the 10 th percentile for a given gestational age. Multivariate logistic and cox regression were used to examine associations between birth characteristics and lifetime risk of current and incident asthma, adjusting for confounders. The prevalence of LBW was 5.2%, SGA was 13.8% and preterm was 3.3%. LBW (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.12,2.44) and preterm birth (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 0.99, 3.31) were both associated with an increased risk of current asthma between the ages of 7 to 43 years. There was no association between SGA and current asthma risk. However, SGA was associated with incident asthma (HR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.00, 1.74), and there was an interaction with sex (p value = 0.08), with males having a greater risk of incident asthma (HR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.16-2.49) than females (HR = 1.04, 95%CI 0.70-1.54). Preterm birth and LBW were associated with an increased risk of current asthma into middle-age. These findings are the first to demonstrate the continuing impact of these characteristics on asthma risk into middle-age.

  8. The paternal component of the "healthy migrant" effect: fathers' natality and infants' low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lane, Sandra D; Hall, Meghan; Tso, Evaline; Pinto, Natasha; Oberoi, Navpriya; Suk, William; Badawy, Zaki; Wojtowycz, Martha A; Aubry, Richard

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the predictors of birth outcomes among women of European and African ancestry and considers the birthplace of the babies' fathers (foreign born vs. native born) as a protective factor. This is a secondary data analysis of 146,431 singleton births among women of European and African ancestry, both native-born and foreign-born, in a 21 birth hospital region of Central New York State from 1996 to 2003. Foreign born fathers were found to have 15% fewer low birth weight infants than US-born fathers, after controlling for the race and birthplace of the mother, tobacco use and Medicaid. Although this secondary data analysis does not allow us to determine the social determinants of the better birth outcomes among infants of foreign born fathers, it does demonstrate that fathers matter and that foreign born fathers are associated with reduced low birth weight in their infants.

  9. Aquatic Activities During Pregnancy Prevent Excessive Maternal Weight Gain and Preserve Birth Weight: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F; Perales, Maria; Refoyo, Ignacio; Barakat, Ruben

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. A randomized clinical trial. Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG). The intervention program consisted of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic and resistance aquatic activities from weeks 10 to 12 until weeks 38 to 39 of gestation. Maternal weight gain, birth weight, and other maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained by hospital records. Student unpaired t test and χ 2 test were used; P values ≤.05 indicated statistical significance. Cohen's d was used to determinate the effect size. There was a higher percentage of women with excessive maternal weight gain in the CG (45.2%; n = 28) than in the EG (24.5%; n = 12; odds ratio = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.89; P = .02). Birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes showed no differences between groups. Three weekly sessions of water activities throughout pregnancy prevents excessive maternal weight gain and preserves birth weight. The clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT 02602106.

  10. Epidemic microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis in very-low-birth weight infants: experience of the German Neonatal Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Härtel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We evaluated blood culture-proven sepsis episodes occurring in microclusters in very-low-birth-weight infants born in the German Neonatal Network (GNN during 2009-2010. METHODS: Thirty-seven centers participated in GNN; 23 centers enrolled ≥50 VLBW infants in the study period. Data quality was approved by on-site monitoring. Microclusters of sepsis were defined as occurrence of at least two blood-culture proven sepsis events in different patients of one center within 3 months with the same bacterial species. For microcluster analysis, we selected sepsis episodes with typically cross-transmitted bacteria of high clinical significance including gram-negative rods and Enterococcus spp. RESULTS: In our cohort, 12/2110 (0.6% infants were documented with an early-onset sepsis and 235 late-onset sepsis episodes (≥72 h of age occurred in 203/2110 (9.6% VLBW infants. In 182/235 (77.4% late-onset sepsis episodes gram-positive bacteria were documented, while coagulase negative staphylococci were found to be the most predominant pathogens (48.5%, 95%CI: 42.01-55.01. Candida spp. and gram-negative bacilli caused 10/235 (4.3%, 95%CI: 1.68% -6.83% and 43/235 (18.5% late-onset sepsis episodes, respectively. Eleven microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis were detected in 7 hospitals involving a total 26 infants. 16/26 cluster patients suffered from Klebsiella spp. sepsis. The median time interval between the first patient's Klebsiella spp. sepsis and cluster cases was 14.1 days (interquartile range: 1-27 days. First patients in the cluster, their linked cases and sporadic sepsis events did not show significant differences in short term outcome parameters. DISCUSSION: Microclusters of infection are an important phenomenon for late-onset sepsis. Most gram-negative cluster infections occur within 30 days after the first patient was diagnosed and Klebsiella spp. play a major role. It is essential to monitor epidemic microclusters of sepsis in

  11. Residence in coal-mining areas and low-birth-weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Melissa; Mullett, Martha; Mackay, Katherine; Hamilton, Candice

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between residence in coal mining environments and low birth weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of the association between low birth weight and mother's residence in coal mining areas in West Virginia. Birth data were obtained from the West Virginia Birthscore Dataset, 2005-2007 (n = 42,770). Data on coal mining were from the US Department of Energy. Covariates regarding mothers' demographics, behaviors, and insurance coverage were included. We used nested logistic regression (SUDAAN Proc Multilog) to conduct the study. Mothers who were older, unmarried, less educated, smoked, did not receive prenatal care, were on Medicaid, and had recorded medical risks had a greater risk of low birth weight. After controlling for covariates, residence in coal mining areas of West Virginia posed an independent risk of low birth weight. Odds ratios for both unadjusted and adjusted findings suggest a dose-response effect. Adjusted findings show that living in areas with high levels of coal mining elevates the odds of a low-birth-weight infant by 16%, and by 14% in areas with lower mining levels, relative to counties with no coal mining. After covariate adjustment, the persistence of a mining effect on low-birth-weight outcomes suggests an environmental effect resulting from pollution from mining activities. Air and water quality assessments have been largely missing from mining communities, but the need for them is indicated by these findings.

  12. A STUDY OF MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    Suneel Kumar Kaushal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight is defined as the live births with less than 2.5 kg weight. LBW is one of the serious challenges in maternal and child health in both developed and developing countries. Objective: (1 To study the proportion of low birth weight neonates among hospital based deliveries. (2 To evaluate selected maternal factors associated with low birth weight in institutionally delivered newborn. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in S.N. Hospital, Agra from 1st September, 2007 to 31st August, 2009 from medical record section of Obstetrics & Gynaecology department. Mode of delivery, birth weight and sex of baby, age of mother, parity, gestational period were taken as variables. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was applied to observe the significance of association. Results: Proportion of LBW was found to be 38% and was higher in teenage pregnancy, in Muslim females, in high parity and among newborn females. Conclusion: Relationship of birth weight with sex of new born, birth order of new born, mode of delivery, gestational period and with parity of mother was found to be significant..

  13. Birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity in discordant twins in China

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    Zong-Hua Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To assess the relative effect of birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using preterm twin pairs discordant for birth weigh in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in China.METHODS: Fifty-six discordant twin pairs of 112 preterm infants were retrospectively analyzed. The twin pairs were divided into two subgroups based on birth weight in each pair. The occurrence of ROP and severe ROP requiring treatment were compared between the lower birth weight infants and their co-twins with the higher birth weight. Some neonatal morbidities related to prematurity and neonatal characteristics were also compared between the twin pairs.RESULTS: Based on the univariate analysis, gestational age and birth weight were significantly associated with the occurrence and progression of ROP. But no significant differences in ROP between larger and smaller infants were observed in the twin-paired analysis. The incidence of neonatal morbidities regarding respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, sepsis and neonatal characteristics regarding gender distribution, one- and five-minute Apgar score, postnatal steroid treatment, blood transfusion, supplemental oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were not different between the twins. However, gestational age of ≤28wk was significantly associated with significantly higher rates of ROP and severe ROP.CONCLUSION: Gestational age is a better predictor of ROP than birth weight in the twin-paired study.

  14. Vaccine schedule compliance among very low birth weight infants in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Zea-Vera, Alonso; Bautista, Rossana; Davila, Carmen; Salazar, José Antonio; Bazán, Carlos; López, Luis; Ecker, Lucie

    2015-01-03

    There is little information about vaccine schedule compliance in very-low-birth-weight infants in developing countries. The aim of the study was to describe the compliance with the vaccine schedule among this population in Lima, Peru. We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima in infants with a birth-weight of less than 1500 g, followed from birth up to 12 months of age every 2 weeks. The date and age at administration of each vaccine was recorded 222 infants were enrolled. The median birth-weight was 1250 g (range 550-1499 g) and the median gestational age was 30.0 weeks (range 23-37 weeks). The mean age for the first pentavalent (DPT, Hib, HepB) and oral polio vaccine administration was 4.3 ± 1.4 months in infants with a birth-weight of vaccine. Only 35% had received the three doses of oral polio and pentavalent vaccine by seven months, although by nine months 81% had received these vaccines. Vaccination of very-low-birth-weight infants in Peru is significantly delayed, especially in infants with a birth-weight of vaccination rates and timing in these high risk populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Are there differences in birth weight between neighbourhoods in a Nordic welfare state?

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    Bremberg Sven

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this cohort study was to examine the effect on birth weight of living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in a Nordic welfare state. Birth weight is a health indicator known to be sensitive to political and welfare state conditions. No former studies on urban neighbourhood differences regarding mean birth weight have been carried out in a Nordic country. Methods A register based on individual data on children's birth weight and maternal risk factors was used. A neighbourhood characteristic, i.e. an aggregated measure on income was also included. Connections between individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants and the outcome were analysed using multi-level regression technique. The study covered six hundred and ninety-six neighbourhoods in the three major cities of Sweden, Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, during 1992–2001. The majority of neighbourhoods had a population of 4 000–10 000 inhabitants. An average of 500 births per neighbourhood were analysed in this study. Results Differences in mean birth weight in Swedish urban neighbourhoods were minor. However, gestational length, parity and maternal smoking acted as modifiers of the neighbourhood effects. Most of the observed variation in mean birth weight was explained by individual risk factors. Conclusion Welfare institutions and benefits in Sweden might buffer against negative infant outcomes due to adverse structural organisation of urban neighbourhoods.

  16. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

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    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  17. High Birth Weight Is a Risk Factor of Dental Caries Increment during Adolescence in Sweden

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    Annika Julihn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether birth weight is associated with dental caries during the teenage period. In this register-based cohort study, all children of 13 years of age (n = 18,142 who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, were included. The cohort was followed until individuals were 19 years of age. Information regarding dental caries was collected from the Public Health Care Administration in Stockholm. Data concerning prenatal and perinatal factors and parental socio-demographic determinants were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and National Registers at Statistics Sweden. The final logistic regression model showed that birth weight ≥4000 g, adjusted for potential confounders, was significantly associated with caries increment (DMFT ≥ 1 (D = decayed, M = missing, F = filled, T = teeth between 13 and 19 age (OR, 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09–1.36. The relatively enhanced risk OR was further increased from 1.22 to 1.43 in subjects with birth weight ≥4600 g. On the contrary, subjects with birth weight <2500 g exhibited a significantly lower risk (OR, 0.67; 95% CI = 0.50–0.89 for exhibiting caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4 at 19 years of age. In conclusion, high birth weight can be regarded as a predictor for dental caries, and especially, birth weight ≥4500 g is a risk factor for caries increment during adolescence.

  18. Efficacy and safety of early supplementation with 800 IU of vitamin D in very preterm infants followed by underlying levels of vitamin D at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang Yeun; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2017-05-04

    To determine the efficacy and safety of early supplementation with 800 IU of vitamin D in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Sixty-six infants with a birth weight less than 1500 g admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Of these, 52 infants were eligible and received 800 IU/day vitamin D from 2 weeks of age. We examined 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25[OH]D) levels from cord blood at birth and serum at 32 and 36 weeks of postmenstrual age. The study infants were divided by cord-blood levels of 25(OH)D at birth into 25(OH)D concentrations birth. Considering the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation in this study, vitamin D intake of 800 IU/day may enhance vitamin D status during early hospitalization in VLBW infants with 25 OHD concentrations birth. The clinical significance of optimal vitamin D intake in VLBW infants needs to be studied in larger controlled studies.

  19. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We used data from >200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered...... (ORadj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied was not associated with adverse birth outcomes. Being employed as a nurse was associated with lower risk SGA infants (ORadj 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99) whereas food industry workers had an increased...... risk of preterm delivery (ORadj 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-2.02). There was little evidence for heterogeneity between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, overall, employment during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in the risk of preterm birth and that work in certain occupations may affect...

  20. A study of birth weight of full term neonates and its′ determinants

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    Yugantara R Kadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is highly prevalent in India and has a multifactorial causation. There is a need to study and identify the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors determining birth weight. This will help in planning ante natal care more effectively. Materials and Methods : Study-type-cross-sectional study-setting: Hospital based. Study-subject: Mothers and their new borns. Sample size: All the births taken place during the study period. Study period: July 2010-June 2011. Study tools : (0 i Questionnaire. (ii pediatric weighing machine. Inclusion criteria : m0 others attending ante natal care (ANC clinic from 1 st trimester with minimum three antenatal visits, non-anemic at the end of 2 nd trimester, had full-term and singleton delivery. Exclusion criteria : H/O pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, diabetes mellieutus (DM, tuberculosis (TB, urinary tract infection (UTI, delivered preterm and tobacco chewers or mishri users. Statistical Analysis : Percentages, mean and SD of birth weight, χ2 test, ANOVA, Z-test, and Binary logistic. Results: By using birth weight as a continuous data it was observed that birth-weight was significantly associated with maternal age (F = 3.360, df = 2, P = 0.035, education (F = 4.401, df = 4, P = 0.002 and breakfast (z = 3.970, P = 0.00. Proportion of LBW was 42.4%. For analysis, groups of newborns on the basis of birth weight showed significant association between LBW and maternal education (χ2 = 12.734, df = 4, P = 0.013, breakfast (χ2 = 13.241, df = 1, P = 0.00 and evening snacks (χ2 = 4.275, df = 1, P = 0.013. According to the binary logistic regression, breakfast and education were significant and best predictors for birth weight. Conclusion: Education and breakfast are strong determinants of birth-weight. Less educated women need more intense health education.

  1. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW) BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC) TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Purnendu Kumar Singh; Kumar Amritanshu; Bijoy Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW) babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along ...

  2. Maternal Depression During Pregnancy is Associated with Increased Birth Weight in Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund-Flores, L; Myers, MM; Monk, C; Perez, A; Odendaal, HA; Fifer, WP

    2017-01-01

    Previous research of maternal depression during pregnancy suggests an association with low birth weight in newborns. Review of these studies reveals predominant comorbidity with premature birth. This current study examines antenatal depression and birth weight in term, medically low-risk pregnancies. Maternal physiological and demographic measures were collected as well. In total, 227 pregnant women were recruited to participate in four experimental protocols at Columbia University Medical Center. Results indicate that depressed pregnant women who carry to term had significantly higher heart rates, lower heart rate variability, and gave birth to heavier babies than those of pregnant women who were not depressed. Low income participants had significantly higher levels of depression, as well as significantly higher heart rates and lower heart rate variability, than those in higher income groups. In full-term infants, maternal prenatal depression appears to promote higher birth weight, with elevated maternal heart rate as a likely mediating mechanism. PMID:28323349

  3. Low-birth-weight babies among hospital deliveries in Nepal: a hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koirala AK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arun K Koirala,1 Dharma N Bhatta2,3 1Administrative Department, Helping Hands Community Hospital, Chabahil, Kathmandu, 2Department of Public Health, Nobel College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 3Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand Background: Birth weight is an important indicator of a population’s health and is associated with numerous interrelated factors in the infant, mother, and physical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of low birth weight and identify the associated factors for low birth weight in a liveborn infant among the women in Morang, Nepal.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from December 2010 to March 2011 among 255 mothers who gave birth during the study period at the Koshi Zonal Hospital, Nepal. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed through logistic regression and presented with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: The study showed that the prevalence of low-birth-weight babies was 23.1% (95% CI: 17.9–28.1. The mean (standard deviation age of mothers was 23.23 (4.18 years. The proportion of low birth weight of previous baby was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.1–7.9, and 15.7% (95% CI: 11.5–20.5 of the respondents had preterm delivery. Nearly one-third (36.1%; 95% CI: 26.4–45.6 of the respondents had >2 years’ gap after the previous delivery. Nonformal employment (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 0.523–8.74, vegetarian diet (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.23–9.36, and no rest during pregnancy (AOR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.41–4.39 were factors more likely to determine low birth weight. However, none of the variables showed a significant association between low birth weight and other dependent variables.Conclusion: Low birth weight is an important factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality and is a common problem in the developing world. The

  4. Adjustment factors of birth weight and four postnatal weights for type of birth and rearing, sex of lambs and dam age

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    Subandriyo

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Many factors contribute to variation in lamb weights. Factors such as age of lamb, sex, type of birth and rearing, and ewe age at lambing obscure genetic differences among lambs. Variation associated with these factors make selection for increased weight less effective. To improve selection response, selection must be based on genotypic rather than environmentally induced superiority. It is well-documented that corrections for classifiable sources of variation render selection and culling more accurate, thereby increasing rates of genetic improvement. The objective of this study were to develop within breed adjustment factors for post-natal lamb weights . Field records from Suffolk and Dorset lambs collected in the U.S . National Sheep Improvement Program (NSIP from 1986 through 1989 were used to develop within-breed birth/rearing type, lamb sex, and dam age adjustment factors for birth weight (BW and 30-d (W3o, 60-d (Woo, 90-d (W9o, and 120-4 (Wtm weights. Data were analyzed using general linear models. Within breed and age group adjustment for lamb-age differences were suggested because growth rates vary among breeds and among the four postnatal lamb-age groups . Within-breed multiplicative adjustment of the five traits for the effects of birth/rearing type, lamb sex and dam age were suggested because variances of these factors were significantly (P<0.01 heterogenous.

  5. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

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    Milagros C. Rosal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p<0.016. Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5 and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0 women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8. GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p<0.001. Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed.

  6. Divergence of estimated fetal weight and birth weight in singleton fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadis, Alexandros; Eleftheriades, Makarios; Papadopoulos, Vassileios; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate differences in distribution of estimated fetal weight (EFW) and birth weight (BW) of ongoing fetuses and neonates of the same gestational age. Reference curves for EFW (Hadlock BPD-HC-AC-FL formula, N = 1191) and BW (N = 1036) in singleton pregnancies from 24 +0 to 40 +6 gestational weeks were calculated. Multiple pregnancies, fetuses with major or multiple abnormalities or syndromes and iatrogenic preterm deliveries due to preeclampsia or abnormal fetal Doppler were excluded. The standardized residuals for EFW and BW were calculated and compared. EFW and BW can be accurately described by quadratic equations (R 2  = 0.944 and 0.807, respectively). The distribution of standardized residuals for BW using the EFW formula was negative from 28 +0 to 35 +6 weeks. The 50th and 5th centiles of BW were lower than those of EFW throughout prematurity, and they converged at approximately 38 gestational weeks. The 5th centile for BW was 30% lower than the 5th centile for EFW at 27 weeks, 27.5% lower at 30 weeks and 19.4% at 34 weeks. Preterm infants have lower BW distribution compared to the expected EFW of ongoing pregnancies of the same gestational age, supporting the concept of hidden intrauterine morbidity for a proportion of these infants.

  7. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

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    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  8. Birth Weight, Nutritional Status and Body Composition among Malaysian Children Aged 7 to 10 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ang, Yeow Nyin

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Studies have indicated that lower birth weight is associated with lower body mass index, but the use of birth weight in predicting later nutritional status and adiposity remains inconsistent. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the relationship between birth weight and nutritional status with body composition among Malaysian children. This study is part of the Nutritional Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). Subjects comprising 398 boys and 389 girls from the main ethnic groups, namely Malays, Chinese, Indians, Sabah and Sarawak natives, were recruited using a stratified random sampling. Anthropometric measurements comprised body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat (BF). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) adjusted with height were included, and birth weight was obtained by parental report. Nutritional status such as weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were determined using the WHO growth reference for 5–19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Mean birth weight, height, weight, and BF were 3.1±0.5kg, 128.0±8.1cm, 28.4±8.9kg, and 27.9±9.1% respectively. Boys (20.4±4.2kg) had higher FFM (p<0.05) as compared to girls (19.4±4.9kg). Overall, the prevalence of stunting, underweight and thinness were 6.7%, 9.8% and 6.4%, respectively; while the prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher at 11.9% and 15.6%, respectively. Significant differences between the sexes (p<0.05) were found in HAZ (boys: -0.43±0.99; girls: -0.42±1.17) and BAZ (boys: 0.26±1.76; girls: 0.09±1.48). Children born low birth weight (<2.5kg) had lower nutritional status (WAZ:0.59±1.62; HAZ:-0.83±0.96) as compared to those with normal birth weight (WAZ: -0.05±1.62; HAZ: -0.40±1.09) and high birth weight (>4.0kg) (WAZ: 0.51±1.35; HAZ: -0.07 ± 0.67) at p<0

  9. Is dietary macronutrient composition during pregnancy associated with offspring birth weight? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sukshma S; Greenwood, Darren C; Simpson, Nigel A B; Cade, Janet E

    2018-02-01

    There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for alcohol and smoking in trimester 1, showed that each additional 10 g/d CHO consumption was associated with an increase of 4 g (95 % CI 1, 7; P=0·003) in birth weight. Conversely, an additional 10 g/d fat intake was associated with a lower birth weight of 8 g (95 % CI 0, 16; P=0·04) when we accounted for energy contributing macronutrients in each model, and maternal height, weight, parity, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery and sex of the baby. There was no evidence of an association between protein intake and birth weight. Maternal diet in trimester 2 suggested that higher intakes of glucose (10 g/d) and lactose (1 g/d) were both associated with higher birth weight of 52 g (95 % CI 4, 100; P=0·03) and 5 g (95 % CI 2, 7; P<0·001) respectively. These results show that dietary macronutrient composition during pregnancy is associated with birth weight outcomes. An appropriately balanced intake of dietary CHO and fat during pregnancy could support optimum birth weight.

  10. The effect of mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight on risk of urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas J; Litman, Heather J; Tennstedt, Sharon L; Link, Carol L; McKinlay, John B

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship between symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) and mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight, data were obtained from a population-based random sample of 3,205 black, Hispanic, and white women age 30-79 in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Measures include UI symptoms [>or=3 (moderate/severe) Sandvik's severity index]; reproductive history [live birth(s), no live births, never pregnant]; mode of delivery for live births (>or=1 vaginal birth, cesarean delivery only); parity (1, 2, >or=3); and maximum birth weight of live births (or=4,000 g). Using logistic regression, women having >or=1 vaginal delivery had twice the odds of UI compared to women with no pregnancies (P = 0.002) or only cesarean deliveries (P = 0.032). There was no difference in odds of UI between cesarean delivery only and never pregnant, by parity or birth weight. Vaginal delivery contributes to risk of UI for black, Hispanic, and white women.

  11. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  12. Is low back pain in youth associated with weight at birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    they are still largely unaffected by the influence of working life. Possible associations between low back pain, birth weight, birth length, ponderal index, gestational age and Apgar scores are investigated by the use of logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio for the lifetime prevalence of low...

  13. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  14. Patterns of Birth Weight at a Community Level in Southwest Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight data are not routinely measured and recorded in Ethiopia and most of the analysis were based on births occurred in health institutions but such analysis lack representativeness as most deliveries are occurring at home. To fill this gap and issues related to representativeness a community based ...

  15. Changes in haemoglobin levels in infants in Malawi: effect of low birth weight and fetal anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Cessie, S.; Verhoeff, F. H.; Mengistie, G.; Kazembe, P.; Broadhead, R.; Brabin, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) on haemoglobin (Hb) patterns in infancy. To study the additional contribution of other risk factors known at birth. To examine the effect of iron supplementation during infancy on Hb levels. Methods: A stratified

  16. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  17. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence of ...

  18. Associations between fetal HLA-G genotype and birth weight and placental weight in a large cohort of pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmery, Johanne; Christiansen, Ole B; Nilsson, Line Lynge

    2017-01-01

    HLA/MHC class Ib gene, HLA-G, is strongly expressed on extravillous trophoblast cells. We investigated birth weight and placental weight of the newborns in mothers heterozygous for an HLA-G 14bp insertion (Ins)/deletion (Del) gene polymorphism. Separate analyses for pregnancies without preeclampsia (n...... is also associated with high expression of HLA-G on the trophoblast membrane. In theory, fetuses and newborns with intermediate weights and sizes would be an optimal compromise for both the fetus/father and the mother compared with very high and low weights. If such fetuses/newborns more often...... are heterozygous at the HLA-G gene locus, then newborns with two distinct HLA haplotypes are favored, leading to a higher degree of HLA diversity. The results of the study may indicate that a compromise between an intermediate birth weight and placental weight, induction of maternal tolerance by a fetal...

  19. Effects on metabolic parameters in young rats born with low birth weight after exposure to a mixture of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Ramhøj, Louise; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup

    2018-01-01

    Pesticide exposure during fetal life can lead to low birth weight and is commonly observed in reproductive toxicology studies. Associations have also been found in low birth weight babies born from pesticide-exposed gardeners. Since low birth weight is also linked to metabolic disorders, it can...

  20. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horikoshi, M.; Yaghootkar, H.; Mook-Kanamori, D.O.; Sovio, U.; Taal, H.R.; Hennig, B.J.; Bradfield, J.P.; St Pourcain, B.; Evans, D.M.; Charoen, P.; Kaakinen, M.; Cousminer, D.L.; Lehtimäki, T.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Warrington, N.M.; Bustamante, M.; Feenstra, B.; Berry, D.J.; Thiering, E.; Pfab, T.; Barton, S.J.; Shields, B.M.; Kerkhof, M.; Leeuwen, E. M.; Fulford, A.J.; Kutalik, Z.; Zhao, J.H.; van den Hoed, M.; Mahajan, A.; Lindi, V.; Goh, L.K.; Hottenga, J.J.; Wu, Y.; Raitakari, O.T.; Harder, M.N.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Ntalla, I.; Salem, R.M.; Jameson, K.A.; Zhou, K.; Monies, D.M.; Lagou, V.; Kirin, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Adair, L.S.; Alkuraya, F.S.; Al-Odaib, A.; Amouyel, P.; Andersson, E.A.; Bennett, A.J.; Blakemore, A.I.F.; Buxton, J.L.; Dallongeville, J.; Das, S.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Estivill, X.; Flexeder, C.; Froguel, P.; Geller, F.; Godfrey, K.M.; Gottrand, F.; Groves, C.J.; Hansen, T.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Hofman, A.; Hollegaard, M.V.; Hougaard, D. M.; Hyppönen, E.; Inskip, H.M.; Isaacs, A.; Jørgensen, T.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C.; Kemp, J.P.; Kiess, W.; Kilpeläinen, T.O.; Klopp, N.; Knight, B.A.; Kuzawa, C.W.; McMahon, G.; Newnham, J.P.; Niinikoski, H.; Oostra, B.A.; Pedersen, L.; Postma, D.S.; Ring, S.M.; Rivadeneira, F.; Robertson, N.R.; Sebert, S.; Simell, O.; Slowinski, T.; Tiesler, C.M.T.; Tönjes, A.; Vaag, A.A.; Viikari, J.S.; Vink, J.M.; Vissing, N.H.; Wareham, N.J.; Willemsen, G.; Witte, D.R.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Wilson, J.F.; Stumvoll, M.; Prentice, A.M.; Meyer, B.F.; Pearson, E.R.; Boreham, C.A.; Cooper, C.; Gillman, M.W.; Dedoussis, G.V.; Moreno, L.A.; Pedersen, O.; Saarinen, M.; Mohlke, K.L.; Boomsma, D.I.; Saw, S.M.; Lakka, T.A.; Körner, A.; Loos, R.J.; Ong, K.K.; Vollenweider, P.; van Duijn, C.M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Hattersley, A.T.; Holloway, J.W.; Hocher, B.; Heinrich, J.; Power, C.; Melbye, M.; Guxens, M.; Pennell, C.E.; Bønnelykke, K.; Bisgaard, H.; Eriksson, J.G.; Widén, E.; Hakonarson, H.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Pouta, A.; Lawlor, D.A.; Smith, G.D.; Frayling, T.M.; McCarthy, M.I.; Grant, S.F.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Järvelin, M.R.; Timpson, N.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Freathy, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2

  1. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Taal, H. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Charoen, Pimphen; Kaakinen, Marika; Cousminer, Diana L.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Warrington, Nicole M.; Bustamante, Mariona; Feenstra, Bjarke; Berry, Diane J.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pfab, Thiemo; Barton, Sheila J.; Shields, Beverley M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; van Leeuwen, Elisa; Fulford, Anthony J.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Zhao, Jing Hua; den Hoed, Marcel; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindi, Virpi; Goh, Liang-Kee; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wu, Ying; Raitakari, Olli T.; Harder, Marie N.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Ntalla, Ioanna; Salem, Rany M.; Jameson, Karen A.; Zhou, Kaixin; Monies, Dorota M.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Kirin, Mirna; Heikkinen, Jani; Adair, Linda S.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Al-Odaib, Ali; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Estivill, Xavier; Flexeder, Claudia; Froguel, Philippe; Geller, Frank; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gottrand, Frederic; Groves, Christopher J.; Hansen, Torben; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Inskip, Hazel M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Jorgensen, Torben; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kemp, John P.; Kiess, Wieland; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Knight, Bridget A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McMahon, George; Newnham, John P.; Niinikoski, Harri; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Louise; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Simell, Olli; Slowinski, Torsten; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Toenjes, Anke; Vaag, Allan; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Stumvoll, Michael; Prentice, Andrew M.; Meyer, Brian F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Boreham, Colin A. G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gillman, Matthew W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Moreno, Luis A.; Pedersen, Oluf; Saarinen, Maiju; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lakka, Timo A.; Koerner, Antje; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ong, Ken K.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Holloway, John W.; Hocher, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Power, Chris; Melbye, Mads; Guxens, Monica; Pennell, Craig E.; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Pouta, Anneli; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Freathy, Rachel M.

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood(1). Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type

  2. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to determine factors associated with LBW and their contribution to the problem. Out of 648 pregnant women who were tested for HIV infection 59 (9.1%) were positive for the infection. Twelve (20.3%) of HIV positive women gave birth to LBW neonates. HIV positive women were twice more likely to give ...

  3. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants with birth weight above 1500 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypotension at birth and the non-use of surfactant were the only risk factors to be associated with disease. However, with logistic regression analysis, none of these were independently associated with ROP. Conclusion: ROP may occur in newborn infants of larger birthweight but with good prognosis, and oxygen therapy ...

  4. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: a cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital.LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g.We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 ...

  5. Declines in Birth weight and Fetal Growth Independent of Gestational Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Esplin, M. Sean; Varner, Michael W.; Henry, Erick; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Objective Birth weight is decreasing in the US and elsewhere, even among term singletons, although trends in most maternal characteristics should contribute to increased birth weight. Some studies have attributed this decline to the simultaneous decrease in gestational length. Methods Using data from Intermountain Healthcare, where a successful initiative reduced the number of early term (37–38 week) elective deliveries, we examined trends in birth weight, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) among 219,694 singleton infants born July 2000 to December 2008 at 37–41 weeks gestation. Results Over the 8.5 years, births through scheduled deliveries at 37–38 weeks decreased (9.4% to 4.4%), but overall scheduled deliveries increased (29% to 34%) and mean gestational age at birth (39.1 weeks) did not change. Mean birth weight (3410g to 3383g) and LGA (9.0% to 7.4%) both decreased, whereas SGA increased (7.5% to 8.2%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, birth weight decreased (36g; 95% CI: 31, 42), especially among infants born at 37–38 weeks (40g; 30, 49) or that had medical indications for urgent deliveries (48g; 34, 63). Odds of LGA decreased (0.84; 0.80, 0.88) and odds of SGA increased (1.14; 1.08, 1.20). Conclusion Even in a population where gestation length did not change, birth weight and fetal growth declined. Decrease in not only gestational length but in fetal growth as well is likely to be contributing to the widely observed recent decrease in birth weight. PMID:23262927

  6. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to confirm the association.

  7. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  8. Elevated plasma urokinase receptor predicts low birth weight in maternal malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Shulman, C E; Peshu, N

    2007-01-01

    -suPAR and gestational age were the only independent predictors of birth weight in multivariate linear regression adjusted for maternal-suPAR, HIV-1 infection, age, BMI, haemoglobin, peripheral parasitaemia, parity and gestational age; 1 ng/mL higher maternal-suPAR predicted -56 g (95% CI -100 to -12, P = 0.016) reduced...... birth weight. Cord-suPAR could not predict birth weight after adjusting for gestational age. Future studies are warranted to investigate whether the maternal suPAR level is increased earlier in pregnancy in women with active placental malaria infection and whether early maternal suPAR measurements can...... predict birth weight. If so, measurements of maternal suPAR early in pregnancy might then potentially identify women with increased needs for antenatal care and intervention....

  9. Maternal education level and low birth weight: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Silvestrin

    2013-07-01

    Conclusions: The hypothesis of similarity between the extreme degrees of social distribution, translated by maternal education level in relation to the proportion of low birth weight, was not confirmed.

  10. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, T.F.; Anastopoulos, A.D.; Garrett, M.E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Oades, R.D.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Asherson, P.; Gill, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Sergeant, J.A.; Kollins, S.H.; Faraone, S.V.; Ashley-Koch, A.; Consortium, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related

  11. Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider sequences of orthogonal polynomials arising in the analysis of birth-death processes with killing. Motivated by problems in this stochastic setting we discuss criteria for convergence of certain weighted sums of the polynomials.

  12. Associations of Meteorology with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Preeclampsia, Preterm Birth and Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa J. Beltran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension, gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  13. Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alyssa J; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-12-20

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months