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Sample records for birth weight preterm

  1. Motor Developmental Status of Moderately Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    TAVASOLI, Azita; Aliabadi, Faranak; Eftekhari, Rooholah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Motor development is frequently reported to be impaired in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, but little is known about the moderately low birth weight (MLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MLBW preterm infants present developmental delay. Methods: In a historical cohort study, 18±2 month-old infants with a history of low birth weight (LBW) were identified. All infants with complications of LBW with negative effects on development were excluded. Health...

  2. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  3. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  4. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)

  5. Relationship between maternal periodontal status and preterm low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Mansi; Khatri, Manish; Kumar, Ashish; Bhatia, Gouri

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, there has been the belief that diseases that affect the mouth, such as periodontal disease, can have an effect on the rest of the body. It is only very recently that scientists and clinicians have begun to provide an increasing body of scientific evidence suggesting that moderate untreated periodontitis may affect an individual systemically, and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. Birth weight is affected by multiple factors and is considered as an outcome of a complex multifactorial system. Periodontitis is a remote gram-negative infection that may play a role in low birth weight. Periodontopathic microorganisms and their products have a wide range of effects mediated through host cytokine production in target cells. Many combined animal studies and data supporting plausible biologic mechanisms suggest that periodontal infection has a negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. PMID:24826203

  6. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors, and social, personal, and economic characteristics. Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing ... My last baby was born early. Is there anything I can do in this pregnancy to keep ...

  7. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...... associations of prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with subtypes of preterm birth. The crude risks of PPROM and of induced preterm deliveries were higher in obese women (BMI > or = 30) than in normal-weight women (18.5 < or = BMI < 25), especially before 34 completed weeks of gestation, when obese...... women faced twice the risk. In the adjusted analysis, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PPROM and for induced preterm delivery in obese women were 1.5 [1.2, 1.9] and 1.2 [1.0, 1.6] respectively. When obesity-related diseases were accounted for, no excess risk of induced preterm...

  8. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Wehkalampi, Karoliina; Muurinen, Mari; Wirta, Sara Bruce; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Hovi, Petteri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Andersson, Sture; Kere, Juha; Kajantie, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Introduction People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g) have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development. Methods We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2) locus (IGF2/H19) in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We stud...

  9. Birth of a very low birth weight preterm infant and the intention to breastfeed 'naturally'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Linda

    2008-03-01

    An interpretive phenomenological study involving 17 Australian parents was undertaken to explore parents' experiences of breastfeeding very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants from birth to 12 months of age. Data were collected from 45 individual interviews held with both mothers and fathers, which were then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. From this study, the analysis identified the following themes: the intention to breastfeed naturally; breast milk as connection; the maternal role of breast milk producer; breastmilk as the object of attention; breastfeeding and parenting the hospitalised baby and the demise of breastfeeding. The discussion presented here presents the theme of the intention to breastfeed 'naturally'. This study found that all of the participant women decided to breastfeed well before the preterm birth, and despite the birth of a VLBW preterm infant continued to expect the breastfeeding experience to be normal regardless of the difference of the postpartum experience. It is without doubt that for these parents the pro-breastfeeding rhetoric is powerfully influential and thus successful in promoting breastfeeding. Furthermore, all participants expected breastfeeding to be 'natural' and satisfying. There is disparity between parents' expectations of breastfeeding 'naturally' and the commonplace reality of long-term breast expression and uncertain at-breast feeding outcomes. How the parents came to make the decision to breastfeed their unborn child -- including the situations and experiences that have influenced their decision making -- and how the preterm birth and the dominant cultures subsequently affected that decision will be discussed. The findings have implications for midwifery education and maternity care professionals who support parents making feeding decisions early in pregnancy and those striving to breastfeed preterm infants. PMID:18162451

  10. The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh Mannem; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and children born prematurely or with low birth weight has been increasingly investigated, showing positive and negative results, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the association between Maternal Periodontitis and Preterm delivery or Low Birth Weight. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 104 pregnant women without systemic disease or other risk factors for preterm labor were chosen. The control group (n =...

  11. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne;

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age ...

  12. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoliina Wehkalampi

    Full Text Available People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development.We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2 locus (IGF2/H19 in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We studied 158 VLBW and 161 control subjects aged 18 to 27 years from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Methylation fraction at two IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs - IGF2 antisense transcript (IGF2AS, also known as IGF2 DMR0 and last exon of IGF2 (IGF2_05, also known as IGF2 DMR2 - were measured with Sequenom Epityper. We used linear regression and adjustment for covariates to compare methylation fractions at these DMRs between VLBW and control subjects.At one IGF2AS CpG site, methylation was significantly lower in VLBW than in control subjects, mean difference -0.017 (95% CI; -0.028, -0.005, P = 0.004. Methylation at IGF2_05 was not different between the groups.Methylation of IGF2AS is altered 20 years after preterm birth at VLBW. Altered methylation may be a mechanism of later increased disease risk but more data are needed to indicate causality.

  13. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, X.; Ding, M; Li, B.; Christiani, D C

    1994-01-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births...

  14. Birth weight differences between preterm stillbirths and live births: analysis of population-based studies from the U.S. and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many stillbirths show evidence of fetal growth restriction, and most occur at preterm gestational age. The objective of this study is to compare birth weights at preterm gestational ages between live births and stillbirths, and between those occurring before or during labour. Methods Based on singleton births from the United States (U.S. 2003–2005 (n=902,491 and Sweden 1992–2001 (n=946,343, we compared birth weights between singleton live births and stillbirths at 24–36 completed weeks of gestation from the U.S. and at 28–42 completed weeks from Sweden. Results In both the U.S. and Sweden, stillbirth weight-for-gestational-age z-scores were at least one standard deviation lower than live birth z-scores at all preterm gestational ages (GA. In Sweden, no birth weight difference was observed between antepartum and intrapartum stillbirths at preterm GAs, whereas birth weights among intrapartum stillbirths were similar to those among live births at 37–42 weeks. Conclusions Birth weights observed at preterm gestation are abnormal, but preterm stillbirths appear to be more growth-restricted than preterm live birth. Similar birth weights among ante- and intrapartum preterm stillbirths suggest serious fetal compromise before the onset of labor.

  15. The relationship between maternal periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh Mannem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and children born prematurely or with low birth weight has been increasingly investigated, showing positive and negative results, respectively. Objective: To evaluate the association between Maternal Periodontitis and Preterm delivery or Low Birth Weight. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 104 pregnant women without systemic disease or other risk factors for preterm labor were chosen. The control group (n = 52 had term labor (infants ≥37 weeks and the case group (n = 52 had preterm labor (infants <37 weeks. Plaque index, bleeding index, and birth weight were measured. Results: The data of plaque index (cases 1.21±0.56; controls 0.63±0.31, bleeding index (cases, 2.08±0.62; controls, 1.52±0.61, birth weight (cases, 2.01±0.36; controls 2.87±0.32, and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD ≥4mm and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL ≥3mm in at least 4 teeth (odds ratio 137.50, P value < 0.0001 revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups P< 0.05. Conclusions: A noticeable relationship between periodontal health and duration of pregnancy; periodontal disease could be a risk factor for preterm labor. Oral hygiene maintenance should be a part of prenatal care protocol.

  16. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Lindenmeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight <1,500 g and gestational age <32 weeks admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7 ± 1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7 ± 222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.0035. The mean intraocular pressure (P10-P90 decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.5222.16 at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28-18.92 at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased.

  17. Periodontal infection as a risk factor for preterm low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhimadhi D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an overwhelming body of evidence strongly suggesting that periodontal infection may have a significant negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. The aim of this study was to determine the association, if any, between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. Materials and Methods : A total of 211 mothers between the ages of 17 and 35 were grouped into two categories based on the gestational age and weight of the baby as cases (< 37 weeks, < 2500 g and controls (>37 weeks, >2500 g. Relevant obstetric history and information on other primary risk factors for preterm low birth weight were obtained. Investigation reports on blood group, Rh factor and hemoglobin (Hb were also gathered. Oral assessments included: simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results: Cases had significantly more attachment loss and probing pocket depth, poor oral hygiene, more percentage of sites with attachment loss (Extent and more mean attachment loss per site (Severity and less Hb than controls. The number of visits for prenatal care and the percentage of sites with CAL≥2mm (Extent 2 remained significant when compared to other variables. Conclusion: The study indicated that periodontal disease is a contributing factor for preterm low birth weight.

  18. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    OpenAIRE

    Chau-Kuang Chen; Patricia Matthews-Juarez; Aiping Yang

    2012-01-01

    Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM), the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income...

  19. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  20. Hepatitis B Postexposure Prophylaxis in Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Waitz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Recommendations for immunoprophylaxis in low-birth-weight (LBW infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-positive mothers vary. We successfully immunized an HBsAg-exposed infant (birth weight: 400 g and performed a literature review on the outcome of postexposure immunoprophylaxis in HBsAg-exposed preterm and LBW infants. Methods - By use of PubMed we identified articles relevant to the topic. Studies were included if the intended vaccine schedule was completed and follow-up data were reported. Results - Antibody response was reported in 31 LBW infants (birth weight < 2,500 g and 49 infants with gestational age of < 38 weeks. Low anti-HBs antibody levels (< 100 IU/L were found in 9 (29% of the 31 LBW infants. Overall, 2 of 20 (10% preterm infants and 2 of 17 (12% LBW were HBsAg-positive on follow-up. In one study, none of the 26 exposed very LBW infants became infected. Conclusion - Due to heterogeneity in immunization schedules, lack of information on transmission rates, and the small number of included subjects, no firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the optimal postexposure prophylaxis in LBW infants. We propose that active and passive immunization at birth should be completed by three further active doses (0–1–2–12 month schedule until further prospective studies are available.

  1. Evaluation of very-low-birth-weight preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Yıldız Aldemir

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study has been done to assess the frequency, etiological risk factors, clinical characteristics, mortality and morbidity rates of bronchopulmonary displasia (BPD in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW preterm infants under 32nd gestational weeks, in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Material and Method: Preterm infants with VLBW characteristics who were diagnosed with BPD between January 2003 and December 2004 have been evaluated for the way of delivery, gender, birth weight, gestational age and etiological risk factors. Duration of the steroid therapy and its early complications have been recorded. Other causes of morbidity and mortality have been assessed.Results: 2226 preterm infants have been admitted to the NICU between January 2003 and December 2004. 825 (37% of these infants were VLBW and 162 died. Forty-two (6.3% of these cases were diagnosed with BPD. Of the etiological factors premature rupture of membranes represented 24%, respiratory distress syndrome 60%, sepsis %66, pneumonia 52%, meningitis 14% and patent ductus arteriosus 25% among the cases. Ventilatory support was needed for 41 infants and 22 of the cases were administered surfactant therapy. Mean initial time for ventilatory support was 5.3±6.6 days wheras mean duration of the ventilatory support was 12.3±11.0 days. Clinical response to steroid therapy was found to be 80% whereas weaning from oxygen took 8.50±5.49 days. Of the steroid complications hyperglycemia represented 38%, hypertension 21% and infection 9% of the cases and none of these adverse effectes were permanent. Seven infants (16% with BPD died and sepsis, pneumonia and necrotizing enterocolitis were found to be responsible. Conclusions: BPD arises multifactorially. Preterm labor, VLBW, mechanical ventilation, prenatal and postnatal infections should be mentioned among the most important risk factors. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45: 25-30

  2. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  3. Developmental outcome of low birth-weight and preterm newborns: a re-view of current evidence

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    Farin Soleimani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems. Global statistics demonstrates an increase in the prevalence of low birth weight in the developing countries. Low birth weight infants are exposed to complications such as major neurosensory impairements, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances. The majority of infant's death and developmental disorders were due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight. Infants weighing less than 2500 g, is a major determinant of both neonatal and infant mortality rates and, together with congenital anomalies (e.g., cardiac, central nervous system, and respiratory, contributes significantly to childhood morbidity. Various studies indicate that low birth weight infants are suffering from physiological and psychosocial disabilities, two to three times more than the other children. At school age, preterm and low birth weight infants have poorer physical growth, cognitive function, and school performance. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Although the survival rates have increased dramatically and the incidence of morbidities has decreased, the complications are still considered to be associated with economical and social burdens. Most children with Low birth weight suffer from multiple disabilities. Therefore, they need special and consistent care. On demand of reducing the infant mortality rate, the need to decrease the complications in low birth weight and preterm infants should be considered by the policy makers in health care system. In this review article, we assessed current evidences on developmental outcomes of low birth weight and

  4. Risk factors for preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, JS; Watts, DH; Mofenson, L; Stiehm, ER; Harris, DR; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, MJ; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, WT; Hammill, H; van Dyke, R; Maupin, R; Silio, M; Fowler, MG

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate independent contributions of maternal factors to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Risk factors for preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), and intrauterine growth retardation (

  5. Emmetropisation following preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, K J; McCulloch, D L; Shepherd, A.J.; Wilkinson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Even in the absence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), premature birth signals increased risk for abnormal refractive development. The present study examined the relation between clinical risk factors and refractive development among preterm infants without ROP.

  6. Low Birth Weight in Children Born to Mothers with Hyperthyroidism and High Birth Weight in Hypothyroidism, whereas Preterm Birth Is Common in Both Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    hypothyroidism registered in the Danish National Hospital Register before January 1, 2007. RESULTS: Maternal first-time diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before, during or after pregnancy was registered in 32,809 (2.0%) of the singleton live births (n = 1,638,338). Maternal diagnosis of hyperthyroidism (adjusted...... OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15-1.30) and hypothyroidism (adjusted OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.27) were associated with increased risk of preterm birth. Moreover, birth weight in children born to mothers with a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was lower (adjusted difference -51 g, 95% CI -58 to -43 g) and higher in...... relation to maternal hypothyroidism (adjusted difference 20 g, 95% CI 10-30 g). Hyperthyroidism was associated with small-for-gestational-age (adjusted OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20) and hypothyroidism with large-for-gestational-age children (adjusted OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17-1.31). CONCLUSIONS: Based on Danish...

  7. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  8. Meta-analysis of neurobehavioral outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Sequelae of academic underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor executive function (EF) have been extensively reported for very preterm (≤33 weeks' gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW) (≤1500 g) children. Great variability in the published results, however, hind

  9. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  10. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

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    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  11. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Temporal-spatial gait parameters and neurodevelopment in very-low-birth-weight preterm toddlers at 18-22 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Rose, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Children born preterm with very-low birth-weight (VLBW) have increased risk of motor impairment. Early identification of impairment guides treatment to improve long-term function. Temporal-spatial gait parameters are an easily-recorded assessment of gross motor function. The objective of this study was to characterize preterm toddlers' gait and its relationship with neurodevelopment. Velocity, cycle time, step width, step length and time asymmetry, %stance, %single-limb support, and %double-limb support were calculated for 81 VLBW preterm and 43 typically-developing (TD) toddlers. Neurodevelopment was assessed with Bayley Scales of Infant Development-3rd Edition (BSID-III) motor composite and gross motor scores. Mean step width (p=.009) was wider in preterm compared to TD toddlers. Preterm toddlers with toddlers. Step time was also significantly longer for lower-scoring compared to higher-scoring (≥85 BSID-III motor composite scores) preterm toddlers, suggesting that step time may be particularly sensitive to gradations of motor performance. Velocity, cycle time, step length asymmetry, %stance, step length, and step time significantly correlated with BSID-III gross motor scores, suggesting that these parameters may be revealing of gross motor function. The differences in gait between lower-scoring preterm toddlers and TD toddlers, together with the correlations between gait and BSID-III motor scores, suggest that temporal-spatial gait parameters may be useful in building a clinically-relevant, easily-conducted assessment of toddler gross motor development. PMID:26979887

  13. Comparison of primary dentition caries experience in pre-term low birth-weight and full-term normal birth-weight children aged one to six years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Anaberu Rajshekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the study were to determine and compare the primary dentition caries experience and the variables that may influence the occurrence of caries, in preterm low birth weight and full term normal birth weight children aged one to six years. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 250 full term normal birth weight (FTNBW and 250 preterm low birth weight (PTLBW children one to six years, born in the two hospitals in Davangere: Bapuji Hospital and Chigatere Hospital. A purposive sampling was used to select the study group. Materials and Methods: Required and relevant information regarding demographic characteristics, feeding practices and oral hygiene practices were obtained. Dentition status and treatment need index (World Health Organization 1997 was used to record dental caries. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test, Student′s t-test and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference was observed in caries prevalence between PTLBW and FTNBW groups (P<0.05, however, the difference in mean Decayed, missing and filled teeth index (dmft was not statistically significant (P=0.30. Statistically significant differences were observed in caries experience between the two groups in relation to exclusive breast feeding for longer duration, i.e 7-12 months (P<0.05, bottle feeding habits (P<0.05 and sticky food consumption (P<0.01. Conclusions: A significant relationship was found between caries and PTLBW status though the difference in caries experience between the groups was not statistically significant, thus illustrating the higher caries risk in PTLBW children compared to FTNBW children.

  14. Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight after In Utero Exposure to Antiretrovirals Initiated during Pregnancy in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njom Nlend, Anne Esther; Nga Motazé, Annie; Moyo Tetang, Suzie; Zeudja, Cécile; Ngantcha, Marcus; Tejiokem, Mathurin

    2016-01-01

    Background Effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on birth outcomes remain controversial. Objective To assess the impact of antenatal exposure to ART on the occurrence of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). Methods A cross-sectional study conducted at the Essos Hospital Center in Yaounde from 2008 to 2011 among HIV vertically exposed infants with two distinct maternal antiretroviral experiences: monotherapy group (Zidovudine, ZDV) and the combination ART group (cART). Mothers already receiving cART before pregnancy were ineligible. In both groups, events of PTB (<37 weeks) and LBW (<2,500g) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression; with p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Of the 760 infants, 481 were born from cART-exposed mothers against 279 from maternal-ZDV. Median maternal CD4 count was 378 [interquartile range (IQR): 253–535] cells/mm3. Median duration of ART at onset of delivery was 13 [IQR: 10–17] weeks. In the cART-group, 64.9% (312/481) of mothers were exposed to Zidovudine/Lamuvidine/Nevirapine and only 2% (9/481) were on protease inhibitor-based regimens. Events of PTB were not significantly higher in the cART-group compared to the ZDV-group (10.2% vs. 6.4% respectively, p = 0.08), while onsets of LBW were significantly found in the cART-group compared to ZDV-group (11.6% vs. 7.2% respectively, p = 0.05). Other factors (parity, maternal age at delivery or CD4 cell count) were not associated with PTB. Conclusion cART, initiated during pregnancy, would be an independent factor of LBW. In the era of option B+ (lifelong ART to all HIV-pregnant women), further studies would guide towards measures limiting onsets of LBW. PMID:26999744

  15. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS

  16. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  17. Population based trends in mortality, morbidity and treatment for very preterm- and very low birth weight infants over 12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Rüegger, Christoph; Hegglin, Markus; Adams, Mark; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Bernet, Vera

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, improvements in medical care have been associated with a significant increase and better outcome of very preterm (VP, < 32 completed gestational weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g) infants. Only a few publications analyse changes of their short-term outcome in a geographically defined area over more than 10 years. We therefore aimed to investigate the net change of VP- and VLBW infants leaving the hospital without major complications. ME...

  18. Population based trends in mortality, morbidity and treatment for very preterm- and very low birth weight infants over 12 years

    OpenAIRE

    Rüegger Christoph; Hegglin Markus; Adams Mark; Bucher Hans

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the last two decades, improvements in medical care have been associated with a significant increase and better outcome of very preterm (VP, < 32 completed gestational weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g) infants. Only a few publications analyse changes of their short-term outcome in a geographically defined area over more than 10 years. We therefore aimed to investigate the net change of VP- and VLBW infants leaving the hospital without major complication...

  19. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Nelson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018. We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226, we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7. In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71 more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24; p-value for difference in estimate <0.001. Use of ICSI increased the odds of live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of

  20. Association of maternal CNVs in GSTT1/GSTT2 with smoking, preterm delivery, and low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing eZheng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery (PTD is an adverse birth outcome associated with increased infant mortality and negative lifelong health consequences. PTD may be the result of interactions between genetics and maternal/fetal environmental factors including smoking exposure (SMK. A common deletion in the GSTT1 gene was previously reported to affect birth outcomes in smokers. In this study, we dissect the associations among SMK, birth outcomes, and copy number variations (CNVs in the GSTT1/GSTT2 region.A preterm birth case-control dataset of 1937 mothers was part of the GENEVA preterm birth study, which included genome-wide genotyping used to identify CNVs. We examined the association of SMK with birth outcomes, detected CNVs within the GSTT1/GSTT2 region using PennCNV, and examined associations of the identified CNVs with preterm birth and with birth weight (BW in full term birth controls, including interactions with SMK. Finally, we tested the association of CNVs in GSTT1/GSTT2 with SMK.We confirmed the association of smoking with low BW and PTD. We identified 2 CNVs in GSTT2 (GSTT2a and GSTT2b, 1 CNV in GSTTP1 and 2 CNVs in GSTT1 (GSTT1a and GSTT1b. The GSTT2a deletion was associated with reduced BW (-284g, p=2.5E-7 in smokers, and was more common in smokers (odds ratio[OR]=1.3, p=0.036. We found that the size of the reported common deletion CNV in GSTT1 was larger than previously shown. The GSTTP1 and GSTT1b null genotypes were in high linkage disequilibrium (LD (D’=0.89 and less common in smokers (OR=0.68, p=0.019 and OR=0.73, p=0.055 respectively. These two deletions were in partial LD with GSTT2a and GSTT2b duplications. All 5 CNVs seem to be associated with increased risk of preterm birth before 35 completed weeks.CNVs in the GSTTT1/GSTT2 region appear associated with low BW and PTD outcomes, but LD complicated these CNVs in GSTT1/GSTT2. In genetic association studies of BW, multiple CNVs in this region need to be investigated instead of a single

  1. Factors associated with preterm, early preterm and late preterm birth in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke R van den Broek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assessment of risk factors for preterm birth in a population with high incidence of preterm birth and HIV infection. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data for 2,149 women included in a community based randomized placebo controlled trial for the prevention of preterm birth (APPLe trial (ISRCTN84023116 with gestational age at birth determined through ultrasound measurement in early pregnancy. Multivariate Logistic Regression analyses to obtain models for three outcome variables: all preterm, early preterm, and late preterm birth. FINDINGS: No statistical differences were noted for the prevalence of HIV infection (p = 0.30 or syphilis (p = 0.12 between women who delivered preterm versus term. BMI (Adjusted OR 0.91 (0.85-0.97; p = 0.005 and weight gain (Adjusted OR 0.89 (0.82-0.97; p = 0.006 had an independent, protective effect. Previous preterm birth doubled the odds of preterm birth (Adjusted OR 2.13 (1.198-3.80; p = 0.01. Persistent malaria (despite malaria prophylaxis increased the risk of late preterm birth (Adjusted OR 1.99 (1.05-3.79; p = 0.04. Age <20 (Adjusted OR 1.73 (1.03-2.90; p = 0.04 and anemia (Adjusted OR 1.95 (1.08-3.52; p = 0.03 were associated with early preterm birth (<34 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Despite claims that HIV infection is an important cause of preterm birth in Africa, we found no evidence of an association in this population (unexposed to anti-retroviral treatment. Persistent malaria was associated with late preterm birth. Maternal undernourishment and anemia were independently associated with early preterm birth. The study did not assess whether the link was direct or whether a common precursor such as chronic infection was responsible for both maternal effects and early labour.

  2. Preterm and Very Preterm Births by County 2010-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains percent preterm and very preterm live births by maternal county of residence. Preterm births are all lives births less than 37 weeks of...

  3. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and outcome of very-low-birth-weight infants in the German Neonatal Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hanke

    Full Text Available It was the aim of our study to evaluate the independent effect of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM as a cause of preterm delivery on mortality during primary hospital stay and significant morbidities in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants < 32 weeks of gestation.Observational, epidemiological study design.Population-based cohort, German Neonatal Network (GNN.6102 VLBW infants were enrolled in GNN from 2009-2012, n=4120 fulfilled criteria for primary analysis (< 32 gestational weeks, no pre-eclampsia, HELLP (highly elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome or placental abruption as cause of preterm birth.Multivariable logistic regression analyses included PPROM as potential risk factors for adverse outcomes and well established items such as gestational age in weeks, birth weight, antenatal steroids, center, inborn delivery, multiple birth, gender and being small-for-gestational-age.PPROM as cause of preterm delivery had no independent effect on the risk of early-onset sepsis, clinical sepsis and blood-culture proven sepsis, while gestational age proved to be the most important contributor to sepsis risk. The diagnosis of PPROM was associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55, p=0.03 but not with other major outcomes.The diagnosis of PPROM per se is not associated with adverse outcome in VLBW infants < 32 weeks apart from a moderately increased risk for BPD. Randomized controlled trials with primary neonatal outcomes are needed to determine which subgroup of VLBW infants benefit from expectant or intentional management of PPROM.

  4. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  5. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  6. Intervention effects on emotion regulation in preterm infants with very low birth weight: A randomize controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Chin; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Hsu, Hui-Chin; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lee, Wang-Tso; Chen, Wei-J; Ho, Yu-Wen; Jeng, Suh-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for emotional difficulties and behavioral problems. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of a clinic-based intervention program (CBIP) and a home-based intervention program (HBIP) compared with a usual care program (UCP) on emotion regulation to stress in preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight regulation in response to experimentally evoke stress evoked by a toy-behind-barrier procedure at 12, 18, and 24 months of corrected age. Their cognitive and language abilities, and mothers' responsiveness were also assessed at 12 months as potential covariates. Compared to the UCP-group infants, the HBIP-group infants exhibited shorter durations of visual orientation to a toy (adjusted difference [95% CI]=-1.60 [-3.07 to -0.13], p=0.03), and the CBIP-group infants exhibited shorter durations of avoidance (adjusted difference [95% CI]=-0.84 [-1.57 to -0.10], p=0.03) from 12 to 24 months of corrected age. The CBIP and HBIP showed no difference in the stress reactivity from the UCP, however. These results suggest that comprehensive interventions incorporating child-, parent- and dyad-focused services enhanced VLBW preterm infants' emotion regulation in response to stress at toddler age. PMID:26524725

  7. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugambi Mary N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reviews (2005 to 2009 on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s or prebiotic(s to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi2 test. An I2 test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I2> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Results Four probiotics studies (N=212, 4 prebiotics studies (N=126 were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34 or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34, number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20. Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide / Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50, GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50. There were no significant differences in head growth (MD −0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76 or age at full enteral feed (MD −0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86. Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86. GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27 and (MD 0.48, 95

  8. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  9. Obstetricians' knowledge of periodontal disease as a potential risk factor for preterm delivery and low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mariano da Rocha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little information about the knowledge and attitudes of physicians regarding oral care. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of obstetricians about the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm/low birth weight. A questionnaire was emailed to members of the Brazilian Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FEBRASGO. The questionnaire elicited both personal information and knowledge and attitudes regarding the relationship between periodontal diseases and preterm labor. A total of 875 obstetricians responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were female (54.1%, resided in the Southeast (45.6%, worked in both the public and private sectors (61.4%, and had over 15 years of experience in obstetrics (48.9%. A large proportion of obstetricians (93.4% stated that bacteria were associated with periodontal disease, and 94% reported that periodontitis was a condition more severe than gingivitis. In total, over 80% of participating obstetricians reported smoking, preeclampsia, bacterial vaginosis and periodontal disease as risk factors or possible risk factors for preterm birth or low birth weight. A correlation between the experience of the obstetricians and referral of their patients for dental examinations (p < 0.001 was observed. Also, obstetricians who had had their own dental visits more recently were more likely to recommend the same for their patients (p < 0.001. It is concluded that, although obstetricians were aware of the association between gingival inflammation and adverse obstetric outcomes, the attitudes of these professionals were not in agreement with their apparent knowledge regarding periodontal diseases and their possible repercussions.

  10. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  11. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. METHODS: this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI and mental development index (MDI of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: mean birth weight was 1,119 g (SD: 247 and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2. Approximately 44.3%(n = 86 of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n = 79 had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI < 85 at 12 months of corrected age. On the mental scale, 76 (39.1% children presented abnormal cognitive development (MDI < 85. Children with neonatal sepsis were 2.5 times more likely to develop changes in neuromotor development (OR: 2.50; CI: 1.23-5.10. There was no association between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development impairment. CONCLUSION: neonatal sepsis was an independent risk factor for neuromotor development impairment at 12 months of corrected age, but not for mental development impairment.

  12. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  13. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  14. Respiratory morbidity in very preterm and very low birth weight infants: the first 2 years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory morbidity in the first two years of life, including recurrent symptoms and frequent hospitalizations, is a common problem in very preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW infants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study aiming to describe the respiratory morbidity at 2 years of corrected age for very preterm and VLBW infants and to identify potential risk factors for its development in a Portuguese based population born in a tertiary referral center between 2009 and 2011. Data were collected from patient’s clinical files and using a standardized questionnaire-based clinical interview for parents. A total 59 children were included. Thirteen (22.0% had recurrent respiratory symptoms and 12 (20.3% were using chronic respiratory medication. Health care utilization for respiratory causes was frequent (57.6%, particularly emergency department attendance (50.8%. Twenty seven (45.8% had additional outpatient visits for respiratory causes and hospital admission was necessary for 8 (13.6% patients. Factors associated with increased recurrent respiratory symptoms included maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, umbilical artery flow disturbances, being small for gestational age, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage and a weight percentile below 3 at 6, 12 and 24 months of corrected age. Premature rupture of membranes was negatively associated with respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity at 2 years of age is a common problem in very preterm and VLBW children from our population. Several perinatal and developmental risk factors were identified for respiratory morbidity. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of these factors, as they can lead to changes in healthcare guidelines.

  15. Bacterial vaginosis in early pregnancy is associated with low birth weight and small for gestational age, but not with spontaneous preterm birth: A population-based study on Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Vogel, Ida; Olsen, Jørn; Jeune, Bernard; Westergaard, Jes G.; Jacobsson, Bo; Møller, Birger R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) in early pregnancy and preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) in a Danish population. Methods. A geographically defined population-based prospective study of Danish-speaking pregnant women over...

  16. The role of immunonutrients in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm very low birth weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Yanqi; Ma, Li-Ya;

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC...... aim of this review is to summarize some potential immunomodulatory nutrients in the prevention of NEC, including bovine colostrum, probiotics, prebiotics (e.g., human milk oligosaccharides), long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine, l......-arginine and l-citrulline). Based on current research evidence, probiotics are the most documented effective method to prevent NEC, while others still require further investigation in animal studies and clinical randomized controlled trials....

  17. Low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm births before and after the economic collapse in Iceland: a population based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Infants born small for gestational age (SGA or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB and low birth weight (LBW. We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1(st 2006 to December 31(st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6(th 2008. RESULTS: Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52], particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72] and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]. Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51] particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23] and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]. No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6-9 months after the collapse. CONCLUSION: The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation.

  18. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers. PMID:26906339

  19. Mortality and Length of Stay of Very Low Birth Weight and Very Preterm Infants: A EuroHOPE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerato, Dino; Fattore, Giovanni; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Zanini, Rinaldo; Peltola, Mikko; Banks, Helen; Mihalicza, Péter; Lehtonen, Liisa; Sveréus, Sofia; Heijink, Richard; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Fletcher, Eilidh; Heijden, Amber van der; Lundberg, Fredrik; Over, Eelco; Häkkinen, Unto; Seppälä, Timo T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare health outcomes and hospital care use of very low birth weight (VLBW), and very preterm (VLGA) infants in seven European countries. Analysis was performed on linkable patient-level registry data from seven European countries between 2006 and 2008 (Finland, Hungary, Italy (the Province of Rome), the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden). Mortality and length of stay (LoS) were adjusted for differences in gestational age (GA), sex, intrauterine growth, Apgar score at five minutes, parity and multiple births. The analysis included 16,087 infants. Both the 30-day and one-year adjusted mortality rates were lowest in the Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden and Norway) and Scotland and highest in Hungary and the Netherlands. For survivors, the adjusted average LoS during the first year of life ranged from 56 days in the Netherlands and Scotland to 81 days in Hungary. There were large differences between European countries in mortality rates and LoS in VLBW and VLGA infants. Substantial data linkage problems were observed in most countries due to inadequate identification procedures at birth, which limit data validity and should be addressed by policy makers across Europe. PMID:26121647

  20. The Effect of Assisted Exercise Frequency on Bone Strength in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Erez, Hedva; Eliakim, Alon; Bauer-Rusek, Sofia; Arnon, Shmuel; Regev, Rivka H; Sirota, Gisela; Nemet, Dan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to assess whether a twice daily assisted exercise interventional program will have a greater effect on bone strength compared to a once daily intervention or no intervention in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Thirty-four very VLBW preterm infants (mean BW 1217 ± 55 g and mean gestational age 28.6 ± 1.1 weeks) were randomly assigned into one of three study groups: twice daily interventions (n = 13), a once daily intervention (n = 11), and no intervention (control, n = 10). The intervention was initiated at a mean of 8 ± 2.4 days of life and continued for 4 weeks. It included passive extension and flexion range-of-motion exercise of the upper and lower extremities. Bone strength was measured at enrollment and after 2 and 4 weeks using quantitative ultrasound of tibial bone speed of sound (SOS, Sunlight Omnisense™). At enrollment, the mean bone SOS was comparable between the twice daily interventions, once daily intervention and control groups (2918 ± 78, 2943 ± 119, and 2910 ± 48 m/s, respectively). As expected, the bone SOS declined in all groups during the study period (-23.6 ± 24, -68.8 ± 28, and -115.8 ± 30 m/s, respectively, p exercise attenuates the decrease in bone strength and may decrease the risk of osteopenia and future fractures in VLBW preterm infants. PMID:27142078

  1. Exclusive Breastfeeding among Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants at One Month Follow-up after Hospital Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Jahan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding in preterm low birth weight (PT LBW neonates after discharge from hospital is challenging and may be affected by multiple factors. We designed this study to find out the association of these factors with breastfeeding in our population. Objectives: To observe the rate of exclusive breasrfeeding (EBF among the PT LBW neonates at one month follow up and to identify the factors that are related with the maintenance of EBF. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted during the period from July 2009 to October 2011 in Enam Medical College Hospital (EMCH. Preterm infants ≤ 34 wks gestation, stayed in the NICU for >3 days and discharged home were eligible. Mothers were interviewed at one month follow-up after discharge. Infants who were given only breast milk up to 4 weeks were termed as “Exclusively breastfed (EBF” and who were given formula milk in addition were labeled as “Nonexclusively breastfed (NEBF”. Baseline information regarding maternal demography, delivery of the baby, feeding during discharge was taken from database of neonatal ward. Results: Among 89 infants, 37 (42% were female and 52 (58% were male, including 5 twins. Gestational age ranged from 29 to 34 weeks (mean 32±2, and birth weight ranged from 1100 to 2200 grams (mean 1763±20 g. At one month follow up visit 19% (17/89 were found to be NEBF and 81% were EBF. Factors significantly associated with EBF were shorter duration of hospital stay (p=0.001, method of feeding at discharge (p=0.001, mode of delivery (p=0.004, below average socio-economic status (p=0.03, maternal education (p=0.02, number of antenatal visits (p=0.02 and larger birth weight (p=0.038. Conclusion: A variety of factors may affect EBF in PT LBW babies. Extensive counseling of the mothers during antenatal visits, counseling of the family members regarding the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding is necessary. Support should be

  2. Lower conditioning leisure-time physical activity in young adults born preterm at very low birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kaseva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g have elevated levels of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Preliminary observations suggest that this could partly be explained by lower rates of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess physical activity in healthy young adults born preterm at very low birth weight compared with term-born controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 94 unimpaired young adults, aged 21-29 years, born at VLBW and 101 age-, sex-, and birth hospital-matched term-born controls from one regional center in Southern Finland. The participants completed a validated 30-item 12-month physical activity questionnaire and the NEO-Personality Inventory based on the Big Five taxonomy, the most commonly used classification of personality traits. Yearly frequency, total time, total volume and energy expenditure of conditioning and non-conditioning leisure-time physical activity (LTPA and commuting physical activity were compared between VLBW and term-born subjects. A subset of participants underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for body composition measurement. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Compared with controls, VLBW participants had lower frequency [-38.5% (95% CI; -58.9, -7.7], total time [-47.4% (95% CI; -71.2, -4.1], total volume [-44.3% (95% CI; -65.8, -9.2] and energy expenditure [-55.9% (95% CI; -78.6, -9.4] of conditioning LTPA when adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, parental education and personality traits. Adjusting for lean body mass instead of body mass index attenuated the difference. There were no differences in non-conditioning LTPA or commuting physical activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Compared with term-born controls, unimpaired VLBW adults undertake less frequent LTPA with lower total time and volume of exercise resulting in lower energy expenditure. Differences in personality that exist between the

  3. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, I.; Kašparová, M.; Marková, D.; Zemánková, J.; Beranová, Š.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Hrdlička, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, Feb (2014), s. 277-282. ISSN 1176-6328 Institutional support : RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism spectrum disorder * preterm children * screening Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S57057

  4. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, I.; Kašparová, M.; Marková, D.; Zemánková, J.; Beranová, Š.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Hrdlička, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, Feb (2014), s. 277-282. ISSN 1176-6328 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism spectrum disorder * preterm children * screening Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S57057

  5. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Bahl Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Jose Martines; Nita Bhandari; Zrinka Biloglav; Karen Edmond; Sharad Iyengar; Michael Kramer; Lawn, Joy E; Manandhar, D.S.; Rintaro Mori; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Nalini Singhal; Mark Tomlinson; Cesar Victora

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4.

  6. Preterm birth and its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: In our population preterm birth is more common in poor socio economic status, women with anaemia, malnutrition and these factors can be eliminated by proper nutrition and health education by health workers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 153-157

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus mandibular osteomyelitis in an extremely low birth weight preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia; Tumietto, Fabio; Sciutti, Rita; Greco, Laura; Faldella, Giacomo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an established nosocomial pathogen with frequent multidrug resistance. The immaturity of the immune system along with intravascular lines and empirical antibiotic treatments place hospitalized preterm infants at major risk of MRSA infection.We report a case of MRSA mandibular osteomyelitis complicating a persistent S. aureus bacteremia in a 23-week preterm infant. From the first weeks of life, the infant showed recurrent C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation, associated with S. aureus bacteremia. Antibiotic courses, including vancomycin and linezolid, were performed with transitory normalization of blood parameters. On day 74, the infant suddenly deteriorated and showed a significant increase of both CRP and procalcitonin. Empiric vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam treatment was started; nevertheless, she developed a progressive hard swelling of neck and mandible. Radiological evaluation revealed a mandibular osteomyelitis complicated by an abscess, whose culture grew MRSA. Vancomycin was thus changed to teicoplanin and complete clinical and radiological healing was gradually achieved.In the presence of major risk factors, persistent bacteremia and nonspecific symptoms, a localized focus of infection should be suspected. Microbiological diagnosis should always be attempted and antibiotic treatment should be guided by both susceptibility results and clinical response. PMID:26239708

  8. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  9. Association of late-onset neonatal sepsis with late neurodevelopment in the first two years of life of preterm infants with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Hentges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the influence of late-onset sepsis on neurodevelopment of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, according to the etiologic agent METHOD: This was a cohort of newborns with birth weight < 1,500 g and gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to the institutional intensive care unit (ICU with up to 48 hours of life, and followed-up at the outpatient follow-up clinic for preterm infants with VLBW until 2 years of corrected age. Exclusion criteria: death within the first 72 hours of life, congenital malformations and genetic syndromes, children with congenital infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, congenital infection (STORCH, presence of early-onset spesis and cases with more than one pathogen growth in blood cultures. Septic and non-septic infants were compared regarding neonatal outcomes and mortality. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale (BSDI-II at 18 to 24 months of corrected age. RESULTS: 411 preterm infants with VLBW were eligible; the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,041 ± 281grams. Late-onset sepsis occurred in 94 preterm infants with VLBW (22.8%. VLBW infants with Gram-positive infection showed motor deficit when compared to the non-septic group, 68.8% vs. 29.3%, respectively (OR 6; 1.6-21.8, p = 0.006; the cognitive development was similar between the groups. The overall mortality rate from infection was 26.7%; considering the pathogens, the rates were 18.7% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 21.8% for Gram-positive bacteria, and 50% for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. CONCLUSION: Neonatal sepsis has a significant influence on late neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants with VLBW, and Gram-positive infections are associated with motor deficit.

  10. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age: individual participant level meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Marchant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1 birth weight, (2 gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3 neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999-2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (< 2,500 g babies were either preterm (< 37 weeks gestation or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age. 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born < 34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4-121.4], with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34-36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0-10.7], but the likelihood for babies born 34-36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3-47.4]. Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  11. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... births can also take a heavy emotional and economic toll on families. 5 American College of Obstetricians ... Dimes. (2012). The March of Dimes Foundation Data Book for Policy Makers: Maternal, Infant, and Child Health ...

  12. Respiratory consequences of late preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Katharine C; Lucas, Jane S A

    2015-06-01

    In developed countries most preterm births occur between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Deliveries during this 'late preterm' period are increasing and, since even mild prematurity is now recognised to be associated with adverse health outcomes, this presents healthcare challenges. Respiratory problems associated with late preterm birth include neonatal respiratory distress, severe RSV infection and childhood wheezing. Late preterm birth prematurely interrupts in utero lung development and is associated with maternal and early life factors which adversely affect the developing respiratory system. This review considers 1) mechanisms underlying the association between late preterm birth and impaired respiratory development, 2) respiratory morbidity associated with late preterm birth, particularly long-term outcomes, and 3) interventions which might protect respiratory development by addressing risk factors affecting the late preterm population, including maternal smoking, early life growth restriction and vulnerability to viral infection. PMID:25554628

  13. Diffusion-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy following preterm birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To study the associations between magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy (MRS) data and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) from the preterm brain with developmental outcome at 18 months corrected age and clinical variables. Materials and methods: A prospective observational cohort study of 67 infants born before 35 weeks gestational age who received both magnetic resonance imaging of the brain between 37 and 44 weeks corrected gestational age and developmental assessment around 18 months corrected age. Results: No relationships were found between ADC values and MRS results or outcome. MRS ratios involving N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) from the posterior white matter were associated with ''severe'' and ''moderate to severe'' difficulties, and fine motor scores were significantly lower in participants with a visible lactate doublet in the posterior white matter. The presence of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was the only clinical factor related to NAA ratios. Conclusion: Altered NAA levels in the posterior white matter may reflect subtle white matter injury associated with neuro-developmental difficulties, which may be related to a PDA. Further work is needed to assess the longer-term neuro-developmental implications of these findings, and to study the effect of PDAs on developmental outcome in later childhood/adolescence. - Highlights: • ADC values around term corrected age from a wide area of the brain are not associated with developmental outcome. • NAA ratios from the posterior white matter are associated with adverse outcome. • No relationship between MRS data and ADC values exist when measured from the same region of the cerebral white matter. • The presence of a patent ductus arterious was associated with NAA ratios from the posterior white matter, but not outcome

  14. Comparison of Obstetric Outcome in Terms of the Risk of Low Birth Weight, Preterm Delivery, Cesarean Section Rate and Anemia in Primigravid Adolescents and Older Primigravida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the obstetric outcome in terms of risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, cesarean section rate and anemia in primigravid adolescents and older primigravida. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Three hundred primigravid women presenting to department of obstetrics and gynecology of Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, having live singleton pregnancy, including 150 adolescents (A/sup 2/ 19 years) and 150 adults (A/sup 3/ 20 years) were studied. Obstetric outcome in terms of gestational age at delivery, infant's birth weight, presence of anemia and cesarean section rate was compared between two groups. Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Chi-square test was applied with 0.05 as level of significance. Results: The mean age of adolescent subjects was 17.3 + 1.5 years and of adults 25.6 + 3.4 years. Mean gestational age at delivery was similar in two groups (39.2 weeks and 39.4 weeks, p = 0.37). Adolescents were more likely to have a preterm delivery (11.2% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.04) and low birth weight infants (19.3% vs. 8.2%, p = 0.005) than adults. Adolescents were more likely to be anemic (46% vs. 32%, p = 0.01) than adults. However, cesarean section rate was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusion: This study showed that primiparous adolescents have significantly higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery, low birth weight infants and anemia as compared to adult primiparas. (author)

  15. Preterm and Very Preterm Births by Race/Ethnicity 2010-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains percent preterm and very preterm live births by race/ethnic group of mother. Preterm births are all live births less than 37 weeks of...

  16. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP ) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study wa...

  17. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt;

    2009-01-01

    maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with <10 years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...... increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...

  18. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a...... fast acting effect on fish oil....

  19. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f...

  20. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: Cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohrer-Baumgartner Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010. Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Results Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Conclusions Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties.

  1. Do Mothers’ Play Behaviors Moderate the Associations between Socioeconomic Status and 24-Month Neurocognitive Outcomes of Toddlers Born Preterm or with Low Birth Weight?

    OpenAIRE

    Dilworth-Bart, Janean E.; Poehlmann, Julie A.; Miller, Kyle E.; Hilgendorf, Amy E

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined whether neonatal risks and maternal scaffolding (i.e., task changes and flexibility) during a 16-month post-term play interaction moderated the association between socioeconomic status (SES), visual-spatial processing and emerging working memory assessed at 24 months post-term among 75 toddlers born preterm or low birth weight. Method SES and neonatal risk data were collected at hospital discharge and mother–child play interactions were observed at 16-month post-term. Ge...

  2. Infant Motor Assessment, Long-Term Clinical Outcome, Quantitative Cerebral MRI and Cognitive Training in Children Born Preterm with Very Low Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen

    2014-01-01

    The preterm birth incidence and survival rates have been increasing over the last few decades due to advances in obstetric care and neonatal treatment. Despite this, the number of preterm children that develop severe neuroimpairments or more subtle difficulties within cognition, attention, behavioral and every day skills are still high. Perinatal brain injury, including diffuse and focal white matter necrosis and grey matter injury is the most common cause of the neuroimpairments in preterm c...

  3. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk: A meta-analysis of 147,000 European children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, A. M. M.; Arends, L. R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Arshad, S. H.; Barros, H.; Basterrechea, M.; Bisgaard, H.; Chatzi, L.; Corpeleijn, E.; Correia, S.; Craig, L. C.; Devereux, G.; Dogaru, C.; Dostál, Miroslav; Duchen, K.; Eggesbø, M.; van der Ent, C. K.; Fantini, M. P.; Forastiere, F.; Frey, U.; Gehring, U.; Gori, D.; van der Gugten, A. C.; Hanke, W.; Henderson, A. J.; Heude, B.; Iniguez, C.; Inskip, H. M.; Keil, T.; Kelleher, C.; Kogevinas, M.; Kreiner-Moller, E.; Kuehni, C. E.; Kuepers, L. K.; Lancz, K.; Larsen, P. S.; Lau, S.; Ludvigsson, J.; Mommers, M.; Andersen, A. M. N.; Palkovicova, L.; Pike, K. C.; Pizzi, C.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Roberts, G.; Schmidt, A.; Šrám, Radim; Sunyer, J.; Thijs, C.; Torrent, M.; Viljoen, K.; Wijga, A. H.; Vrijheid, M.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Duijts, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 5 (2014), s. 1317-1329. ISSN 0091-6749 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : gestational age * low birth weight * infant growth Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 11.476, year: 2014

  4. Low birth weight and preterm delivery as risk factors for asthma and atopic dermatitis in young adult males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, F.H.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Gillman, M.W.; Rothman, K.J.; Sabroe, Svend; Fischer, P.; Olsen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Gestational factors have been hypothesized to play a role in the susceptibility to asthma and atopic dermatitis. We examined whether fetal growth was associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis separately in a population of 4,795 male conscripts born between 1973 and 1975 in Denmark. The...... of male infants is the main gestational factor underlying the associations but does not explain the apparent increase over time of asthma or atopic diseases....... prevalence of asthma was 4.7%. The prevalence odds ratio of asthma in conscripts with a birth weight below 2,501 g was 1.5 (95% confidence interval = 0.7–3.1) compared with conscripts with a birth weight of 3,001–3,500 g, adjusted for gestational age and potential confounders. The adjusted prevalence odds...

  5. Changes in Perinatal Care and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mortality of very low birth weight premature infants is of great public health concern. To better guide local intervention program, it is essential that current and reliable statistics be collected to understand the factors associated with mortality of these infants.Methods: Data of very low birth weight premature infants admitted to a neonatal unit during 2002-2009 was retrospectively collected. Changes in perinatal care between two halves of the study period (2002-2005 and 2006-2009 were identified. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were found by logistic regression and a predictive score model was established.Findings: A total of 475 cases were enrolled. In-hospital mortality decreased from 29.8% in 2002-2005 to 28.1% in 2006-2009 (P>0.05. More infants born<28 gestational weeks survived to discharge in the latter epoch (38.1% vs 8.3%, P<0.05. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, pulmonary hemorrhage,birth weight <000 grams, gestational age <33 weeks, feeding before 3 postnatal days and enteral feeding were found predictors of in-hospital mortality by logistic regression. The discriminating ability of the predictivemodel was 82.4% and the cutoff point was -0.56.Conclusion: Survival of very low birth weight premature neonates was not significantly improved in 2006-2009 than 2002-2005. Infants with a score higher than -0.56 were assessed to be at high risk of in-hospital mortality. Multi-center studies of planned follow-up are needed to develop a comprehensive and applicable score system.

  6. Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview

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    Akila Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Preterm birth (PTB remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n=26 or meta-analysis (n=5 for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.

  7. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Bahl Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW, as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4.

  8. Recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusion in low-birth weight preterm infants under restrictive transfusion guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the number and volume of red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) in very low birth weight infants under restrictive red blood cell transfusion guidelines with and without erythropoietin administration. In a controlled clinical trial conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit of Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, between April 2002 to April 2004, 60 premature infants with gestational age up to 34 weeks, birth weight up to 1500 g, and postnatal age between 8 and 14 days were included. The newborns were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 received 3 doses of 400 IU/kg erythropoietin per week for 6 weeks, and Group 2 received no treatment aside from their conventional medications. The 2 groups did not differ significantly with respect to their mean gestational age, birth weight and hematocrit at the study entry. Fewer transfusions were administered to those receiving erythropoietin (26.7% versus 50%, p=0.03), but there was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to volume of transfusion. Compared with the placebo group, the infants receiving erythropoietin had a higher mean hematocrit (34% +/- 4.3 versus 29% +/- 5.9, p<0.001) and absolute reticulocyte count (57 +/- 19 versus 10 +/- 4.8 x 106, p<0.001) at the end of the study. We found no significant difference in the incidence of thrombocytopenia and leukopenia between the 2 groups. We conclude that when the restrictive RBCT guidelines were followed, treatment with erythropoietin can be useful in reduction of the number of RBCTs. (author)

  9. Comparison of three screening tests for autism in preterm children with birth weights less than 1,500 grams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, I.; Marková, D.; Kašparová, M.; Zemánková, J.; Beranová, Š.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Hrdlička, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 11 (2014), s. 2201-2208. ISSN 1176-6328 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism spectrum disorders * preterm children * screening Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2013

  10. Birth weight and term of the gestation in pregnancies complicated by isolated oligo and isolated polyhydramnios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikanta Reddy V

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Isolated Oligo and Polyhydramnios are associated with increased rate of Low Birth Weight (Very Low Birth Weight and Low Birth Weight neonates and Preterm deliveries. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 577-580

  11. Future directions in preterm birth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Joses; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    The problem of preterm birth continues to pose one of the most significant research challenges that we face due to its immense scope and complexity. With evidence that 95% of cases of spontaneous preterm birth are intractable to current interventions, our best hope in resolving this problem may lie in new, innovative ideas. Novel approaches to researching preterm birth are currently underway, building upon our prior discoveries and probing into the unknown on multiple fronts. Here we discuss some of the major focuses of future investigation that provide a promising outlook for discovery, including advanced techniques to evaluate the cervix, new strategies to identify the role of the microbiome, and advances in molecular and epigenetic-based research. PMID:26640166

  12. Occupational lifting of heavy loads and preterm birth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Pedersen, Jacob Krabbe; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Juhl, Mette; Bonde, Jens Peter; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day.......To examine the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and preterm birth. The risk of preterm birth was estimated for total burden lifted per day and number of medium and heavy loads lifted per day....

  13. Born Toon Soon: Preterm birth matters

    OpenAIRE

    Howson, Christopher P; Mary V Kinney; McDougall, Lori; Joy E Lawn

    2013-01-01

    Urgent action is needed to address preterm birth given that the first country-level estimates show that globally 15 million babies are born too soon and rates are increasing in most countries with reliable time trend data. As the first in a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on the global policy context. Preterm birth is critical for progress on Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG) for child survival by 2015 and beyond, and gives added value to maternal health (MDG 5) inve...

  14. Association between air pollution and preterm birth among neonates born in Isfahan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Janghorbani; Janghorbani Piraei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have investigated the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight (LBW) in an Iranian pregnant population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we identified 4758 consecutive singleton birth records from one large refe...

  15. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2008-01-01

    mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Mothers with <10 years of education had an elevated risk of preterm birth compared with...... mediate the association. METHODS: The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This, and the...

  16. Mental health in women experiencing preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Misund, Aud R; Nerdrum, Per; Diseth, Trond H

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to explore the degree of psychological distress, anxiety, and trauma related stress reactions in mothers who experience preterm birth. Secondarily, we wanted to identify possible predictors of maternal mental health problems. Methods Twenty-nine mothers of 35 premature children born before 33rd week of pregnancy were assessed within two weeks after given birth. The standardized psychometric methods; Impact of Event Scale (IES), General Health Questionnaire ...

  17. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana;

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...... literature, there are no specific proteomic biomarkers capable of accurately predicting PTB....

  18. Preterm (Premature) Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnesium Sulfate: A drug that may help prevent cerebral palsy when it is given to women in preterm labor who are at risk of delivery before 32 weeks of pregnancy. Neonatologist: A doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders that affect newborn infants. ...

  19. Desenvolvimento de prematuros com baixo peso ao nascer nos primeiros dois anos de vida Development of low birth weight preterm infants during the first two years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alves da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e descrever o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de prematuros com baixo peso ao nascer nos dois primeiros anos de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com prematuros entre quatro e 24 meses, no Ambulatório de Alto Risco Neonatal do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, avaliados em três momentos: 8, 11 e 14 meses de idade cronológica. A amostra, composta inicialmente por 69 indivíduos, teve caráter intencional, segundo os critérios de inclusão e exclusão estabelecidos. A Escala de Brunet e Lèzine foi usada para avaliar o desenvolvimento nas seguintes áreas: coordenação óculo-motriz, linguagem, postura e sociabilidade. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial. RESULTADOS: A idade gestacional média foi de 31 semanas e o peso ao nascer foi de 1236g. O quociente de desenvolvimento global apresentou melhora da primeira para a última avaliação, alcançando 85% de escores dentro da normalidade na terceira avaliação. As áreas específicas da coordenação óculo-motriz e da linguagem tiveram os piores resultados iniciais, contrapondo-se à postural, que apresentou os melhores escores. Foi encontrada correlação entre o peso ao nascer e as áreas da postura, linguagem e sociabilidade na primeira avaliação e sociabilidade e coordenação óculo-motriz na terceira avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor desta população apresentou déficits mais evidentes nos primeiros meses de vida. Embora o seguimento não tenha mostrado diferenças estatísticas entre a primeira e a última avaliação, houve melhora em todas as áreas do desenvolvimento.OBJECTIVE: To analyze and describe the neuropsychomotor development of low birth weight preterm infants in the first two years of life. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled preterm infants between 4 and 24 months old at the follow up clinic of Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

  20. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study was conducted by eliciting history from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who w ere treated in Rani Chandra Mani Devi Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. De tailed history was taken from the mothers of 99 cerebral palsy children who were treated in this hospital. History regarding the period of gestation at which the child was born (preterm or full term, any previous history of pre - term delivery or abortions, was obtained from the mothers and the data analyzed . RESULTS: From this study it was observed the proportional association of pre - term births to cerebral palsy is 33 out 99 i.e., about 33.33%, Of these 33 cerebral palsy children highest association being with birth at 28 wks gestation (51 %. This study also shows th at the mothers with a previous history of preterm delivery have 14.4 times higher risk of subsequent pre term delivery; those with previous history of abortions have 5.7 times risk of pre - term delivery than mothers without such history. CONCLUSION: From th is study it was concluded that the pre - term birth plays a major role as a risk factor in the development of cerebral palsy with mothers having previous pre term delivery and previous abortions adding further to this risk.

  1. Aquisição de habilidades motoras até a marcha independente em prematuros de muito baixo peso Acquisition of motor abilities up to independent walking in very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. P. Volpi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar as idades cronológica e corrigida de aquisição das habilidades motoras até a marcha independente em prematuros de muito baixo peso e avaliar até quando é necessário o uso da idade corrigida. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal de prematuros OBJECTIVE: To determine chronological and corrected ages at acquisition of motor abilities up to unaided walking in very low weight preterms and to determine up to what point it is necessary to use corrected age. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of preterms with birth weight < 1,500 g and gestational age < 34 weeks, free from neurosensory sequelae, selected at the high-risk infants follow-up clinic at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP in Botucatu, Brazil, between 1998 to 2003, and assessed every 2 months until acquisition of unaided walking. RESULTS: Nine percent of the 155 preterms recruited were excluded from the study, leaving a total of 143 patients. The mean gestational age was 30±2 weeks, birth weight was 1,130±222 g, 59% were female and 44% were small for gestational age. Preterms achieved head control in their second month, could sit unaided at 7 months and walked at 12.8 months' corrected age, corresponding to the 4th, 9th and 15th months of chronological age. There were significant differences between chronological age and corrected age for all motor abilities. Preterms who were small for their gestational age acquired motor abilities later, but still within expected limits. CONCLUSIONS: Very low weight preterms, free from neurosensory disorders, acquired their motor abilities within the ranges expected for their corrected ages. Corrected age should be used until unaided walking is achieved.

  2. Periodontal disease as a risk factor in pre-term low birth weight - An assessment of gynecologists′ knowledge: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenoy Rekha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pre-term low birth weight (PLBW is a condition having tremendous financial impact on health care systems as well as the affected families. Studies suggest that 18.2% of all PLBW cases may be attributable to periodontal disease. Objectives: To assess gynecologists′ knowledge of periodontal disease as a risk factor in PLBW and their knowledge with regard to the oral manifestations of periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted on gynecologists in the city of Mangalore. The respondents were divided into four groups - those practicing only in medical colleges, those having only a private practice, those practicing in both medical colleges and in private practice, and post-graduate students of gynecology in the medical colleges in the city. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test for proportions was used to test the differences between the groups. Results: Out of a total of 142 gynecologists, 93 participated in the survey. Group II respondents were omitted from the statistical analysis as the response rate was only 18.8%. Periodontal disease was considered to be a risk factor in PLBW by 52 (59.8% respondents while 13 (14.9% stated that it was not a risk factor at all. Sixty-seven (77% respondents stated that bleeding/enlargement of the gingivae was a sign of periodontal infection. Conclusions: Respondents′ knowledge was high regarding the oral manifestations of periodontal disease but was low regarding periodontal disease as a risk factor in PLBW.

  3. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting was...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  4. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  5. Population based trends in mortality, morbidity and treatment for very preterm- and very low birth weight infants over 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüegger Christoph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, improvements in medical care have been associated with a significant increase and better outcome of very preterm (VP, Methods Our population-based observational cohort study used the Minimal Neonatal Data Set, a database maintained by the Swiss Society of Neonatology including information of all VP- and VLBW infants. Perinatal characteristics, mortality and morbidity rates and the survival free of major complications were analysed and their temporal trends evaluated. Results In 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008, a total number of 3090 infants were enrolled in the Network Database. At the same time the rate of VP- and VLBW neonates increased significantly from 0.87% in 1996 to 1.10% in 2008 (p Conclusions Over the 12-year observation period, the number of VP- and VLBW infants increased significantly. An unchanged overall mortality rate and an increase of survivors free of major complication resulted in a considerable net gain in infants with potentially good outcome.

  6. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  7. Periodontal Disease And Risk For Pre-Term Birth: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andonova Irena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal periodontal infection has been recognizsed as a risk factor for preterm and low birth weight infants. It is hypothesized that pathogens causing periodontal disease might translocate to the amniotic cavity and contribute to triggering an adverse pregnancy outcome. The growing evidence that an infection remote from the foetal-placental unit might have a role in preterm delivery has led to an increased awareness of the potential role of chronic bacterial infections in the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of chronic periodontitis might influence the incidence of preterm labour and preterm birth.

  8. Comparison of three screening tests for autism in preterm children with birth weights less than 1,500 grams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudova I

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova,1 Daniela Markova,2 Martina Kasparova,3 Jana Zemankova,4 Stepanka Beranova,1 Tomas Urbanek,5 Michal Hrdlicka1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Charles University First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic; 4Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 5Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic Background: Preterm children seem to be at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Methods: Parents of 157 children with birth weights less than 1,500 g (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity; 88 boys, 69 girls completed screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT, Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC, and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP. Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently assessed by clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Results: Fifty-six children (35.7% screened positive on at least one of the parental screening questionnaires. Of the 56 children who tested positive, 33 participated in the detailed clinical follow-up assessment. A diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in 13 of the 33 children. The ASD prevalence was 9.7% of the sample. Analysis of children with and without an ASD diagnosis found significant differences relative to gestational age (26.9 weeks vs 28.3 weeks, P=0.033 and length of the stay in hospital (89.5 days vs 75.4 days, P=0.042. The

  9. The use of psychosocial stress scales in preterm birth research

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Melissa J.; Grobman, William A.; Gollan, Jackie K; Borders, Ann E.B.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been identified as a potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, an association has not consistently been found, and a consensus on the extent to which stress and preterm birth are linked is still lacking. A literature search was performed with a combination of keywords and MeSH terms to detect studies of psychosocial stress and preterm birth. Studies were included in the review if psychosocial stress was measured with a standardized, validated instrument and the...

  10. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuit, Ewoud; Stock, Sarah; Groenwold, Rolf H H;

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential...... benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix) or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death....

  11. Late Preterm birth and its morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salcedo-Ramos Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: preterm birth is a public health problem due to its high incidence. It canbe extremely preterm, very preterm and late preterm, according to the gestational age.The late preterm birth is the most prevalent subgroup.Objective: identify the early complications and the long-term morbidity that morefrequently have been related with preterm born between 34 and 36 weeks/6 days ofpregnancy.Methods: thematic review. An electronic search was carried out in databases Pubmed,Science direct, EBSCOhost and Scielo. There were considered articles published sinceJanuary, 1997 to December, 2012 in Spanish and English. Obstetric texts also werereviewed.Results: 50 of 300 identified articles achieved the aim of the review. The most commoncomplications that had an early presentation were: hospital re-entry, respiratory problems, suction defects, hyperbilirubinemia and hypoglycemia. The most frequent latecomplications were: cerebral palsy, mental retardation, psychological and psychiatricdisorders, mainly schizophrenia and depressive disorders. The late preterm births present10% of the neonatal mortality.Conclusions: late preterm births present higher morbidity than those full-term births.It is not recommended to finish the pregnancy between 34 and 36 weeks without the adequate indication. Rev.Cienc.Biomed. 2012;4(1: 134-141RESUMEN:Introducción: el parto pretérmino es un problema de salud pública por su elevadaincidencia. Puede ser extremo, muy pretérmino o tardío, dependiendo de la edadgestacional. El parto pretérmino tardío es el subgrupo más prevalente.Objetivo: identificar las complicaciones tempranas y la morbilidad a largo plazo que másfrecuentemente se han relacionado con pretérminos nacidos entre las 34 y 36 semanas/6días de gestación.Metodología: revisión temática. Se realizó búsqueda electrónica en las bases de datosPubMed, Science direct, EBSCOhost y Scielo. Se consideraron artículos publicados desdeenero de 1997 a

  12. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtekar Shyam; Kulkarni Madhav; Sadavarte Vaishali; Ashtekar Ratna

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight b...

  13. Associations between ozone and preterm birth in women who develop gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Jung, Chau-Ren; Lee, Yungling Leo; Hwang, Bing-Fang

    2015-02-15

    Prenatal exposure to ambient air pollutants might cause adverse birth outcomes; however, there have been few studies in which the association between air pollution and preterm birth was examined after stratifying by pregnancy complications. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 1,510,064 singleton births from the Taiwanese birth registry during 2001-2007. Of the total of 1,510,064 births, we designated all 86,224 preterm births as the case group and then randomly selected an additional 344,896 from the remaining births (equivalent to 4 full-term births for every 1 preterm birth) as the control sample. We used an inverse distance weighting approach to calculate an average exposure parameter for air pollutants. The adjusted odds ratio for preterm birth per 10-ppb increase in ozone was 1.12 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.23) for women with gestational diabetes mellitus who were exposed in the third trimester and 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.03) for women without gestational diabetes (P for interaction <0.001). These findings suggest that exposure to ozone in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, particularly for women who have gestational diabetes mellitus. PMID:25652551

  14. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... GA, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age......, low birth weight increased the risk of infantile colic in children born at term (gestational weeks 37-41)....

  15. Pregnancy outcomes and risk factors for low birth weight and preterm delivery among HIV-infected pregnant women in Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Lan; LI Wen-ying; Ray Y. Chen; TANG Zhi-rong; PANG Jun; GUI Xiu-zhi; MENG Xiu-ning; ZHANG Fu-jie

    2012-01-01

    Background Six provinces in China accounted for 70%-80% of all reported HIV/AIDS cases in the country in 2009 and five provinces accounted for 78% of all reported mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV cases.Because Guangxi belonged to both groups,the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Plus program was established there to understand better low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery (PD) birth outcomes and their associated risk factors better.Methods Pregnancy outcomes were examined among HIV-infected pregnant women who enrolled in the PMTCT Plus program from June 2006 to February 2009 in Guangxi,China.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors associated with LBW (<2500 g) and PD (gestational age <37 weeks).Results The prevalence of LBW and PD among 194 HIV-positive mothers was 19.6% (38/194) and 9.8% (19/194),respectively.Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that CD4 cell count <100 cell/μI (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.52; 95% CI 1.11-25.55) and CD4 cell count 100-199 cells/μl (AOR 3.40; 95% Cl 1.03-11.25,compared to CD4 cell count ≥350 cells/μl),gestational age <37 weeks (AOR 4.38; 95% CI 1.29-14.82,compared to ≥37 weeks),maternal weight <45 kg (AOR 5.64; 95% Cl 1.09-29.07) and maternal weight 45-54 kg (AOR 3.55; 95% Cl 1.31-9.60,compared to ≥55 kg) at enrollment,and HIV RNA ≥100 000 copies/ml at enrollment (AOR 4.22; 95% Cl 1.24-14.32) and 20 000-99 999 (AOR 2.77; 95% CI 1.01-7.77,compared to <20 000 copies/ml) were associated with a higher risk of LBW.For PD,only maternal injection drug use as the route of HIV transmission (AOR 5.30; 95% CI 1.33-21.14,compared to those infected with HIV through sexual transmission) was significantly associated with a higher risk of PD.Conclusions Lower CD4 cell count and higher HIV RNA viral load at enrollment were associated with LBW.Optimal antenatal care,including earlier antenatal screening and

  16. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A.; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The ...

  17. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  18. Relación entre enfermedad periodontal y parto prematuro. Bajo peso al nacimiento: una revisión de la literatura The relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Flores

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de los esfuerzos realizados en el control del embarazo y el parto, la frecuencia de los partos prematuros no ha disminuido en las dos últimas décadas. El parto prematuro supone una seria amenaza para la salud del recién nacido, y representa además un porcentaje muy importante de los costes destinados a la atención sanitaria perinatal. La investigación científica ha revelado diversos mecanismos por los que infecciones remotas como la enfermedad periodontal pueden participar en la patogenia del parto prematuro. Estudios recientes han demostrado que la enfermedad periodontal es un factor de riesgo para el parto prematuro, habiéndose hallado un riesgo relativo mayor que el calculado para factores de riesgo tradicionales como el tabaquismo, bajo peso materno o consumo de alcohol. Se ha sugerido que la prevención y el tratamiento de la enfermedad periodontal en mujeres gestantes podrían contribuir a la prevención del parto prematuro. En el presente artículo revisamos la evidencia científica presente en la literatura acerca de esta asociación y del papel del tratamiento periodontal en la prevención del parto prematuro.Despite all efforts made for pregnancy and labour care, the incidence of preterm births has not decreased in the last two decades. Prematurity implies a serious threat to the health of the newborn, representing an important percentage of the perinatal health care costs. Scientific research has revealed multiple mechanisms through which remote infections such as periodontal disease can participate in the pathogenesis of preterm birth. Recent studies have demonstrated that periodontal disease is a risk factor for preterm birth, even with higher odds ratios than those calculated for traditional risk factors such as tobacco consumption, low maternal weight or alcohol consumption. It has be en suggested that the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease in pregnant women could contribute to the prevention of

  19. The role of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Dodd

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A CrowtherDiscipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium–calmodulin–myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.Keywords: progesterone, preterm birth, systematic review, randomized trial

  20. Activity in Pregnancy for Patients with a History of Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Satterfield, Nichelle; Newton, Edward R.; May, Linda E.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Numerous risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, including non-Hispanic black race, a variety of social and behavioral factors, infections, and history of a prior preterm delivery. Of these, a history of prior spontaneous preterm birth is one of the strongest risk factors. Traditionally, women with a history of preterm birth or those deemed at high risk for preterm delivery have been p...

  1. Myelination in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognostic significance of cerebral myelination was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very low birth weight infants. Myelination was graded in two specified sites, optic radiation and corpus callosum, based on the stages of normal term babies and healthy premature infants. The subjects were 30 preterm infants weighing less than 1,500 gm at birth. MRI was performed at 4 to 7 months (corrected age). The normal myelination stage was seen in 18 cases, while a delayed stage was noticed in 12 cases. In the normal myelination group, only 1 case (6%) had handicaps. In the delayed myelination group, 8 cases (67%) had handicaps. Our results showed that delayed myelination was closely related to a poor prognosis. We believe that MRI would be a very good imaging modality for predicting the outcome of very low birth weight infants, particularly in terms of evaluation of myelination. (author)

  2. Birth Weight Ratio as an Alternative to Birth Weight Percentile to Express Infant Weight in Research and Clinical Practice: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P  0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283

  3. Efficacy of a first course of Ibuprofen for patent ductus arteriosus closure in extremely preterm newborns according to their gestational age-specific Z-score for birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Madeleneau

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in very preterm infants remain controversial. To identify infants likely to benefit from treatment, we analysed the efficacy of a first course of ibuprofen in small-for-gestational age (SGA newborns.This single-centre retrospective study included 185 infants born at 24+0-27+6 weeks of gestation with haemodynamically significant PDA, who were treated by intravenous ibuprofen (Pedea: 10 mg/kg on day one and 5 mg/kg on days two and three. Birth weight and gestational age (GA were analysed with reference to the standard deviations from the Olsen growth curve to define GA-specific Z-scores for birth weights. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by echocardiography 48 hours after the last dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome was failure of the first course of ibuprofen associated in a composite criterion with the most severe outcomes.The risk of treatment failure increased according to a continuous gradient in SGA neonates. A higher risk was observed on multiple regression analysis (crude OR: 3.8; 95% CI [1.2-12.3] p = 0.02; adjusted OR: 12.8; 95% CI [2.3-70.5] p=0.003.There is a linear relationship between infant birth weight and PDA treatment: the failure rate of a first course of ibuprofen increases with increasing degree of growth restriction.

  4. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin d and preterm birth in twin gestations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-07-01

    To assess whether there was an independent association between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at 24-28 weeks of gestation and preterm birth in a multicenter U.S. cohort of twin pregnancies.

  5. Traffic Pollution Tied to Preterm Birth Risk for Asthmatic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157539.html Traffic Pollution Tied to Preterm Birth Risk for Asthmatic Women ... suggests. Both short- and long-term exposure to pollution from vehicles was linked to a higher risk ...

  6. The prevalence of preterm birth and season of conception

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N

    2008-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major obstetric problem. An exploration of the season of conception in relation to preterm birth may provide direction in the search for risk factors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 82 213 singleton livebirths (20–45 weeks’ gestation) to 61 630 women at Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, from 1995 to 2005. Conception was estimated based on gestational age determined by best obstetric estimate. Fourier series analysis was used to model seasonal trends.

  7. Cost of Racial Disparity in Preterm Birth: Evidence from Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiao; Grigorescu, Violanda; Siefert, Kristine A.; Lori, Jody R.; Ransom, Scott B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the economic costs associated with racial disparity in preterm birth and preterm fetal death in Michigan. Linked 2003 Michigan vital statistics and hospital discharge data were used for data analysis. Thirteen percent of the singleton births among non-Hispanic Blacks were before 37 completed weeks of gestation, compared to only 7.7% among non-Hispanic Whites (risk ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.59-1.72; p

  8. Long-Term Neurodevelopmental Outcomes After Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    SOLEIMANI, Farin; Zaheri, Farzaneh; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Context: All over the the world, preterm birth is a major cause of death and important neurodevelopmental disorders. Approximately 9.6% (12.9 million) births worldwide are preterm. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Scopus, Google Scholar and Iranian databases including Iranmedex, and SID were researched to review relevant literature. A comprehensive search was performed using combinations of various keywords. Results: Cerebral palsy especially spasti...

  9. Role of micronized progesterone in prevention of preterm labour in women with previous history of one or more preterm births: a research study at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ahuja

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The study concluded that progesterone use was associated with 64.2% reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery (p=0.029.Antenatal administration of progesterone reduces the risk of preterm birth before 37 weeks and 34 weeks as well as the risk of a newborn being born with a birth weight of less than 2500 gms. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1176-1180

  10. Epigenetics: linking social and environmental exposures to preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Heather H; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Despite decades of research, marked racial and socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth persist. In the Unites States, more than 16% of African-American infants are born before 37 wk of gestation compared with less than 11% of white infants. While income and education differences predict a portion of these racial disparities, income and education are proxies of the underlying causes rather than the true cause. How these differences lead to the pathophysiology remains unknown. Beyond tobacco smoke exposure, most preterm birth investigators overlook environment exposures that often correlate with poverty. Environmental exposures to industrial contaminants track along both socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines due to cultural variation in personal product use, diet, and residential geographical separation. Emerging evidence suggests that environmental exposure to metals and plasticizers contribute to preterm birth and epigenetic modifications. The extent to which disparities in preterm birth result from interactions between the social and physical environments that produce epigenetic modifications remains unclear. In this review, we highlight studies that report associations between environmental exposures and preterm birth as well as perinatal epigenetic sensitivity to environmental contaminants and socioeconomic stressors. PMID:26460521

  11. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  12. Mental Health in Low Birth Weight Individuals Approaching Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Line Knutsen

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, an increasing number of children have survived after preterm birth during the latest decades. These children are surviving at the borders of viability and are at increased risk for a number of adverse outcomes. Few studies have followed low birth weight populations into adulthood. In this study, three groups of children born in the Trøndelag counties of Norway in 1986-88 have been followed up from birth to twenty years of age. Two groups born with low birth weight were...

  13. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  14. Prepregnancy body mass index and risk of preterm birth: association heterogeneity by preterm subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Margaret G; Ouyang, Fengxiu; Pearson, Colleen; Gillman, Matthew W.; Belfort, Mandy B.; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Guoying; Heffner, Linda; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with early vs. late and medically-induced vs. spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) subtypes. Methods: Using data from the Boston Birth Cohort, we examined associations of prepregnancy BMI with 189 early (

  15. A mortalidade do prematuro extremo em nosso meio: realidade e desafios Mortality of very low birth weight preterm infants in Brazil: reality and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho apresenta uma revisão da literatura sobre os indicadores epidemiológicos e a estrutura organizacional da assistência perinatal no sistema de saúde brasileiro, enfatizando os aspectos ligados aos neonatos com peso ao nascer OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to review and discuss the medical literature on epidemiological indicators and organizational structure of the Brazilian perinatal health system concerning the care of very low birth weight premature infants (< 1,500 g. DATA SOURCES: Electronic search of the MEDLINE, Lilacs and SciELO databases from 1990 to 2004, with a selection made of the most relevant articles. Documents and reports from the Ministry of Health (Mortality Information System - SIM and Live Births Information System - SINASC. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The decrease in infant mortality rates and the high incidence of maternal deaths, observed since 1990, prompted de Brazilian government to focus its strategies on the organization and delivery of care to pregnant women and their newborn infants. However, a critical analysis of the actions aimed at the care of premature infants reveals that the coverage and utilization of these services are not uniform and that the records on birth and death rates are not reliable. The availability of neonatal beds is very limited and does not meet the demand, especially for those requiring high levels of complexity. Important challenges must be overcome to adequately deal with the incorporation of inappropriate technology, the limited number of qualified health professionals and utilization of evidence-based best practices to improve perinatal care. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in the rates of morbidity and mortality of premature infants requires more effective planning and intervention in the prenatal care system. To meet the demand, increases in the number of neonatal intensive care beds should be implemented through specialized perinatal centers rather than

  16. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Preterm Birth and Its Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Anna K; Smith, Alicia K

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker is a biological measure predictive of a normal or pathogenic process or response. Biomarkers are often useful for making clinical decisions and determining treatment course. One area where such biomarkers would be particularly useful is in identifying women at risk for preterm delivery and related pregnancy complications. Neonates born preterm have significant morbidity and mortality, both in the perinatal period and throughout the life course, and identifying women at risk of delivering preterm may allow for targeted interventions to prevent or delay preterm birth (PTB). In addition to identifying those at increased risk for preterm birth, biomarkers may be able to distinguish neonates at particular risk for future complications due to modifiable environmental factors, such as maternal smoking or alcohol use during pregnancy. Currently, there are no such biomarkers available, though candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies have identified DNA methylation differences associated with PTB, its risk factors and its long-term outcomes. Further biomarker development is crucial to reducing the health burden associated with adverse intrauterine conditions and preterm birth, and the results of recent DNA methylation studies may advance that goal. PMID:27089367

  17. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Thomsen, P. H.; Thomsen, T. B.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born with...... birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...... for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, andmaternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to...

  18. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Thomsen, P. H.; Thomsen, T. B.

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born with...... birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...... for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to...

  19. Practices for predicting and preventing preterm birth in Ireland: a national survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, V

    2011-03-01

    Preterm birth can result in adverse outcomes for the neonate and\\/or his\\/her family. The accurate prediction and prevention of preterm birth is paramount. This study describes and critically analyses practices for predicting and preventing preterm birth in Ireland.

  20. Digital examination and transvaginal scan - competing or complementary for predicting preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, Eva; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Fedder, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The transvaginal ultrasonographic cervix scan has partly replaced digital examination for diagnosing preterm birth; conflicting results are reported about their respective contribution to birth prediction....

  1. Neonatal physiological correlates of near-term brain development on MRI and DTI in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rose, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Results suggest that at near-term age, thalamus WM microstructure may be particularly vulnerable to certain neonatal risk factors. Interactions between albumin, bilirubin, phototherapy, and brain development warrant further investigation. Identification of physiological risk factors associated with selective vulnerability of certain brain regions at near-term age may clarify the etiology of neurodevelopmental impairment and inform neuroprotective treatment for VLBW preterm infants.

  2. Late-preterm birth in a level III hospital: incidence and associated morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Garcez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Late-preterm infants are physiologically and metabolically immature and have important risk of morbidity and mortality.Aim: To analyze the incidence of late prematurity and its associated morbidity and mortality at a level III hospital between 2011 and 2013.Methods: This was a descriptive and retrospective study of infants born between 34 + 0/7 and 36 + 6/7 weeks’ gestation and its associated morbidity and mortality. Medical records were reviewed.Results: In a 3-year period there were 8,458 births of witch 513 (6.1% were late-preterm infants. Of these, 99/513 (19.3% had 34 weeks’ gestation, 145/513 (28.3% had 35 weeks’ gestation and 269/513 (52.4% had 36 weeks’ gestation. Late-preterm birth rate was 5.7% in 2011, 6.9% in 2012 and 5.6% in 2013 (p = 0.08. In relation to birth weight, 269 (52.4% of late-preterm infants had low birth weight. There was an association between gestational age and birth weight (p = 0.002.Of the 513 late-preterm infants, 177 (34.5% were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and more often at 34 weeks’ gestation (69/99, 69.7% than at 35 (57/145, 39.3% and 36 (51/269, 19.0% weeks’ gestation (p < 0.001. Most frequent clinical diagnoses were hyperbilirubinemia (112/177, 63.3%, feeding difficulties (111/177, 62.7%, transient tachypnea of the newborn (71/177, 40.1%, hypoglycemia (38/177, 21.5%, intrauterine growth restriction (33/177, 18.6%. Average length of hospitalization was 12 days. Newborns of 34 weeks’ gestation were longer admitted than newborns of 35 and 36 weeks’ gestation (15.3 vs 9.8 vs 10.8 days; p = 0.002. There was one death due to sepsis after surgical correction of gastroschisis.Conclusion: The incidence of late-preterm birth remained stable between 2011 and 2013. Late-preterm hospitalization rate in the NICU was 34.5%. Hyperbilirubinemia, feeding difficulties and respiratory disease were the main diagnosis. Late-preterm of 34 weeks’ gestation were admitted more

  3. Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khorshidi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low Birth Weight (LBW has an important role in the mortality and morbidity of neonates and the incidence of LBW may vary across different environments. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and some related factors of LBW in Mazandaran province, Northern Iran.Methods: In this longitudinal study, all live births that were born in 5 maternity hospitals in Mazandaran province, north of Iran in 2011, were evaluated. Data including birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, living location, number of pregnancy and delivery, as well as multiple births were recorded in medical files. LBW neonates were compared with neonates whose birth weight was more than 2,500 gram (control group.Results: Out of 3792 infants, 2.9% (CI 95%: 2.3-3.3 were of low birth weight. Sixty percent of the infants in the LBW group and 8.3% in the control group were preterm, (p0.05.Conclusion: Results show that the incidence of LBW in Mazandaran was low and prevention of preterm labor, educational intervention programs for high risk can be effective in the prevention of low birth weight.

  4. The Consequences of Chorioamnionitis: Preterm Birth and Effects on Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Galinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity. Chorioamnionitis is a common cause of preterm birth. Clinical chorioamnionitis, characterised by maternal fever, leukocytosis, tachycardia, uterine tenderness, and preterm rupture of membranes, is less common than subclinical/histologic chorioamnionitis, which is asymptomatic and defined by inflammation of the chorion, amnion, and placenta. Chorioamnionitis is often associated with a fetal inflammatory response. The fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS is defined by increased systemic inflammatory cytokine concentrations, funisitis, and fetal vasculitis. Clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that FIRS leads to poor cardiorespiratory, neurological, and renal outcomes. These observations are further supported by experimental studies that have improved our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for these outcomes. This paper outlines clinical and experimental studies that have improved our current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for chorioamnionitis-induced preterm birth and explores the cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying poor cardiorespiratory, neural, retinal, and renal outcomes observed in preterm infants exposed to chorioamnionitis.

  5. Perforated Meckel's diverticulum in a very preterm baby revealed at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Aida; Bouziri, Asma; Boujelbene, Nedia; Sghairoun, Nedia; Belhadj, Serra; Benjeballah, Najla

    2014-04-01

    Perforated Meckel's diverticulum (MD) in a preterm baby is very rare. We report a case of a very preterm baby, born at 29-week gestation, with a birth weight of 1400 g, admitted in the third hour of life to our intensive care unit (ICU) for respiratory distress syndrome with abdominal distention. An abdominal radiograph showed a pneumoperitoneum. Laparotomy revealed Meckel's perforation. The baby was discharged healthy at the age of 16 days. MD should be kept in mind as one cause of an acute abdomen in preterm neonates mimicking necrotizing enterocolitis. To our knowledge, our patient is the third reported case described in the literature and the first one revealed at birth. PMID:24328940

  6. The impact of the method Kangaroo Mother Care in the learning process of low-birth-weight preterm infants: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Paiva Franco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology advances and scientific studies in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU have contributed significantly to reduce mortality and morbidity of at-risk newborns (NB. However, they are more likely to present neurological and/or developmental psychomotor delay with neurological and sensory alterations. Therefore, proposals for neonatal intervention were developed with the aim of protecting the baby and offering appropriate incentives to minimize the effects of hospital intervention. To this end, programs of protective measures such as the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC were developed. Given the relevance of the issue described, this systematic review critically appraises articles from the national and international literature, published in recent years (from 2000 to 2011, that describe whether the KMC can be a protective factor for the development of writing in premature infants. The textual search was conducted using the Virtual Health Library (VHL, a website that covers publications worldwide, allowing access to articles from health science, including LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and SciELO, as database. The findings revealed that infants who participated in the KMC program showed improvements in their development and that factors such as low-birth-weight prematurity and learning disorders have close relationship with the onset of motor impairments and changes in psychomotor development. The findings showed no articles describing the KMC as a protective factor for the incidence of dysgraphia. Thus, we emphasize the importance of conducting further studies on these topics.

  7. Utilizing new evidence in the prevention of recurrent preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Lim; A. Goossens; A.C. Ravelli; K. Boer; H.W. Bruinse; B.W.J. Mol

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Treatments that have proven to be effective in large randomized controlled trials are implemented in clinical practice at varying rates. We measured to what extent new and established strategies were applied to prevent recurrent preterm birth in the Netherlands. Methods: In two academic h

  8. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the...

  9. Role of enteric supplementation of probiotics on late-onset sepsis by candida species in preterm low birth weight neonates: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Amrita Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in invasive fungal infections (IFIs in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU is jeopardizing the survival of preterm neonates. Probiotics modulating the intestinal microflora of preterm neonates may minimize enteral fungal colonization. Aims: This study was to examine whether probiotic supplementation in neonates reduced fungal septicemia. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind trial investigating the supplementation of preterm infants with a probiotic was done from May 2012 to April 2013, with 112 subjects randomized into two groups. Primary outcome: Decreased fungal colonization in gastrointestinal tract. Others: Incidence of late onset septicemia; duration of the primary hospital admission; number of days until full enteral feeds established. Results: Full feed establishment was earlier in probiotics group compared to placebo group (P = 0.016. The duration of hospitalization was less in the probiotic group (P = 0.002. Stool fungal colonization, an important outcome parameter was 3.03 ± 2.33 × 10 5 colony formation units (CFU in the probiotics group compared to 3 ± 1.5 × 10 5 CFU in the placebo group (P = 0.03. Fungal infection is less in the study group (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The key features of our study were reduced enteral fungal colonization, reduce invasive fungal sepsis, earlier establishment of full enteral feeds, and reduced duration of hospital stay in the probiotics group.

  10. Weight of preterm newborns during the first twelve weeks of life

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    L.M. Anchieta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal and prospective study was carried out at two state-operated maternity hospitals in Belo Horizonte during 1996 in order to assess the weight of preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns during the first twelve weeks of life. Two hundred and sixty appropriate-for-gestational-age preterm infants with birth weight <2500 g were evaluated weekly. The infants were divided into groups based on birth weight at 250-g intervals. Using weight means, somatic growth curves were constructed and adjusted to Count's model. Absolute (g/day and relative (g kg-1 day-1 velocity curves were obtained from a derivative of this model. The growth curve was characterized by weight loss during the 1st week (4-6 days ranging from 5.9 to 13.3% (the greater the percentage, the lower the birth weight, recovery of birth weight within 17 and 21 days, and increasingly higher rates of weight gain after the 3rd week. These rates were proportional to birth weight when expressed as g/day (the lowest and the highest birth weight neonates gained 15.9 and 30.1 g/day, respectively. However, if expressed as g kg-1 day-1, the rates were inversely proportional to birth weight (during the 3rd week, the lowest and the highest weight newborns gained 18.0 and 11.5 g kg-1 day-1, respectively. During the 12th week the rates were similar for all groups (7.5 to 10.2 g kg-1 day-1. The relative velocity accurately reflects weight gain of preterm infants who are appropriate for gestational age and, in the present study, it was inversely proportional to birth weight, with a peak during the 3rd week of life, and a homogeneous behavior during the 12th week for all weight groups.

  11. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

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    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  12. Enfermedades periodontales durante el embarazo y su asociación con parto prematuro y bajo peso al nacimiento: Evidencias y controversias Periodontal diseases in pregnancy and its association with preterm delivery and low birth weight: Evidence and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alonso Rosado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aunque el embarazo implica cambios fisiológicos que en general no suponen un riesgo por sí mismos para la salud tanto de la madre como del niño, durante este periodo las infecciones de diversa índole pueden poner en riesgo el curso normal del mismo e incluso comprometer la salud del neonato, siendo los partos prematuros y el bajo peso al nacimiento las patologías que con más frecuencia se asocian con las infecciones. Entre estas infecciones comienza a tener cierta relevancia, desde hace ya algunos años la enfermedad periodontal. Esta revisión bibliográfica recoge las conclusiones de distintas publicaciones sobre la relación entre enfermedad periodontal, los partos prematuros y el bajo peso al nacimiento, encontrándose resultados variables.Pregnancy involves physiological changes which, although not meaning a risk in itself for either the mother's or the baby's health, may lead to the development of new pathologies, including periodontal disease. This bibliographical revision compiles the conclusions drawn by different publications about the relationship between periodontal disease and low-weight preterm births, highlighting variable results.

  13. Size at birth and preterm birth in women with lifetime eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micali, N; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eating disorders are associated with lower size at birth, symmetric growth restriction, and preterm birth; and whether pregnancy smoking explains the association between anorexia nervosa and fetal growth. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SETTING......: Maternal anorexia nervosa (both active and past) is associated with lower size at birth and symmetric growth restriction, with evidence of worse outcomes in women with active disorder. Women with anorexia nervosa should be advised about achieving full recovery before conceiving. Similarly, targeting...

  14. Born Too Soon: The global epidemiology of 15 million preterm births

    OpenAIRE

    Blencowe, H; Cousens, S.; Chou, D; Oestergaard, M; Say, L; Moller, AB; Kinney, M.; Lawn, J; Born Too Soon Preterm Birth Action Group

    2013-01-01

    This second paper in the Born Too Soon supplement presents a review of the epidemiology of preterm birth, and its burden globally, including priorities for action to improve the data. Worldwide an estimated 11.1% of all livebirths in 2010 were born preterm (14.9 million babies born before 37 weeks of gestation), with preterm birth rates increasing in most countries with reliable trend data. Direct complications of preterm birth account for one million deaths each year, and preterm birth is a ...

  15. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David;

    2015-01-01

    (ORadj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied was not associated with adverse birth outcomes. Being employed as a nurse was associated with lower risk SGA infants (ORadj 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99) whereas food industry workers had an increased......OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design....... METHODS: We used data from >200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered...

  16. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, R.L.; Gonçalves, F.L.; Simões, A.L.; Bernardino, C.A.; Lopes, L.S.; Castro e Silva, O.; Sbragia, L.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV). We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW), (BrW), (IW), (BrW/BW) and (IW/BW)]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) and intestine (jejunum/ileum) tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP). IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (Pmechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers. PMID:27356106

  17. Health related quality of life after extremely preterm birth: a matched controlled cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eide Geir E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of infants born before the last trimester now grow up. However, knowledge on subsequent health related quality of life (HRQoL is scarce. We therefore aimed to compare HRQoL in children born extremely preterm with control children born at term. Furthermore, we assessed HRQoL in relation to perinatal and neonatal morbidity and to current clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Method The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50 and a general questionnaire were applied in a population based cohort of 10 year old children born at gestational age ≤ 28 weeks or with birth weight ≤ 1000 grams in Western Norway in 1991-92 and in term-born controls, individually matched for gender and time of birth. The McNemar test and paired t-tests were used to explore group differences between preterms and matched controls. Paired regression models and analyses of interaction (SPSS mixed linear model were used to explore potential effects of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL in the two groups. Results All 35 eligible preterm children participated. None had major impairments. Learning and/or attention problems were present in 71% of preterms and 20% of controls (odds ratio (OR: 7.0; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.2 to 27.6. Insufficient professional support was described by 36% of preterm vs. 3% of control parents (OR: infinite; CI: 2.7 to infinite. Preterms scored lower on eight CHQ-PF50 sub-scales and the two summary scores, boys accounting for most of the deficits in areas of behavior, psychosocial functioning and parental burden. HRQoL was associated with learning and/or attention problems in both preterm and control children, significantly more so in preterms in areas related to health and parental burden. Within the preterm group, HRQoL was mostly unrelated to perinatal and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions HRQoL for children born extremely preterm, and particularly for boys, was described by parents to

  18. Five year outcome of preterm sextuplets related to size at birth.

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, N; Ellis, A. M.; Roberts, B. L.; Cooke, R W

    1990-01-01

    Preterm sextuplets were studied to examine whether growth retardation affects long term outcome. All were growing normally at 5 years. Intelligence quotients (IQ) ranged from 105-116 and motor impairment scores from 1.0-7.0. No neurological or behavioural abnormalities were found. The largest sextuplet has maintained her position for growth and IQ. No relation between test scores and birth weight or perinatal variables was found in the remaining siblings.

  19. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

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    Eley Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50 were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm: Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship.

  20. [SOME CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRETERM BIRTH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhumakanova, K; Abeuova, B; Kuzgibekova, A; Kenzhebayeva, K; Eremicheva, G

    2016-04-01

    Aim - to make a comparative assessment of the cytokines level in women with preterm labor with chronic infection and without it in order to determine the risk of implementation of intrauterine infection in their preterm infants. There was prospective investigation of 141 pregnant and their 141 premature infants with different gestation terms. There was identify cytokines levels in mother's blood with immune enzyme analysis method due implementation of intrauterine infection in compare with control group. It wasinterconnection ofinfection pathology withgestation terms, it lead to preterm labor. Prematurity which cause by mothers chronic infection, lead to heavier, extended period of bacterial infection in premature infants. It was increasing of cytokines levels IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α of mother's blood during implementation of intrauterine infection in premature infants. Multiparous pregnant, adverse outcomes of previous pregnancies in anamnesis, high frequency carrier of bacterial infection were risk factors for preterm labor among explored pregnant women. To study cytokine profile among the explored pregnant women from main group showed a pattern in increasing of level IL-1β, IL- 6 and TNF-α serum during pregnancy , indicating the course of pregnancy and can be used as a nonspecific marker for early diagnosis of preterm birth and implementing infection in premature . The level of IL-2 did not have a diagnostic value. PMID:27249429

  1. Prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade: estudo com 450 pré-termos de muito baixo peso Prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity: study with 450 very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Borges Fortes Filho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Analisar prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP entre pré-termos com peso de nascimento (PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou idade gestacional (IG d"32 semanas admitidos em uma instituição hospitalar universitária de nível terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte institucional, prospectivo e descritivo, realizado entre outubro de 2002 e julho de 2008, incluindo todos os pré-termos com PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou com IG d"32 semanas, que sobreviveram até a 42ª semana de IG corrigida. Foram determinadas a prevalência da ROP em seus vários estadiamentos evolutivos. Os principais fatores de risco para o surgimento da ROP no período pós-natal foram comparados por análises uni e multivariadas entre os pacientes que desenvolveram e os que não desenvolveram a doença. Para a análise das variáveis contínuas entre os dois grupos, foi usado o Teste t (Student para amostras independentes e para a comparação das variáveis categóricas, o Qui-Quadrado. A regressão logística incluiu as variáveis com significância após a análise univariada. RESULTADOS:Foram estudadas 450 crianças cuja média de PN e IG foram 1.213,50 gramas (± 277,4 e 30,3 semanas (± 2,2, respectivamente. A ROP, em qualquer estadiamento, afetou 24,2% das crianças. Doença limiar, necessitando de tratamento pela fotocoagulação, ocorreu em 24 pacientes (5,3%. Após análise univariada, a IG, o PN, o ganho ponderal do nascimento até a 6ª semana de vida, o uso de oxigenioterapia em ventilação mecânica e de indometacina, as ocorrências de sepse e hemorragia intraventricular e a necessidade de transfusões sanguíneas, estiveram associados com a ROP. A regressão logística confirmou a importância da IG (OR: 0,856; IC95%: 1,141-1,447; P=0,014, do baixo ganho ponderal (OR: 0,997; IC95%: 0,996-0,999; PPURPOSE: This study aims to analyze prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP among preterms with birth weight (BW d"1

  2. Preterm birth and psychiatric disorder in young adult life

    OpenAIRE

    Nosarti, Chiara; Reichenberg, Abraham; Murray, Robin M.; Cnattingius, Sven; Lambe, Mats P.; Yin, Li; MacCabe, James; Rifkin, Larry; Hultman, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Context: Preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and delivery-related hypoxia have been associated with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether these associations pertain to other adult-onset psychiatric disorders and whether these perinatal events are independent.Objective: To investigate the relationships among gestational age, nonoptimal fetal growth, Apgar score, and various psychiatric disorders in young adult life.Design: Historical population-based cohort study.Setting: Identifica...

  3. Vaginal and Oral Microbes, Host Genotype and Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Usha; Misra, Dawn; Marazita, Mary L.; Foxman, Betsy

    2009-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in the U.S. and across the globe. Infection and associated inflammation are important initiators for PTB pathways; an estimated 40% of PTBs are attributed to amniochorionic-decidual or systemic inflammation. Historically, intrauterine infections have been implicated in PTB; recent evidence suggests that infections remote from the fetal site may also be causative. There is strong epidemiological evidence that bacterial va...

  4. Systematic review of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Andersson, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    . SEARCH STRATEGY: A search in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was performed using the keywords: pregnancy, progesterone, preterm birth/preterm delivery, preterm labor, controlled trial, and randomized controlled trial. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies on singleton pregnancies. DATA COLLECTION AND...... ANALYSIS: A meta-analysis was performed on randomized trials including singleton pregnancies with previous preterm birth. MAIN RESULTS: Two new randomized controlled trials of women with previous preterm birth were added to the four analyzed in the Cochrane review, and the meta-analysis of all six studies......BACKGROUND: A Cochrane review in 2006 concluded that further knowledge is required before recommendation can be made with regard to progesterone in the prevention of preterm birth. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the preventive effect of progesterone on preterm birth in singleton pregnancies...

  5. Retinopathy of Prematurity Among 1000-2000 Gram Birth Weight Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamali Fatahi Bayat; Azizollah Yousefi; Seyedeh Fatemeh Khatami; Gholamali Mamuri

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify the risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in neonatal intensive care unit in preterm infants born with birth weight 1000-2000g or at gestational age less than 34 weeks. Material & Methods: From August 2000 to December 2001, 50 preterm newborn infants with birth weights less than 2000 g or gestational age less than 34 weeks admitted to the NICU were studied. Newborn infants with birth weight between 1200-2000g who received more t...

  6. Oxytocin antagonists for the management of preterm birth: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Ihab M; Khalil, Ali; Nassar, Anwar H

    2011-06-01

    Preterm birth, the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, is estimated at incidence of 12.7% of all births, which has not decreased over the last four decades despite intensive antenatal care programs aimed at high-risk groups, the widespread use of tocolytics, and a series of other preventive and therapeutic interventions. Oxytocin antagonists, namely atosiban, represent an appealing choice that seems to be effective with apparently fewer side effects than the traditional tocolytics. This article reviews the available literature on the pharmacokinetics, mode of administration, and clinical utility of oxytocin antagonists for acute and maintenance tocolysis with special emphasis on its safety profile. PMID:21170825

  7. The effect of maternal body mass index on spontaneous versus induced preterm birth: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghadami N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Preterm birth which is defined as delivery before 37 completed weeks was implicated in approximately two thirds of neonatal death. Also preterm labors are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity of infants in recent years and it costs high prices for health system. We evaluate the relationship between prepregnancy maternal body mass Index (BMI and spontaneous and indicated preterm birth."n"n Methods: This study included 250 healthy pregnant women, without any risk factors of preterm birth, were classified into categories that were based on their body mass index. Association between BMI, weight gain and rout of delivery were examined. Rates of indicated and spontaneous preterm birth were compared."n"n Results: Obese women delivered at a more advanced gestational age. (38/34±1/66 weeks vs 37/61±2/44, p=0/006. Obese patients had significantly lower incidence of spontaneous preterm birth at < 37 weeks of gestation (16/8% vs 31/2% p=0/008. Obese women had larger infants (3354/95±596/75 vs 311.24±558/357 p=0/001, and had more frequent cesarean delivery (69/6% vs 52/8%, p=0/006. Weight gain during pregnancy is poorly correlated with prepregnancy BMI (14/41±7/93 kg vs 13/78±4/94kg, p=0/4 and preterm

  8. Lesões isquêmicas cerebrais no recém-nascido pré-termo de muito baixo peso Ischemic brain damage in very low birth weight preterm newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Silveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão crítica e atualizada sobre as lesões cerebrais isquêmicas no recém-nascido pré-termo de muito baixo peso. FONTES DE DADOS: As referências foram obtidas através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionadas as mais representativas a critério dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A hemorragia com evolução para lesão isquêmica cerebral, a leucomalácia periventricular cística e a lesão difusa da substância branca cerebral são as lesões isquêmicas mais freqüentes em recém-nascidos pré-termo de muito baixo peso. Todas são doenças de causas multifatoriais, em que podem estar envolvidos fatores vasculares, hemodinâmicos, inflamatórios e infecciosos. São doenças que podem causar seqüelas neuropsicomotoras importantes e levar à paralisia cerebral e/ou déficit cognitivo e comportamental. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico precoce e uma estratégia terapêutica adequada podem minimizar as seqüelas causadas por essas doenças. A prevenção da prematuridade é a principal medida preventiva a ser tomada.OBJECTIVE: To present a critical and up-to-date review of ischemic brain damage in premature, very low birth weight infants. SOURCES OF DATA: Articles were obtained by means of a search of the MEDLINE database, with those considered most representative by the authors being selected. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The most frequent ischemic injuries among preterm, very low birth weight neonates are hemorrhage progressing to with ischemic brain damage, cystic periventricular leukomalacia and diffuse lesions of the cerebral white matter. All of these conditions have multiple causative factors, which may include vascular, hemodynamic, inflammatory and infectious factors. These are disorders that can cause significant neuropsychomotor sequelae and lead to cerebral palsy and/or cognitive and behavioral deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and adequate management of the patient can minimize long-term problems caused

  9. Race, Ethnicity, Concentrated Poverty, and Low Birth Weight Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW. These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group. PMID:18807774

  10. Effects of a preterm birth: : Kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function in school-aged children

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlström, Carolin; Nygård, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Premature birth is a well-known risk factor for deviations in neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to investigate possible long-term effects of preterm birth. Associations was to be investigated between preterm birth and kinematics, lateralization and cognitive function among 40 children born preterm (PT) compared to 48 age-matched children born full-term (FT). Kinematics was registered by a goal-directed task (pressing buttons in sequences, uni- or bimanually). Cognitive function was ...

  11. Preterm birth and childhood wheezing disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Been, Jasper V.; Lugtenberg, Marlies J.; Eline Smets; van Schayck, Constant P; Boris W Kramer; Monique Mommers; Aziz Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Most pregnancies last around 40 weeks, but worldwide, more than 11% of babies are born before 37 weeks of gestation (the period during which a baby develops in its mother's womb). Preterm birth is a major cause of infant death—more than 1 million babies die annually from preterm birth complications—and the number of preterm births is increasing globally. Multiple pregnancies, infections, and chronic (long-term) maternal conditions such as diabetes can all cause pre...

  12. Very preterm birth : Etiological aspects and short and long term outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Very preterm birth, occurring before 32 completed weeks of gestation, is an often unexplained pregnancy complication affecting approximately 1 to 2 percent of all births. This thesis includes four studies regarding the etiology, and short and long term outcomes of very preterm birth, using Swedish population-based data. The aims were to investigate if viral infections during pregnancy increase the risk of very preterm delivery, to study the role of level of care for infant m...

  13. N,N-Dimethylacetamide Regulates the Proinflammatory Response Associated with Endotoxin and Prevents Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Sundaram, Sruthi; Ashby, Charles R.; Pekson, Ryan; Sampat, Vaishali; Sitapara, Ravikumar; Mantell, Lin; Chen, Chih-Hung; Yen, Haoting; Abhichandani, Khushboo; Munnangi, Swapna; Khadtare, Nikhil; Stephani, Ralph A.; Reznik, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    The proinflammatory response leads to various types of pathologic pathways, including the development of preterm birth. Preterm birth occurs in 12% of deliveries in the United States and causes more than 70% of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of spontaneous preterm birth is intrauterine infection in the mother. There is accumulating evidence indicating that the release of proinflammatory cytokines plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-associated pr...

  14. The early use of appropriate prophylactic antibiotics in susceptible women for the prevention of preterm birth of infectious etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan Stener; Weile, Louise Katrine Kjær; Lamont, Ronald F

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity in high-income countries. The etiology of preterm birth is multifactorial but there is overwhelming evidence to implicate infection as a major cause. Abnormal genital tract flora in early pregnancy is predictive of...... preterm birth so it is logical to consider the use of antibiotics for the prevention of preterm birth. AREAS COVERED: Infection and antibiotics in the etiology, prediction and prevention of preterm birth. EXPERT OPINION: Antibiotics for the prevention of preterm birth have addressed different risk groups...

  15. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)

  16. Clinical Application of Progesterone for the Prevention of Preterm Birth, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, William

    2016-02-01

    While the preterm neonate continues to benefit from improved perinatal care, the rate of preterm birth in the United States remains significant. An increasing body of scientific literature has demonstrated the benefits of maternal progesterone administration in reducing primary and recurrent preterm birth. Intramuscular hydroxyprogesterone caproate is indicated in singleton pregnancies in women with a prior spontaneous preterm birth, while vaginal progesterone demonstrates similar efficacy in prolonging pregnancy in women with asymptomatic cervical shortening in the midtrimester. Given these favorable benefits, the use of progesterone has been expanded to other clinical situations at risk for preterm birth with less rigorous scientific evidence. This review highlights the current evidence-based clinical applications of progesterone for prevention of preterm birth. PMID:26788788

  17. A Time Series Analysis of Outdoor Air Pollution and Preterm Birth in Shanghai,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relation between air pollution exposure and preterm birth in Shanghai,China.Methods We examined the effect of ambient air pollution on preterm birth using time-series approach in Shanghai in 2004. This method can eliminate potential confounding by individual risk factors that do not change over a short period of time. Daily numbers of preterm births were obtained from the live birth database maintained by Shanghai Municipal Center of Disease Control and Prevention. We used the generalized additive model (GAM) with penalized splines to analyze the relation between preterm birth,air pollution,and covariates.Results We observed a significant effect of outdoor air pollution only with 8-week exposure before preterm births. An increase of 10 μg/m3 of 8-week average PM10,SO2,NO2,and O3 corresponded to 4.42% (95%CI 1.60%,7.25%),11.89% (95%CI 6.69%,17.09%),5.43% (95%CI 1.78%,9.08%),and 4.63% (95%CI 0.35%,8.91%)increase of preterm birth. We did not find any significant acute effect of outdoor air pollution on preterm birth in the week before birth.Conclusion Ambient air pollution may contribute to the risk of preterm birth in Shanghai. Our analyses also strengthen the rationale for further limiting air pollution level in the city.

  18. Effect of maternal stress during pregnancy on the risk for preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Lilliecreutz, Caroline; Laren, Johanna; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth defined as birth prior to 37 weeks of gestation is caused by different risk factors and implies an increased risk for disease and early death for the child. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of maternal stress during pregnancy on the risk of preterm birth. Methods: A case-control study that included 340 women; 168 women who gave birth preterm and 172 women who gave birth at term. Data were manually extracted from standardized medical records. If the ...

  19. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II

    OpenAIRE

    James-Todd, Tamarra M.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Hibert, Eileen L.; Mason, Susan M.; VADNAIS, Mary A.; Hu, Frank B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM); however, little is known about the association between other common pregnancy complications (eg, preterm birth, macrosomia) and T2DM risk. We examined the associations between first-pregnancy preterm, postterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia with subsequent risk of T2DM. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) part...

  20. Loss of cannabinoid receptor CB1 induces preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth accounting approximate 10% of pregnancies in women is a tremendous social, clinical and economic burden. However, its underlying causes remain largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that endocannabinoid signaling via cannabinoid receptor CB1 play critical roles in multiple early pregnancy events in both animals and humans. Since our previous studies demonstrated that loss of CB1 defers the normal implantation window in mice, we surmised that CB1 deficiency would influence parturition events. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Exploiting mouse models with targeted deletion of Cnr1, Cnr2 and Ptgs1 encoding CB1, CB2 and cyclooxygenase-1, respectively, we examined consequences of CB1 or CB2 silencing on the onset of parturition. We observed that genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1, but not CB2, induced preterm labor in mice. Radioimmunoassay analysis of circulating levels of ovarian steroid hormones revealed that premature birth resulting from CB1 inactivation is correlated with altered progesterone/estrogen ratios prior to parturition. More strikingly, the phenotypic defects of prolonged pregnancy length and parturition failure in mice missing Ptgs1 were corrected by introducing CB1 deficiency into Ptgs1 null mice. In addition, loss of CB1 resulted in aberrant secretions of corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosterone during late gestation. The pathophysiological significance of this altered corticotrophin-releasing hormone-driven endocrine activity in the absence of CB1 was evident from our subsequent findings that a selective corticotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist was able to restore the normal parturition timing in Cnr1 deficient mice. In contrast, wild-type females receiving excessive levels of corticosterone induced preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: CB1 deficiency altering normal progesterone and estrogen levels induces preterm birth in mice. This defect is independent of prostaglandins produced by

  1. Association between preterm birth and thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessey M. B. Garcia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations in adolescents born prematurely with those born at term and investigate neonatal and post-neonatal variables associated with thoracic alterations. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study with 57 adolescents aged 10-15 years born prematurely and 57 adolescents born at term paired by gender and age. Photographs of the head and thorax in the front, back, and right side views were studied using a computer program. The two groups were compared in regards to: elevation of clavicles, elevation of shoulders, protrusion of the head, and anteroposterior and mediolateral thoracic length. Factor associated with thoracic disorders were evaluated by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The Preterm group had mean gestational age of 32.0±2.8 weeks and the birth weight was 1462±338 and 3342±430 g for the Preterm and Term adolescents, respectively. Preterm adolescents had higher elevation of the left shoulder (22.7±5.4o vs. 20.6±5.3o;sim, p=0.038 and the right shoulder (22.2±4.4o vs. 18.5±5.7o; p5 days (p=0.009. CONCLUSION: Adolescents born prematurely presented greater thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations compared to those born at term. Factors associated with these alterations were: very low birth weight and longer duration of mechanical ventilation in the neonatal unit.

  2. Father’s Education: An Independent Marker of Risk for Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenshine, Philip M.; Egerter, Susan A.; Libet, Moreen L.; Braveman, Paula A.

    2010-01-01

    To explore the association between paternal education and preterm birth, taking into account maternal social and economic factors. We analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional postpartum survey, linked with birth certificates, of women who gave birth in California from 1999 through 2005 (n = 21,712). Women whose infants’ fathers had not completed college had significantly higher odds of preterm birth than women whose infants’ fathers were college graduates, even after adjusting fo...

  3. Dental Infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis Induces Preterm Birth in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ao

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have revealed a link between dental infection and preterm birth or low birth weight (PTB/LBW, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Progress in understanding the associated mechanisms has been limited in part by lack of an animal model for chronic infection-induced PTB/LBW, mimicking pregnancy under conditions of periodontitis. We aimed to establish a mouse model of chronic periodontitis in order to investigate the link between periodontitis and PTB/LBW.To establish chronic inflammation beginning with dental infection, we surgically opened mouse (female, 8 weeks old 1st molar pulp chambers and directly infected with w83 strain Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g., a keystone periodontal pathogen. Mating was initiated at 6 wks post-infection, by which time dental granuloma tissue had developed and live P.g. was cultured from extracted tooth root, which serves as a persistent source of P.g. The gestational day (gd and birth weight were recorded during for P.g.-infected and control mice, and serum and placental tissues were collected at gd 15 to evaluate the systemic and local conditions during pregnancy.Dental infection with P.g. significantly increased circulating TNF-α (2.5-fold, IL-17 (2-fold, IL-6 (2-fold and IL-1β (2-fold. The P.g.-infected group delivered at gd 18.25 vs. gd 20.45 in the non-infected control (NC group (p < 0.01, and pups exhibited LBW compared to controls (p < 0.01. P.g. was localized to placental tissues by immunohistochemistry and PCR, and defects in placental tissues of P.g. infected mice included premature rupture of membrane, placental detachment, degenerative changes in trophoblasts and endothelial cells, including necrotic areas. P.g. infection caused significantly increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs and macrophages in placental tissues, associated with increased local expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α and COX-2. Further placental tissue

  4. Sex of the first-born and risk of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Cnattingius, Sven; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2011-01-01

    regression analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratio of preterm birth in the second pregnancy according to the sex of the first-born infant. RESULTS: Compared with women whose first baby was a girl, women with boys had an increased risk of preterm birth in a second pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.10 [95...

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Developmental Outcome Following Preterm Birth: Review of Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Anthony R.; Whitby, Elspeth W.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Smith, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of developmental difficulties. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used to identify damage to the brain following preterm birth. It is hoped this information will aid prognostication and identify neonates who would benefit from early therapeutic intervention. Cystic…

  6. Pragmatic prevention of preterm birth and evidence based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyme, Udo B

    2016-07-01

    Effective prevention of preterm birth is one of the unsolved problems in modern medicine. In the Thuringia campaign 2000 based on a simple screening with intravaginal pH self-measurements, adequate medical diagnosis and immediate antimicrobial therapy of genital infection, the rate of newborns methods, do we really have to wait even more decades to come for a prospectively randomized double-blinded almost impracticable study to convince the latest skeptical scientist that we have plenty of evidence-based means to reduce the incidence of premature birth, now, by decreasing infectious morbidity in pregnancy and by the same action childbed fever as well? Insisting scholastically on nothing but the 100 % pure evidence sometimes can hamper innovations and potential benefit. Would a similar caution ever had allowed us for instance to introduce handwashing according to Semmelweis? Good news, the Government of the State of Thuringia has decided this year to reestablish a pH selfcare screening programme. PMID:27146862

  7. Activity in Pregnancy for Patients with a History of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Nichelle; Newton, Edward R; May, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Numerous risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, including non-Hispanic black race, a variety of social and behavioral factors, infections, and history of a prior preterm delivery. Of these, a history of prior spontaneous preterm birth is one of the strongest risk factors. Traditionally, women with a history of preterm birth or those deemed at high risk for preterm delivery have been placed on bed rest or a reduced activity regimen during their pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to support this recommendation. Recent research has suggested that regular physical activity and exercise during pregnancy is safe and does not increase the risk of preterm delivery. Therefore, physicians should encourage women with a history of preterm birth to exercise throughout pregnancy according to guidelines published by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as long as they are receiving regular prenatal care and their current health status permits exercise. However, there are no randomized controlled trials evaluating exercise prescription in women with a history of preterm birth, hence additional research is needed in this area. PMID:27226741

  8. Activity in Pregnancy for Patients with a History of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Nichelle; Newton, Edward R.; May, Linda E.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Numerous risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, including non-Hispanic black race, a variety of social and behavioral factors, infections, and history of a prior preterm delivery. Of these, a history of prior spontaneous preterm birth is one of the strongest risk factors. Traditionally, women with a history of preterm birth or those deemed at high risk for preterm delivery have been placed on bed rest or a reduced activity regimen during their pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to support this recommendation. Recent research has suggested that regular physical activity and exercise during pregnancy is safe and does not increase the risk of preterm delivery. Therefore, physicians should encourage women with a history of preterm birth to exercise throughout pregnancy according to guidelines published by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as long as they are receiving regular prenatal care and their current health status permits exercise. However, there are no randomized controlled trials evaluating exercise prescription in women with a history of preterm birth, hence additional research is needed in this area. PMID:27226741

  9. Relationship between Periodontal Diseases and Preterm Birth: Recent Epidemiological and Biological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Huck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For ten years, the incidence of preterm birth does not decrease in developed countries despite the promotion of public health programs. Many risk factors have been identified including ethnicity, age, tobacco, and infection. However, almost 50% of preterm birth causes remain unknown. The periodontal diseases are highly prevalent inflammatory and infectious diseases of tooth supporting tissues leading to an oral disability. They influence negatively general health worsening cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Periodontal diseases have been also suspected to increase the rate of preterm birth, but data remain contradictory. The objective of this review is to present the principal results of epidemiological, biological, and interventional studies on the link between periodontal diseases and preterm birth. The conclusions of this work underline the importance for the physician/obstetrician to identify women at risk for preterm birth and to address these patients to dentist for periodontal examination and treatment in order to limit adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Figueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group: 1 preterm control (PTC, 2 preterm ventilated (PTV, 3 preterm asphyxiated (PTA, 4 preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV, 5 term control (TC, 6 term ventilated (TV, 7 term asphyxiated (TA, and 8 term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV. We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW, (BrW, (IW, (BrW/BW and (IW/BW]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus and intestine (jejunum/ileum tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP. IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (P<0.05, and the IW/BW ratio was lower in the TA than in the TAV (P<0.005. PTA, PTAV and TA presented high levels of brain damage. In histological intestinal analysis, PTAV and TAV had higher scores than the other groups. Caspase-3 was higher in PTAV (cortex and TA (cortex/hippocampus (P<0.005. I-FABP was higher in PTAV (P<0.005 and TA (ileum (P<0.05. I-FABP expression was increased in PTAV subgroup (P<0.0001. Brain and intestinal responses in neonatal rats caused by neonatal asphyxia, with or without mechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers.

  11. Genome-wide association studies in preterm birth: implications for the practicing obstetrician-gynaecologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolan Siobhan M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preterm birth has the highest mortality and morbidity of all pregnancy complications. The burden of preterm birth on public health worldwide is enormous, yet there are few effective means to prevent a preterm delivery. To date, much of its etiology is unexplained, but genetic predisposition is thought to play a major role. In the upcoming year, the international Preterm Birth Genome Project (PGP consortium plans to publish a large genome wide association study in early preterm birth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are designed to identify common genetic variants that influence health and disease. Despite the many challenges that are involved, GWAS can be an important discovery tool, revealing genetic variations that are associated with preterm birth. It is highly unlikely that findings of a GWAS can be directly translated into clinical practice in the short run. Nonetheless, it will help us to better understand the etiology of preterm birth and the GWAS results will generate new hypotheses for further research, thus enhancing our understanding of preterm birth and informing prevention efforts in the long run.

  12. Short Maternal Stature Increases Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne Cc;

    2015-01-01

    population-based cohort studies and the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (13 of 24 available data sets used) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We included those with weight taken within 72 h of birth, gestational age, and maternal height data (n = 177,000). For each of these......BACKGROUND: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm births are associated with adverse health consequences, including neonatal and infant mortality, childhood undernutrition, and adulthood chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: The specific aims of this study were to estimate the association between...... for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) birth weight standard and the 1991 US birth weight reference. The associations were then meta-analyzed. RESULTS: All short stature categories were statistically significantly associated with term SGA, preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA), and preterm...

  13. A study of neonatal outcome associated with preterm birth in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preterm birth is the most significant problem in current obstetric practice and according to WHO is the direct cause accounting for 24% of neonatal deaths. Objective: To assess frequency and neonatal outcome in patients with preterm birth. Methodology: A prospective descriptive study was conducted at Gynae Unit III Jinnah Hospital Lahore over a period of one year (from 1st July 2011 to 30th June included in the study. For data collection two groups were made depending upon duration of pregnancy. Group l was allotted to women who were pregnant 2012) in collaboration with Paediatrics department. All labouring women who presented after 28 weeks and before 37 completed weeks of gestation were less ( ) than 32 weeks of gestation. Data was collected and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: During the study period total 5171 deliveries took place. Out of 5171 neonates born, 460 were preterm making the frequency of 8.86%. Majority 62.82% were > 32 weeks of gestation, 67.39% were male, 57.60% were > 1.5 kg by weight, 57.17% delivered vaginally and 80.86% were born alive. Neonatal morbidity was more common in neonates less than 32 weeks of gestation. Perinatal mortality was 10.48% in this study. Conclusion: Neonatal morbidity and mortality is more common in neonates less than 32 weeks of gestation, this can be improved by improving prenatal health services and advanced neonatal care. (author)

  14. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  15. The Burden of Provider-Initiated Preterm Birth and Associated Factors: Evidence from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato T Souza

    Full Text Available About 15 million children are born under 37 weeks of gestation worldwide. Prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal deaths and short/long term morbidities, entailing consequences not only for the individual, but also their family, health agencies, facilities and all community. The provider-initiated preterm birth is currently one of the most important obstetric conditions related to preterm births, particularly in middle and high income countries, thus decreasing the need for therapeutic preterm birth is essential to reduce global prematurity. Therefore detailed knowledge on the factors associated with provider-initiated preterm birth is essential for the efforts to reduce preterm birth rates and its consequences. In this current analysis we aimed to assess the proportion of provider-initiated (pi-PTB among preterm births in Brazil and identify associated factors.This is an analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study with a nested case-control component called Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP. EMIP was conducted in 20 referral obstetric hospitals located in the three most populated of the five Brazilian regions. We analysed data of women with pi-PTB, defined as childbirth occurring at less than 37 weeks, medically indicated for maternal/fetal compromise or both; and women with term birth, childbirth at or after 37 weeks. Maternal, sociodemographic, obstetric, prenatal care, delivery, and postnatal characteristics were assessed as possible factors associated with pi-PTB, compared to term births. The overall prevalence of preterm births was 12.3%. Of these, approximately one-third of cases were initiated by the provider. Hypertensive disorders, placental abruption, and diabetes were the main maternal conditions leading to pi-PTB. Caesarean section was the most common mode of delivery. Chronic hypertension (OR 7.47; 95%CI 4.02-13.88, preeclampsia/eclampsia/HELLP syndrome (OR 15.35; 6.57-35.88, multiple pregnancy (OR 12

  16. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pilecki, Bartosz; Duelund, Lars; Marcussen, Niels; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001). Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001), lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002), SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002) as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001). At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001). The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted. PMID:27571350

  17. Selected Vaginal Bacteria and Risk of Preterm Birth: An Ecological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Ai; Srinivasan, Usha; Goldberg, Deborah; Owen, John; Marrs, Carl F.; Misra, Dawn; Wing, Deborah A.; Ponnaluri, Sreelatha; Miles-Jay, Arianna; Bucholz, Brigette; Abbas, Khadija; Foxman, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    We examined the community ecology of vaginal microbial samples taken from pregnant women with previous preterm birth experience to investigate whether targeted pathogenic and commensal bacteria are related to risk of preterm birth in the current pregnancy. We found a significant correlation between the community structure of selected bacteria and birth outcome, but the correlation differed among self-reported racial/ethnic groups. Using a community ordination analysis, we observed infrequent ...

  18. Preterm birth among the hmong, other Asian subgroups and non-hispanic whites in California

    OpenAIRE

    Vang, Zoua M.; Irma T. Elo; Nagano, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated very preterm (VPTB) and preterm birth (PTB) risk among Hmong women relative to non-Hispanic whites and other Asian subgroups. We also examined the maternal education health gradient across subgroups. Methods California birth record data (2002–2004) were used to analyze 568,652 singleton births to white and Asian women. Pearson Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess variation in maternal characteristics and VPTB/PTB risk by subgroup. Results White, Ch...

  19. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Namrata Bhatia; Shin Margaret Chao; Chandra Higgins; Suvas Patel; Crespi, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), c...

  20. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink;

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  1. Maternal periodontal disease and preterm birth: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpalatha Govindaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Preterm birth (PTB is an important issue in public health and is a major cause for infant mortality and morbidity. There is a growing consensus that systemic diseases elsewhere in the body may influence PTB. Recent studies have hypothesized that maternal periodontitis could be a high-risk factor for PTB. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maternal periodontitis on PTB. Materials and Methods: Forty systemically healthy primiparous mothers aged 18–35 years were recruited for the study. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, they were categorized into PTB group as cases and full term birth group (FTB as controls. PTB cases (n = 20 defined as spontaneous delivery before/<37 completed weeks of gestation. Controls (FTB were normal births at or after 37 weeks of gestation. Data on periodontal status, pregnancy outcome variables, and information on other factors that may influence adverse pregnancy outcomes were collected within 2 days of labor. Data were subjected to Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference with respect to the gestational period at the time of delivery and birth weight of the infants in (PTB group (<0.001 compared to (FTB group was observed. Overall, there was statistically significant poor periodontal status in the (PTB group compared to (FTB group. The statistical results also showed a positive correlation between gestational age and clinical parameters. Conclusion: An observable relationship was noticed between periodontitis and gestational age, and a positive correlation was found with respect to PTB and periodontitis. Further studies should be designed to establish periodontal disease as an independent risk factor for PTB/preterm low birth weight.

  2. Low Birth Weight Causes Survey in Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    F. Eghbalian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Neonatal mortality rate is one of the main health problems which is affected by prenatal status, maternal, fetal and perinatal conditions. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the main causes of neonatal and infantile mortality. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the LBW causes in neonates. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was done on 1500 neonates, born in Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, 2004. Data such as birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, birth inte...

  3. Functional Polymorphisms of Matrix Metalloproteinases 1 and 9 Genes in Women with Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Pereza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of functional MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T gene polymorphisms with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB; preterm birth with intact membranes in European Caucasian women, as well as the contribution of these polymorphisms to different clinical features of women with SPTB. Methods and Patients. A case-control study was conducted in 113 women with SPTB and 119 women with term delivery (control group. Genotyping of MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T gene polymorphisms was performed using the combination of polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of neither individual nor combinations of genotype and allele frequencies of MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphisms between women with SPTB and control women. Additionally, these polymorphisms do not contribute to any of the clinical characteristics of women with SPTB, including positive and negative family history of SPTB, gestational age at delivery, and maternal age at delivery, nor fetal birth weight. Conclusion. We did not find the evidence to support the association of MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T gene polymorphisms with SPTB in European Caucasian women.

  4. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  5. The effect of preterm birth on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in children

    OpenAIRE

    Eshaghi, Zahra; Jafari, Zahra; Shaibanizadeh, Abdolreza; Jalaie, Shohreh; Ghaseminejad, Azizeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a significant global health problem with serious short- and long-term consequences. This study examined the long term effects of preterm birth on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) among preschool-aged children. Methods: Thirty-one children with preterm and 20 children with term birth histories aged 5.5 to 6.5 years were studied. Each child underwent VEMPs testing using a 500 Hz tone-burst stimulus with a 95 dB nHL (normal hearing level) intensity level...

  6. Brazilian multicenter study on prevalence of preterm birth and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinsburg Ruth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of preterm birth remains a complex public health condition. It is considered the main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, resulting in a high likelihood of sequelae in surviving children. With variable incidence in several countries, it has grown markedly in the last decades. In Brazil, however, there are still difficulties to estimate its real occurrence. Therefore, it is essential to establish the prevalence and causes of this condition in order to propose prevention actions. This study intend to collect information from hospitals nationwide on the prevalence of preterm births, their associated socioeconomic and environmental factors, diagnostic and treatment methods resulting from causes such as spontaneous preterm labor, prelabor rupture of membranes, and therapeutic preterm birth, as well as neonatal results. Methods/Design This proposal is a multicenter cross-sectional study plus a nested case-control study, to be implemented in 27 reference obstetric centers in several regions of Brazil (North: 1; Northeast: 10; Central-west: 1; Southeast: 13; South: 2. For the cross sectional component, the participating centers should perform, during a period of six months, a prospective surveillance of all patients hospitalized to give birth, in order to identify preterm birth cases and their main causes. In the first three months of the study, an analysis of the factors associated with preterm birth will also be carried out, comparing women who have preterm birth with those who deliver at term. For the prevalence study, 37,000 births will be evaluated (at term and preterm, corresponding to approximately half the deliveries of all participating centers in 12 months. For the case-control study component, the estimated sample size is 1,055 women in each group (cases and controls. The total number of preterm births estimated to be followed in both components of the study is around 3,600. Data will be collected

  7. Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Ahmad shah Farhat; Abbas Alizadeh kaseb; Fatemeh Khorakian; Mohammad Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who admitte...

  8. Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Ahmad shah Farhat; Abbas Alizadeh kaseb; Fatemeh Khorakian; Mohammad Ramezani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who adm...

  9. Desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças prematuras de muito baixo peso na idade pré-escolar Pre-school cognitive development of very low birth weight preterm children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. B. B. Méio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desenvolvimento cognitivo na idade pré-escolar de recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de prematuros nascidos entre janeiro de 1991 e setembro de 1993, com peso igual ou menor que 1.500 g, egressos de uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal pública, foi avaliada na idade pré-escolar pelo teste WPPSI-R, aplicado por psicólogas. Foram excluídas crianças com malformações, síndromes genéticas ou infecção congênita, transferidas de outra instituição, nascidas de parto domiciliar e com condições que impedissem a aplicação do teste. Avaliaram-se crianças pré-escolares de uma escola na mesma cidade, nascidas a termo, para comparação. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 79/129 crianças, com peso de nascimento médio de 1.219,6 g (±168,9; 44/61 delas (72,1% estavam na escola. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos (estudo e perda. As médias dos escores obtidos pelas crianças do estudo foram: total - 75,6±11,9; executivo - 77±12,9; e verbal - 78,6±11,1. Nas crianças da escola, as médias foram: total - 85,1±13,2; executivo - 85,3±13,8; e verbal - 87,7±13,9. Essa diferença foi significativa tanto para os escores total (p OBJECTIVE: To examine the cognitive development of school-aged children born preterm and with very low birthweight. METHODS: A cohort of premature infants born between January, 1991, and September, 1993 was examined at pre-school age. All fo them were born in a public Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with birth weight less than 1,500g. The WPPSI-R Test was used for cognitive evaluation and applied by psychologists. Babies with malformations, genetic syndromes, congenital infections, transferred from other institutions or born at home, and those with conditions which precluded the application of the test, were excluded. A group of pre-school children in the same city, born at term, were tested for comparison. RESULTS: 79 children were

  10. Validation of a model for optimal birth weight: a prospective study using serial ultrasounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Gavin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to validate a model for optimal birth weight derived from neonatal records, and to test the assumption that preterm births may be considered optimally grown if they are not exposed to common factors that perturb fetal growth. Methods Weights of fetuses were estimated from serial biometric ultrasound scans (N = 2,848 and combined with neonatal weights for a prospective pregnancy cohort (N = 691. Non-Caucasians, fetuses subsequently born preterm and those with diagnosed or suspected determinants of aberrant growth were excluded leaving fetuses assumed to have experienced normal growth. A generalised linear longitudinal growth model for optimal weight was derived, including terms for gestational duration, infant sex, maternal height and birth order. This model was compared to a published model derived solely from birth weights. Results Prior to 30 weeks gestation, the published model yielded systematically lower weights than the model derived from both fetal weight and neonatal weight. From 30 weeks gestation the two models were indistinguishable. Conclusion The model for optimal birth weight was valid for births that have attained at least 30 weeks gestation. The model derived from both fetal and neonatal weights is recommended prior to this gestation.

  11. Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Meijssen; M.J. Wolf; H. van Bakel; K. Koldewijn; J. de Kok; A. van Baar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is desi

  12. Drugs to block cytokine signaling for the prevention and treatment of inflammation induced preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Pearl Y.; Ireland, Demelza J.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) at less than 37 weeks of gestation is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Intrauterine infection (IUI) due to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity is the leading cause of early PTB (

  13. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn;

    2008-01-01

    -reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week......, respectively, were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results showed a reduced risk of preterm birth among the almost 40% of women who engaged in some kind of exercise during pregnancy in comparison with nonexercisers (hazard ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.76, 0.88), but no dose...

  14. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  15. Preterm Birth: The Interaction of Traffic-related Air Pollution with Economic Hardship in Los Angeles Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Ninez A; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2005-01-01

    Preterm birth may be affected by the interaction of residential air pollution with neighborhood economic hardship. The authors examined variations in traffic-related pollution exposure—measured by distance-weighted traffic density—using a framework reflecting the social and physical environments. An adverse social environment was conceptualized as low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods—census tracts with concentrated poverty, unemployment, and dependence on public assistance. An adverse...

  16. Preterm Birth and Necrotizing Enterocolitis Alter Gut Colonization in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene S.; Boye, Mette; Mølbak, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates is dependent on bacterial colonization, but it remains unclear whether a particular microbiota or specific pathogens are involved. We hypothesized that gut colonization differs between preterm and term neonates and that overgrowth of Clostridium...

  17. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (3 of 7): evidence for effectiveness of interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Craig E; Victora Cesar G; Hansen Thomas N; Batra Maneesh; Bhutta Zulfiqar; Barros Fernando C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Interventions directed toward mothers before and during pregnancy and childbirth may help reduce preterm births and stillbirths. Survival of preterm newborns may also be improved with interventions given during these times or soon after birth. This comprehensive review assesses existing interventions for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods Approximately 2,000 intervention studies were systematically evaluated through December 31, 2008. They addressed preter...

  18. Relationship between Periodontal Diseases and Preterm Birth: Recent Epidemiological and Biological Data

    OpenAIRE

    Huck, O.; H. Tenenbaum; J.-L. Davideau

    2011-01-01

    For ten years, the incidence of preterm birth does not decrease in developed countries despite the promotion of public health programs. Many risk factors have been identified including ethnicity, age, tobacco, and infection. However, almost 50% of preterm birth causes remain unknown. The periodontal diseases are highly prevalent inflammatory and infectious diseases of tooth supporting tissues leading to an oral disability. They influence negatively general health worsening cardiovascular dise...

  19. Common Oxytocin Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and the Risk for Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz Kuessel; Christoph Grimm; Martin Knöfler; Peter Haslinger; Heinz Leipold; Georg Heinze; Christian Egarter; Maximilian Schmid

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin is crucially involved in the onset and maintenance of labor. We investigated the association between oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms and preterm birth. The presence of four common oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms (rs2254298, rs53576, rs2228485 and rs237911) was evaluated in one hundred women with preterm birth and one hundred healthy women using restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyping. No association was found between the presence of any individual oxytocin recep...

  20. Born Toon Soon: Care before and between pregnancy to prevent preterm births: from evidence to action

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Sohni V; Mason, Elizabeth Mary; Howson, Christopher P; Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2013-01-01

    Providing care to adolescent girls and women before and between pregnancies improves their own health and wellbeing, as well as pregnancy and newborn outcomes, and can also reduce the rates of preterm birth. This paper has reviewed the evidence based interventions and services for preventing preterm births; reported the findings from research priority exercise; and prescribed actions for taking this call further. Certain factors in the preconception period have been shown to increase the risk...

  1. Ergotamine treatment during pregnancy and a higher rate of low birthweight and preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Ács, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subjectPreviously the association between oral ergotamine treatment during pregnancy and gestational age, birthweight, the frequency of preterm birth and low birthweight has not been studied.Ergotamine is a drug that is not used frequently nowadays.What this study addsThe association between low birthweight and/or preterm birth and ergotamine treatment may be connected with ergotamine-induced vasoconstriction in the placenta of pregnant women.The pharmacologic...

  2. When Parents Ask … about Preterm Birth, Breastfeeding Success, Breast Cancer, or Waterbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2003-01-01

    In this column, the author reviews research on four separate topics: the prevention of preterm birth, the effect of epidurals on breastfeeding success, the possible protective effect of lactation on breast cancer, and laboring in water. In two separate studies—a multisite study in the United States and a second study from Brazil—natural progesterone was shown to significantly reduce the incidence of preterm birth in women at high risk. A third study conducted in the United Kingdom examined th...

  3. Work activities and risk of prematurity, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Harris, E Clare;

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the evidence relating preterm delivery (PTD), low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension to five occupational exposures (working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and physical workload). We conducted a systematic search ...

  4. Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.

  5. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad.Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all children referred to educational organizations for screening before entering school in Mashhad, Iran. 2400 children enrolled in the study and were evaluated for amblyopia, refractive errors, color vision disturbance and optic nerve problems. Data were analyzed by SPSS.Findings: Prevalence of ophthalmic problems in all children was 5.43% and in low birth weight and normal birth weight 8.29% and 5.74% respectively. Incidence of ophthalmic problems was significantly (P=0.029 higher in low birth weight children than in normal birth weight children. The most common ophthalmic disease in both low birth weight and normal birth weight children was refractive errors 81.5% vs. 68.8 % (P< 0.05. Prevalence of myopia, amblyopia and color vision disturbance was also higher in low birth weight than in normal birth weight children.Conclusion:Low birth weight children are at greater risk of the visual impairment that may occur at an early age and result in long term morbidity. Visual outcome of low birth weight neonates should be evaluated routinely.

  6. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Amiri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all children referred to educational organizations for screening before entering school in Mashhad, Iran. 2400 children enrolled in the study and were evaluated for amblyopia, refractive errors, color vision disturbance and optic nerve problems. Data were analyzed by SPSS. Findings: Prevalence of ophthalmic problems in all children was 5.43% and in low birth weight and normal birth weight 8.29% and 5.74% respectively. Incidence of ophthalmic problems was significantly (P=0.029 higher in low birth weight children than in normal birth weight children. The most common ophthalmic disease in both low birth weight and normal birth weight children was refractive errors 81.5% vs. 68.8 % (P<0.05. Prevalence of myopia, amblyopia and color vision disturbance was also higher in low birth weight than in normal birth weight children. Conclusion:Low birth weight children are at greater risk of the visual impairment that may occur at an early age and result in long term morbidity. Visual outcome of low birth weight neonates should be evaluated routinely.

  7. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in women with multiple pregnancies: the AMPHIA trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheepers Hubertina CJ

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 15% of multiple pregnancies ends in a preterm delivery, which can lead to mortality and severe long term neonatal morbidity. At present, no generally accepted strategy for the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies exists. Prophylactic administration of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC has proven to be effective in the prevention of preterm birth in women with singleton pregnancies with a previous preterm delivery. At present, there are no data on the effectiveness of progesterone in the prevention of preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. Methods/Design We aim to investigate the hypothesis that 17OHPC will reduce the incidence of the composite neonatal morbidity of neonates by reducing the early preterm birth rate in multiple pregnancies. Women with a multiple pregnancy at a gestational age between 15 and 20 weeks of gestation will be entered in a placebo-controlled, double blinded randomised study comparing weekly 250 mg 17OHPC intramuscular injections from 16–20 weeks up to 36 weeks of gestation versus placebo. At study entry, cervical length will be measured. The primary outcome is composite bad neonatal condition (perinatal death or severe morbidity. Secondary outcome measures are time to delivery, preterm birth rate before 32 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal morbidity, maternal admission days for preterm labour and costs. We need to include 660 women to indicate a reduction in bad neonatal outcome from 15% to 8%. Analysis will be by intention to treat. We will also analyse whether the treatment effect is dependent on cervical length. Discussion This trial will provide evidence as to whether or not 17OHPC-treatment is an effective means of preventing bad neonatal outcome due to preterm birth in multiple pregnancies. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN40512715

  8. Downward economic mobility and preterm birth: an exploratory study of Chicago-born upper class White mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    A paucity of published data exists on the factors underlying the relatively poor birth outcome of non-Hispanic White women in the United States. To determine whether downward economic mobility is a risk factor for preterm birth (information. The study sample was restricted to singleton births of Chicago-born upper-class (defined by early-life residence in affluent neighborhoods) non-Hispanic White women. Upper class-born White women (n = 4,891) who did not experience downward economic mobility by the time of delivery had a PTB rate of 5.4 %. Those women who experienced slight (n = 5,112), moderate (n = 2,158), or extreme (n = 339) downward economic mobility had PTB rates of 6.5, 8.5, and 10.1 %, respectively; RR (95 % CI) = 1.2 (1.0-4.0), 1.6 (1.3-1.9), and 1.9 (1.3-2.6), respectively. Maternal downward economic mobility was also associated with an increased prevalence of biologic, medical, and behavioral risk factors. Interestingly, the relationship between moderate to extreme downward mobility and preterm birth was stronger among former low birth weight (mobility (compared to those women with lifelong upper class status) equaled 2.4 (1.1-5.3) and 1.1 (1.0-1.1), respectively. Downward economic mobility is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth among upper class-born White urban women; this phenomenon is strongest among former low birth weight women. PMID:25656715

  9. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  10. Alcohol use, conception time, and birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    Predictors of birth weight and birth length were studied using sociodemographic data collected from 2259 women who resided in Funen County, Denmark, and delivered a healthy child during the period 1978-9 at Odense University Hospital. Low birth weight was significantly related to tobacco use in the year of delivery (p less than 0.01), alcohol use during the same period (p less than 0.05), and a delay in conception of over six months (p less than 0.01). Smoking history and a delay in conceptio...

  11. Association of Mothers' Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M

    2015-08-01

    We examined the associations of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010-2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values improving neighborhood quality and women's self-esteem may improve birth outcomes. PMID:26274966

  12. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Bhatia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no, controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05. The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women’s self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  13. Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight School Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh; Akbar Derakhshan; Farhat Ahmadshah; Rana Amiri; Habiballah Esmaeli

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Studies demonstrated that 5-10% of preschool children have visual impairment. By age seven, up to 13% of children will have some defect in visual acuity. Both prematurity and low birth weight have been associated with an increased incidence of ophthalmic disorders. In this study we determined prevalence of visual impairment in low birth weight and normal birth weight school age children in Mashhad. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. The target population consisted of all chil...

  14. Neonatal outcomes after preterm birth by mothers’ health insurance status at birth: a retrospective cohort study

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    Einarsdóttir Kristjana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. Methods The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32–36 weeks gestation from Western Australia during 1998–2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time until establishment of unassisted breathing (>1 minute, neonatal resuscitation (endotracheal intubation or external cardiac massage and admission to a neonatal special care unit. Results Compared with infants of privately insured women, infants of publicly insured women were more likely to receive a low Apgar score (ARR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.06-6.52 and take longer to establish unassisted breathing (ARR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.25-2.07, yet, they were less likely to be admitted to a special care unit (ARR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.80-0.87. No significant differences were evident in neonatal resuscitation between the groups (ARR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.54-2.67. Conclusions The underlying reasons for the lower rate of special care admissions in infants of publicly insured women compared with privately insured women despite the higher rate of low Apgar scores is yet to be determined. Future research is

  15. Preterm birth and cerebral palsy. Predictive value of pregnancy complications, mode of delivery, and Apgar scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Monica Wedell; Langhoff-Roos, J; Uldall, P

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at 8 times higher risk than term infants for pre- and perinatal brain damage, resulting in cerebral palsy. In this paper we have analysed the influence of prenatal and birth-related risk factors on cerebral palsy in preterm infants. METHODS: In a register-based study......, 175 preterm singleton infants with cerebral palsy, born in 1982-86, were compared with 687 controls matched by gestational age and year of birth. RESULTS: Statistically significant higher rates in cases were found in parity > or = 3 (22% vs. 16%, p < 0.05), Cesarean section (67% vs. 56%, p < 0...... complications preceding preterm birth did not imply a higher risk of cerebral palsy. Delivery by Cesarean section was a prognostic factor for developing cerebral palsy, and the predictive value of Apgar scores was highly limited....

  16. Antepartum and intrapartum interventions to prevent preterm birth and its sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, T A J; van Vliet, E O G; Koullali, B; Mol, B W; Oudijk, M A

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. This review provides an overview of antepartum and intrapartum management of threatened preterm birth. The most effective method to identify women at high risk of delivering within seven days is the combination of cervical length and fetal fibronectin test. Antenatal corticosteroids administered for 48 h improve neonatal outcome. Although tocolysis has been shown to prolong pregnancy, there is no evidence that tocolytic therapy improves neonatal outcomes. Intrapartum administration of magnesium sulfate improves neurologic outcomes, such as cerebral palsy and gross motor function. In women with preterm premature rupture of membranes, prophylactic antibiotic treatment with erythromycin improves short-term neonatal outcomes, but proof of long-term benefit is lacking. In threatened preterm birth with intact membranes, prophylactic antibiotic treatment is thought to be harmful. Critical appraisal of the long-term benefits and harms of all these treatments questions their use. PMID:26875954

  17. Significance of mast cell distribution in placental tissue and membranes in spontaneous preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Needham K

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kate Needham,1 Mitali Fadia,2,3 Jane E Dahlstrom,2,3 Kirsti Harrington,2,3 Bruce Shadbolt,4 Stephen J Robson,1,3,51Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Centenary Hospital for Women and Children, Canberra Hospital, Garran, ACT, Australia; 2Department of Anatomical Pathology, ACT Pathology, Canberra Hospital, Garran, ACT, Australia; 3ANU Medical School, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 4Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Canberra Hospital, Garran, ACT, Australia; 5John James Medical Centre, Deakin, ACT, Australia Background: Preterm birth is a common cause of adverse neonatal and childhood outcomes, in both the short and long term. Preterm labor is commonly associated with inflammation at the maternal–fetal interface. There is some indirect evidence that mast cells (MCs might represent a link between hormonal influences and local reactions leading to the onset of labor. Patients and methods: The placentas and membranes of 51 uncomplicated spontaneous term births were compared to those from 50 spontaneous preterm births. Immunohistochemical staining for MC tryptase was undertaken allowing MC concentration, location, and degranulation status to be determined. Regression modeling was used to compare results. Results: There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics of the two cohorts. There were significantly more MCs in the decidua for term births than preterm births (P=0.03. The presence of histological chorioamnionitis did not affect MC concentrations. Conclusion: Despite evidence suggesting a possible role for MCs in spontaneous preterm birth, this study found that the concentration of decidual MCs was in fact significantly lower in preterm compared to term birth. Keywords: preterm birth, mast cells, inflammation, cohort study, regression modeling

  18. Whole blood gene expression profile associated with spontaneous preterm birth in women with threatened preterm labor.

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    Yujing Jan Heng

    Full Text Available Threatened preterm labor (TPTL is defined as persistent premature uterine contractions between 20 and 37 weeks of gestation and is the most common condition that requires hospitalization during pregnancy. Most of these TPTL women continue their pregnancies to term while only an estimated 5% will deliver a premature baby within ten days. The aim of this work was to study differential whole blood gene expression associated with spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB within 48 hours of hospital admission. Peripheral blood was collected at point of hospital admission from 154 women with TPTL before any medical treatment. Microarrays were utilized to investigate differential whole blood gene expression between TPTL women who did (n = 48 or did not have a sPTB (n = 106 within 48 hours of admission. Total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (35% and 41% respectively in women who had sPTB than women who did not deliver within 48 hours (p<0.001. Fetal fibronectin (fFN test was performed on 62 women. There was no difference in the urine, vaginal and placental microbiology and histopathology reports between the two groups of women. There were 469 significant differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05; 28 differentially expressed genes were chosen for microarray validation using qRT-PCR and 20 out of 28 genes were successfully validated (p<0.05. An optimal random forest classifier model to predict sPTB was achieved using the top nine differentially expressed genes coupled with peripheral clinical blood data (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 75.5%. These differentially expressed genes may further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of sPTB and pave the way for future systems biology studies to predict sPTB.

  19. Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in modelling risk of preterm birth near the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada

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    Canty Angelo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the Sydney Tar Pond site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods The data includes 1604 observed cases of preterm birth out of a total population of 17559 at risk of preterm birth from 144 enumeration districts in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Other covariates include the distance from the Tar Pond; the rate of unemployment to population; the proportion of persons who are separated, divorced or widowed; the proportion of persons who have no high school diploma; the proportion of persons living alone; the proportion of single parent families and average income. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression, quasi-likelihood Poisson regression and weighted linear regression models were fitted to the data. Results The results of the analyses were compared together with their limitations. Conclusion The results of the weighted linear regression and the quasi-likelihood Poisson regression agrees with the result from the Bayesian hierarchical modelling which incorporates the spatial effects.

  20. Alterações orais em crianças prematuras e de baixo peso ao nascer: a importância da relação entre pediatras e odontopediatras Oral abnormalities in preterm and low birth weight infants: the importance of the relationship between pediatricians and pediatric dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Baffi Diniz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão de literatura sobre as alterações orais em crianças prematuras e de baixo peso ao nascer. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram selecionados artigos em inglês e português, desde 1976 até 2009, pesquisados no PubMed, Lilacs e na Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (BBO, além de livros e consensos nacionais e internacionais. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: "prematuro", "recém-nascido de baixo peso", "cárie dentária", "hipoplasia do esmalte dentário", "manifestações bucais e "dentição primária". Selecionaram-se artigos avaliando incidência, prevalência e etiologia das alterações orais, além de revisões de literatura e relatos de casos clínicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As alterações orais mais comuns em crianças prematuras e de baixo peso ao nascer são os defeitos no esmalte dentário (hipoplasias e hipocalcificações, a predisposição ao desenvolvimento de lesões de cárie dentária, as alterações na cronologia de erupção dentária e as alterações no palato com consequente aparecimento de maloclusão. Outras alterações também são relatadas, como diferenças nas dimensões das coroas dentárias e na espessura e porosidade do esmalte dentário. A interação entre pediatras e odontopediatras é fundamental no manejo dessas crianças. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento das alterações orais em crianças pré-termo e de baixo peso ao nascer por parte dos pediatras e odontopediatras favorece a atuação multidisciplinar com o objetivo de educar, prevenir e atenuar as possíveis mudanças físicas e dentárias nessas crianças.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature review concerning oral abnormalities in preterm and low birth-weight infants. DATA SOURCES: Articles published in English and Portuguese on this subject were selected from 1976 to 2009, browsed on PubMed, Lilacs and Brazilian Dentistry Bibliography, besides books and national and international consensus. The search used the following key

  1. Characteristics and risk factors of preterm births in a tertiary center in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butali, Azeez; Ezeaka, Chinyere; Ekhaguere, Osayame; Weathers, Nancy; Ladd, Jenna; Fajolu, Iretiola; Esezobor, Christopher; Makwe, Christian; Odusanya, Bukola; Anorlu, Rose; Adeyemo, Wasiu; Iroha, Edna; Egri-Okwaji, Mathias; Adejumo, Prisca; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Abiodun, Moses; Badejoko, Bolaji; Ryckman, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth is a dire complication of pregnancy that poses huge long-term medical and financial burdens for affected children, their families, and the health care system. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics associated with preterm births at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria from 2011 to 2013. Methods We obtained Information from 5,561 maternal, fetal/neonatal and obstetric records from the labor ward. We excluded delivery at less than 22 weeks (0.25%), post-term birth at ≥42 weeks gestation (1.3%), and unknown gestation (1.4%). Additionally, we excluded records of multiple births (5.4%) and stillbirths (8.3%) leaving 4,691 records of singleton live-births for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed comparing preterm birth (22-36 weeks gestation) to term birth (37-41 weeks gestation). Multiple variable models adjusting for maternal age, parity, fetal position, delivery method and booking status were also evaluated. Multinomial regression was used to identify characteristics associated with preterm birth (PTB) defined as early PTB (22-31 weeks gestation), moderate PTB (32-34 weeks gestation), late PTB (35-36 weeks gestation), compared to term birth (37-41 completed weeks gestation). Results From our data, 16.8% of the singleton live-birth deliveries were preterm (HIV were at a significantly decreased risk for PTB (OR = 0.70). Sixteen percent of women in this cohort were not registered for antenatal care in LUTH. These non-registered subjects had significantly greater odds of all categories of PTB, including early (odds ratio (OR) = 20.8), moderate (OR = 8.68), and late (OR = 2.15). Conclusion PTB and risks for PTB remain high in Nigeria. We recommend that any high risk pregnancy should be referred to a tertiary center for prenatal care in order to significantly reduce adverse birth outcomes such as PTBs.

  2. Segregation and preterm birth: The effects of neighborhood racial composition in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic research suggests that racial segregation is associated with poor health among blacks in the United States (US). We used geocoded birth records and US census data to investigate whether neighborhood-level percent black is associated with preterm birth (PTB) for blac...

  3. Retinopathy of Prematurity Among 1000-2000 Gram Birth Weight Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Fatahi Bayat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to identify the risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care unit in preterm infants born with birth weight 1000-2000g or at gestational age less than 34 weeks. Material & Methods: From August 2000 to December 2001, 50 preterm newborn infants with birth weights less than 2000 g or gestational age less than 34 weeks admitted to the NICU were studied. Newborn infants with birth weight between 1200-2000g who received more than 6 hours oxygen and newborn infants with birth weight 1000-1200 g regardless of oxygen therapy, who survived until 4 weeks postnatal, were enrolled and followed. Patients underwent indirect ophthalmologic examination by two ophthalmologists between 4-8 weeks post partum. The newborn infants who had ROP were assigned to case group and those without ROP to control group, both groups were reexamined every 2-4 weeks or according to international classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP advice. Findings: Fifty newborn infants, 36 (72% in control group, 14 (28% in case group, were studied. Gestational age and birth weight of the patients with ROP were significantly lower than those of control group. Duration of oxygen therapy, hyperoxia, acidosis, hypercarbia, hypocarbia and phototherapy are suggested as risk factors contributing to ROP. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that the ROP frequency remains elevated among premature and very low birth weight infants. Infants at risk for ROP should have screening eye examinations and proper treatment.

  4. Rates of preterm birth following antenatal exposure to severe life events: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khashan, Ali; McNamee, R.; Abel, Kathryn;

    2009-01-01

    Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2002 were linked to data on their children, parents, siblings and partners. We defined exposure as death or serious illness in close relatives in the first or second trimesters or in the 6 months before conception. Log-linear binomial regression was used to......BACKGROUND: Preterm birth and other pregnancy complications have been linked to maternal stress during pregnancy. We investigated the association between maternal exposure to severe life events and risk of preterm birth. METHODS: Mothers of all singleton live births (n = 1.35 million births) in...... months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 16% (relative risk, RR = 1.16, [95% CI: 1.08-1.23]). Severe life events in older children in the 6 months before conception increased the risk of preterm birth by 23% (RR = 1.23, [95% CI: 1.02-1.49]) and the risk of very preterm birth by 59...

  5. Organisation of obstetric services for very preterm births in Europe: results from the MOSAIC project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blondel, B; Papiernik, E; Delmas, D;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of the organisation of obstetric services on the regionalisation of care for very preterm births. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Ten European regions covering 490 000 live births. POPULATION: All children born in 2003 between 24 and 31 weeks of gestation. METHOD: The...... large neonatal unit (at least 50 annual very preterm admissions). RESULTS: The organisation of obstetric care varied in these regions with respect to the supply of level III units (from 2.3 per 10 000 births in the Portuguese region to 0.2 in the Polish region), their characteristics (annual number of...... achieved in different models of organisation of obstetric services....

  6. Incidence and Risk Factors of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants%极低体质量早产儿支气管肺发育不良的发生率及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春杰; 肖志辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia( BPD)in very low birth weight preterm infants and its risk factors. Methods We selected 317 very low birth weight preterm infants that accorded with inclusion and exclusion criteria from the Department of Neonatology of Children's Hospital of Suzhou University between September,2010 and May,2014. We recorded BPD incidence and mortality within 28 days of included infants with different gestational age and birth weight. Among infants with survival time≥28 d,46 infants with BPD were assigned as BPD group;92 infants were randomly selected from the rest 205 infants without BPD as control group,with a ratio of 1∶2 between the two groups. Risk factors for BPD incidence in very low birth weight preterm infants were investigated. Results ( 1 ) For 317 included preterm infants, mortality within 28 days was 20. 8%( 66/317 ) . The incidence of BPD in infants with survival time≥28 d was 18. 3%( 46/251). Difference in BPD incidence among infants of different gestational age and birth weight was significant(P﹤0. 05). (2) Significant difference existed between BPD group and control group in number of infants with gestational age less than normal, Apgar score(5 min,﹤7),neonatal respiratory distress syndrome( NRDS),application of postnatal pulmonary surfactant ( PS),endotracheal intubation,mechanical ventilation( ﹥7 d),ventilator associated pneumonia( VAP)and neonatal anemia and blood transfusion( ﹥3 times) (P ﹤0.05). (3)Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that mechanical ventilation( ﹥7 d),VAP,neonatal anemia and blood transfusion( ﹥3 times)had influence on BPD incidence of very low weight preterm infants(P﹤0. 05). Conclusion Very low birth weight preterm infants have high incidence of BPD. Risk factors include mechanical ventilation( ﹥7 d),VAP and blood transfusion( ﹥3 times).%目的:了解极低体质量早产儿支气管肺发育不良( BPD)的发生率,并探

  7. Long-term follow-up of mental health, health-related quality of life and associations with motor skills in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Husby, Ingrid Marie; Stray, Kaia Mølbach-Thellefsen; Olsen, Alexander; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Skranes, Jon; Evensen, Kari Anne I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Being born with very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤1500 g) is related to long-term disability and neurodevelopmental problems, possibly affecting mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, studies in young adulthood yield mixed findings. The aim of this study was to examine mental health and HRQoL at 23 years, including changes from 20 to 23 years and associations with motor skills in VLBW young adults compared with controls. Methods In a geographically based fol...

  8. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

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    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  9. The influence of gestational age and birth weight in the clinical assesment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns A influência da idade gestacional e do peso ao nascimento na avaliação clínica do tono muscular de recém nascidos a termo e prematuros hígidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edla S. da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of gestational age (GA and birth weight (BW in the clinical assessment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns. METHOD: Cross sectional study. The muscle tone of healthy 42 preterm and 47 term newborns was quantified and measured with a goniometer (an instrument for measuring angles respectively between 7th-14th day of life and 24-48 hours of life. Newborns were grouped according to GA and BW and evaluated at fixed time intervals by one examiner. Preterm newborns were matched to term at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA. RESULTS: The evolution of muscle tone in the preterm occurred gradually, following PCA, independent of birth weight. Preterm newborns had lower scores in all muscle tone indicators when compared to term at the first assessment. Differences were observed among preterm small for GA and adequate to GA for the indicator heel to ear (pOBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da idade gestacional (IG e do peso ao nascimento (PN na avaliação do tono muscular de recém nascidos (RN a termo e prematuros hígidos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal. O tono muscular de 42 RN prematuros e 47 termo foi quantificado e mensurado com goniômetro (instrumento para medir ângulos, respectivamente entre 7-14 dias de vida e 24-48 horas de vida. Os RN foram agrupados de acordo com IG e PN, sendo avaliados em intervalos fixos. RN prematuros foram comparados aos a termo na 40ª semana de idade concepcional (IC. RESULTADOS: A evolução do tono muscular nos RN prematuros ocorreu de forma gradual de acordo com IC e independente do PN. RN prematuros, na primeira avaliação apresentaram escores de tono muscular inferiores aos de RN a termo em todos os indicadores. Foram observadas diferenças entre RN prematuros pequenos e adequados para a IG em relação ao indicador calcanhar-orelha (p<0,001. O pareamento dos grupos na 40ª semana de IC mostra, exceto pela postura, diferença significativa entre os grupos (p< 0

  10. Behavioral influences on preterm birth: integrated analysis of the pregnancy, infection, and nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, David A; Harmon, Quaker; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H; Dole, Nancy; Thorp, John M

    2012-08-01

    Most previous studies of preterm birth have considered risk factors in isolation rather than examining the collective impact of multiple candidate determinants. In order to examine the combined impact of a set of behavioral risk factors on the risk of preterm birth, we analyzed data collected for the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study on a range of sociodemographic, behavioral, and related factors. Women who received prenatal care at selected clinics in central North Carolina and gave birth in the period 1995-2005 were recruited into a prospective cohort study, with 4,251 women providing the required information on risk factors and pregnancy outcome. A number of demographic and behavioral attributes were modestly associated with preterm birth, with odds ratios of 1.3-1.5, including age >35, African-American ethnicity, height of 63 inches or less, parity 2+, and delivery at the academic medical center. Despite weak associations for individual risk factors, changes in a constellation of behaviors during pregnancy predict substantial shifts in the risk of preterm birth, suggesting a reduction from 8 to 3% preterm among those with a low-risk baseline profile, and a reduction from 18 to 7% preterm among those with a high-risk baseline profile. While inferences are limited by the incomplete range of available predictors, uncertainty regarding whether observed associations are causal, and substantial challenges in changing component behaviors, the possibility of substantial reduction in risk merits more serious consideration of whether behavioral interventions could markedly reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:21989675

  11. Association between maternal work activity on birth weight and gestational age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OmidAminian; SeyedAliAkbarSharifian; NazaninIzadi; KhosroSadeghniiat; AnahitaRashedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of maternal employment on birth weight and gestational age. Methods:In this project,1272 pregnant women were recruited from whom referred toTehran hospitals during1 year via randomized sampling.Data were gathered through history taking and medical records.In this study,564 employed women were classified as exposure group and708 housekeepers were as the control group.Chisquare test,t-test,One-wayANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze data. Results:In this study, mean mother age was25.01 years and mean birth weight was(2884±684) g.The mean birth weight in housekeepers was significantly higher (2991±457 g) than employees(2726±476 g)(P=0.002).The infants’ mean birth weights in farmer were the lowest and in office workers(2831±526 g) was the highest(P<0.01).Gestational age less than37 weeks was more common among employees.The mean birth weight decreased when the working hours increased(P<0.01).In those mothers who were working less than3 months there were a higher mean birth weight(P<0.01).Also the mean birth weight decreased due to the hours of standing during a day.Conclusion:Women employment during pregnancy has an important role in low birth weight and preterm labor compared to those who do not work.

  12. Growth mixture modeling of academic achievement in children of varying birth weight risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Fang, Hua; Charak, David; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry

    2009-07-01

    The extremes of birth weight and preterm birth are known to result in a host of adverse outcomes, yet studies to date largely have used cross-sectional designs and variable-centered methods to understand long-term sequelae. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) that utilizes an integrated person- and variable-centered approach was applied to identify latent classes of achievement from a cohort of school-age children born at varying birth weights. GMM analyses revealed 2 latent achievement classes for calculation, problem-solving, and decoding abilities. The classes differed substantively and persistently in proficiency and in growth trajectories. Birth weight was a robust predictor of class membership for the 2 mathematics achievement outcomes and a marginal predictor of class membership for decoding. Neither visuospatial-motor skills nor environmental risk at study entry added to class prediction for any of the achievement skills. Among children born preterm, neonatal medical variables predicted class membership uniquely beyond birth weight. More generally, GMM is useful in revealing coherence in the developmental patterns of academic achievement in children of varying weight at birth and is well suited to investigations of sources of heterogeneity. PMID:19586210

  13. Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nosarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM and white matter (WM maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001. WM volume in posterior corpus

  14. Maternal vaccination and preterm birth: using data mining as a screening tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Jensen, Henrik; Stensballe, Lone;

    2007-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this study was to identify possible associations between medicines used in pregnancy and preterm deliveries using data mining as a screening tool. Settings Prospective cohort study. Methods We used data mining to identify possible correlates between preterm delivery....... Main outcome measure Preterm birth, a delivery occurring before the 259th day of gestation (i.e., less than 37 full weeks). Results Data mining had indicated that maternal vaccination (among other factors) might be related to preterm birth. The following regression analysis showed that, the women who...... not deserves further studies. Data mining, especially with additional refinements, may be a valuable and very efficient tool to screen large databases for relevant information which can be used in clinical and public health research....

  15. Preterm infant linear growth and adiposity gain: tradeoffs for later weight status, and IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Buka, Stephen L.; Casey, Patrick H.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Among preterm infants, to examine tradeoffs between cognitive outcome and overweight/obesity at school age and in young adulthood in relation to infancy weight gain and linear growth. Study design We studied 945 participants in the Infant Health and Development Program, an 8-center study of preterm (≤37 weeks), low birth weight (≤2500 grams) infants from birth to 18 years. Adjusting for maternal and child factors in logistic regression, we estimated the odds of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile at age 8 or ≥25 kg/m2 at age 18) and in separate models, low IQ (<85) per z-score change in infant length and BMI from term to 4 months, 4-12 months, and 12-18 months. Results More rapid linear growth from term to 4 months was associated with lower odds of IQ<85 at age 8 (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70, 0.96), but a higher odds of overweight/obesity (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05, 1.53). More rapid BMI gain in all 3 infant time intervals was also associated with a higher odds of overweight/obesity, and from 4-12 months with a lower odds of IQ <85 at age 8. Results at age 18 were similar. Conclusions In preterm, low birth weight infants born in the 1980’s, faster linear growth soon after term was associated with better cognition but also with a higher risk of overweight/obesity at 8 and 18 years of age. BMI gain over the entire 18 months after term was associated with later risk of overweight/obesity, with less evidence for a benefit to IQ. PMID:23910982

  16. Administration of Bifidobacterium breve PS12929 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS12934, Two Strains Isolated from Human Milk, to Very Low and Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moles, Laura; Escribano, Esperanza; Andrés, Javier de; Montes, María Teresa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Jiménez, Esther; Sáenz de Pipaón, Miguel; Espinosa-Martos, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The preterm infant gut has been described as immature and colonized by an aberrant microbiota. Therefore, the use of probiotics is an attractive practice in hospitals to try to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. The objective of this pilot study was to elucidate if administration of two probiotic strains isolated from human milk to preterm infants led to their presence in feces. In addition, the evolution of a wide spectrum of immunological compounds, including the inflammator...

  17. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics for Pre-Eclampsia and Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Kai P. Law; Ting-Li Han; Chao Tong; Baker, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-related complications such as pre-eclampsia and preterm birth now represent a notable burden of adverse health. Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder unique to pregnancy. It is an important cause of maternal death worldwide and a leading cause of fetal growth restriction and iatrogenic prematurity. Fifteen million infants are born preterm each year globally, but more than one million of those do not survive their first month of life. Currently there are no predictive tests availa...

  18. Connective Tissue and Related Disorders and Preterm Birth: Clues to Genes Contributing to Prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Anum, Emmanuel A.; Hill, Lori D; Pandya, Arti; Strauss, Jerome F.

    2009-01-01

    To identify candidate genes contributing to preterm birth, we examined the existing literature on the association between known disorders of connective tissue synthesis and metabolism and related diseases and prematurity. Our hypothesis was that abnormal matrix metabolism contributes to prematurity by increasing risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and cervical incompetence. Based on this review, we identified gene mutations inherited by the fetus that could predispose to pr...

  19. Contribution of Risk Factors to Extremely, Very and Moderately Preterm Births – Register-Based Analysis of 1,390,742 Singleton Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Sari; Gissler, Mika; Saari, Juho; Kramer, Michael; Heinonen, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm birth, defined as birth occurring before 37 weeks gestation, is one of the most significant contributors to neonatal mortality and morbidity, with long-term adverse consequences for health, and cognitive outcome. Objective The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors of preterm birth (≤36+6 weeks gestation) among singleton births and to quantify the contribution of risk factors to socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth. Methods A retrospective population–based case-control study using data derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. A total population of singleton births in Finland from 1987−2010 (n = 1,390,742) was reviewed. Results Among all singleton births (n = 1,390,742), 4.6% (n = 63,340) were preterm (<37 weeks), of which 0.3% (n = 4,452) were classed as extremely preterm, 0.4% (n = 6,213) very preterm and 3.8% (n = 54,177) moderately preterm. Smoking alone explained up to 33% of the variation in extremely, very and moderately preterm birth incidence between high and the low socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Reproductive risk factors (placental abruption, placenta previa, major congenital anomaly, amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy, anemia, stillbirth, small for gestational age (SGA) and fetal sex) altogether explained 7.7−25.0% of the variation in preterm birth between SES groups. Conclusions Smoking explained about one third of the variation in preterm birth groups between SES groups whereas the contribution of reproductive risk factors including placental abruption, placenta previa, major congenital anomaly, amniocentesis, chorionic villus biopsy, anemia, stillbirth, SGA and fetal sex was up to one fourth. PMID:23577142

  20. The neuroanatomy of prematurity: normal brain development and the impact of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Cynthia; Neil, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Brain development is a complex process of micro- and macrostructural events that include neuronal and glial proliferation and migration, myelination, and organizational development of cortical layers and circuitry. Recent progress in understanding these processes has provided insight into the pathophysiology of brain injury and alterations of cerebral development in preterm infants. A key factor of abnormalities in the preterm infant is the maturational stage of the brain at the time of birth. This review summarizes current data on normal brain development, patterns of brain injury in the preterm infant, and the associated axonal/neuronal disturbances that occur in the setting of this injury, often termed encephalopathy of prematurity. PMID:25043926

  1. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  2. Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very preterm birth in assisted reproductive technology twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, A; Ortoft, G; Loft, A;

    2015-01-01

    Medical Birth register. Furthermore, control groups of naturally conceived (NC) singletons and twins were extracted. Cervical diagnoses were obtained from the Danish Pathology register. Cervical conization included both cold knife cone and LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure) but not cervical......STUDY QUESTION: Does cervical conization add an additional risk of preterm birth (PTB) in assisted reproduction technology (ART) singleton and twin pregnancies? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cervical conization doubles the risk of preterm and very PTB in ART twin pregnancies. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: ART and...... cervical conization are both risk factors for PTB. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In this national population-based controlled cohort study, we included all ART singletons and twin deliveries from 1995 to 2009 in Denmark by cross-linkage of maternal and child data from the National IVF register and the...

  3. Analysis of Birth weight using Singular Value Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarajan, D; Nagarajan, V; Seethalekshmi, V

    2010-01-01

    The researchers have drawn much attention about the birth weight of newborn babies in the last three decades. The birth weight is one of the vital roles in the babys health. So many researchers such as (2),(1) and (4) analyzed the birth weight of babies. The aim of this paper is to analyze the birth weight and some other birth weight related variable, using singular value decomposition and multiple linear regression.

  4. Birth weight for gestational age among Flemish twin population

    OpenAIRE

    Doom, E.C.G.; Delbaere, I.; Martens, G.; Temmerman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop birth weight references for twins. Mean birth weights of individual twins are lower than those of singletons, hence singleton birth weight curves may not be suitable to assess twin birth weights. Study design: Twin birth weight curves were developed according to gestational age, gender, parity and mode of conception. The curves are based on population-based data of 40,494 twins born in Flanders, Belgium between 1987 and 2007. Results: A differen...

  5. Bacteriuria with group B streptococcus and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, M. R.; Uldbjerg, N.; Thorsen, P.;

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Preterm delivery (PTD) contributes to 70% of all perinatal deaths and nearly 50% of permanent neurological damages in children. Treatment and follow-up to prevent recolonization in pregnant women with Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the urine may reduce the frequency of PTD. In a...... delivered preterm (10.9%), while among the GBS BU negative 1,085 (8.7%) delivered preterm; indicating an association between GBS BU and PTD in crude analyzes (Odds Ratio 1.8; 95% Confidence Interval 1.5-2.2; P30, and 19.0% were smokers in pregnancy. Conclusions: Group B Streptococcus bacteriuria might be a...

  6. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  7. Selected vaginal bacteria and risk of preterm birth: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ai; Srinivasan, Usha; Goldberg, Deborah; Owen, John; Marrs, Carl F; Misra, Dawn; Wing, Deborah A; Ponnaluri, Sreelatha; Miles-Jay, Arianna; Bucholz, Brigette; Abbas, Khadija; Foxman, Betsy

    2014-04-01

    We examined the community ecology of vaginal microbial samples taken from pregnant women with previous preterm birth experience to investigate whether targeted pathogenic and commensal bacteria are related to risk of preterm birth in the current pregnancy. We found a significant correlation between the community structure of selected bacteria and birth outcome, but the correlation differed among self-reported racial/ethnic groups. Using a community ordination analysis, we observed infrequent co-occurrence of Mycoplasma and bacteria vaginosis associated bacteria 3 (BVAB3) among black and Hispanic participants. In addition, we found that the vaginal bacteria responded differently in different racial/ethnic groups to modifications of maternal behavioral (ie, douching and smoking) and biological traits (ie, body mass index [BMI]). Even after accounting for these maternal behaviors and traits, the selected vaginal bacteria was significantly associated with preterm birth among black and Hispanic participants. By contrast, white participants did not exhibit significant correlation between microbial community and birth outcome. Findings from this study affirm the necessity of considering women's race/ethnicity when evaluating the correlation between vaginal bacteria and preterm birth. The study also illustrates the importance of studying the vaginal microbiota from an ecological perspective, and demonstrates the power of ecological community analysis to improve understanding of infectious disease. PMID:24273044

  8. Ethnic Differences in Key Candidate Genes for Spontaneous Preterm Birth: TNF-α and Its Recptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menon, Ramkumar; Velez, Digna R.; Thorsen, Poul;

    2006-01-01

    for preterm birth: TNF-α , TNF-receptor 1 and TNF-receptor 2. Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were compared between African-Americans (AA) and European-Americans (EA) in cases and controls separately. Both maternal and fetal genotypes were studied, as it is unclear whether one or both of......Objectives: Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) has a significant Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) has a significant  ethnic disparity with people of African descent having an almost 2-fold higher incidence than those of European descent in the United States. This disparity may be caused by differences...... these are important in the etiology of PTB. Results: The vast majority of the SNPs differed significantly between ethnic groups, although there are only a few suggestive results comparing cases and controls within an ethnic group. For TNF-α , four of six SNPs; for TNF-R1, 5/6; and for TNF-R2, 6/7 showed...

  9. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  10. Cerebral autoregulation in the first day after preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Gitte Holst; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Larsen, Nanna;

    2012-01-01

    Both systemic inflammation and impaired cerebral autoregulation (CA) have been associated with brain injury in preterm infants. We hypothesized that impaired CA represents a hemodynamic link between inflammation and brain injury....

  11. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth: indications, when to initiate, efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y How

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Helen Y How, Baha M SibaiDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH USAAbstract: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity and long-term disability of non-anomalous infants. Previous studies have identified a prior early spontaneous preterm birth as the risk factor with the highest predictive value for recurrence. Two recent double blind randomized placebo controlled trials reported lower preterm birth rate with the use of either intramuscular 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (IM 17OHP-C or intravaginal micronized progesterone suppositories in women at risk for preterm delivery. However, it is still unclear which high-risk women would truly benefit from this treatment in a general clinical setting and whether socio-cultural, racial and genetic differences play a role in patient’s response to supplemental progesterone. In addition the patient’s acceptance of such recommendation is also in question. More research is still required on identification of at risk group, the optimal gestational age at initiation, mode of administration, dose of progesterone and long-term safety.Keywords: preterm birth prevention, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate

  12. The Matrix Metalloproteases and Endothelin-1 in Infection-Associated Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole S. Olgun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB is clinically defined as any delivery which occurs before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation, and is currently the most important problem in obstetrics. In the United States, PTB accounts for 12-13% of all live births, and, with the exception of fetuses suffering from anomalies, is the primary cause of perinatal mortality. While the risk factors for PTB are numerous, the single most common cause is intrauterine infection. As there is currently no FDA-approved therapy for infection-associated PTB, understanding the pathogenesis of preterm labor (PTL and delivery should be given high priority. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of enzymes that have been implicated in normal parturition as well as infection-triggered rupture of membranes and preterm birth. Several lines of evidence also suggest a role for endothelin-1 (ET-1 in infection-associated preterm delivery. This paper focuses on the evidence that the MMPs and ET-1 act in the same molecular pathway in preterm birth.

  13. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Preterm Birth and Its Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Anna K. Knight; Smith, Alicia K.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker is a biological measure predictive of a normal or pathogenic process or response. Biomarkers are often useful for making clinical decisions and determining treatment course. One area where such biomarkers would be particularly useful is in identifying women at risk for preterm delivery and related pregnancy complications. Neonates born preterm have significant morbidity and mortality, both in the perinatal period and throughout the life course, and identifying women at risk of del...

  14. Does neighborhood deprivation modify the effect of preterm birth on children’s first grade academic performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Jennifer L.; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Williams, Bryan L.; Kramer, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Children’s cognitive development and academic performance are linked to both fetal and early childhood factors, including preterm birth and family socioeconomic status. We evaluated whether the relationship between preterm birth (PTB) and first grade standardized test performance among Georgia public school students was modified by neighborhood deprivation in early childhood.

  15. Undiagnosed coeliac disease in a father does not influence birthweight and preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2012-01-31

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of coeliac disease (CD) in the father on birthweight and preterm birth. We investigated the association between paternal CD and birthweight and preterm birth. Medical records of all singleton live-born children in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 were linked to information about parents\\' diseases. Fathers who were diagnosed with CD were then identified. Fathers with CD were considered treated if they were diagnosed before pregnancy and untreated if they were diagnosed after the date of conception. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small-for-gestational age (birthweight<10th centile for gestational age) and preterm birth (<37 weeks). We compared the offspring of men without CD (n = 1 472 352) and offspring of those with CD [untreated (n = 138) and treated (n = 473)]. There was no significant association between untreated CD in the father and birthweight (adjusted mean difference = -3 g; [95% CI -46, 40]) or preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, [95% CI 0.53, 1.37]) (compared with no CD). There was some evidence for an association between treated paternal CD and birthweight (adjusted mean difference = -81 g; [95% CI -161, -3]), but not preterm birth (adjusted OR = 1.76, [95% CI 0.95, 3.26]). Untreated paternal CD was not associated with an increased risk of reduced birthweight, or of preterm birth. There was some evidence that diagnosis and presumed treatment of paternal CD with a gluten-free diet is associated with reduced birthweight.

  16. Preterm birth and necrotizing enterocolitis alter gut colonization in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilieborg, Malene S; Boye, Mette; Mølbak, Lars; Thymann, Thomas; Sangild, Per T

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates is dependent on bacterial colonization, but it remains unclear whether a particular microbiota or specific pathogens are involved. We hypothesized that gut colonization differs between preterm and term neonates and that overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens predisposes to NEC. By using terminal-RFLP and FISH, we characterized the gut microbiota of preterm, caesarean-delivered, formula-fed pigs (n = 44) with or without NEC and of formula- or colostrum-fed term, and vaginally born pigs (n = 13). A different microbiota with high C. perfringens abundance was observed in preterm pigs with NEC compared with healthy individuals. However, immunization against C. perfringens toxins did not prevent NEC, and C. perfringens inoculation (3.6 × 10 cfu/d) failed to induce NEC (n = 16), whereas prophylactic broad-spectrum antibiotics treatment prevented NEC (n = 24). Colonization in both groups of term pigs differed from preterm pigs and was dominated by Lactobacilli spp. In conclusion, gestational age (GA) and NEC influence neonatal gut colonization, whereas diet has minor effects. C. perfringens is more abundant in pigs with NEC but rather as a consequence than a cause of disease. The general bacterial load and underdeveloped gut immune responses in preterm neonates seem more important for NEC development than specific pathogens. PMID:20924317

  17. [Paradise lost - Reflexion of preterm birth from the perspective after a brain injury. A case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignacco, Eva; Zuñiga, Franziska; Kurth, Elisabeth

    2011-04-01

    This case study describes the history of an older person, born in 1942 preterminally, who suffered from a brain injury in 2005. Problems in rehabilitation elicited the search for a new meaning in life. In analysing and interpreting the brain injury, preterm birth played a crucial role. The theme of lifelong compensation of deficits, caused by preterm birth, gained new importance. The consequences of brain injury left unsuccessful his former modes of compensation. He was confronted with finding new strategies in order to counterbalance the growing decompensation. This report is based on and was developed through respect for the principles of user involvement in research. PMID:21480177

  18. Functional Polymorphisms of Matrix Metalloproteinases 1 and 9 Genes in Women with Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Pereza; Ivana Pleša; Ana Peterlin; Žiga Jan; Nataša Tul; Miljenko Kapović; Saša Ostojić; Borut Peterlin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of functional MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T gene polymorphisms with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB; preterm birth with intact membranes) in European Caucasian women, as well as the contribution of these polymorphisms to different clinical features of women with SPTB. Methods and Patients. A case-control study was conducted in 113 women with SPTB and 119 women with term delivery (control group). Genotyping of MMP-1-1607...

  19. Recruitment and retention of women in a large randomized control trial to reduce repeat preterm births: the Philadelphia Collaborative Preterm Prevention Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett Ian M; Mathew Leny; Bloch Joan R; Elo Irma T; Hogan Vijaya K; Goldenberg Robert L; Coyne James C; Webb David A; Dennis Erika F; Culhane Jennifer F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Recruitment and retention of patients for randomized control trial (RCT) studies can provide formidable challenges, particularly with minority and underserved populations. Data are reported for the Philadelphia Collaborative Preterm Prevention Project (PCPPP), a large RCT targeting risk factors for repeat preterm births among women who previously delivered premature (< 35 weeks gestation) infants. Methods Design of the PCPPP incorporated strategies to maximize recruitment ...

  20. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  1. Does time since immigration modify neighborhood deprivation gradients in preterm birth? A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo Luis; Frank, John William; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard Henry

    2011-10-01

    Immigrants' health is jointly influenced by their pre- and post-migration exposures, but how these two influences operate with increasing duration of residence has not been well-researched. We aimed to examine how the influence of maternal country of birth and neighborhood deprivation effects, if any, change over time since migration and how neighborhood effects among immigrants compare with those observed in the Canadian-born population. Birth data from Ontario hospital records (2002-2007) were linked with an official Canadian immigration database (1985-2000). The outcome measure was preterm birth. Neighborhoods were ranked according to a neighborhood deprivation index developed for Canadian urban areas and collapsed into tertiles of approximately equal size. Time since immigration was measured from the date of arrival to Canada to the date of delivery, ranging from 1 to 22 years. We used cross-classified random effect models to simultaneously account for the membership of births (N = 83,233) to urban neighborhoods (N = 1,801) and maternal countries of birth (N = 168). There were no differences in preterm birth between neighborhood deprivation tertiles among immigrants with less than 15 years of residence. Among immigrants with 15 years of stay or more, the adjusted absolute risk difference (ARD%, 95% confidence interval) between high-deprived (tertile 3) and low-deprived (tertile 1) neighborhoods was 1.86 (0.68, 2.98), while the ARD% observed among the Canadian-born (N = 314,237) was 1.34 (1.11, 1.57). Time since migration modifies the neighborhood deprivation gradient in preterm birth among immigrants living in Ontario cities. Immigrants reached the level of inequalities in preterm birth observed at the neighborhood level among the Canadian-born after 14 years of stay, but neighborhoods did not influence preterm birth among more recent immigrants, for whom the maternal country of birth was more predictive of preterm birth. PMID:21503816

  2. Born early and born poor: An eco-bio-developmental model for poverty and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, H L; Shah, S I

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is associated with adverse long-term cognitive outcomes in children. Poverty is also linked with preterm delivery which, in turn, is associated with adverse cognitive outcomes. However, the extent of the effect of poverty on preterm delivery, as well as proposed mechanisms by which they occur, have not been well described. Further, the impact of poverty on preterm school readiness has not been reviewed. As the childhood poverty level continues to increase in the U.S., we examine the evidence around physiological, neurological, cognitive and learning outcomes associated with prematurity in the context of poverty. We use the evidence gathered to suggest an Eco-Bio-Developmental model, emphasizing poverty as a toxic stress which predisposes preterm birth and which, via epigenetic forces, can continue into the next generation. Continued postnatal social disadvantage for these developmentally high-risk preterm infants is strongly linked with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, decreased school readiness, and decreased educational attainment which can perpetuate the poverty cycle. We suggest social remedies aimed at decreasing the impact of poverty on mothers, fathers, and children which may be effective in reducing the burden of preterm birth. PMID:26485551

  3. Low-birth-weight babies among hospital deliveries in Nepal: a hospital-based study

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    Koirala AK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arun K Koirala,1 Dharma N Bhatta2,3 1Administrative Department, Helping Hands Community Hospital, Chabahil, Kathmandu, 2Department of Public Health, Nobel College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 3Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand Background: Birth weight is an important indicator of a population’s health and is associated with numerous interrelated factors in the infant, mother, and physical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of low birth weight and identify the associated factors for low birth weight in a liveborn infant among the women in Morang, Nepal.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from December 2010 to March 2011 among 255 mothers who gave birth during the study period at the Koshi Zonal Hospital, Nepal. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed through logistic regression and presented with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: The study showed that the prevalence of low-birth-weight babies was 23.1% (95% CI: 17.9–28.1. The mean (standard deviation age of mothers was 23.23 (4.18 years. The proportion of low birth weight of previous baby was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.1–7.9, and 15.7% (95% CI: 11.5–20.5 of the respondents had preterm delivery. Nearly one-third (36.1%; 95% CI: 26.4–45.6 of the respondents had >2 years’ gap after the previous delivery. Nonformal employment (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 0.523–8.74, vegetarian diet (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.23–9.36, and no rest during pregnancy (AOR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.41–4.39 were factors more likely to determine low birth weight. However, none of the variables showed a significant association between low birth weight and other dependent variables.Conclusion: Low birth weight is an important factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality and is a common problem in the developing world. The

  4. Infertility and preterm delivery, birthweight, and Caesarean section: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    , longitudinal studies enrolling couples irrespective of infertility treatment. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort: 55 906 singleton live births from women who reported their waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and other covariates in an interview during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy....... RESULTS: A TTP >1 year was associated with an increased risk of all outcomes studied, including preterm birth [odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) among primiparas and 1.9 (1.5, 2.4) among multiparas]. Odds ratios for preterm remained elevated after adjustment for covariates....... Among couples with a TTP >1 year, infertility treatment was associated with added risk only among multiparas. CONCLUSION: Infertile women are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes even if they conceive without treatment. With >10% of babies born to infertile couples, it is important to consider this...

  5. Incidence of and socio-biologic risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth in HIV positive Nigerian women

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    Ezechi Oliver C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have identified HIV as a leading contributor to preterm delivery and its associated morbidity and mortality. However little or no information exists in our sub-region on this subject. Identifying the factors associated with preterm delivery in HIV positive women in our country and sub-region will not only prevent mother to child transmission of HIV virus but will also reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with prematurity and low birth weight. This study was designed to determine the incidence and risk factors for preterm delivery in HIV positive Nigerians. Method The required data for this retrospective study was extracted from the data base of a cohort study of the outcome of prevention of mother to child transmission at the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos. Only data of women that met the eligibility of spontaneous delivery after 20 weeks of gestation were included. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institution’s Ethical Review Board. Results 181 women out of the 1626 eligible for inclusion into the study had spontaneous preterm delivery (11.1%. The mean birth weight was 3.1 ± 0.4 kg, with 10.3% having LBW. Spontaneous preterm delivery was found to be significantly associated with unmarried status (cOR: 1.7;1.52-2.57, baseline CD4 count 3(cOR: 1.8; 1.16-2.99, presence of opportunistic infection at delivery (cOR: 2.2;1.23-3.57, multiple pregnancy (cOR 10.4; 4.24 – 26.17, use of PI based triple ARV therapy (eOR 10.2; 5.52 – 18.8 in the first trimester (cOR 2.5; 1.77 – 3.52 on univariate analysis. However after multivariate analysis controlling for potential confounding variables including low birth weight, only multiple pregnancy (aOR: 8.6; CI: 6.73 – 12.9, presence of opportunistic infection at delivery (aOR: 1.9; CI: 1.1 – 5.7, and 1st trimester exposure to PI based triple therapy (aOR: 5.4; CI: 3.4 – 7.8 retained their significant association with preterm

  6. Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight. Cienfuegos Municipality. 2010-2014

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    Yanet Villafuerte Reinante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: reducing low birth weight is a priority in Cuba’s health policy since it is critical to reduce infant mortality. Objective: to identify the major risk factors associated with low birth weight in Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving all women who gave birth to low-birth-weight infants was conducted in Cienfuegos municipality from January 2010 through December 2014. Maternal age, maternal medical history, weight gain during pregnancy, nutritional assessment in early pregnancy, interpregnancy interval, gestational age at birth and pregnancy-related conditions were analyzed. Results: Four hundred fifty low-birth-weight infants were born. Hypertension as major illness in the maternal medical history was the main cause of maternal morbidity. In the obstetric history, an interpregnancy interval less than 2 years was frequently observed. It was demonstrated that the conditions mostly associated with pregnancy were vaginal infection, anemia and hypertension. Preterm infants predominated. Conclusions: the modification of these risk factors would have a favorable impact on the reduction of low birth weight.

  7. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

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    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  8. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight. PMID:26398873

  9. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Martens Guy; Van Hoorick Katrien; Vandermotte Valerie; Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean sect...

  10. Teenagers born at extremely low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Michael F.; Grunau, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence constitutes a major transition for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) teenagers. Recent studies of ELBW teenagers born in the 1980s have provided information about the growth and developmental characteristics of these individuals in adolescence and in early adulthood. ELBW teenagers are shorter and lighter than their full-term peers, and have a smaller head circumference. Cognitive and academic vulnerabilities documented during the school years, particularly difficulties with nonve...

  11. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho; Diana Barbosa Cunha; Ana Paula Pereira Esteves; Elisa Maria de Aquino Lacerda; Mariza Miranda Theme Filha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by explo...

  12. An integrated systems biology approach to the study of preterm birth using "-omic" technology - a guideline for research

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    Kelley Maureen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and perinatal morbidity. The etiology of preterm is multi-factorial and still unclear. As evidence increases for a genetic contribution to PTB, so does the need to explore genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in its study. This review suggests research guidelines for the conduct of high throughput systems biology investigations into preterm birth with the expectation that this will facilitate the sharing of samples and data internationally through consortia, generating the power needed to study preterm birth using integrated "-omics" technologies. The issues to be addressed include: (1 integrated "-omics" approaches, (2 phenotyping, (3 sample collection, (4 data management-integrative databases, (5 international consortia and (6 translational feasibility. This manuscript is the product of discussions initiated by the "-Omics" Working Group at the Preterm Birth International Collaborative Meeting held at the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland in April 2009.

  13. Preterm birth prevention: how well are we really doing? A review of the latest literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Sarit; Azem, Fouad; Seidman, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Preterm birth is a global concern resulting in prematurity which is the leading cause of newborn death and long-term squeal in the survivors. In this review, we will summarize the data available to this date in regard to the causes, available interventions, and contemporary research for future applications. PMID:24966497

  14. Very Preterm Birth, Cerebellar Development and Neuropsychological Outcome in Adolescence

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    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar volumes were measured on structural MRI at adolescence and adulthood in 65 preterm individuals (born before 33 weeks’ gestation, and a term-born comparison group, in a study at King’s College, Great Ormond Street Hospital, and University College, London; and Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.

  15. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  16. Clinical investigation of prebiotics on feeding intolerance and early growth in preterm infants with low birth weight%益生菌对低体重早产儿喂养不耐受和生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许东宝; 汪浩文; 祝选娇; 黄玮; 胡海英

    2011-01-01

    reaehing 418.4 kJ/(kg · d) by enteral feeding, shorten the days to regain birth weight, but increase the head eireumference and body weight and improve the early growth and development of preterm infants.

  17. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

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    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  18. Evidence for Activation of Toll-Like Receptor and Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Preterm Birth

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    Taketoshi Noguchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Individuals with inflammation have a myriad of pregnancy aberrations including increasing their preterm birth risk. Toll-like receptors (TLRs and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE and their ligands were all found to play a key role in inflammation. In the present study, we reviewed TLR and RAGE expression, their ligands, and signaling in preterm birth. Research Design and Methods. A systematic search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and ScienceDirect up to July 2010, combining the keywords “preterm birth,” “TLR”, “RAGE”, “danger signal”, “alarmin”, “genomewide,” “microarray,” and “proteomics” with specific expression profiles of genes and proteins. Results. This paper provides data on TLR and RAGE levels and critical downstream signaling events including NF-kappaB-dependent proinflammatory cytokine expression in preterm birth. About half of the genes and proteins specifically present in preterm birth have the properties of endogenous ligands “alarmin” for receptor activation. The interactions between the TLR-mediated acute inflammation and RAGE-mediated chronic inflammation have clear implications for preterm birth via the TLR and RAGE system, which may be acting collectively. Conclusions. TLR and RAGE expression and their ligands, signaling, and functional activation are increased in preterm birth and may contribute to the proinflammatory state.

  19. Effect of sex and rate of stimulus on auditory brainstem responses of children with history of preterm birth

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    Sara hasani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Preterm birth is one of the risk factors need comprehensive audiological assessment. In this study, the effect of sex and rate of stimulation on response of children with history of preterm birth was investigated by auditory brainstem response (ABR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using convinience sampling. Click-evoked a uditory brainstem response test with both low (21.1 c/s and high (51.1 c/s stimulus rates was recorded in 30 children with a history of preterm birth and 30 ones with history of term labor, as controls. Results: Significant differences were observed in inter-peak latencies of I-III in both rates, III-V in the low rate, I-V in the high rate, and absolute latency of III wave between high and low stimulus rates (p<0.05 for all. Rate of stimulus affect on auditory brainstem response of preterm birth group was more than controls. Sex also affected on some parameters of auditory brainstem response test. Conclusion: Preterm birth group showed longer latencies than normal group in both rates. Rate of stimulus had significant effect on results of children with history of preterm birth compared normal group. These findings may reflect the negative effect of preterm birth on neural synchronization function in response to transient stimuli.

  20. Multidimensional proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid to provide insight into the mechanisms of idiopathic preterm birth.

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    Irina A Buhimschi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though recent advancement in proteomics has provided a novel perspective on several distinct pathogenetic mechanisms leading to preterm birth (inflammation, bleeding, the etiology of most preterm births still remains elusive. We conducted a multidimensional proteomic analysis of the amniotic fluid to identify pathways related to preterm birth in the absence of inflammation or bleeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A proteomic fingerprint was generated from fresh amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorbtion ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a total of 286 consecutive samples retrieved from women who presented with signs or symptoms of preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Inflammation and/or bleeding proteomic patterns were detected in 32% (92/286 of the SELDI tracings. In the remaining tracings, a hierarchical algorithm was applied based on descriptors quantifying similarity/dissimilarity among proteomic fingerprints. This allowed identification of a novel profile (Q-profile based on the presence of 5 SELDI peaks in the 10-12.5 kDa mass area. Women displaying the Q-profile (mean+/-SD, gestational age: 25+/-4 weeks, n = 40 were more likely to deliver preterm despite expectant management in the context of intact membranes and normal amniotic fluid clinical results. Utilizing identification-centered proteomics techniques (fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, robotic tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry coupled with Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER ontological classifications, we determined that in amniotic fluids with Q-profile the differentially expressed proteins are primarily involved in non-inflammatory biological processes such as protein metabolism, signal transduction and transport. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid coupled with non-hierarchical bioinformatics algorithms identified a

  1. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

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    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  2. Avaliação do neurodesenvolvimento de prematuros de muito baixo peso ao nascer entre 18 e 24 meses de idade corrigida pelas escalas Bayley III Neurodevelopmental assessment of very low birth weight preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months by Bayley III scales

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    Luciana Volpiano Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de atraso e fatores associados aos escores de desenvolvimento em crianças nascidas prematuras. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal para avaliar o desenvolvimento por escalas Bayley III, incluindo-se prematuros de muito baixo peso de 18 a 24 meses de idade corrigida, acompanhados no Ambulatório de Prematuros da instituição. Excluíram-se: malformação congênita, síndrome genética, infecção congênita sintomática ao nascimento, surdez e cegueira. As variáveis numéricas foram comparadas por teste t de Student ou Mann-Whitney, e as categóricas, por qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher. Para análise dos fatores associados aos escores de desenvolvimento, utilizou-se a regressão linear, considerando-se significante p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of delay and factors associated with neurodevelopmental scores in premature infants. METHODS: Cross-sectional study to assess the development by Bayley Scales III, including very low birth weight preterm infants aged 18 to 24 months who were under follow-up at the outpatient clinic for preterm infants. Congenital malformation, genetic syndrome, symptomatic congenital infection at birth, deafness, and blindness were excluded. Numerical variables were compared by Mann-Whitney or Student t test and categorical variables by chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Factors associated with developmental scores were analyzed by linear regression, and statistical significance level was established at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 58 children included, four (6.9% presented cognitive delay, four (6.9% motor, 17 (29.3% language, 16 (27.6% social-emotional and 22 (37.0% adaptive-behavior delay. By multiple linear regression, the variables: social classes CDE (-13.27; 95%CI: -21.23 to -5.31, oxygen dependency at 36 weeks of corrected age (-8.75; 95%CI: -17.10 to -0.39 decreased the cognitive developmental score. Periventricular leukomalacia decreased the cognitive (-15.21; 95%CI

  3. Risk factors for preterm birth in an international prospective cohort of nulliparous women.

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    Gustaaf Albert Dekker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation with intact membranes (SPTB-IM and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM for nulliparous pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective international multicentre cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%. RESULTS: Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9% had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0% and 60 (1.9% in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant's not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene, mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction. Low BMI (<20 nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07-6.51. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. CONCLUSION: The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493.

  4. Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

  5. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL BODY MASS INDEX AND WEIGHT GAIN WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN EASTERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananpanichkul, Panya; Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the association between maternal body mass index and pregnancy weight gain with low birth weight newborns (LBWN) at Phrapokklao Hospital in eastern Thailand. We evaluated the files of 2,012 women who delivered at the hospital. Data obtained from the charts were parity, maternal age, body mass index (BMI), prepregnancy weight, weight gained during pregnancy, gestational age, hematocrit level, referral status, place of residence, fetal presentation, completion of antenatal care visits and maternal HIV infection. Sixty-five point two percent of subjects were aged 20-34 years old. Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a normal BMI and 13.2% were anemic. Thirty- seven point five percent, 32.9% and 29.6% gained too little, the correct amount and too much weight during pregnancy, respectively. Primiparity, too little weight gain and gestational age less than 37 weeks at delivery were all significantly associated with LBWN. Preterm babies were 25 times more likely to have a low birth weight than term infants (adjusted OR = 24.995; 95% CI: 16.824-37.133, p < 0.001). When maternal weight gain of any BMI group was inadequate, the subject had a 3.4 times greater risk (adjusted OR = 3.357; 95% CI: 22.114-5.332, p < 0.001) of having a LBWN. Primiparous women had a 1.7 times (adjusted OR=1.720; 95% CI: 1.182-2.503, p-0.005) greater risk of having a LBWN. The results from this study may be useful to plan maternal health programs for eastern Thailand. PMID:26867367

  6. Preterm births: can neonatal pain alter the development of endogenous gating systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffaux, Philippe; Lafrenaye, Sylvie; Morin, Mélanie; Patural, Hugues; Demers, Geneviève; Marchand, Serge

    2008-10-01

    Prematurity is known to affect the development of various neurophysiological systems, including the maturation of pain and cardiac circuits. The purpose of this study was to see if numerous painful interventions, experienced soon after birth, affect counterirritation-induced analgesia (triggered using the cold pressor test) later in life. A total of 26 children, between the ages of 7 and 11 participated in the study. Children were divided into three groups, according to their birth status (i.e., term-born, born preterm and exposed to numerous painful interventions, or born preterm and exposed to few painful interventions). Primary outcome measures were heat pain thresholds, heat sensitivity scores, and cardiac reactivity. Results showed that preterm children and term-born children had comparable pain thresholds. Exposure to conditioning cold stimulation significantly increased heart rate and significantly decreased the thermal pain sensitivity of term-born children. These physiological reactions were also observed among preterm children who were only exposed to a few painful interventions at birth. Changes in heart rate and pain sensitivity in response to conditioning cold stimulation were not observed in preterm children that had been exposed to numerous painful procedures during the neonatal period. These results suggest that early pain does not lead to enhanced pain sensitivity when premature babies become children, but that their endogenous pain modulatory mechanisms are not as well developed as those of children not exposed to noxious insult at birth. Greater frequency of painful procedures also dampened the rise in heart rate normally observed when experimental pain is experienced. PMID:18308597

  7. The Relationship Between Maternal HCT Levels, Birth Weight and Risk of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beigi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Almost 7.7 percent of all newborns weigh less than 2500 g in different countries. One of the most important reasons that lead to low birth weight, is maternal anemia during pregnancy. On the other hand, if maternal hemoglobin is too high, the prenatal outcome is not good. In this research we studied the relationship between maternal hematocrit (Hct and birth weight, as well as the risk of low birth weight (LBW. Methods: This is a cohort study on all pregnant women who used to come to Arash hospital to receive prenatal care (April 2003 - March 2004 and they also delivered there. Findings: If pregnant women have abnormal (higher or lower than normal Hct level in the first or third trimester, the mean birth weight will be lower and the risk of LBW higher. Maternal Hct level, maternal height, maternal weight and gestational age at delivery have relation to the risk of LBW. Conclusions: It seems that an unfavorable level of maternal Hct is associated with a decrease in newborn's weight and LBW. So, special attention to the level of maternal Hct during pregnancy and control of it can decrease LBW incidence.

  8. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of ?-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn Câmara Grilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109. In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971. In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk.

  9. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C;

    2006-01-01

    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies of...... limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...

  10. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    OpenAIRE

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM; Middeldorp Christel M; Lamb Diane J; Vink Jacqueline M; Haak Monique C; Boomsma Dorret I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the N...

  11. The association between parity, infant gender, higher level of paternal education and preterm birth in Pakistan: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Kiran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of antenatal depression and preterm birth have been reported in Pakistan. Self reported maternal stress and depression have been associated with preterm birth; however findings are inconsistent. Cortisol is a biological marker of stress and depression, and its measurement may assist in understanding the influence of self reported maternal stress and depression on preterm birth. Methods In a prospective cohort study pregnant women between 28 to 30 weeks of gestation from the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children completed the A-Z Stress Scale and the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess stress and depression respectively, and had a blood cortisol level drawn. Women were followed up after delivery to determine birth outcomes. Correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess relationship between preterm birth, stress, depression and cortisol. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key factors predictive of preterm birth. Results 132 pregnant women participated of whom 125 pregnant women had both questionnaire and cortisol level data and an additional seven had questionnaire data only. Almost 20% of pregnant women (19·7%, 95% CI 13·3-27·5 experienced a high level of stress and nearly twice as many (40·9%, 95% CI 32·4-49·8% experienced depressive symptoms. The median of cortisol level was 27·40 ug/dl (IQR 22·5-34·2. The preterm birth rate was 11·4% (95% CI 6·5-18. There was no relationship between cortisol values and stress scale or depression. There was a significant positive relationship between maternal depression and stress. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. Insufficient numbers of preterm births were available to warrant the development of a multivariable logistic regression model. Conclusions Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery

  12. A Preterm Birth Caused By Postoperative Peritonitis and Peritoneal Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukru Yildiz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Appendicitis is the most common condition leading to an intraabdominal operation for a non obstetric problem in pregnancy and diagnosis of appendicitis is complicated by the physiologic and anatomic changes that occur during pregnancy. Although a surgical procedure carries the risk of fetal loss or preterm delivery, delay in diagnosis also increases the risk of complications in both mother and fetus. The following case illustrates our experience and to analyze clinical characteristic and the pregnancy outcome of appendicitis during the third trimester of pregnancy. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 751-753

  13. Preterm birth among American Indian/Alaskan natives in Washington and Montana: comparison with non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Melody; Shrestha, Archana; Yazzie, Sheldwin; Jackson, Michael L

    2013-12-01

    Preterm birth is the single most important cause of perinatal mortality in North America. Given that American Indians/Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs) in the United States continue to have adverse birth outcomes, the purpose of this study is to compare the risk of preterm birth among AI/AN mothers to Non-Hispanic White mothers living in Washington and Montana from 2003 to 2009. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted examining the association between AI/AN mothers (self-reported) and the risk of preterm birth (gestational age Hispanic White singleton infants (n = 26,648) born to residents of Washington and Montana were randomly selected as a comparison group and logistic regression was used to analyze the data. AI/AN mothers living in Washington and Montana between 2003 and 2009 were 1.34 times (95 % CI 1.25-1.44) as likely to have a preterm birth compared to Non-Hispanic Whites after adjusting for maternal and paternal characteristics as well as pregnancy risk factors. AI/AN mothers residing in Washington and Montana from 2003 to 2009 were at a significantly increased risk of having a preterm birth compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Identifying etiologic differences in preterm birth experienced by AI/ANs is essential in targeting future interventions. PMID:23288503

  14. Preterm Birth Reduces Nutrient Absorption With Limited Effect on Immune Gene Expression and Gut Colonization in Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette V; Cilieborg, Malene S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin;

    2015-01-01

    relative to near-term birth. After 2 days of formula feeding, NEC incidence was increased in preterm versus near-term pigs (47% vs 0%-13%). A total of 6 of the 30 genes related to immunity (TLR2, IL1B, and IL8), permeability (CLDN3, and OCLN), and absorption (SGLT) decreased in preterm pigs without...

  15. New assessment of the effects of birth order and socioeconomic status on birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowding, V M

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the 20 698 singleton births occurring in one year to women resident in the Greater Dublin area provided information on birth weight, birth order, and social class. Low (less than or equal to 2500 g), suboptimal (less than or equal to 3000 g), and optimal (3001-4499 g) birth weights all showed a linear relation with social class. The incidence of low and suboptimal birth weight was highest in first, fifth, and subsequent births, and conversely optimal weight was commonest in second...

  16. Second trimester cervical length and risk of preterm birth in women with twin gestations treated with 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Durnwald, Celeste P

    2010-12-01

    To compare rates of preterm birth before 35 weeks based on cervical length measurement at 16-20 weeks in women with twin gestations who received 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) or placebo.

  17. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Lamb; C.M. Middeldorp; C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt; J.M. Vink; M.C. Haak; D.I. Boomsma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on importan

  18. Paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Fulda, Kimberly G; Kurian, Anita K; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Moerbe, Micky M

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose was to examine the association between paternal race/ethnicity and very low birth weight stratified by maternal race/ethnicity. Methods Birth data for Tarrant County, Texas 2006–2010 were analyzed. Very low birth weight was dichotomized as yes (

  19. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR. Methods In a sample of 1230 triplets from 410 families, the effects of assisted reproductive techniques, zygosity, birth order, gestational age, sex, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on birth weight were assessed. The resemblance among triplets for birth weight was estimated as a function of zygosity. Birth weight discordance within families was studied by the pair-wise difference between triplets, expressed as a percentage of the birth weight of the heaviest child. We compare data from triplets registered with the NTR with data from population records, which include live births, stillbirths and children that have deceased within days after birth. Results There was no effect of assisted reproductive techniques on triplet birth weight. At gestational age 24 to 40 weeks triplets gained on average 130 grams per week; boys weighed 110 grams more than girls and triplets of smoking mothers weighted 104 grams less than children of non-smoking mothers. Monozygotic triplets had lower birth weights than di- and trizygotic triplets and birth weight discordance was smaller in monozygotic triplets than in di- and trizygotic triplets. The correlation in birth weight among monozygotic and dizygotic triplets was 0.42 and 0.32, respectively. In nearly two-thirds of the families, the heaviest and the lightest triplet had a birth weight discordance over 15%. The NTR sample is representative for the Dutch triplet

  20. Impacto do nascimento pré-termo e com baixo peso na cognição, comportamento e aprendizagem de escolares Impacto del nacimiento pretérmino y con bajo peso en la cognición, el comportamiento y el aprendizaje de escolares Impact of preterm birth and low birth weight on the cognition, behavior and learning of school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Izabele J Riechi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto do nascimento pré-termo e com baixo peso no neurodesenvolvimento, na cognição e, consequentemente, na aprendizagem de crianças e adolescentes em idade escolar. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal caso-controle de 120 escolares com idades entre seis e 15 anos, regularmente matriculados no Ensino Fundamental e pareados socioeconomicamente. Todos foram submetidos ao protocolo de avaliação neuropsicológica, neurológica e escolar. O Grupo Propósito (GP foi formado por 60 escolares nascidos com idade gestacional OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto del nacimiento pretérmino y con bajo peso en el neurodesarrollo, la cognición, y por consiguiente en el aprendizaje de niños y adolescentes en edad escolar. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal caso-control en 120 escolares con edades entre 06 y 15 años, regularmente matriculados en la Primaria y pareados socioeconómicamente. Todos fueron sometidos al protocolo de Evaluación Neuropsicológica, Neurológica y Escolar. El Grupo Propósito fue formado por 60 escolares nacidos con edad gestacional OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of preterm birth with low birth weight on neurodevelopment, cognition, and academic learning of school-age children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 120 school-age children with ages between six and 15 years old, attending Elementary Schools, and socio-economically paired. All of them underwent neuropsychological, neurological and academic assessments. The Purpose Group (PG was formed by 60 children born with gestational age <37 weeks and birthweight <2500g. The Control Group (CG had 24 children who were siblings of the PG subjects, and 36 school-age children who were neighbors and colleagues of the PG subjects. The following tools were used for assessment: WISC III, Bender Gestalt Test, Trail Making, Rey Complex Figure, Luria Nebraska-C Neuropsychological Test, Rutter's Behavioral Scale A2, Child Behavior Checklist and Test of School Performance

  1. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  2. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  3. Unexpected: an interpretive description of parental traumas’ associated with preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Lasiuk, Gerri C; Comeau, Thea; Newburn-Cook, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) places a considerable emotional, psychological, and financial burden on parents, families, health care resources, and society as a whole. Efforts to estimate these costs have typically considered the direct medical costs of the initial hospital and outpatient follow-up care but have not considered non-financial costs associated with PTB such as adverse psychosocial and emotional effects, family disruption, strain on relationships, alterations in self-esteem, and...

  4. Acculturation, depressive symptoms, estriol, progesterone, and preterm birth in Hispanic women

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, R Jeanne; Marti, C. Nathan; Pickler, Rita; Murphey, Christina; Wommack, Joel; Brown, Charles E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of acculturation, depressive symptoms, progesterone, and estriol (E3) as predictors of preterm birth (PTB) in pregnant Hispanic women. This cross-sectional study recruited a sample of 470 Hispanic women between 22- and 24-week gestation from physician practices and community clinics. We used the CES-D to measure maternal depressive symptoms. We measured acculturation by English proficiency on the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale, residence index by years in the USA mi...

  5. Ethnicity, smoking status, and preterm birth as predictors of maternal locus of control

    OpenAIRE

    Ashford, Kristin; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2013-01-01

    A woman’s psychological health can affect prenatal behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal beliefs, prenatal behaviors, and preterm birth in a multiethnic population. This was a planned secondary analysis of a cross-sectional trial of postpartum women with singleton gestation. Two hundred ten participants were given the Fetal Health Locus of Control (FHLC) scale to measure three primary maternal beliefs that influenced their prenatal behaviors (IN...

  6. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (7 of 7: mobilizing resources to accelerate innovative solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victora Cesar G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth and stillbirth are complex local and global health problems requiring an interdisciplinary approach and an international commitment. Stakeholders developed recommendations for a Global Action Agenda (GAA at the 2009 International Conference on Prematurity and Stillbirth. The primary goal of this GAA is to forge a collaborative effort toward achieving common goals to prevent preterm birth and stillbirth, and to improve related maternal, newborn, and child health outcomes. Conference participants GAPPS co-convened this four-day conference with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, March of Dimes, PATH, Save the Children, UNICEF and the World Health Organization. Participants included about 200 leading international researchers, policymakers, health care practitioners and philanthropists. A near-final draft of this report was sent three weeks in advance to help co-chairs and participants prepare for workgroup discussions. Global Action Agenda Twelve thematic workgroups, composed of interdisciplinary experts, made recommendations on short-, intermediate-, and long-term milestones, and success metrics. Recommendations are based on the following themes: (1 advance discovery of the magnitude, causes and innovative solutions; (2 promote development and delivery of low-cost, proven interventions; (3 improve advocacy efforts to increase awareness that preterm birth and stillbirth are leading contributors to the global health burden; (4 increase resources for research and implementation; and (5 consider ethical and social justice implications throughout all efforts. Summary The conference provided an unprecedented opportunity for maternal, newborn and child health stakeholders to create a collaborative strategy for addressing preterm birth and stillbirth globally. Participants and others have already completed or launched work on key milestones identified in the GAA. Updates will be provided at www.gapps.org.

  7. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; < 32 weeks of gestation) has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their und...

  8. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muglia Louis A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990. Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty was the reference group. Results PTB th quartile (4.9%, p adjOR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35, with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52. Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  9. Variability in urinary phthalate metabolite levels across pregnancy and sensitive windows of exposure for the risk of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Meeker, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a significant public health problem, affecting over 1 in 10 live births and contributing largely to infant mortality and morbidity. Everyday exposure to environmental chemicals such as phthalates could contribute, and may be modifiable. In the present study we examine variability in phthalate exposure across gestation and identify windows of susceptibility for the relationship with preterm birth. Methods Women were recruited early in pregnancy as part of a prospective, longitudinal birth cohort at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. Urine samples were collected at up to 4 time points during gestation for phthalate measurement, and birth outcomes were recorded at delivery. From this population we selected all 130 cases of preterm birth, defined as delivery before 37 weeks completed gestation, as well as 352 random controls. Results Urinary phthalate metabolite levels were moderately variable over pregnancy, but levels measured at multiple time points were associated with increased odds of preterm birth. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for spontaneous preterm birth were strongest in association with phthalate metabolite concentrations measured at the beginning of the third trimester (aOR for summed di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites [∑DEHP]=1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02, 1.73). Odds ratios for placental preterm birth, defined as delivery with presentation of preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction, were slightly elevated in the first trimester for DEHP metabolites (aOR for ∑DEHP=1.33, 95% CI=0.99, 1.78). Conclusions Pregnant women with exposure to phthalates both early and late in pregnancy are at increased risk of delivering preterm, but mechanisms may differ based on etiology. PMID:24934852

  10. Weight-Based Policy of Hepatitis B Vaccination in Very Low Birth Weight Infants in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chien-Yi; Chen, Huey-Ling; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Tsao, Po-Nien; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chang, Mei-Hwei

    2014-01-01

    Background The current recommendation of giving the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at 30 days of chronologic age usually is not practical, because most VLBW infants are not medically stable at that age. We use an alternative body-weight-based protocol, and evaluate its efficacy in an endemic area under a universal immunization program. Methods The immunogenicity of the current hepatitis B vaccination strategy in 155 VLBW preterm infants was evaluated...

  11. Gestational Age, Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth and Risk for Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens; Carsten B Pedersen; Christensen, Jakob; Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the association between gestational age, birth weight, intrauterine growth and epilepsy in a population-based cohort of 1.4 million singletons born in Denmark (1979-2002). A total of 14,334 individuals were registered with epilepsy in the Danish National Hospital Register as inpatients (1979-2002) and outpatients (1995-2002). Information on gestational age and birth weight was obtained from Danish Medical Birth Registry. Children small at birth were identified through tw...

  12. Modelling the type and timing of consecutive events: application to predicting preterm birth in repeated pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Joanna H.; Albert, Paul S.; Mendola, Pauline; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Predicting the occurrence and timing of adverse pregnancy events such as preterm birth is an important analytical challenge in obstetrical practice. Developing statistical approaches that can be used to assess the risk and timing of these adverse events will provide clinicians with tools for individualized risk assessment that account for a woman’s prior pregnancy history. Often adverse pregnancy outcomes are subject to competing events; for example, interest may focus on the occurrence of pre-eclampsia-related preterm birth, where preterm birth for other reasons may serve as a competing event. We propose modelling the type and timing of adverse outcomes in repeated pregnancies. We formulate a joint model, where types of adverse outcomes across repeated pregnancies are modelled by using a polychotomous logistic regression model with random effects, and gestational ages at delivery are modelled conditionally on the types of adverse outcome. The correlation between gestational ages conditional on the adverse pregnancies is modelled by the semiparametric normal copula function. We present a two-stage estimation method and develop the asymptotic theory for the estimators proposed. The model and estimation procedure proposed are applied to the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development consecutive pregnancies study data and evaluated by simulations.

  13. When Parents Ask ... about Preterm Birth, Breastfeeding Success, Breast Cancer, or Waterbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2003-01-01

    IN THIS COLUMN, THE AUTHOR REVIEWS RESEARCH ON FOUR SEPARATE TOPICS: the prevention of preterm birth, the effect of epidurals on breastfeeding success, the possible protective effect of lactation on breast cancer, and laboring in water. In two separate studies-a multisite study in the United States and a second study from Brazil-natural progesterone was shown to significantly reduce the incidence of preterm birth in women at high risk. A third study conducted in the United Kingdom examined the effect of clindamycin on preventing infection that can lead to preterm birth. A group of studies related to lactation found that early breastfeeding was more successful in women who did not have epidural anesthesia. In a Korean study, the lifetime duration of breastfeeding was associated with a significant reduction in breast cancer. Concerning waterbirth, Swiss researchers found that, when a woman labored in water, she regulated both water temperature and bathing duration to ensure that her body temperature and that of the fetus remained within a normal physiological range. PMID:17273363

  14. When Parents Ask … about Preterm Birth, Breastfeeding Success, Breast Cancer, or Waterbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Lou

    2003-01-01

    In this column, the author reviews research on four separate topics: the prevention of preterm birth, the effect of epidurals on breastfeeding success, the possible protective effect of lactation on breast cancer, and laboring in water. In two separate studies—a multisite study in the United States and a second study from Brazil—natural progesterone was shown to significantly reduce the incidence of preterm birth in women at high risk. A third study conducted in the United Kingdom examined the effect of clindamycin on preventing infection that can lead to preterm birth. A group of studies related to lactation found that early breastfeeding was more successful in women who did not have epidural anesthesia. In a Korean study, the lifetime duration of breastfeeding was associated with a significant reduction in breast cancer. Concerning waterbirth, Swiss researchers found that, when a woman labored in water, she regulated both water temperature and bathing duration to ensure that her body temperature and that of the fetus remained within a normal physiological range. PMID:17273363

  15. Very Preterm Infants Failing CPAP Show Signs of Fatigue Immediately after Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Siew, Melissa L.; van Vonderen, Jeroen J.; Hooper, Stuart B.; te Pas, Arjan B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences in breathing pattern and effort in infants at birth who failed or succeeded on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during the first 48 hours after birth. Methods Respiratory function recordings of 32 preterm infants were reviewed of which 15 infants with a gestational age of 28.6 (0.7) weeks failed CPAP and 17 infants with a GA of 30.1 (0.4) weeks did not fail CPAP. Frequency, duration and tidal volumes (VT) of expiratory holds (EHs), peak inspi...

  16. The piglet&apos;s behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencová V.; Mlyneková L.; Mlynek J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  17. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vederhus, Bente Johanne; Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991-92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth. PMID:25653912

  18. Hot executive function following moderate-to-late preterm birth: altered delay discounting at 4 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, Amanda S; Brumbaugh, Jane E; Morris, Alyssa R; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    Interest in monitoring long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born moderate-to-late preterm (32-36 weeks gestation) is increasing. Moderate-to-late preterm birth has a negative impact on academic achievement, which may relate to differential development of executive function (EF). Prior studies reporting deficits in EF in preterm children have almost exclusively assessed EF in affectively neutral contexts in high-risk preterm children (intelligence and processing speed. Results imply that there is not a finite cut-off point at which children are spared from potential long-term neurodevelopmental effects of PT birth. Further investigation of reward processing and hot EF in individuals with a history of PT birth is warranted given the susceptibility of prefrontal cortex development to early environmental variations. PMID:25873181

  19. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  20. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T;

    2014-01-01

    between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....

  1. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  2. Low-birth-weight babies among hospital deliveries in Nepal: a hospital-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Arun K; Bhatta, Dharma N

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth weight is an important indicator of a population’s health and is associated with numerous interrelated factors in the infant, mother, and physical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of low birth weight and identify the associated factors for low birth weight in a liveborn infant among the women in Morang, Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out from December 2010 to March 2011 among 255 mothers who gave birth during the study period at the Koshi Zonal Hospital, Nepal. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed through logistic regression and presented with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The study showed that the prevalence of low-birth-weight babies was 23.1% (95% CI: 17.9–28.1). The mean (standard deviation) age of mothers was 23.23 (4.18) years. The proportion of low birth weight of previous baby was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.1–7.9), and 15.7% (95% CI: 11.5–20.5) of the respondents had preterm delivery. Nearly one-third (36.1%; 95% CI: 26.4–45.6) of the respondents had >2 years’ gap after the previous delivery. Nonformal employment (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 0.523–8.74), vegetarian diet (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.23–9.36), and no rest during pregnancy (AOR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.41–4.39) were factors more likely to determine low birth weight. However, none of the variables showed a significant association between low birth weight and other dependent variables. Conclusion Low birth weight is an important factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality and is a common problem in the developing world. The proportion of low-birth-weight babies was high in hospital delivery, and ethnicities, Hindu religion, education, nonformal employment, food habit, rest during pregnancy, and type of delivery were found to influence the birth weight. Hence, it is important to strengthen health education services at the

  3. Study of progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth in twins (STOPPIT): findings from a trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eddama, O.; Petrou, S; Regier, D.; Norrie, J.; MacLennan, G.; Mackenzie, F.; Norman, J E

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Preterm birth contributes to a range of healthcare problems amongst infants surmounting to sizeable healthcare costs. Twin pregnancies are at particular risk of preterm birth. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of vaginal progesterone gel for the prevention of preterm birth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: An economic evaluation was conducted alongside a randomized placebo controlled trial (the STOPPIT trial) of vaginal progesterone gel for the preventio...

  4. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a meta-analysis1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Lin, Shih-Wen; Michels, Karin B

    2010-01-01

    Background: The effect of caffeine intake during pregnancy on the risk of preterm delivery has been studied for the past 3 decades with inconsistent results. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis examining the association between caffeine consumption during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. Design: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE articles published between 1966 and July 2010, cross-referenced reference lists of the retrieved articles, and identified 15 cohort and 7 case-control studies that met inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Results: The combined odds ratios (ORs) obtained by using fixed-effects models for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.28), 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.19), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.27) for risk of preterm birth comparing the highest with the lowest level of caffeine intake (or no intake) (mg/d) during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Results for the case-control studies yielded no associations for the first (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.37), second (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.45), or third (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.12) trimesters. No overall heterogeneity was found by region, publication decade, exposure and outcome assessment, caffeine sources, or adjustment for confounding, which was largely driven by individual studies. Conclusion: In this meta-analysis, we observed no important association between caffeine intake during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth for cohort and case-control studies. PMID:20844077

  5. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  6. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloog Itai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008. Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01–1.13 for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in

  7. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  8. The APPLe Study: A Randomized, Community-Based, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Azithromycin for the Prevention of Preterm Birth, with Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Nynke R.; White, Sarah A.; Goodall, Mark; Ntonya, Chikondi; Kayira, Edith; Kafulafula, George; Neilson, James P

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Most pregnancies last about 40 weeks. Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation (the period during which a baby develops in its mother) is defined as a preterm birth. In industrialized countries, 5%–10% of all births are preterm. Figures for preterm births are harder to obtain for low-income countries because of uncertainties about gestational dates but, in both rich and poor countries, preterm birth is a major cause of infant death and illness around the time...

  9. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895

  10. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895

  11. Socio-emotional development following very preterm birth: pathways to psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita eMontagna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; <32 weeks of gestation has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset.Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity.However, the aetiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies.Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological and psychosocial factors.

  12. Factors associated with thymic size at birth among low and normal birth-weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of gestational and perinatal exposures on thymic size in 366 normal birth weight and 426 low birth weight (LBW) neonates in Guinea-Bissau in West Africa. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, thymic size was measured at birth by the use of ultrasound. Information......% CI. RESULTS: Determinants of thymic size among normal birth weight infants were pathologic amniotic fluid (adjusted GMR for thymic index: 0.84 [0.74-0.96]) and male sex (GMR: 1.13 [1.06-1.22]). Among LBW infants, birth season (1.11 [1.01-1.22]), maternal body temperature (0.89 [0...

  13. Treatment with magnesium sulphate in pre-term birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hans; Hegaard, H K; Greisen, G;

    2012-01-01

    Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies. A comprehe......Premature birth increases a child's risk of cerebral palsy and death. The aim of this work is to investigate the association between treatment with magnesium sulphate during premature deliveries and infants' cerebral palsy and mortality through a meta-analysis of observational studies....... A comprehensive search of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the PubMed database from their inceptions to 1 October, 2010 using the keywords 'magnesium sulphate, children/infant/pre-term/premature and cerebral palsy/mortality/morbidity/adverse effects/outcome' identified 11 reports of observational studies. Two...... authors working independently extracted the data. A meta-analysis of the data found an association between magnesium sulphate treatment and a significantly reduced risk of mortality (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.89) and cerebral palsy (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.47-0.89). Antenatal treatment with magnesium sulphate...

  14. Recent Advancements in Diffusion MRI for Investigating Cortical Development after Preterm Birth – Potential and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen eDudink

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are born during a critical period of brain maturation, in which even subtle events can result in substantial behavioral, motor and cognitive deficits, as well as psychiatric diseases. Recent evidence shows that the main source for these devastating disabilities is not necessarily white matter damage but could also be disruptions of cortical microstructure. Animal studies showed how moderate hypoxic-ischemic conditions did not result in significant neuronal loss in the developing brain, but did cause significantly impaired dendritic growth and synapse formation alongside a disturbed development of neuronal connectivity as measured using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI. When using more advanced acquisition settings such as high-angular resolution diffusion imaging, more advanced reconstruction methods can be applied to investigate the cortical microstructure with higher levels of detail. Recent advances in dMRI acquisition and anlysis have great potential to contribute to a better understanding of neuronal connectivity impairment in preterm birth. We will review the current understanding of abnormal preterm cortical development, novel approaches in dMRI, and the pitfalls in scanning vulnerable preterm infants.

  15. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina B; Mortensen, Laust H; Morgen, Camilla S; Madsen, Mia; Schnor, Ole; Arntzen, Annett; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic...... position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (12 years of education, mothers with...

  16. Fetal growth and preterm birth in children exposed to maternal or paternal rheumatoid arthritis. A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane L; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess indicators of fetal growth and risk of preterm birth in children of parents with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Through linkage of Danish national registries, we identified all children born in Denmark between 1977 and 2008. We used general linear regression models to...... estimate mean differences in indicators of fetal growth among children with a parent with RA compared to unexposed children. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of preterm birth were calculated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of the 1,917,723 children included, a total of......, indicators of fetal growth measured at birth were only slightly lower than those in unexposed children....

  17. Membrane Vesicles of Group B Streptococcus Disrupt Feto-Maternal Barrier Leading to Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surve, Manalee Vishnu; Anil, Anjali; Kamath, Kshama Ganesh; Bhutda, Smita; Sthanam, Lakshmi Kavitha; Pradhan, Arpan; Srivastava, Rohit; Basu, Bhakti; Dutta, Suryendu; Sen, Shamik; Modi, Deepak; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-09-01

    Infection of the genitourinary tract with Group B Streptococcus (GBS), an opportunistic gram positive pathogen, is associated with premature rupture of amniotic membrane and preterm birth. In this work, we demonstrate that GBS produces membrane vesicles (MVs) in a serotype independent manner. These MVs are loaded with virulence factors including extracellular matrix degrading proteases and pore forming toxins. Mice chorio-decidual membranes challenged with MVs ex vivo resulted in extensive collagen degradation leading to loss of stiffness and mechanical weakening. MVs when instilled vaginally are capable of anterograde transport in mouse reproductive tract. Intra-amniotic injections of GBS MVs in mice led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation mimicking features of chorio-amnionitis; it also led to apoptosis in the chorio-decidual tissue. Instillation of MVs in the amniotic sac also resulted in intrauterine fetal death and preterm delivery. Our findings suggest that GBS MVs can independently orchestrate events at the feto-maternal interface causing chorio-amnionitis and membrane damage leading to preterm birth or fetal death. PMID:27583406

  18. Connective tissue and related disorders and preterm birth: clues to genes contributing to prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anum, E A; Hill, L D; Pandya, A; Strauss, J F

    2009-03-01

    To identify candidate genes contributing to preterm birth, we examined the existing literature on the association between known disorders of connective tissue synthesis and metabolism and related diseases and prematurity. Our hypothesis was that abnormal matrix metabolism contributes to prematurity by increasing risk of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and cervical incompetence. Based on this review, we identified gene mutations inherited by the fetus that could predispose to preterm birth as a result of PPROM. The responsible genes include COL5A1, COL5A2, COL3A1, COL1A1, COL1A2, TNXB, PLOD1, ADAMTS2, CRTAP, LEPRE1 and ZMPSTE24. Marfan syndrome, caused by FBN1 mutations, and polymorphisms in the COL1A1 and TGFB1 genes have been associated with cervical incompetence. We speculate that an analysis of sequence variation at the loci noted above will reveal polymorphisms that may contribute to susceptibility to PPROM and cervical incompetence in the general population. PMID:19152976

  19. Emergência dos esquemas simbólicos em crianças com síndrome de Down, prematuros muito baixo peso e crianças com desenvolvimento típico Emergence of symbolic schemes in children with Down syndrome, very-low-birth-weight preterm, and typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenice de Fátima da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a emergência dos esquemas simbólicos simples e combinados e seus respectivos subtipos em 20 crianças prematuras muito baixo peso, 20 crianças com síndrome de Down e 20 crianças com desenvolvimento típico. MÉTODOS: todos os sujeitos foram acompanhados mensalmente durante seis meses, a partir da avaliação inicial em que estavam localizados no final da quinta fase do período sensório-motor. Para tanto, foi utilizado o Protocolo para Observação do Desenvolvimento Cognitivo e da Linguagem Expressiva - versão revisada (PODCLE-r. Os dados foram analisados de forma quantitativa e qualitativa. RESULTADOS: os resultados revelaram que os esquemas simbólicos simples e combinados emergiram de forma semelhante para todos os grupos, embora se tenha observado ritmo de desenvolvimento mais lento para as crianças prematuras muito baixo peso e crianças com síndrome de Down, quando comparadas às crianças com desenvolvimento típico. A análise qualitativa, referente à diversidade e complexidade dos esquemas simbólicos produzidos, mostrou que as crianças prematuras muito baixo peso apresentaram pior desempenho quando comparadas às crianças com síndrome de Down e às com desenvolvimento típico, apresentando também dificuldades específicas quanto ao uso de esquemas simbólicos aplicados a objetos não-figurativos, ou seja, quanto à construção da representação por meio de significantes arbitrários. CONCLUSÃO: estes dados reforçam a importância de se acompanhar a emergência e o desenvolvimento dos esquemas simbólicos simples e combinados nessas crianças, com o objetivo de monitorar e estimular esse desenvolvimento, com vistas a minimizar os efeitos da defasagem cognitiva e a favorecer o desenvolvimento da linguagem.PURPOSE: to check the emergence of isolated and combined symbolic schemes as well as their respective subtypes in 20 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW preterm children, 20 children with Down syndrome (DS

  20. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  1. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  2. The 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants (ETTNO)' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Jes; Veiergang, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infants with extremely low birth weight uniformly develop anemia of prematurity and frequently require red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). Although RBCT is widely practiced, the indications remain controversial in the absence of conclusive data on the long-term effects of RBCT...... restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines enrolling 920 infants with birth weights of 400-999 g with long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up. Results and Conclusions: The results of ETTNO will provide definite data about the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines in very preterm...

  3. Association between regular exercise and excessive newborn birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Owe, Katrine M.; Nystad, Wenche; Bø, Kari

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between regular exercise before and during pregnancy and excessive newborn birth weight. METHODS: Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, 36,869 singleton pregnancies lasting at least 37 weeks were included. Information on regular exercise was based on answers from two questionnaires distributed in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30. Linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway provided data on newborn birth weight. The main outcome me...

  4. INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL CORRELATES OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIENER, GERALD

    LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN WERE STUDIED LONGITUDINALLY TO DETERMINE WHETHER--(1) THE RELATIVE INTELLECTUAL IMPAIRMENT OF PREMATURE CHILDREN IS STATIC OR CHANGES WITH TIME, (2) A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILD NOT NOTED TO BE IN NEUROLOGICAL DISTRESS COULD HAVE A POOR PROGNOSIS, AND (3) SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS COULD ARISE AS A CONSEQUENCE…

  5. Hypernatremia and Sodium Intake as Risk Factors for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2010-01-01

    The association between sodium intake in the first week of life and risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants was studied by retrospective review of charts of 722 preterm infants with a birth weight of

  6. A Study of Surrogate Parameters of Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Y

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : Which anthropometric parameter is correlating highly with birth weight? Can we use this parameter as a screening test for predicting birth weight? What is their cut-off value? Hypothesis: Various anthropometric parameters of newborn correlate each other positively. Objective : To find out the most effective anthropometric parameter in the newborn to assess birth weight so that newborn with LBW can be identified.. Study design: Hospital based cross-sectional study. Participants : Newborn babies born in KIMS, Karad. Results : Relatively highest correlation was observed between birth weight & thigh circumfirence (T.C. (r = 0.8637 & next with chest circumfirence (C.C.. (r = 0.8247 Cut-off values of T.C. & C.C. had better sensitivity, specificity & predictive value for identifying LBW babies. Conclusion : T.C. is the best effective parameter to predict birth weight. Next to it is C.C.

  7. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck;

    2006-01-01

    Ab [beta = 0.002 (-0.010 to 0.014); P = 0.77]. When restricting the analysis to twin pairs with a within-pair difference in birth weight of 500 g or greater or to twin pairs born 4 wk or more before term, the regression coefficients were almost unchanged. Controlling for potential confounders (sex......CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development of...... thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight...

  8. Exploration of Preterm Birth Rates Using the Public Health Exposome Database and Computational Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne D. Kershenbaum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in informatics technology has made it possible to integrate, manipulate, and analyze variables from a wide range of scientific disciplines allowing for the examination of complex social problems such as health disparities. This study used 589 county-level variables to identify and compare geographical variation of high and low preterm birth rates. Data were collected from a number of publically available sources, bringing together natality outcomes with attributes of the natural, built, social, and policy environments. Singleton early premature county birth rate, in counties with population size over 100,000 persons provided the dependent variable. Graph theoretical techniques were used to identify a wide range of predictor variables from various domains, including black proportion, obesity and diabetes, sexually transmitted infection rates, mother’s age, income, marriage rates, pollution and temperature among others. Dense subgraphs (paracliques representing groups of highly correlated variables were resolved into latent factors, which were then used to build a regression model explaining prematurity (R-squared = 76.7%. Two lists of counties with large positive and large negative residuals, indicating unusual prematurity rates given their circumstances, may serve as a starting point for ways to intervene and reduce health disparities for preterm births.

  9. The impact of maternal celiac disease on birthweight and preterm birth: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, A S

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes have been associated with maternal celiac disease (CD). In this study, we investigate the effect of treated and untreated maternal CD on infant birthweight and preterm birth. METHODS: A population-based cohort study consisted of all singleton live births in Denmark between 1 January 1979 and 31 December 2004 was used. A total of 1,504,342 babies were born to 836,241 mothers during the study period. Of those, 1105 babies were born to women with diagnosed CD and 346 were born to women with undiagnosed CD. Women with diagnosed CD were considered as treated with a gluten free diet while women with undiagnosed CD were considered as untreated. The outcome measures were: birthweight, small for gestational age (SGA: birthweight <10th centile), very small for gestational age (VSGA: birthweight <5th centile) and preterm birth. We compared these measures in treated and untreated women with those of a reference group (no history of CD). RESULTS: Women with untreated CD delivered smaller babies [difference = -98 g (95% CI: -130, -67)], with a higher risk of SGA infants [OR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.63)], VSGA infants [OR = 1.54 (95% CI: 1.17, 2.03)] and preterm birth [OR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.72)] compared with women without CD. Women with treated CD had no increased risk of reduced mean birthweight, risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants or preterm birth compared with women without CD. CONCLUSION: Untreated maternal CD increases the risk of reduced birthweight, the risk of delivering SGA and VSGA infants and preterm birth. Diagnosis and presumed treatment of maternal CD with a gluten-free diet appeared to result in a birthweight and preterm birth rate similar to those in women without CD.

  10. Preterm birth and reduced birthweight in first and second teenage pregnancies: a register-based cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khashan, Ali S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Higher risks of preterm birth and small for gestational age babies have been reported in teenagers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between first and second teenage pregnancies and preterm birth, birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: All women aged 14 to 29 yrs who gave birth to live singletons in the North Western Region of England between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2006 were identified. Women were classified in three groups; 14-17 yrs, 18-19 yrs and 20-29 yrs (reference group). The outcome measures were preterm birth, very preterm birth, birthweight, SGA (< 5th percentile), very SGA (VSGA< 3rd percentile). We compared these outcome measures in teenagers\\' first and second pregnancies with those of mothers aged 20 to 29 yrs. RESULTS: The risk of preterm birth was increased in first (OR = 1.21, [95% CI: 1.01-1.45]) and second (OR = 1.93, [95% CI: 1.38-2.69]) time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. Birthweight was reduced in the first (mean difference = -24 g; [95% CI: -40, -7]) and second (mean difference = -80 g; [95% CI: -115, -46]) time mothers aged 14-17 yrs compared to the reference group. There was some evidence of a protective effect against VSGA in 14-17 yr old first time mothers (OR = 0.79, [95% CI: 0.63-0.99]). CONCLUSIONS: Teenage mothers are at increased risk of preterm birth compared to adult mothers and this risk is further increased in second time teen pregnancies. This study highlights the importance of ensuring pregnant teenagers have appropriate antenatal care. A first pregnancy may be the first and only time a pregnant teenager interacts with health services and this opportunity for health education and the promotion of contraception should not be overlooked.

  11. Advances in the Prevention of infection-Related Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, R. F.

    2015-01-01

    to respond to antibiotics. These risks included: (a) previous PTB of indeterminate etiology; (b) low weight/body mass index; or (c) detection of fetal fibronectin, ureaplasmas, Group B streptococcus or Trichomonas vaginalis). While individual studies have found benefit of antibiotic intervention for...... the prevention of PTB, in meta-analyses these effects have been negated by large methodologically flawed studies with negative results. As a result, many clinicians think that any antibiotic given at any time in pregnancy to any woman at risk of PTB will cause more harm than good. Recently, a more...

  12. Neighborhood deprivation and preterm birth among non-Hispanic black and white women in eight geographic areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disparities in preterm birth by race and ethnic group have been demonstrated in the United States. Recent research focuses on the impact of neighborhood environmental context on racial disparities in pregnancy outcomes. The authors utilized vital records birth certificate and...

  13. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  14. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... NIC. For babies <24 weeks, between 0% and 79.6% of babies alive at onset of labour were admitted to neonatal intensive care. CONCLUSIONS: There are wide variations in the survival rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order to...

  15. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Line K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g, 55 term SGA (birth weight  Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ. The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW and social acceptance (SGA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

  16. Nonesterified Fatty Acids and Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Factor Analysis for Identification of Risk Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Catov, Janet M.; Bertolet, Marnie; Chen, Yi-Fan; Evans, Rhobert W.; Hubel, Carl A.

    2014-01-01

    We considered that accumulation of nonesterified (free) fatty acids (NEFAs) in the first trimester of pregnancy would mark women at excess risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) and examined the interplay between NEFAs, lipids, and other markers to explore pathways to sPTB. In a case-control study nested in the Pregnancy Exposures and Preeclampsia Prevention Study (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1997–2001), we assayed NEFA levels in nonfasting serum collected at a mean gestational week of 9.4 (r...

  17. Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: longitudinal population based study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Richards; HARDY, R.; Kuh, D.; Wadsworth, M E J

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between birth weight and cognitive function in the normal population.Design A longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study.Participants 3900 males and females born in 1946.Main outcome measures Cognitive function from childhood to middle life (measured at ages 8, 11, 15, 26, and 43 years).Results Birth weight was significantly and positively associated with cognitive ability at age 8 (with an estimated standard deviation score of 0.44 (95%, confidenc...

  18. Low birth weight and health expenditures from birth to late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hummer, Michael; Lehner, Thomas; Gerald J. Pruckner

    2012-01-01

    Using administrative panel data of health insurants, we estimate the effects of low birth weight on health service utilization among children and young adults between birth and 21 years old. To account for time-invariant heterogeneity of mothers, we use sibling fixed- effects estimation. We find that low birth weight strongly increases subsequent health expenditures and that the effect is particularly pronounced in the first year of life. Starting in compulsory schooling, we observe a shift i...

  19. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorde...

  20. Comparison of Two Phototherapy Methods (Prophylactic vs Therapeutic) for Management of Hyperbilirubinemia in Very Low Birth Weight Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedeh-Sarah Nazem-Sadati; Majid Mohammadizadeh; Ramin Iranpour

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Preterm and low birth weight (LBW) infants are at greater risk of developing bilirubin-associated brain damage compared with term infants. Certainly, phototherapy, if used appropriately, is capable of controlling the bilirubin levels in LBW infants; but there is not a unique phototherapy treatment strategy in LBW infants. This study was designed to compare the prophylactic phototherapy and late treatment of jaundiced newborns weighing 1000-1500 grams.Methods: Sixty newborns with bi...

  1. Is there any role for terlipressin in the extremely low birth weight infant with refractory septic shock?

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Bissolo; Carlo Alberto Forcellini; Stefania Spaggiari; Marcella Gaffuri; Giuseppe Pagano; Paolo Biban

    2012-01-01

    Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocorti...

  2. [An unusual case of a 35 days preterm birth of a German Holstein calf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Sina; Höltershinken, Martin; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    A female calf of the breed German Holstein (GH) was spontaneously born on July 28, 2013 which was 35 days before the expected term of birth. The dam was a heifer when she got pregnant from the first insemination on November 23, 2012. Calving was without complications. The calf was fully viable and without visible anomalies. We assume that the calf was fully mature at the termination of the pregnancy. Growth rate after the second month of life was comparable to calves born in the same herd after normal length of gestation. The sire of this preterm calf was a GH-bull used for artificial insemination. This bull had already sired 151 daughters. For this bull, preterm calvings were not yet reported. The dam was a heifer, and neither external influences on this dam or in the herd could be identified that could have induced this premature calving. In the herd, no further premature calvings were observed or reasons associated with a preterm calving were found. In this exceptional case, however, gestation length was 248 days and the prematurely born calf survived without any signs of debility, organ defects and respiratory distress. PMID:26904901

  3. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Kristen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of preterm birth. Methods We used a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design. Pregnant women presenting at Candida were randomized to 6-days of clotrimazole vaginal pessaries (100mg or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment. The primary outcomes were the rate of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis, participation and follow-up. The proposed primary trial outcome of spontaneous preterm birth Results Of 779 women approached, 500 (64% participated in candidiasis screening, and 98 (19.6% had asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis and were randomized to clotrimazole or usual care. Women were not inconvenienced by participation in the study, laboratory testing and medication dispensing were problem-free, and the follow-up rate was 99%. There was a tendency towards a reduction in spontaneous preterm birth among women with asymptomatic candidiasis who were treated with clotrimazole RR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.04-3.03. Conclusions A large, adequately powered, randomized trial of clotrimazole to prevent preterm birth in women with asymptomatic candidiasis is both feasible and warranted. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12609001052224

  4. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David John; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fenton, Alan; Papiernik, Emile; Zeitlin, J; Blondel, Beatrice; Cuttini, Marina; Maier, Rolf; Weber, Tom; Carrapato, Manuel; Kollee, Louis A; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Van Reempts, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    one region). PARTICIPANTS: All births that occurred between 22+0 and 31+6 weeks of gestation in 2003. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Neonatal death rate adjusted for rate of delivery at this gestation. RESULTS: Rate of delivery of all births at 22+0-31+6 weeks of gestation and live births only were calculated...... for each region. Two regions had significantly higher rates of very preterm delivery per 1000 births (Trent UK (16.8, 95% CI 15.7-17.9) and the Northern UK (17.1, 95% CI 15.6-18.6); group mean 13.2, 95% CI 12.9 to 13.5). Four regions had rates significantly below the group average: Portugal North (10.......7, 95% CI 9.6 to 11.8), Eastern and Central Netherlands (10.6, 95% CI 9.7 to 11.6), Eastern Denmark (11.2, 95% CI 10.1 to 12.4) and Lazio in Italy (11.0, 95% CI 10.1 to 11.9). Similar trends were seen in live birth data. Published rates of neonatal death for each region were then adjusted by applying: a...

  5. Controlled trial of immune response of preterm infants to recombinant hepatitis B and inactivated poliovirus vaccines administered simultaneously shortly after birth

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, N.; Handsher, R.; German, B.; Sirota, L.; Bachman, M.; Zinger, S.; Mendelson, E.; Barzilai, A.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—The study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity of an early, extra dose of enhanced inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) administered simultaneously with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) to preterm infants shortly after birth.
METHODS—Three groups were studied. Fifty preterm infants received IPV intramuscularly within 24 hours of birth, in addition to routine recommended childhood immunisations. Fifty two preterm infants and 35 full term infants receive...

  6. Early nCPAP versus intubation in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neves Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation have been the standard of care for very low birth weight infants but, in the last decade, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been described in many studies as an option for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, recent studies have shown that early nCPAP is not associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and does not imply more days of ventilation support when compared to traditional ventilation techniques. The authors conducted a study to compare the outcomes (in terms of mortality, morbidity and need for medical support of very low birth weight infants treated with nCPAP or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One hundred and four newborns were enrolled in this study, 44 (42.3% were treated with nCPAP and 60 (57.7% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. A subgroup analysis of newborns with gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks was also performed. It included 57 newborns with similar demographic characteristics, 29 (50.9% treated with nCPAP and 28 (49.1% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (p = 0.033 and surfactant administration (p = 0.021 with lower rates in the nCPAP group. No other differences were found in the prevalence of other morbidities or in the need for medical support after birth. These results suggests that nCPAP might be chosen as primary ventilatory support choice in very low birth weight preterm, when there are no contraindications to its use.

  7. Birth length and weight as predictors of breast cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatten Lars J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth size, and particularly birth length, is positively associated with breast cancer risk in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine whether birth size is associated with survival among breast cancer patients. Methods Information on birth size (weight, length and ponderal index (kg/length (m3 was collected from birth archives for 331 breast cancer patients who were diagnosed at two university hospitals in Norway (Bergen and Trondheim. The patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until death from breast cancer, death from another cause, or to the end of follow-up, and birth size was related to survival, using Cox regression analysis. Results Breast cancer patients with birth length ≥ 52 cm had nearly twice the risk of dying (hazard ratio, 1.92, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.41 from breast cancer compared to women with birth length less than 48 cm, after adjustment for place of birth and year of diagnosis. Similar analyses related to birth weight and ponderal index showed no clear association with breast cancer survival. Conclusions Poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high birth length may reflect effects of factors that stimulate longitudinal growth and simultaneously increase the risk of metastases and fatal outcome. It is possible that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system is involved in the underlying mechanisms.

  8. Contribution of maternal age to preterm birth rates in Denmark and Quebec, 1981-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Nathalie; Hansen, Anne V; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought evidence to support the hypothesis that advancing maternal age is potentially causing a rise in preterm birth (PTB) rates in high-income countries. METHODS: We assessed maternal age-specific trends in PTB using all singleton live births in Denmark (n = 1 674 308) and Quebec (n...... = 2 291 253) from 1981 to 2008. We decomposed the country-specific contributions of age-specific PTB rates and maternal age distribution to overall PTB rates over time. RESULTS: PTB rates increased from 4.4% to 5.0% in Denmark and from 5.1% to 6.0% in Quebec. Rates increased the most in women aged 20...... increased among women aged 20 to 29 years, but their contribution to the overall PTB rates was offset by older maternal age over time. Women aged 20 to 29 years should be targeted to reduce PTB rates, as potential for prevention may be greater in this age group....

  9. Does neighborhood deprivation modify the effect of preterm birth on children's first grade academic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer L; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Williams, Bryan L; Kramer, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Children's cognitive development and academic performance are linked to both fetal and early childhood factors, including preterm birth and family socioeconomic status. We evaluated whether the relationship between preterm birth (PTB) and first grade standardized test performance among Georgia public school students was modified by neighborhood deprivation in early childhood. The Georgia Birth to School cohort followed 327,698 children born in Georgia from 1998 to 2002 through to end-of-year first grade standardized tests. Binomial and log-binomial generalized estimating equations were used to estimate risk differences and risk ratios for the associations of both PTB and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index for the census tract in which each child's mother resided at the time of birth with test failure (versus passing). The presence of additive and multiplicative interaction was assessed. PTB was strongly associated with test failure, with increasing risk for earlier gestational ages. There was positive additive interaction between PTB and neighborhood deprivation. The main effect of PTB versus term birth increased risk of mathematics failure: 15.9% (95%CI: 13.3-18.5%) for early, 5.0% (95% CI: 4.1-5.9%) for moderate, and 1.3% (95%CI: 0.9-1.7%) for late preterm. Each 1 standard deviation increase in neighborhood deprivation was associated with 0.6% increased risk of mathematics failure. For children exposed to both PTB and higher neighborhood deprivation, test failure was 4.8%, 1.5%, and 0.8% greater than the sum of two main effects for early, moderate, and late PTB, respectively. Results were similar, but slightly attenuated, for reading and English/language arts. Our results suggest that PTB and neighborhood deprivation additively interact to produce greater risk among doubly exposed children than would be predicted from the sum of the effects of the two exposures. Understanding socioeconomic disparities in the effect of PTB on academic outcomes at school entry is

  10. Benefits of Iron supplementation for low birth weight infants: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Hui

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have reported on the effects of iron supplementation in low birth weight infants; however, no systematic review of the available evidence has been conducted to date. Hence, we performed a systematic review of the literature to examine the effects of iron supplementation on hematologic iron status, growth, neurodevelopment, and adverse effects in low birth weight/premature infants. Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, Medline, and PubMed for articles reporting on the effects of iron supplementation in low weight infants. The following search terms were used: “preterm born infant(s/children”; “preterm infants”; “prematurely born children” “weight less than 1500 g at birth”; “born prematurely”; “low birth weight infant(s”; “infants born preterm”; “prematurity”; “small-for-gestational age”; “very small gestational age infants”; “iron supplementation”; “iron intake”; “iron supplements”; “ferric and/or ferrous compounds”; and “ferrous sulphate/fumarate/sulfate”. Results A total of 15 studies were identified and included in the systematic review. Supplemental iron was given orally or as an iron-fortified formula in 14/15 studies. The duration of treatment ranged from 1 week to 18 months. Iron supplementation significantly increased hematologic measures of iron status (including hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin relative to placebo or over time in most studies. All controlled studies that examined iron-deficiency anemia (IDA/ID reported a decreased prevalence of IDA/ID with iron supplementation. Dose dependent decreases in the prevalence of IDA/ID were reported in several studies. Of the 5 studies reporting on growth, none found any significant effect on growth-related parameters (length, height, weight, and head circumference. Only 2 studies reported on neurodevelopment; no marked effects were reported. There were no consistently reported

  11. Bacterial aetiological agents of intra-amniotic infections and preterm birth in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Louis Mendz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection-related preterm birth is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity; knowledge of bacterial populations invading the amniotic cavity and the routes of invasion is required to make progress in the prevention of preterm birth. Significant advances have been made in understanding bacterial communities in the vagina, but much less studied are intra-uterine bacterial populations during pregnancy. A systematic review of data published on the intra-uterine microbiome was performed; molecular information and summaries of species found in healthy individuals and in women with diagnosed infections served to construct a database and to analyse results to date. Thirteen studies fulfilled the review's inclusion criteria. The data of various investigations were collated, organised and re-analysed to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of microbial populations in the intra-amniotic space. The most common intra-amniotic bacterial taxa were species that can colonise the vagina in health and disease; there were others associated with the habitats of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. The results suggest a central role for the ascending route of infections during pregnancy, and points to a possible secondary contribution via haematogenous invasion of the intra-amniotic space. The census of the intra-uterine microbiome awaits completion.

  12. The influence of preterm birth on structural alterations of the vision-deprived brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Catherine Y; Wood, Amanda G; Chen, Jian; Wilson, Sarah J; Reutens, David C

    2013-04-01

    Differences in brain structures between blind and sighted individuals have not been widely investigated. Furthermore, existing studies have included individuals who were blinded by retinopathy of prematurity, a condition that is associated with premature birth. Recent pediatric research has reported structural differences in individuals who were born prematurely, suggesting that some of the structural abnormalities previously observed in blind individuals may be related to prematurity rather than being specific to blindness. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate gray and white matter differences between 24 blind and 16 sighted individuals. Of the blind individuals, six were born prematurely and 18 at term. Compared to those born at term, blind individuals born preterm showed differences in gray, but not white, matter volumes in various brain regions. When the preterm individuals were excluded from analysis, there were significant differences between blind and sighted individuals. Full-term blind individuals showed regional gray matter decreases in the cuneus, lingual gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, precuneus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, and the thalamus, and gray matter increases in the globus pallidus. They also showed regional white matter decreases in the cuneus, lingual gyrus, and the posterior cingulate. These differences were observed in blind individuals irrespective of blindness onset age, providing evidence for structural alterations in the mature brain. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the potential impact of premature birth on neurodevelopmental outcomes in studies of blind individuals. PMID:22591801

  13. [Approach to preterm birth on the threshold of viability (the 22-25 week) of gestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göthová, M

    2013-12-01

    Preterm birth represents a serious socioeconomic problem because of costs for the care and integration of some premature children with disabilities into society. It is a syndrome which results from many initiating reasons. It takes three basic forms of the clinical view: premature labour with contractions, premature rupture of the membranes and incompetence of cervix. The frequency of preterm births is stable in most countries of the Euro-Atlantic Region, which does not correspond to still improving perinatal care. Viability is known as an ability to survive, grow and develop in a standard way. The threshold of viability in regard to the possibility to be born alive and survive lies between week 22 and 23 at present. By neonatologists, the 22-25 weeks of gestation is known as the grey zone, during which the prognosis of mortality and morbidity is uncertain. The recommendations of most West European countries emphasize the importance of individual approach to the 24-25 week. The parents must be informed about the prognosis of mortality and morbidity of the foetus. The criterion of quality of life should also be respected. Therefore the wishes of parents not to provide the aid to the newborn baby may be more important than the criterion of maturity. PMID:24372437

  14. The administration of 100% oxygen and respiratory drive in very preterm infants at birth.

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    Jeroen J van Vonderen

    Full Text Available AIM: To retrospectively investigate the changes of SpO2 and respiratory drive in preterm infants at birth after administration of 100% oxygen. METHODS: Respiratory parameters, FiO2 and oximetry of infants 95% occurred more often in PPV group (53% vs. 69% and lasted longer (70(40-95 vs. 120(50-202 s. In CPAP group, minute volume increased from 134 (76-265 mL/kg/min 1 minute before to 240 (157-370 mL/kg/min (p<0.01 1 minute after start FiO2 1.0 and remained stable at 2 minutes (252 (135-376 mL/kg/min; ns. The rate of rise to maximum tidal volume increased (from 13.8 (8.0-22.4 mL/kg/s to 18.2 (11.0-27.5 mL/kg/s; p<0.0001 to 18.8 (11.8-27.8 mL/kg/s; ns. In the PPV group respiratory rate increased from 0(0-4 to 9(0-20 at 1 minute (p<0.001 to 23 (0-34 breaths per minute at 2 minutes (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: In preterm infants at birth, a rapid increase in oxygenation, resulting from a transient increase to 100% oxygen might improve respiratory drive, but increases the risk for hyperoxia.

  15. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics for Pre-Eclampsia and Preterm Birth

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    Kai P. Law

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-related complications such as pre-eclampsia and preterm birth now represent a notable burden of adverse health. Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder unique to pregnancy. It is an important cause of maternal death worldwide and a leading cause of fetal growth restriction and iatrogenic prematurity. Fifteen million infants are born preterm each year globally, but more than one million of those do not survive their first month of life. Currently there are no predictive tests available for diagnosis of these pregnancy-related complications and the biological mechanisms of the diseases have not been fully elucidated. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics have all the necessary attributes to provide the needed breakthrough in understanding the pathophysiology of complex human diseases thorough the discovery of biomarkers. The mass spectrometry methodologies employed in the studies for pregnancy-related complications are evaluated in this article. Top-down proteomic and peptidomic profiling by laser mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry, and bottom-up quantitative proteomics and targeted proteomics by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry have been applied to elucidate protein biomarkers and biological mechanism of pregnancy-related complications. The proteomes of serum, urine, amniotic fluid, cervical-vaginal fluid, placental tissue, and cytotrophoblastic cells have all been investigated. Numerous biomarkers or biomarker candidates that could distinguish complicated pregnancies from healthy controls have been proposed. Nevertheless, questions as to the clinically utility and the capacity to elucidate the pathogenesis of the pre-eclampsia and preterm birth remain to be answered.

  16. Invariant NKT Cell Activation Induces Late Preterm Birth That Is Attenuated by Rosiglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Derek; Romero, Roberto; Plazyo, Olesya; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Xu, Yi; Milovic, Tatjana; Xu, Zhonghui; Bhatti, Gaurav; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Drewlo, Sascha; Tarca, Adi L; Hassan, Sonia S; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although intra-amniotic infection is a recognized cause of spontaneous preterm labor, the noninfection-related etiologies are poorly understood. In this article, we demonstrated that the expansion of activated CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells in the third trimester by administration of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) induced late PTB and neonatal mortality. In vivo imaging revealed that fetuses from mice that underwent α-GalCer-induced late PTB had bradycardia and died shortly after delivery. Yet, administration of α-GalCer in the second trimester did not cause pregnancy loss. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ activation, through rosiglitazone treatment, reduced the rate of α-GalCer-induced late PTB and improved neonatal survival. Administration of α-GalCer in the third trimester suppressed PPARγ activation, as shown by the downregulation of Fabp4 and Fatp4 in myometrial and decidual tissues, respectively; this suppression was rescued by rosiglitazone treatment. Administration of α-GalCer in the third trimester induced an increase in the activation of conventional CD4(+) T cells in myometrial tissues and the infiltration of activated macrophages, neutrophils, and mature dendritic cells to myometrial and/or decidual tissues. All of these effects were blunted after rosiglitazone treatment. Administration of α-GalCer also upregulated the expression of inflammatory genes at the maternal-fetal interface and systemically, and rosiglitazone treatment partially attenuated these responses. Finally, an increased infiltration of activated iNKT-like cells in human decidual tissues is associated with noninfection-related preterm labor/birth. Collectively, these results demonstrate that iNKT cell activation in vivo leads to late PTB by initiating innate and adaptive immune responses and suggest that the PPARγ pathway has potential as a target for

  17. Mother's Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth.

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    Anne-Cécile Petit

    Full Text Available Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions.100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10 were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE.We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth.This study suggests that mothers' psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants' follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected.

  18. Vision and brain in adolescents with low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lindqvist, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Premature birth and pregnancy to term, but with intrauterine growth restriction (often manifesting as birth small for gestational age, SGA, at term), both represent suboptimal environments for the developing infant brain and eyes. Very low birth weight (VLBW,The aims of this study, which is part of large interdisciplinary follow up study also including cognitive, psychiatric, paediatric and motor evaluation, as well as cerebral MRI, was threefold: to examine differences in visual functions be...

  19. Ocupación materna, duración de la gestación y bajo peso al nacimiento Maternal occupation, pregnancy length and low birth weight

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    Elena Ronda

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la relación de la ocupación materna durante el embarazo con el bajo peso en los recién nacidos y con los partos pretérmino. Método: La muestra consistió en 1.341.686 nacimientos pretérmino y 1.217.897 con bajo peso, en España (1996-2000, con información válida sobre ocupación materna procedente del Registro Nacional de Nacimientos. La ocupación materna fue la variable principal codificada por grupos de ocupación (CNO-79, y las de resultados fueron el bajo peso (Objective: To assess the association between maternal occupation during pregnancy with the presence of low birth weight and preterm delivery. Method: The sample consisted of 1,341,686 preterm infants and 1,217,897 low birth weight infants in Spain (1996-2000 with valid information on maternal occupation from the National Registry of Births. Maternal occupation was the main exposure variable coded according to groups of occupation (CNO-79 and outcomes were low birth weight (<2500g and preterm birth (<37 weeks. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated through the maximum verisimilitude method. Results: The highest prevalence of preterm infants was found in mothers working in agriculture (10.8% and the lowest in professional women (6.6%. The highest prevalence of low birth weight was observed in the women working in the services sector (3.5% and manual workers in industry and construction (3.4% while the lowest prevalence was found in professional women (2.5%. Women working in agriculture had a higher risk of preterm birth than professional women (aOR=1.68; 95%CI: 1.57-1.80. The risk of low birth weight was higher in women working in the service sector (aOR=1.36; 95%CI: 1.30-1.42, housewives (aOR=1.30; 95%CI: 1.28-1.38, agricultural laborers (aOR=1.29; 95%CI: 1.14-1.44 and manual workers in industry and construction (aOR=1.29; 95%CI: 1.21-1.36. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that belonging to certain

  20. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...

  1. Mothers' Lifestyle Characteristics Impact on Her Neonates' Low Birth Weight

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    Rabindra Nath Das

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Epidemiological research often seeks to identify a causal relationship between the risk factors and the disease. Earlier researches suggest that mother age, her weight at last menstrual period, race, the number of physician visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, may affect on her neonate birth weight. Mechanisms of mother lifestyle characteristics on her neonate weight are intricately complicated. These mechanisms, however, can be easily interpreted through an appropriate mathematical relationship. The present study aims to identify the factors of mother's lifestyle characteristics which have statistical significant effects on her neonate birth weight based on statistical (or probabilistic modeling. Materials and Methods: The present study is based on the secondary data collected at Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts during 1986. It was a routine data set. There was not any specific setting. Study subjects were 189 mothers, 59 of which had low birth weight babies and 130 of which had normal birth weight babies. Joint generalized linear log-normal statistical modeling of mean and variance is used. Results: The present analysis identifies that mother age (p= 0.063, her weight at last menstrual period (p= 0.019, race (p= 0.017, p= 022, smoking status (p= 0.014, history of premature labor (p= 0.008, history of hypertension (p= 0.031, 0.039 and presence of uterine irritability (p= 0.002 are statistically significant on her neonate birth weight. It has been detected that the variance of neonatal birth weight is non-constant, which invites the present study. Conclusion: Impacts of mother's lifestyle characteristics on her neonate weight are explained based on mathematical relationships. This analysis supports many earlier research findings. However, the present analysis also has identified many additional casual factors that have explained the mean and variance of neonatal birth weight, which was not reported by the

  2. Are birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy associated with malnutrition and excess weight among school age children?

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    F.S. Tomé

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1980's child malnutrition was still prevalent in Brazil, and child obesity was beginning to rise in the richest regions of the country. To assess the extent of the nutritional transition during the period and the influence of birth weight and maternal smoking on the nutritional condition of schoolchildren, we estimated the prevalence of excess weight and malnutrition in a cohort of Brazilian schoolchildren from 1987 to 1989. We calculated the body mass index (BMI of 8- to 10-year-old schoolchildren born in Ribeirão Preto in 1978/79. We considered children with a BMI <5th percentile (P5 to be malnourished, children with P5³BMIbirth factors (infant weight, sex, preterm delivery, number of pregnancies, maternal smoking during pregnancy, marital status, and schooling and type of school using nominal logistic regression. A total of 2797 schoolchildren were evaluated. There was a significant prevalence of malnutrition (9.5% and excess weight already tended to increase (15.7%, while 6.4% of the children were obese. Excess weight was more prevalent among children attending private schools (odds ratio, OR = 2.27 and firstborn children (OR = 1.69. Maternal smoking during pregnancy protected against malnutrition (OR = 0.56, while children with lower birth weight were at higher risk for malnutrition (OR = 4.23. We conclude that a nutritional transition was under way while malnutrition was still present, but excess weight and related factors were already emerging.

  3. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories

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    Bente Johanne Vederhus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991–92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35 and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89% and 29 (83% at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth.

  4. 经鼻间歇与鼻塞式持续正压通气治疗早产低出生体重儿呼吸窘迫综合征%Effects of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation compared with continuous positive airway pressure for respiratory distress syndrome in low birth weight preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳; 高薇薇; 聂川; 许芳; 杜岚岚; 梁树; 杨杰

    2015-01-01

    intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) compared with early continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in low birth weight preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).Methods We performed a prospective,randomized controlled trial involving 364 low birth weight preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome within 6 hours of birth.The infants were randomly assigned to NIPPV (n=188) or NCPAP (n=176) groups.Non invasive ventilation was initiated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).The rate of mechanical intubation (within 3 days or 7 days),the use of pulmonary surfactant (PS),the rate of complications and mortality were compared between the two groups.Mann Whitney U,t and Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis.Results The average time of invasive mechanical ventilation in NIPPV group were lower than that in NCPAP group[2.0 (1.0-4.0) d vs 7.0 (3.0-8.5) d,U=-3.457,P=0.001].The need for intubation and mechanical ventilation by day 3 and day 7 in the NIPPV group were less than those in the NCPAP group [day 3:4.8% (9/188) vs 10.8% (19/176),x2=4.621,P=0.032; day 7:9.0% (17/188) vs 16.5% (29/176),x2=4.551,P=0.033].In the NIPPV group,infants who got PS therapy was less than that in the NCPAP group [3.2% (6/188) vs 8.5% (15/176),x2=4.752,P=0.029].There was no significant difference in the fatality rate between the NIPPV and the NCPAP group [12.8% (24/188) vs 10.8% (19/176),P > 0.05].There were no significant difference in the incidence of air leak,intracranial hemorrhage,periventricular leukomalacia,retinopathy of prematurity,necrotizing enterocolitis,patent ductus arteriosus,and bronchopulmonary dysplasia between the NIPPV group and the NCPAP group.Conclusion Among low birth weight prcterm infants with RDS,the early use of NIPPV reduces the need for PS,intubation and invasive ventilation compared with NCPAP.

  5. Retrospective evaluation of low birth weight infants that monitored in neonatal intensive care unit of an university

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    Fesih Aktar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preterm neonates were approximately 70% of total low birth weight infants in developed countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the low birth weight neonates who were hospitalized in the neonatal unit of our hospital between the years 2010-2011, retrospectively. Methods: 626 infants that born with under 2500 gram were enrolled to the study. Family history, natal, prenatal, postnatal, maternal and demographic features and risk factors were recorded retrospectively. Results: Mother giving birth age was 21-35 years, gestational age was at 33 weeks and birth weight was found 2001-2500 gram mostly and the mortality rate was found 29.7% in our study. Maternal age, multipl pregnancy ratio, place of birth, birth presentation, duration of hospitalization, causes of premature birth and mortality rate is found statistically significant difference between low birth weight infants when comparing with birth weight (p<0.05. The most common cause of premature birth was preeclampsia-eclampsia in all infants while oligohydramnios was mostly found in ≤1000 gram infants. Respiratory distress and convulsion in the 2001-2500 g infants, hyperbilirubinemia in the 1501-2000 gram infants and required mechanical ventilation in the ≤1000 gram infants were found significantly higher (p<0.05. Conclusion: Improving the educational level of the society, ensuring adequate prenatal monitoring, establishment of appropriate and adequate neonatal intensive care unit, following out delivery of premature at neonatal intensive care unit centers, appropriate transporting should be done, identifying the common risks such as sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome for mortality causes and taken measures againts them are serious importance for the prevention of premature birth. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 291-295

  6. Preterm and postterm birth in immigrant- and Swedish-born parents: a population register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanolkar, Amal R; Wedrén, Sara; Essén, Birgitta; Sparén, Pär; Koupil, Ilona

    2015-05-01

    Ethnic minorities/immigrant groups tend to have increased risk for preterm birth. Less is known about this risk in diverse immigrant groups, couples of mixed ethnic-origin and in relation to duration of residence. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 1,028,303 mothers who gave birth to 1,766,026 singleton live born infants (1982-2002), was linked to the Education and Total Population Registers. Immigrant parents were identified by country of birth. Risk of early preterm, late preterm and postterm birth was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Polish, Yugoslavian, Iranian, South Asian, East Asian and Sub-Saharan African parents, Swedish mothers who had children with non-Swedish fathers, and parents from two different immigrant groups had higher risk of early preterm birth [adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 1.76 (1.24-2.50), 1.57 (1.31-1.87), 1.67 (1.30-2.14), 1.52 (1.07-2.16), 1.51 (1.08-2.10), 2.03 (1.32-3.12), 1.56 (1.45-1.67), and 1.55 (1.35-1.77) respectively] compared to Swedish-born parents. South Asian, Sub-Saharan African, and East Asian immigrants had a higher risk of late preterm birth compared to Swedish-born parents. North African and Middle Eastern, Somali, and Ethiopian/Eritrean groups had increased risk of postterm birth [adjusted RR 1.31 (1.16-1.47), 2.57 (2.31-2.86), 1.85 (1.67-2.04) respectively]. Adjustment for covariates did not substantially change associations. Immigrant mothers resident 10 years [adjusted RR 1.46 (1.24-1.71) and 1.16 (1.11-1.23) respectively]. In addition to higher risk of preterm birth in select immigrant groups, some immigrant groups are also at higher risk of postterm birth. Shorter duration of residence is associated with higher risk of non-term deliveries. PMID:25687167

  7. Diffusion tensor imaging of the cortical plate and subplate in very-low-birth-weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many intervention studies in preterm infants aim to improve neurodevelopmental outcome, but short-term proxy outcome measurements are lacking. Cortical plate and subplate development could be such a marker. Our aim was to provide normal DTI reference values for the cortical plate and subplate of preterm infants. As part of an ongoing study we analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of 19 preterm infants without evidence of injury on conventional MRI, with normal outcome (Bayley-II assessed at age 2), and scanned in the first 4 days of life. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the frontal and temporal subplate and cortical plate were measured in single and multiple voxel regions of interest (ROI) placed on predefined regions. Using single-voxel ROIs, statistically significant inverse correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and FA of the frontal (r = -0.5938, P = 0.0058) and temporal (r = -0.4912, P = 0.0327) cortical plate. ADC values had a significant positive correlation with GA in the frontal (r = 0.5427, P = 0.0164) and temporal (r = 0.5540, P = 0.0138) subplate. Diffusion tensor imaging allows in vivo exploration of the evolving cortical plate and subplate. We provide FA and ADC values of the subplate and cortical plate in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with normal developmental outcome that can be used as reference values. (orig.)

  8. An exploratory study of the variables impacting preterm birth rates in New Mexico

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    Gwin Kara M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTB is a substantial health problem that accounts for significant infant morbidity and mortality and poses an economic burden to both individuals and the state of residence. The goal of this study was to identify maternal risk factors for PTB in New Mexico, a poor state with a unique ethnic background, in order to identify populations at increased risk that would benefit from intervention. Methods This was a cross-sectional retrospective exploratory analysis of 377,770 singleton live births in the state of New Mexico from 1991-2005. Gestational age of less than 37 weeks was defined as PTB. The Kotelchuck Index was used as a measure for level of prenatal care described as inadequate, intermediate, adequate, and intensive. Results Of the live births analyzed, 28,036 of these were preterm (7.4%. Overall the PTB rate rose at a rate of 0.18% per year from 1991-2005. Among patients with medical risk factors, the absence of prenatal care was associated with higher odds for PTB as compared to adequate prenatal care. Other risk factors were unmarried status, education less than high school, tobacco/alcohol use, black, Asian, and white Hispanic ethnicity, and the presence of one or more medical risk factors. Statistically significant protective factors for PTB were age 25-29, education surpassing high school, and Native American race. Conclusions This study identified several factors that correlate with increased PTB in New Mexico, in particular ethnicity and level of prenatal care. The finding that Native American patients have a lower PTB rate compared to other groups, even though this group is traditionally one of low socioeconomic status in New Mexico, signifies that other factors yet to be identified affect PTB.

  9. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

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    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  10. Children of male spray painters: weight and length at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, G V; Iselius, E L; Knave, B G

    1992-01-01

    The course and outcome of the pregnancies of the wives of 80 spray painters and 80 electronics workers were recorded from birth registers, hospital records, and a questionnaire. The two groups of men had previously been subjected to psychological, psychiatric, neurophysiological, and neurological tests. The variables recorded were occupational exposure to solvents; number of births, ectopic pregnancies, and miscarriages; weight, length, and malformations of the newborn children; duration of the pregnancies; birth complications; and neonatal hospital treatment. The mean length and weight of the children of spray painters at birth were slightly lower than those of the children of electronics workers. No differences were recorded for serious complications of pregnancy, malformations, or clinical course after birth. PMID:1571295

  11. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Moiduddin; Massey, Douglas S.

    2008-01-01

    In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse). We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce ...

  12. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill;

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at bir...

  13. Correlation between gestational weight gain and birth weight of the infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, I; Sunuwar, L; Bhandary, S; Sharma, P

    2010-06-01

    Birth weight is an important determinant of infant's well being as low birth weight is known to increase the risk adult onset of diseases like type-2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Maternal weight gain is one of the most important independent predictors of infant birth weight. Institute of Medicine of the National Academics, USA has recommended that total weight gain of mothers should be according to their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). Therefore, this study was conducted to observe the total weight gained by the pregnant women and the correlation between the weights gained by them with the birth weight of their infants. 98 women who delivered full term single baby at Patan hospital were included after taking their verbal consent. The details of the newborn and the history of the pregnant women were taken from the hospital records. The information about the family income, dietary habit, birth spacing and the type of work done by the pregnant women was obtained from the women themselves. The mean weight gain of the mothers was 9.48 (SD = 3.41) kilograms and the mean birth weight of the infants was found to be 2965.66 (SD = 364.37) grams. Multiple Liner Regression Models showed the effect of Gestational weight gain (GWG), Age and Parity on birth weight of the infant. Step-wise multiple regressions gave rise to models that showed effect of GWG and age on birth weight of the infants. This study concluded that gestational weight gain has positive linear relationship (correlation) with the birth weight of infants. PMID:21222408

  14. Are environmental pollutants risk factors for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to air pollutants and low birth weight in a medium-sized city. An ecological study was performed, using live birth data from São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil. The environmental data were obtained from the São Paul State Environmental Agency. The study included full-term newborns whose mothers were 20 to 34 years of age and had at least a complete high school education, seven or more prenatal visits, singleton pregnancy, and vaginal delivery, in order to minimize potential confounding from these variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of each pollutant. Low birth weight was defined as less than 2,500g. The sample included a total of 2,529 data from 2001 that met the inclusion criteria (25.6% of the total. We identified 99 newborns (3.95% of the sample with low birth weight, and the pollutants sulfur dioxide and ozone were associated with low birth weight. The final model was À(x = -1.79 + 1.30 (SO2 + 1.26 (O3. Thus, sulfur dioxide and ozone were identified as risk factors for low birth weight in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil.

  15. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Marta Lucia [Fundacao Faculdade Regional de Medicina (FUNFARME), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base; Piatto, Vania Belintani [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Soares, E-mail: depimagem@famerp.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2010-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  16. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  17. 孕前体质指数与早产的关系%Relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index and preterm birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立芳; 周虹; 张妍; 王燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI)and preterm birth.Methods:A case-control study was conducted in Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hos-pital in Beijing from January to April in 201 3.This study contained 1 74 preterm births in the case group and 382 term deliveries in the control group.The height,pre-pregnancy body weight,body weight before delivery,gestational weeks,history of diseases,family history of diseases,and complications during pregnancy of the subjects were collected.Multivariate Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI)after adjustment by maternal age,education,smoke during pregnancy,primiparous,mean income,and mean family living space.Results:After analyzing the rele-vant risk factors of preterm birth,the multivariate Logistic regression showed that pre-pregnancy obesity was a risk factor for preterm birth,the adjusted odds ratio was 2.461 (95% CI:1 .1 74 -5.1 59,P =0.01 7).The associations between pre-pregnancy overweight and preterm birth or pre-pregnancy under-weight and preterm birth were not found.The gestational diabetes mellitus,pregnancy-induced hyperten-sion,and family history of preterm birth were risk factors for preterm birth,the adjusted odds ratios were 1 .781 (95% CI:1 .025 -3.095,P =0.040),3.831 (95% CI:2.044 -7.1 80,P <0.001 ),and 3.675 (95% CI:1 .358 -9.942,P =0.01 0),respectively.Conclusion:Pre-pregnancy obesity ap-peared to be a risk factor for preterm birth.To decrease the incidence of preterm birth,women should improve preconception care and keep their BMI in a normal range before pregnancy.%目的:探讨孕前体质指数(body mass index,BMI)与早产的关系。方法:以在北京市海淀区妇幼保健院住院分娩的174例早产儿为病例,382例足月儿为对照,收集孕妇身高、孕前体重、分娩前最后一次体重、孕周、家族史、疾病史以及孕期并发症等信息,运用多因素 Logistic

  18. The Outcomes of Very Early Preterm Births in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyurguyana S. Baisheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Protection of maternal and child health is a special health care industry. It largely determines the future of the nation. Therefore, it is an important matter of the state. This article presents an analysis of cases of very early preterm births (VEPB and their outcomes in 2012-2014 in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia (RS (Y. Retrospective analysis of the cases of VEPB and of the status of health of the babies born before 28 weeks of gestation was conducted during the research. The group at risk of VEPB consisted of women with burdened obstetric and gynecological history. The main causes of VEPB were premature amniorrhexis in pregnant women with carriage of infections and life-threatening severe pre-eclampsia. In the structure of morbidity of very preterm babies the first place among the main diseases belongs to perinatal lesion of CNS, the second place belongs to respiratory distress syndrome, and the third place to infectious and inflammatory diseases. In the structure of death, 57.1 % of fatal cases are babies with a term of gestation less than 28 weeks. The causes of mortality were respiratory distress syndrome, congenital pneumonia, and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  19. The maternal serological response to intrauterine Ureaplasma sp. infection and prediction of risk of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demelza Jane Ireland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB associated with intrauterine infection and inflammation (IUI is the major cause of early PTB less than 32 weeks gestation. Ureaplasma sp. are common commensals of the urogenital tract in pregnancy and are the most commonly identified microorganism in amniotic fluid of preterm pregnancies. While we have an understanding of the causal relationship between intraamniotic infection, inflammation and PTB, we are still unable to explain why vaginal Ureaplasma colonization is tolerated in some women but causes PTB in others. It is now known that placental tissues are frequently colonized by bacteria even in apparently healthy pregnancies delivered at term; usually this occurs in the absence of a significant local inflammatory response. It appears, therefore, that the site, nature and magnitude of the immune response to infiltrating microorganisms is key in determining pregnancy outcome. Some evidence exists that the maternal serological response to Ureaplasma sp. colonization may be predictive of adverse pregnancy outcome, although issues such as the importance of virulence factors (serovars and the timing, magnitude and functional consequences of the immune response await clarification. This mini-review discusses the evidence linking the maternal immune response to risk of PTB and the potential applications of maternal serological analysis for predicting obstetric outcome.

  20. Outdoor air pollution, low birth weight, and prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, M

    2000-02-01

    This study tested the hypothesis, suggested by several recent reports, that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. This study analyzed all singleton live births registered by the Czech national birth register in 1991 in 67 districts where at least one pollutant was monitored in 1990-1991 (n = 108,173). Maternal exposures to sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), total suspended particles (TSP), and nitrous oxides (NO(x)) in each trimester of pregnancy were estimated as the arithmetic means of all daily measurements taken by all monitors in the district of birth of each infant. Odds ratios of low birth weight (pollutant. The effects on low birth weight and prematurity were marginally stronger for exposures in the first trimester, and were not attenuated at all by adjustment for socioeconomic factors or the month of birth. Adjusted odds ratios of low birth weight were 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.30] and 1.15 (CI, 1.07-1.24) for a 50 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2) and TSP, respectively, in the first trimester; adjusted odds ratios of prematurity were 1.27 (CI, 1.16-1.39) and 1.18 (CI, 1.05-1.31) for a 50 microg/m(3) increase in SO(2) and TSP, respectively, in the first trimester. Low gestational age accounted for the association between SO(2) and low birth weight. These findings provide further support for the hypothesis that air pollution can affect the outcome of pregnancy. PMID:10656859

  1. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy...... results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...

  2. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Rafael A; Lin Xi; Campbell Joy M; Moeser Adam J; Odle Jack

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birt...

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis C-complex serovars are a risk factor for preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Stine; Vogel, Ida; Thorsen, Poul;

    2007-01-01

    , Chlamydia antigen, Chlamydia IgG, Chlamydia complex B, C and GF levels were measured. Spontaneous preterm birth (< 37 completed weeks gestation) was the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes included infertility treatment, subfertility and ectopic pregnancies. Crude and adjusted relative risks (RR) and...... odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression. RESULTS: C. trachomatis C-complex positivity was associated with spontaneous PTB [RR 2.6 (1.1-6.29)] and additionally with a prior history of subfertility [OR 4.4 [2.5-7.7]), infertility treatment [OR 7.2 (4.0-12.8)] and ectopic pregnancy [5.2 (2.......2-12.4)]. CONCLUSION: A previous infection with C. trachomatis C-complex was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous PTB and may potentially contribute to subfertility, infertility and ectopic pregnancy....

  4. Candidate gene linkage approach to identify DNA variants that predispose to preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bream, Elise N A; Leppellere, Cara R; Cooper, Margaret E;

    2013-01-01

    Background:The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants contributing to preterm birth (PTB) using a linkage candidate gene approach.Methods:We studied 99 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for 33 genes in 257 families with PTBs segregating. Nonparametric and parametric analyses were...... used. Premature infants and mothers of premature infants were defined as affected cases in independent analyses.Results:Analyses with the infant as the case identified two genes with evidence of linkage: CRHR1 (P = 0.0012) and CYP2E1 (P = 0.0011). Analyses with the mother as the case identified four...... through the infant and/or the mother in the etiology of PTB....

  5. Genomics of Preterm Birth--Evidence of Association and Evolving Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Jessica A; Manuck, Tracy A

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a large public health problem in the United States and worldwide. There is a clear genetic component to the pathogenesis of PTB, as evidenced by twin studies, heritability studies, and investigations from large population databases. Although numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with PTB, results have been inconsistent and overall disappointing. With recent advances in genetic technology, investigations are moving beyond simple, more traditional candidate gene studies, and have expanded to encompass more exploratory analyses using high-throughput genetic techniques. Care should be taken to consider the potential impact of fetal genotype, the environment, and gene-drug interactions (pharmacogenomics) in addition to maternal genotype. Future research should capitalize on evolving analytic techniques, including pathway analyses and correlation of genetic and functional data to optimize discovery, increase knowledge regarding prematurity pathogenesis, and begin to develop novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26799966

  6. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  7. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  8. Exploring preterm birth as a polymicrobial disease: An overview of the uterine microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Payne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection is the leading cause of preterm birth. A focus of many studies over the past decade has been to characterise microorganisms present in the uterine cavity and document any association with negative pregnancy outcome. A range of techniques have been used to achieve this, including microbiological culture and targeted polymerase chain reaction assays, and more recently, microbiome-level analyses involving either conserved, phylogenetically informative genes such as the bacterial 16S rRNA gene or whole shotgun metagenomic sequencing. These studies have contributed vast amounts of data towards characterisation of the uterine microbiome, specifically that present in the amniotic fluid, fetal membranes and placenta. However, an overwhelming emphasis has been placed on the bacterial microbiome, with far less data produced on the viral and fungal/yeast microbiomes. With numerous studies now referring to preterm birth as a polymicrobial condition, there is the need to investigate the role of viruses and fungi in more detail and in particular, look for associations between colonisation with these microorganisms and bacteria in the same samples. Although the major pathway by which microorganisms are believed to colonise the uterine cavity is vertical ascension from the vagina, numerous studies are now emerging suggesting haematogenous transfer of oral microbiota to the uterine cavity. Evidence of this has been produced in mouse models and although DNA-based evidence in humans appears convincing in some aspects, use of methodologies that only detect viable cells as opposed to lysed cells and extracellular DNA are needed to clarify this. Such techniques as RNA analyses and viability PCR are likely to play key roles in the clinical translation of future microbiome-based data, particularly in confined environments such as the uterus, as detection of viable cells plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment of infection.

  9. Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in Connecticut in 2000–2006: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Gavin; Belanger, Kathleen; Ebisu, Keita; Bell, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have examined associations between particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) and preterm birth, but it is uncertain whether results were affected by individual predispositions (e.g., genetic factors, social conditions) that might vary considerably between women. We tested the hypothesis that a woman is at greater risk of preterm delivery when she has had elevated exposure to ambient PM2.5 during a pregnancy than when she has not by comparing pregna...

  10. Does Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Increase the Risk of Preterm Birth: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-Lu Qin; Fang-Guo Lu; Sheng-Hui Yang; Hui-Lan Xu; Bang-An Luo

    2016-01-01

    There are disagreements among researchers about the association between vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB). Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate this association. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library through August 2015 with the following keywords: “vitamin D” or “cholecalciferol” or “25-hydroxyvitamin D” or “25(OH)D” in combination with “premature birth” or “preterm birth” or...

  11. Birth Weight following Pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California Wildfires

    OpenAIRE

    Holstius, David M; Reid, Colleen E.; Jesdale, Bill M.; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Background: In late October 2003, a series of wildfires exposed urban populations in Southern California to elevated levels of air pollution over several weeks. Previous research suggests that short-term hospital admissions for respiratory outcomes increased specifically as a result of these fires. Objective: We assessed the impact of a wildfire event during pregnancy on birth weight among term infants. Methods: Using records for singleton term births delivered to mothers residing in Californ...

  12. IS LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ASSOCIATED WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE?

    OpenAIRE

    Nutan Nalini; Atul Mukul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Daily we see lots of still birth cases and the agony associated with it after carrying the fetus for so many months with the negative outcome it is quite disheartening. Malnutrition is quite rampant in the country as far as the females are concerned and in the name of the religion and rituals, it complicates the issue further. If the mother is malnourished, the chance of low birth weight baby is high. OBJECTIVES To correlate the prevalence of cardiac anomal...

  13. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations of...... the study period. The relation to VLBW could indicate a causal relationship for hypospadias or a shared pathogenic factor....

  14. Gentrification and preterm birth in New York City, 2008–2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, M; Maroko, A R

    2014-02-01

    Adverse birth outcomes have been linked to neighborhood level socioeconomic status. However, little work has examined the influence of social and economic change over time (i.e., gentrification) on health. This study aims to assess the association between gentrification and preterm birth (PTB) while examining the modifying effect of maternal race/ethnicity and educational attainment. New York City births, 2008–2010, (n=126,165) were linked to a measure of gentrification at the community district level (n=59). The gentrification measure was calculated using percent change in education level, poverty level, and median household income (MHI) between the 2005–2009 American Community Survey and the 1990 Census. PTB was defined as clinical gestational age less than 37 weeks. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to examine the association. Gentrification (i.e., increase in residents with a college education, increase in MHI, and decrease in residents living below the poverty line) was not associated with PTB. However, among Non-Hispanic Blacks, very high gentrification was adversely associated with PTB (AOR, 1.16; 95 % CI, 1.01–1.33) as compared to those who lived in a very low gentrified neighborhood. Among non- Hispanic Whites, living in a very high gentrified neighborhood was protective as compared to living in a very low gentrified neighborhood (AOR, 0.78; 95 % CI, 0.64– 0.94). Although there is a need to develop a more nuanced measure of gentrification, these results indicate that changes in the economic character of a neighborhood may have a significant influence on birth outcomes. PMID:24022181

  15. Birth weight-related percentiles of brain ventricular system as a tool for assessment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and ventricular enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, Sebastian; Bamberg, Christian; Proquitté, Hans; Metze, Boris; Bührer, Christoph; Schmitz, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Besides remarkable improvements of neonatal medical therapy, neurological morbidity remains a major concern in preterm infants. In particular, intracranial hemorrhage is a severe complication strongly correlated to poor neurological outcome. For early clinical assessment of intracranial hemorrhage and its impact on the ventricular system, cranial sonography is an important bedside diagnostic tool. Reference values of ventricular sizes are available in relation to gestational age (GA). So far, it has not been demonstrated that ventricular size values are also reliable in relation to birth weight (BW). In this study, we performed cranial ultrasonography in 250 preterm and term newborn infants. Measurements of the intracranial ventricular system by cranial ultrasound examination were performed within 72 h after birth. We determined ventricular index, anterior horn width, width of the third ventricle, width and length of the fourth ventricle for statistical analysis in relation to BW and GA. GA ranged from 23 weeks, 3 days to 42 weeks, 1 day (mean: 33 weeks), BW ranged from 345 to 5620 g (mean: 2146 g). Ventricular index and fourth ventricle width revealed a significant correlation to birth weight with r=0.75, each. A significant correlation to birth weight was also obtained for width and length of the third ventricle (r=0.55 and 0.47, respectively). Correlations obtained for ventricular measures in relation to GA were similar to those referring to BW. In preterm and term infants, ventricular sizes in relation to BW seem reliable for assessment and monitoring of ventricular pathologies, i.e. after intracranial hemorrhage. PMID:26378487

  16. What is the strongest predictor of birth weight: Gestational age, hbalc, maternal weight, weight gain, or birth weight of sibling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus

    A1c values after 20th gestational week were collected. Multiple regression models were fitted to assess the effect various predictors of birthweight in both entire cohort (n=501) and in a subset with available weight of sibling (n=139). Sibling weight was calculated as relative to expected weight...... adjusted for age and sex using a Danish reference. E.g. an observed sibling weight of 3800 g with expected BW 3400 g predicts 11.8% extra weight equal to 134 grams (114x11.8) and one extra gestational day predicts an additional weight of 27 grams.  Results: The effects in terms of additional grams in BW...... for various increments in each of the 9 variables are seen in the table. All significant values are in bold face.  Conclusion: Weight of sibling is a very strong predictor of birthweight attenuating the predictive power of all other variablesapart from gestational age....

  17. Assessment of brain maturation in the preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Xueying, E-mail: lingxuey@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Wen [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Guosheng [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Li [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Bingxiao [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Sirun [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Jing [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the brain maturation of preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN). Materials and methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), DTI and ESWAN were performed in 60 preterm infants and 21 term controls. 60 preterm infants were subgrouped to two groups according to the age at imaging: before and at term-equivalent age (TEA). Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map from DTI, T{sub 2}* and R{sub 2}* maps from ESWAN were post-processed at an off-line workstation. The values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}* and R{sub 2}* from the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital white matter (OWM) and lentiform nuclei (LN) were determined. These parameters were compared between preterm and term infants. Correlations of DTI and ESWAN parameters with the gestational age, postmenstrual age and postnatal age were analyzed. Results: ADCs of FWM, OWM and LN, and T{sub 2}* values of the PLIC and LN were higher in the preterm infants at TEA compared with the term controls. The correlations were existed between the postmenstrual age and the values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}*, R{sub 2}* from the PLIC, values of ADC, T{sub 2}*, R{sub 2}* from the LN, T{sub 2}* value from the OWM. The correlations were also found between the postnatal age and the values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}* from the PLIC, and T{sub 2}* value from the LN. Conclusion: The maturity of preterm brain around TEA was different from that of term controls and appeared to be independent of the prematurity at birth. T{sub 2}* was one of valuable indices to evaluate brain maturation in preterm infants.

  18. Low birth weight: risk factors in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights (LBW) in Irbid, Jordan, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in Prince Rashed Hospital (PRH). Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 15-45 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive in PRH during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is also a need to discourage early pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy. (author)

  19. Birth weight and postnatal growth of pure-bred kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moik, Katja; Kienzle, Ellen

    2011-10-01

    Data on body weight of pure-bred kittens (Maine Coon, Norwegian Forest Cat, Birman, Persian, Siamese/Oriental Shorthair Cat) from birth (n 245) to 12 weeks of age (n 135) were obtained from breeders. Absolute birth weight (in g) was higher in larger breeds than in smaller breeds, whereas relative birth weight (in % of mature female weight) tended to be higher in smaller breeds (Maine Coon 115 g, 2.3 %; Norwegian Forest Cat 106 g, 2.7 %; Birman 97 g, 2.8 %; Siamese 92 g, 2.8 %; Persian 82 g, 3.2 %). Relative birth weight was lower than that described in the literature for colony cats. Relative litter weight was highest in Norwegian Forest Cats (14.6 (SD 1.8) %; n 10) and lowest in Birmans (8.8 (SD 3.1) %, n 7; P cats but no clear-cut effect of breed size. There appeared to be a trend to an earlier onset of sexual dimorphism in larger breeds. PMID:22005433

  20. Is adolescent pregnancy a risk factor for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria D'avila Nery Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether adolescent pregnancy is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW babies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and their newborns from a birth cohort in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected consecutively from March to July 2005. Information collected included socioeconomic, biological and reproductive aspects of the mothers, using a standardized questionnaire. The impact of early pregnancy on birth weight was evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 4,746 pairs of mothers and their babies. Of these, 20.6% were adolescents (< 20 years of age. Adolescent mothers had worse socioeconomic and reproductive conditions and perinatal outcomes when compared to other age groups. Having no prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors associated with low birth weight. Adolescent pregnancy, when linked to marital status "without partner", was associated with an increased proportion of low birth weight babies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence was a risk factor for LBW only for mothers without partners. Smoking during pregnancy and lack of prenatal care were considered to be independent risk factors for LBW.

  1. Maternal Determinants of Birth Weight in Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Abubakari

    Full Text Available Weight at birth is usually considered as an indicator of the health status of a given society. As a result this study was designed to investigate the association between birth weight and maternal factors such as gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy BMI and socio-economic status in Northern Ghana.The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in two districts in the Northern region of Ghana. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural population. The current study included 419 mother-infant pairs who delivered at term (37-42 weeks. Mother's height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight changes were generated from the antenatal records. Questionnaires were administered to establish socio-economic and demographic information of respondents. Maternal factors associated with birth weight were examined using multiple and univariate regressions.The mothers were generally well nourished before conception (Underweight 3.82%, Normal 57.76%, Overweight 25.06% and Obesity 13.37% but approximately half of them could not gain adequate weight according to Institute of Medicine recommendations (Low weight gain 49.64%, Adequate weight gain 42.96% and Excessive weight gain 7.40%. Infants whose mothers had excess weight gain were 431g (95% CI 18-444 heavier compared to those whose mothers gained normal weight, while those whose mothers gained less were 479g (95% CI -682- (-276 lighter. Infants of mothers who were overweight and obese before conception were 246g (95% CI 87-405 and 595g (95% CI 375-815 respectively heavier than those of normal mothers, whereas those whose mothers were underweight were 305g (95% CI -565 -(-44 lighter. The mean birth weight observed was 2.98 ± 0.68 kg.Our findings show that pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy influence birth weight. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counseling and assisting pregnant women to stay within the recommended weight

  2. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  3. The production of child health in Kenya: a structural model of birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Mwabu, Germano

    2008-01-01

    The paper investigates birth weight and its correlates in Kenya using nationally representative data collected by the government in the early 1990s. I find that immunization of the mother against tetanus during pregnancy is strongly associated with improvements in birth weight. Other factors significantly correlated with birth weight include age of the mother at first birth and birth orders of siblings. It is further found that birth weight is positively associated with mother's age at first ...

  4. Prediction of low birth weight infants from ultrasound measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to help to predict low birth weight infants by measuring placental diameter and thickness. A prospective study was conducted of 70 consecutive singleton pregnancies to evaluate placental diameter and thickness by ultrasonographic measurement at 36 weeks gestation. The individual data were fitted to a logistic regression analysis. A warning limit of a placental diameter of 18 cm and placental thickness of 2 cm at 36 weeks gestation were calculated to predict low birth weight infants. Ultrasonograhic placental diameter and thickness measurements appear to be of prognostic value in identifying the subsequent occurrence of fetal growth retardation. (author)

  5. Status cognitivo-comportamental de prematuros de baixo peso ao nascimento em idade pré-escolar que vivem em país em desenvolvimento Cognitive and behavioral status of low birth weight preterm children raised in a developing country at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia L. do Espírito Santo

    2009-02-01

    development at preschool age of children born preterm and with low birth weight and raised in a developing country. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study of 80 neonates born in a university hospital in southern Brazil. Neuropsychological assessment at age 4-5 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI, Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised, Denver test and neurological examination. Perinatal and early neuropsychomotor development information was collected from the database during follow-up. Results were related to birth weight, sex and gestational age. RESULTS: WPPSI scores were: total IQ 88.00±16.96, verbal IQ 89.72±16.72, and executive IQ 88.12±15.71 for the group with less than 1,500 grams; and total IQ 91.11±14.73, verbal IQ 93.36±12.65, and executive IQ 90.20±16.06 for the group between 1,500 and 2,500 grams. The best scores were obtained in tests that evaluated capacity of abstraction and symbolization, picture completion and common perception, in which only 5% and 6.3% of the children had abnormal results, respectively. The lowest scores were obtained in tests that evaluated visual-motor coordination and flexibility-speed of reasoning, in which 27.5% and 16.3% of the children had abnormal results, respectively. A total of 32.5% had abnormal results in the arithmetic tests. Behaviors related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were observed in 48% of the sample. Low score in the Bayley Mental Scale and abnormal result in the Denver test were significantly correlated to ADHD (p = 0.017 and p = 0.004. Abnormal results in the Bayley Mental Scale (p < 0.001, Denver test (p < 0.001 and neurological examination (p = 0.002 were associated with lower IQ. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed an increased incidence of behavioral and cognitive disorders at preschool age.

  6. Assessing exposure metrics for PM and birth weight models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Simone C; Edwards, Sharon E; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2010-07-01

    The link between air pollution exposure and adverse birth outcomes is of public health concern due to the relationship between poor pregnancy outcomes and the onset of childhood and adult diseases. As personal exposure measurements are difficult and expensive to obtain, proximate measures of air pollution exposure are traditionally used. We explored how different air pollution exposure metrics affect birth weight regression models. We examined the effect of maternal exposure to ambient levels of particulate matter pregnancy for 2000-2002 (n=350,754). County-level averages of air pollution concentrations were estimated for the entire pregnancy and each trimester. For a finer spatially resolved metric, we calculated exposure averages for women living within 20, 10, and 5 km of a monitor. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the association between exposure and birth weight, adjusting for standard covariates. In the county-level model, an interquartile increase in PM(10) and PM(2.5) during the entire gestational period reduced the birth weight by 5.3 g (95% CI: 3.3-7.4) and 4.6 g (95% CI: 2.3-6.8), respectively. This model also showed a reduction in birth weight for PM(10) (7.1 g, 95% CI: 1.0-13.2) and PM(2.5) (10.4 g, 95% CI: 6.4-14.4) during the third trimester. Proximity models for 20, 10, and 5 km distances showed results similar to the county-level models. County-level models assume that exposure is spatially homogeneous over a larger surface area than proximity models. Sensitivity analysis showed that at varying spatial resolutions, there is still a stable and negative association between air pollution and birth weight, despite North Carolina's consistent attainment of federal air quality standards. PMID:19773814

  7. Intraventricular hemorrhage in a very low birth weight infants: Associated risk factors in Isfahan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prematurely born infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) suffer significant morbidity and mortality, particularly with those infants with high-grade hemorrhage. Previous studies have proposed a number of risk factors for IVH; however, lack of adequate matching for gestational age and birth weight may have confounded the results. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that affect the risk of IVH. We identified 31 preterm infants with gestational age < 32 weeks and birth weight < 1500 g, with IVH, from November 2003 to January 2005 at Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A control group of 90 infants, matched for gestational age and birth weight was selected. Maternal factors, labor and delivery characteristics and neonatal parameters were collected in both groups. Results of cranial ultrasound examinations were also collected. The significant risk factors for IVH were found to be: patent ductus artreiosus arteriosus (PDA) [4 (13.3%) versus 3(3.3%) (p=0.01)], longer duration of assisted ventilation [4 (2.8+-5.8 days versus 0.5+-2.1 days (p=0.002)], a higher number of endotracheal suctioning [9.7+-18.4 versus 3.06+-13.7 (p=0.004)], surfactant use, [7(22.6%) versus 3(3.4%) (p=0.003)], positive pressure ventilation at birth [12 (38.7%) versus 12(13.3%), (p=0.004)] and low Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes. Whereas antenatal steroid treatments and cesarean sections have protective effect on the occurrence of IVH. Our data emphasize the importance of obstetric and prenatal care to improve outcomes of premature infants. (author)

  8. Second trimester amniotic fluid cytokine concentrations, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation status and sexual activity as predictors of preterm birth in Chinese and Australian women

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Matthew S.; Feng, Zhenhua; Li, Shaofu; Doherty, Dorota A; Xu, Biyun; Li, Jie; Liu, Lenan; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Zhou, Yi Hua; Dickinson, Jan E.; HU, YALI; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study tested if second trimester amniotic fluid cytokine levels, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation and sexual activity predict preterm birth and explain the differential preterm birth rates in Chinese compared to Australian women. Methods Amniotic fluid was collected by amniocentesis (Chinese 480, Australian 492). Cytokines were measured by multiplex assay and Ureaplasma sp. DNA was detected by PCR analysis. Lifestyle factors, including history of smoking and sexual activity during ...

  9. California Very Preterm Birth Study: design and characteristics of the population- and biospecimen bank-based nested case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Kharrazi, Marin; Pearl, Michelle; Yang, Juan; Delorenze, Gerald N.; Bean, Christopher J.; Callaghan, William M.; Grant, Althea; Lackritz, Eve; Romero, Roberto; Satten, Glen A.; Simhan, Hyagriv; Torres, Anthony R.; Jonna B. Westover; Yolken, Robert; Williamson, Dhelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPTB) is a leading cause of infant mortality, morbidity and racial disparity in the U.S. The underlying causes of VPTB are multiple and poorly understood. The California Very Preterm Birth Study was conducted to discover maternal and infant genetic and environmental factors associated with VPTB. This paper describes the study design, population, data and specimen collection, laboratory methods and characteristics of the study population. Using a large, population-based coh...

  10. Polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1-beta promoters with possible gene regulatory functions increase the risk of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Mads Vilhelm; Grove, Jakob; Thorsen, Poul; Wang, Xiaobin; Mandrup, Susanne; Christiansen, Michael; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Wojdemann, Karen R.; Tabor, Ann; Attermann, Jørn; Hougaard, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relation between 19 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in three cytokine genes, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA), interleukin 1-beta (IL1B) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation). Design. Case-control association study. Sample. A tot...... cytokine genes TNFA and IL1B may increase the risk of preterm birth, possibly by a dysregulation of the immune system in pregnancy....

  11. Polymorphisms in the tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1-beta promoters with possible gene regulatory functions increase the risk of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Mads Vilhelm; Grove, Jakob; Thorsen, Poul; Wang, Xiaobin; Mandrup, Susanne; Christiansen, Michael; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Wojdemann, Karen R; Tabor, Ann; Attermann, Jorn; Hougaard, David Michael

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between 19 selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in three cytokine genes, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA), interleukin 1-beta (IL1B) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation). DESIGN: Case-control association study. SAMPLE: A tot...... cytokine genes TNFA and IL1B may increase the risk of preterm birth, possibly by a dysregulation of the immune system in pregnancy....

  12. Income-related and educational inequality in small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland 1987-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust H; Lauridsen, Jørgen T; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs).......In this paper, we examine income- and education-related inequality in small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth in Denmark and Finland from 1987 to 2003 using concentration indexes (CIXs)....

  13. Bordetella bronchiseptica Pneumonia in an Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yuk Joseph; Ho, Pak-Leung; Wong, Kar-Yin

    2011-12-01

    Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is a common veterinary pathogen. In both domestic and wild animals, this bacterium causes respiratory infections including infectious tracheobronchitis in dogs and atrophic rhinitis in swine. Human infections are rare and have been documented in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we describe an extremely-low-birth-weight infant with B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. This is the first report that describes the microorganism's responsibility in causing nosocomial infection in a preterm neonate. He recovered uneventfully after a course of meropenem. It is possible that the bacteria colonize the respiratory tracts of our health care workers or parents who may have had contact with pets and then transmitted the bacterium to our patient. Follow-up until 21 months of age showed normal growth and development. He did not suffer from any significant residual respiratory disease. PMID:23705092

  14. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Cathrine Hoyo; Randy Jirtle; Joanne Kurtzberg; Francine Overcash; Nikki Henry; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Forman, Michele R.; Wendy Demark-Wahnefried; Kimberly Fortner; Vidal, Adriana C.; Murtha, Amy P; Susan K Murphy

    2013-01-01

    At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (...

  15. Maternal obesity and neonatal mortality according to subtypes of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Vaeth, Michael; Bech, Bodil H;

    2007-01-01

    -2002) who were interviewed during the second trimester. Information about pregnancy outcomes and neonatal deaths (n=230) was obtained from national registers. The association was estimated by Cox regression analyses and results were presented as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS......: Compared with infants of mothers who were at a normal weight before pregnancy (BMI of 18.5 or more but less than 25), neonatal mortality was increased in infants of mothers who were overweight (BMI of 25 or more but less than 30) or obese (BMI of 30 or more) (adjusted hazard ratios 1.7, CI 1.2-2.5, and 1.......6, CI 1.0-2.4, respectively). For preterm infants (n=3,934, 136 deaths), neonatal mortality in infants born after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) was significantly increased if they were born to an overweight or obese mother (adjusted hazard ratios 3.5, CI 1.4-8.7, and 5.7, CI 2...

  16. Association of maternal serum concentrations of 2,2', 4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels with birth weight, gestational age and preterm births in Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Rabczenko, Daniel; Jönsson, Bo A G;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on the association between maternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fetal growth alteration report inconsistent findings which weights in favor of additional studies.......Epidemiological studies on the association between maternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fetal growth alteration report inconsistent findings which weights in favor of additional studies....

  17. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384

  18. Weight at birth and all-cause mortality in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small size at birth is associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and large size is associated with obesity and cancer. The overall impact of these opposing effects on mortality throughout the lifespan is unclear because causes of death change with age. METHODS: We...... investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years. Associations with...... death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality was...

  19. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Small size at birth is associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and large size is associated with obesity and cancer. The overall impact of these opposing effects on mortality throughout the lifespan is unclear because causes of death change with age. METHODS......:: We investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years....... Associations with death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS:: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality...

  20. Intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, prematurity and infant mortality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Bobak, M.

    Copenhagen : WHO, 2005 - (Theakston, F.), s. 14-27 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * pregnancy outcome * birth weight Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  1. Prenatal Smoking Exposure, Low Birth Weight, and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Breslau, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Prenatal problems are among theorized etiologies for child disruptive behavior problems. A key question concerns whether etiological contributors are shared across the broad range of disruptive psychopathology or are partially or largely distinct. Method: We examined prenatal smoking exposure and low birth weight as risk factors for…

  2. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t

  3. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille;

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India...

  4. The last and first frontier – emerging challenges for HIV treatment and prevention in the first week of life with emphasis on premature and low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Cotton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is new emphasis on identifying and treating HIV in the first days of life and also an appreciation that low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PTD frequently accompany HIV-related pregnancy. Even in the absence of HIV, PTD and LBW contribute substantially to neonatal and infant mortality. HIV-exposed and -infected infants with these characteristics have received little attention thus far. As HIV programs expand to meet the 90-90-90 target for ending the HIV pandemic, attention should focus on newborn infants, including those delivered preterm or of LBW. Discussion: In high prevalence settings, infant diagnosis of HIV is usually undertaken after the neonatal period. However, as in utero infection may be diagnosed at birth, earlier initiation of therapy may limit viral replication and prevent early damage. Globally, there is growing awareness that preterm and LBW infants constitute a substantial proportion of births each year. Preterm infants are at high risk for vertical transmission. Feeding difficulties, apnoea of prematurity and vulnerability to sepsis occur commonly. Feeding intolerance, a frequent occurrence, may compromise oral administration of medications. Although there is growing experience with post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-exposed term newborn infants, there is less experience with preterm and LBW infants. For treatment, there are even fewer options for preterm infants. Only zidovudine has adequate dosing recommendations for treating term and preterm infants and has an intravenous formulation, essential if feeding intolerance occurs. Nevirapine dosing for prevention, but not treatment, is well established for both term and preterm infants.HIV diagnosis at birth is likely to be extremely stressful for new parents, more so if caring for preterm or LBW infants. Programs need to adapt to support the medical and emotional needs of young infants and their parents, where interventions may be lifesaving

  5. Dietary Flavonoids as Therapeutics for Preterm Birth: Luteolin and Kaempferol Suppress Inflammation in Human Gestational Tissues In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney Wall; Ratana Lim; Marin Poljak; Martha Lappas

    2013-01-01

    Infection/inflammation is commonly associated with preterm birth (PTB), initiating uterine contractions and rupture of fetal membranes. Proinflammatory cytokines induce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) and prostaglandins which initiate uterine contractions. Nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B) and activator-protein- (AP-)1 have key roles in the formation of these prolabour mediators. In nongestational tissues, dietary flavonoids such as luteolin and kaempf...

  6. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport

  7. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige, E-mail: tkawakami@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport.

  8. Neural compensation in adulthood following very preterm birth demonstrated during a visual paired associates learning task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Brittain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Very preterm birth (VPT; < 33 weeks of gestation is associated with an increased risk of learning disability, which contributes to more VPT-born children repeating grades and underachieving in school. Learning problems associated with VPT birth may be caused by pathophysiological alterations in neurodevelopment resulting from perinatal brain insult; however, adaptive neuroplastic processes may subsequently occur in the developing preterm brain which ameliorate, to an extent, the potential sequelae of altered neurophysiology. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare neuronal activation in 24 VPT individuals and 22 controls (CT in young adulthood during a learning task consisting of the encoding and subsequent recognition of repeated visual paired associates. Structural MRI data were also collected and analysed in order to explore possible structure-function associations. Whilst the two groups did not differ in their learning ability, as demonstrated by their capacity to recognize previously-seen and previously–unseen visual pairs, between-group differences in linear patterns of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependant (BOLD activity were observed across the four repeated blocks of the task for both the encoding and recognition conditions, suggesting that the way learning takes place differs between the two groups. During encoding, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the cerebellum, the anterior cingulate gyrus, the midbrain/substantia nigra, medial temporal (including parahippocampal gyrus and inferior and superior frontal gyri. During the recognition condition, significant between-group differences in patterns of BOLD activity were seen in clusters centred on the claustrum and the posterior cerebellum. Structural analysis revealed smaller grey matter volume in right middle temporal gyrus in VPT individuals compared to controls, however volume in this region

  9. Incidence and Risk Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity among Preterm Infants in Shiraz/Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mojgan Bayat-Mokhtari; Narjes Pishva; Abbas Attarzadeh; Hamid Hosseini; Shahnaz Pourarian

    2010-01-01

    Objective:Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a serious complication in preterm infants. To avoid this complication the risk factors leading to the disabling disease should be evaluated and prevented. Methods: This is a descriptive study. All preterm infants with birth weight under 1500 g and preterm infants with birth weight between 1500-2000 g who had unstable clinical condition and admitted in neonatal intensive care unit from February 2006-March 2007 at tertiary hospitals of Shiraz Univer...

  10. Is there any role for terlipressin in the extremely low birth weight infant with refractory septic shock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bissolo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocortisone, in whom terlipressin was attempted as a rescue drug. Despite three doses of terlipressin, administered 6-hourly, the patient remained profoundly hypotensive and eventually died. Further studies are required before any recommendation on the use of terlipressin in term or preterm newborns with septic shock can be made.

  11. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies: an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomized trials

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    Schuit Ewoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death. Methods/design We propose an individual participant data meta-analysis of high quality randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of progestogen treatment in women with a twin pregnancy. The primary outcome will be adverse perinatal outcome (a composite measure of perinatal mortality and significant neonatal morbidity. Missing data will be imputed within each original study, before data of the individual studies are pooled. The effects of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or vaginal progesterone treatment in women with twin pregnancies will be estimated by means of a random effects log-binomial model. Analyses will be adjusted for variables used in stratified randomization as appropriate. Pre-specified subgroup analysis will be performed to explore the effect of progestogen treatment in high-risk groups. Discussion Combining individual patient data from different randomized trials has potential to provide valuable, clinically useful information regarding the benefits and potential harms of progestogens in women with twin pregnancy overall and in relevant subgroups.

  12. Does Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency Increase the Risk of Preterm Birth: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lu-Lu; Lu, Fang-Guo; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Xu, Hui-Lan; Luo, Bang-An

    2016-01-01

    There are disagreements among researchers about the association between vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and preterm birth (PTB). Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate this association. We performed a systematic literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library through August 2015 with the following keywords: "vitamin D" or "cholecalciferol" or "25-hydroxyvitamin D" or "25(OH)D" in combination with "premature birth" or "preterm birth" or "PTB" or "preterm delivery" or "PTD" or "prematurity". Our meta-analysis of 10 studies included 10,098 participants and found that pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency (maternal serum 25 (OH) D levels ng/mL) experienced a significantly increased risk of PTB (odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, 95% confidence intervals(CI): 1.16, 1.45) with low heterogeneity (I² = 25%, p = 0.21). Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In the subgroup analyses, we found that heterogeneity was obvious in prospective cohort studies (I² = 60%, p = 0.06). In conclusion, pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy have an increasing risk of PTB. PMID:27213444

  13. Birth weight, current body weight, and blood pressure in late adolescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Seidman, D S; Laor, A.; Gale, R; Stevenson, D K; Mashiach, S; Danon, Y L

    1991-01-01

    Objective--To study the effect of birth weight and body weight on blood pressure in late adolescence. Design--Analysis of data on weight, height, and blood pressure at age 17 of subjects from the Jerusalem perinatal study, according to their birth weight. Data for men and women were analysed separately. Setting--Jerusalem, Israel. Subjects--32,580 subjects (19,734 men and 12,846 women) born in the three major hospitals in Jerusalem during 1964-71 and subsequently drafted in to the army. MAIN ...

  14. RISK OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS IN TEENAGE PREGNANCY

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    Padmasri Devi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Having a low birth weight (LBW baby can cause emotional, social and financial stress for the family. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross sectional study, of 1-year duration, was conducted in department of gynecology and obstetrics GSL Medical College and General hospital. Universal sampling method was employed and every antenatal woman with the age of 15-19 years were registered in department of gynecology and obstetrics GSL Medical college and General hospital from June2013 to July 2014 were included as study participants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 238 pregnant teenage subjects with in 34weeks of gestational age were included in the study. After the delivery of teenage pregnant subjects, babies with only live birth are included. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was performed to find the significant association among the teenage mothers, low birth weight of the babies and causes of low birth weight of the babies. P value 21 years in order to prevent risks that occur to mother and to newborn.

  15. Low Birth Weight Among Newborn Infants at Tehran Hospitals

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    Parichehr Tootoonchi

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight (LBW among the live born neonates at the hospitals in Tehran from Sep 2005 till Sep 2006.Material & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. Ten hospitals in Tehran were chosen randomly. During the period of study several days in a month were chosen randomly and all newborns born on those days were assessed. The studied characteristics included sex, gestational age, birth order, the interval to previous birth, existence of congenital anomalies, multiple pregnancy, maternal age, gravidity and parity number, history of maternal fertility (including previous LBW infants, infertility, abortion, history of recent pregnancy (including smoking, drug consumption, x-ray exposure, weight gain, vaginal bleeding, gestational illness, folate and iron consumption, gestational infection, chronic illness of the mother, maternal education and maternal job.Findings: We studied 514 (56.5% females and 391 (43.5% males. The LBW prevalence was 8.6% (78 newborns. There was significant statistical relationship between LBW and gestational age, the interval to previous birth, existence of congenital anomalies, multiple pregnancy, maternal age, history of maternal fertility (including previous LBW infants, infertility, abortion, history of recent pregnancy (including smoking, drug consumption, weight gain, vaginal bleeding, gestational illness, iron consumption, gestational infection, chronic illness of the mother and maternal education.Conclusion: Although our results regarding LBW prevalence and risk factors confirm the results of other studies, we recommend perspective studies to reconfirm the LBW risk factors.

  16. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    OpenAIRE

    Sadd James L; Jesdale Bill M; Morello-Frosch Rachel; Pastor Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the ...

  17. Effect of Ramadan Fasting during Pregnancy on Neonatal Birth Weight

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    1Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight. Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  18. Effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight

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    Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight.Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  19. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  20. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants of birth weight > 2000 g after haemorrhagic shock at birth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jandeck, C; Kellner, U.; Kössel, H; Bartsch, M.; Versmold, H T; Foerster, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with low birth weight and low gestational age. For ROP screening examination is recommended in infants weighing 1500 g (n = 149) and who required additional oxygen supplementation or underwent surgery with general anaesthesia ...

  1. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

  2. Drugs to block cytokine signaling for the prevention and treatment of inflammation induced preterm birth

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    Pearl Y Ng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth (PTB at less than 37 weeks of gestation is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Intrauterine infection (IUI due to microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity is the leading cause of early PTB (<32 weeks. Commensal genital tract Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma species, as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, have been associated with IUI-induced PTB. Bacterial activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs and other pattern recognition receptors initiates a cascade of inflammatory signaling via the NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, prematurely activating parturition. Antenatal antibiotic treatment has had limited success in preventing PTB or fetal inflammation. Administration of anti-inflammatory drugs with antibiotics could be a viable therapeutic option to prevent PTB and fetal complications in women at risk of IUI and inflammation. In this mini-review we will discuss the potential for anti-inflammatory drugs in obstetric care, focusing on the class of drugs termed ‘cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs’ or CSAIDs. These inhibitors work by specifically targeting the NF-κB and p38 MAPK inflammatory signaling pathways. Several CSAIDs are discussed, together with clinical and toxicological considerations associated with the administration of anti-inflammatory agents in pregnancy.

  3. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth [ACTRN12610000607077

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    Rickard Kristen R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design, we aim to evaluate whether treating women with asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis early in pregnancy is effective in preventing spontaneous preterm birth. Pregnant women presenting for antenatal care The study protocol draws on the usual antenatal care schedule, has been pilot-tested and the intervention involves only a minor modification of current practice. Women who agree to participate will self-collect a vaginal swab and those who are culture positive for Candida will be randomised (central, telephone to open-label treatment or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment, routine antenatal care. Outcomes will be obtained from population databases. A sample size of 3,208 women with Candida colonisation (1,604 per arm is required to detect a 40% reduction in the spontaneous preterm birth rate among women with asymptomatic candidiasis from 5.0% in the control group to 3.0% in women treated with clotrimazole (significance 0.05, power 0.8. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Discussion For our hypothesis, a placebo-controlled trial had major disadvantages: a placebo arm would not represent current clinical practice; knowledge of vaginal colonisation with Candida may change participants' behaviour; and a placebo with an alcohol preservative may have an independent affect on vaginal flora. These disadvantages can be overcome by the PROBE study design. This trial will provide definitive evidence on whether screening for and treating asymptomatic candidiasis in

  4. Gestational Weight Gain and Fetal Birth Weight in Rural Regions of Rasht/Iran

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    Zahra Panahandeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Proper nutrition during pregnancy is essential for optimal fetal growth. Investigation of the relation between pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in rural regions of Rasht, center of Guilan Province in Iran, was the purpose of this study. Methods: In this cohort study, prenatal data of 918 women who attended local health centers with singleton term pregnancies were recorded. Maternal demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, total pregnancy weight gain and birth weight were recorded by health workers. The women were stratified based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI into four groups: underweight women, women with normal weight, overweight women and obese women. The relation between weight gain and low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g and macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g was studied in these four groups. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals. Findings: More than 50% of underweight women and women with normal weight and almost 30% of overweight and obese women gained weight less than what is mentioned in the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations. The incidence rate of LBW was 7.1% and that of macrosomia was 5%. Mean weight gain of women with LBW was significantly less than mean weight gain of women who had an infant with a birth weight more than 2500 g (P=0.002. Women who gained weight less than the recommended range had higher rate of LBW in their infants (P=0.01 and the incidence of macrosomia in women with a weight gain above the recommended weight was higher than that in others (P=0.012. Pregnancy weight gain less than what is mentioned in the IOM guideline was the only predictor for LBW (OR=2.79, CI=1.16-6.73, P=0.02. Conclusion:Pregnancy weight gains less than what is mentioned in the IOM recommendation was a significant predictor of LBW, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.

  5. Reduction of exposure to blood donors in preterm infants submitted to red blood cell transfusions using pediatric satellite packs

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Lika Uezima; Ariane Moreira Barreto; Ruth Guinsburg; Akemi Kuroda Chiba; José Orlando Bordin; Melca Maria O. Barros; Amélia Miyashiro N. dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In preterm newborn infants transfused with erythrocytes stored up to 28 days, to compare the reduction of blood donor exposure in two groups of infants classified according to birth weight. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with preterm infants with birth weight

  6. PREVALENCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF E. COLI IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEONATES OF EARLY ONSET SEPSIS

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    R. Singh et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world which can be classified into early onset sepsis (EOS which occurs in the first 7 days of life and late onset sepsis (LOS which occurs ≥7 days of life. E. coli has been reported to be one of the significant and most common nosocomial pathogen which may cause septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis in the newborn. Most of the antibiotics which have been used extensively as life saving are rendered useless because of the emergence of resistant strains of bacterias. Therefore for determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of E. coli which is responsible for EOS and LOS and to establish the relationship with birth weight, a total of 229 blood samples were obtained from the neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU who showed the clinical signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis and sent for culture and sensitivity. Out of these 229, 102 showed the positive culture, among which early onset sepsis was found in 80 neonates while late onset sepsis was diagnosed in 22 neonates. The most frequent pathogen isolated from positive blood culture was E. coli (66.66% and it was also the most common pathogen in low birth weight and preterm neonates of both early (59 cases- 57.84% and late-onset (9 cases- 8.82% sepsis and the incidence was found higher in early onset sepsis. The isolate was completely resistant to vancomycin and the resistance was higher for monotherapy of semi-synthetic penicillin group of antibiotics than their combination therapy with sulbactum. Imepenam and gatifloxacin showed the highest sensitivity (100%, followed by Piperacillin - tazobactum and ciprofloxacin, however the frequency of resistance was more common in low birth weight neonates of early onset sepsis.

  7. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI. PMID:27013353

  8. Birth weight: a major determinant of child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The problems of maternal malnutrition, low birthweight, and infant mortality and morbidity were investigated in a prospective study (1981-85) involving 7586 pregnant women (3197 from urban areas and 4389 from rural areas) in India. The mothers were followed until their infants were 1 year of age. There were 6879 live births among these women and 208 still births (a rate of 29.3/1000 deliveries). The perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates were 65.3/1000, 57.7/1000, and 94.5/1000, respectively. 90% of these deaths involved infants with a birthweight below 2000 grams. Overall, 39% of infants studied were classified as low birthweight (under 2500 grams). Factors associated with low birthweight included maternal age below 19 years or over 35 years, maternal weight below 40 kg, maternal height below 145 cm, weight gain during pregnancy of under 5 kg, an interpregnancy interval less than 24 months, hemoglobin less than 8 grams%, and maternal illiteracy. Moderate to severe morbidity (neonatalas phyxia) was found in 10% of the births in this series. Breastfeeding was delayed beyond 24 hours in 77% of rural births and 13% of urban births; 30% of infants in both settings were given a bottle within the 1st week of life. 98% of rural mothers and 85% of urban mothers did not utilize available maternal-child health services in the postpartum period. Reducing the incidence of low birthweight births through primary health care interventions such as screening, food supplementation, adequate prenatal care, and correction of maternal nutritional deficiencies is the best strategy for improving infant survival in India. In the interim period, adequate health care must be made available to low birthweight infants and proper feeding practices should be promoted. PMID:3440594

  9. Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who admitted in our NICU which had inclusion criteria were eligible in this trial. Included neonates were randomly placed in two groups (case and control and before intervention the total serum bilirubin (TSB was measured at second day. The participant received either 20 mg of zinc sulfate or placebo through NG-tube divided in two doses till day seven of age. Then total and indirect bilirubin was measured at 3ed, 5th and 7th day of life. If any of newborns in duration of hospitalization develop clinical jaundice, after assessment of bilirubin, need for phototherapy was evaluated based on phototherapy and exchange schedule as described by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The termination point of phototherapy was defined as a bilirubin level less than 50 percent of starting point. After gathering Data, they were analyzed using SPSS software (version 11.5 and T-test, Chi-square and repeated measurement tests. Results: Seventy eight patients enrolled in this trial that 18 cases were excluded and the remaining cases divided into two equal groups (N=30 in each group. Demographic condition was similar in two groups. There were no different between two groups in decreasing total serum bilirubin and duration of phototherapy. Conclusion: This study showed that zinc sulfate has no preventing effective in hyperbilirubinemia in preterm very low birth weight neonates. It has also no effect on duration of phototherapy.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

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    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  11. Preterm birth by vacuum extraction and neonatal outcome: a population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Katarina; Norman, Mikael; Ekéus, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few studies have investigated the neonatal outcomes after vacuum extraction delivery (VE) in the preterm period and the results of these studies are inconclusive. The objective of this study was to describe the use of VE for preterm delivery in Sweden and to compare rates of neonatal complications after preterm delivery by VE to those found after cesarean section during labor (CS) or unassisted vaginal delivery (VD). Methods Data was obtained from Swedish national registers. I...

  12. Influence of birth weight on differences in infant mortality by social class and legitimacy.

    OpenAIRE

    D A Leon

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social cla...

  13. Rapid multiplex high resolution melting method to analyze inflammatory related SNPs in preterm birth

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    Pereyra Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex traits like cancer, diabetes, obesity or schizophrenia arise from an intricate interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Complex disorders often cluster in families without a clear-cut pattern of inheritance. Genomic wide association studies focus on the detection of tens or hundreds individual markers contributing to complex diseases. In order to test if a subset of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from candidate genes are associated to a condition of interest in a particular individual or group of people, new techniques are needed. High-resolution melting (HRM analysis is a new method in which polymerase chain reaction (PCR and mutations scanning are carried out simultaneously in a closed tube, making the procedure fast, inexpensive and easy. Preterm birth (PTB is considered a complex disease, where genetic and environmental factors interact to carry out the delivery of a newborn before 37 weeks of gestation. It is accepted that inflammation plays an important role in pregnancy and PTB. Methods Here, we used real time-PCR followed by HRM analysis to simultaneously identify several gene variations involved in inflammatory pathways on preterm labor. SNPs from TLR4, IL6, IL1 beta and IL12RB genes were analyzed in a case-control study. The results were confirmed either by sequencing or by PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results We were able to simultaneously recognize the variations of four genes with similar accuracy than other methods. In order to obtain non-overlapping melting temperatures, the key step in this strategy was primer design. Genotypic frequencies found for each SNP are in concordance with those previously described in similar populations. None of the studied SNPs were associated with PTB. Conclusions Several gene variations related to the same inflammatory pathway were screened through a new flexible, fast and non expensive method with the purpose of analyzing

  14. Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori M; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, &1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight learning, and perceptual-motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as"catch-up" growth in the 750-1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors. PMID:15012835

  15. Association of DNA adducts and genetic polymorphisms with birth weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Chvátalová, Irena; Solanský, I.; Topinka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 608, - (2006), s. 121-128. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : pregnancy outcomes * birth weight * genetic polymorphism Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2006

  16. Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Kitchen Fuel on Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam; Anugya Mimansa; Pragati Vishnu Chavan; Alka Dilip Gore

    2013-01-01

    Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH), D...

  17. Ventilatory management in extremely low birth weight infants

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Shaun; Choong, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The improvement in survival in premature infants associated with the evolution of mechanical ventilation has been accompanied by an increase in ventilator induced lung injury. High frequency ventilation has been shown to reduce the incidence of ventilator induced lung injury and hence chronic lung disease in the very low birth weight infant. The evolution in understanding how to best use high frequency ventilation in this population has prompted us to ask whether similar strategies to optimiz...

  18. Developmental Outcome of Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    F Solimani

    2007-01-01

    Fetal and extrauterine life form a continuum during which human growth and development are affected by genetic, environmental, and social factors. Perinatal mortality is influenced by prenatal, maternal, and fetal conditions and by circumstances surrounding delivery. The majority of infants deaths and developmental disorders are due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight (LBW), as well as maternal complications of pregnancy and congenital malformations (chromoso...

  19. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DP Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  20. Pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight: A cohort study in rural Belgaum, India

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    Murthy S

    2012-07-01

    LBW was 15% (22.5% in study cohort, 7.5% in control cohort. Incidence of PTB was 17.5%. 33.3% of PTB had LBW, while only 11.1% of term deliveries had LBW. Preterm birth (aOR=3.266; 1.384–7.704,p<.05, pregnancy periodontitis (aOR=2.403;1.1011-5.712,p<.05, anaemia (aOR=2.746;1.212-6.222,p<0.5 were significantly associated with LBW. Two thirds of study population had fair oral hygiene. Half of study population had dental caries while majority did not have filled or missing teeth. Conclusion: Preterm birth, pregnancy periodontitis and anaemia were found to be independent risk factors for LBW. This is importance because periodontal disease is a factor amenable to prevention and cure. Simple regular oral hygiene practices during pregnancy can effectively control and prevent periodontal disease, and possibility of low birth weight.