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  1. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

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    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  2. Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight.

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    Warren, Susan L; Racu, Camellia; Gregg, Vanessa; Simmens, Samuel J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be at higher risk for prematurity and low birth weight (corrected for gestational age) than controls. Medical records were reviewed for 25 mothers with PD and 33 mothers without a lifetime history of anxiety disorders or other major psychopathology as determined by diagnostic interview. Mothers also completed questionnaires concerning demographic information and life stresses. Compared to controls, infants with PD mothers were not significantly more likely to be born prematurely or earlier than controls but did show smaller birth weight corrected for gestational age, even after accounting for possible confounding influences. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Studying PD mothers during pregnancy could provide insight concerning mechanisms for the development of low birth weight and psychopathology.

  3. Developmental Outcomes of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Reza Saeidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prematurity is the most common cause of death and disability And Preterm infants, are prone to developmental complications. For this reason this study was designed for follow up of these babies until 2 years by modified DDST-2. Methods: This study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study from March 2009 to March 2011 in clinic of sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals, mashhad, Iran. Sample size with Confidence coefficient of 95% and power 80%, was determined 100 hundred babies. Infants were seen by a pediatrician at a follow up clinic at 1, 3, 6, 9,12,15,18, 24, months.The developmental assessment was done using Denver-2 Developmental Screening Test. Results: mean age for smiling was 4/6 ± 2/1  months which significantly differed with appropriate age (p = 0.000, mean age for telling two syllables words 11/7±  1/9 months, without significant difference of appropriate age.(p = 0.139. Average age for understanding NO was 10/4±  2/0 months that significantly differed with appropriate age(p = 0.000. The average age for telling 6 word was 17/8±  3/0, without significant difference with appropriate age (p = 0.510. Conclusion: Children with history of prematurity and low birth weight have more disability and developmental delay so they need to developmental screening tests.

  4. Linking Assessment and Intervention for Developmental/Functional Outcomes of Premature, Low-Birth-Weight Children

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    Xu, Yaoying; Filler, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are two major biological factors that put infants and young children at high risk for developmental delays or disabilities. While survival rates for premature and LBW children have improved, incidence figures have changed little over the past 20 years; in fact, the incidence of LBW has increased. Although the…

  5. Birth Weight

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    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  6. Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders among a Population of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

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    Amir Mohammad Armanian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid function disorders, particularly congenital hypothyroidism (CHT, are important endocrine dysfunctions associated with permanent morbidities. CHT is more prevalent among preterm low-birth-weight neonates compared to term infants with normal weight. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 126 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates referred to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran during 2012-2014. On day five of birth and two, four, and six weeks after birth, blood samples were collected from the infants to determine thyroid function disorders, including transient hypothyroxinemia, neonatal hypothyroidism, transient primary neonatal hypothyroidism, and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Results: In total, 126 infants with mean gestational age of 30.5±2.29 weeks and mean birth weight of 1246.90±193.58 g were enrolled in this study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of Conclusion: According to the results of this study, thyroid function disorders are relatively common in preterm VLBW neonates, and serum T4 level is correlated with gestational age in these infants. Therefore, thyroid function tests with a consistent protocol are required for premature infants. It is recommended that further research be performed on larger sample sizes to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function disorders in preterm infants.

  7. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

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    Gabriel, Marta Lucia [Fundacao Faculdade Regional de Medicina (FUNFARME), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base; Piatto, Vania Belintani [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Soares, E-mail: depimagem@famerp.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2010-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  8. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants

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    Roberts, G.; Bellinger, D.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature

  9. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity in infants ≥1500 g birth weight

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    Gaurav Sanghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective case series, we report the spectrum and outcomes of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP in infants ≥1500 g birth weight. Twenty-nine eyes of 15 infants are included. All infants were referred from level I or II nurseries, received supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration (>1 week and had multiple systemic co-morbidities. Of the 29 eyes, 10 (34.5% had zone 1 and 19 (65.5% had posterior zone 2 disease. Twenty-five (86.2% eyes had flat neovascularization and 4 (13.8% eyes had brush like proliferation. We noticed large vascular loops in 10 (34.5% eyes. After confluent laser photocoagulation, 22 (75.9% eyes had a favorable outcome. The study concludes that APROP in heavier (≥1500 g birth weight premature infants occurs mostly in posterior zone 2 with flat neovascularization and atypical features like large vascular loops. Supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration and multiple systemic co-morbidities could be a contributing factor.

  10. Linguistic Production Abilities of 3-Year-Old Children Born Premature with Low Birth Weight.

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    Craig, Holly K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Of 30 children with low birth weight, only 4 demonstrated clinically significant language problems at age 3. Language problems were characterized by circumscribed expressive syntax difficulties but were not related systematically to birth weight, gestational age, length of neonatal hospitalization, severity of respiratory illness, socioeconomic…

  11. [Prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in the a capital in the Brazilian Northeast].

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    Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse Albuquerque; Santos, Sheila Lima Diogenes; Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da; Campelo, Viriato

    2016-06-01

    The main determinants of the risk of mortality in the neonatal period are low birth weight and premature birth. The study sought to analyze the adequacy of prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in a northeastern Brazilian capital. This is a case-control study. A model for adequacy of prenatal conditions composed of four indicators was created. Descriptive statistics for univariate analysis were used; as well as Wald linear trend tests, Student's t and chi-square test for bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression for multivariate analysis with p adequacy of prenatal care, variable indicator III remained significant, showing that mothers who had inadequate prenatal care had an increased chance for the occurrence of the outcome, highlighting the need for adequate public health policies of care for pregnant women in the municipality under scrutiny.

  12. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

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    Kloog Itai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008. Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01–1.13 for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in

  13. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Neonatal Patients with Birth Weight Greater than 1500 g in Taiwan

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    Yi-Hsing Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To understand the characteristics, ophthalmic outcomes, and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in patients with birth weight (BW greater than 1500 g. The applicability of the ROP screening criteria to the Taiwanese population was also examined. Methods: The study included 104 eyes from 54 ROP patients who had BW greater than 1500 g from 1981 to 2008. Demographic information, disease courses, ophthalmic outcomes, and possible systemic risk factors were recorded. The infants were divided into groups of mild and severe ROP for a risk factor analysis. Results: The mean gestational age (GA of the infants was 31 ± 1.3 weeks, and the mean BW was 1675 ± 249 g. Mild ROP regressed in 94 eyes (90%, and 10 eyes (10% developed severe ROP. After various treatments, the regression rates for prethreshold or threshold ROP (n = 8 and stage 4 ROP (n = 2 were 100% and 50%, respectively. Forty-eight patients (85% had at least three associated systemic risk factors. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with an intraventricular hemorrhage were found to have an increased chance of developing severe ROP, especially those with BW greater than 1500 g (p = 0.015. There was also a significant association between patients who had severe ROP and an increased risk of having cerebral palsy (CP at 1.5 years of age (p = 0.013. Conclusion: The majority of patients with BW greater than 1500 g developed mild ROP. However, advanced ROP with poor visual outcome was also encountered in some patients.

  14. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants Discharged from NICU

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    Sina Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease of the eye caused by disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels resulting in scarring and retinal detachment. All preterm babies are at high risk for ROP, and very low birth weight is an additional risk factor. An increased incidence of ROP is expected in Iran because of improved survival of low birth weight and premature babies, and it is obvious that pediatricians and ophthalmologists are concerned about prevention and timely treatment of ROP in these children. To asses the real situation of ROP in our NICU we studied its prevalence and risk factors. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of premature infants with birth weight of ≤1500 grams or gestational age of ≤32 weeks, admitted April 1, 2005 to March 28, 2006, to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Qaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The collected data of 47 cases in this cross-sectional study are analyzed by SPSS (Mann_Whitney, t-Student. Findings: Forty five infants were included in the study. Out of these, 4 (8.5% developed ROP (inclusive all stages. Our analysis revealed that low gestational age, sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome were independent predictors for the development of ROP. Conclusion:The frequency of ROP in our hospital was lower than the range reported in developed countries, and our risk factors were a little different.

  15. The relationship of birth weight, gestational age, and postmenstrual age with ocular biometry parameters in premature infants

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    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze ocular biometry parameters and evaluate their relationship with gestational age, birth weight, and postmenstrual age in prematurely born infants. Methods: The right eyes of 361 premature infants born before the 36th gestational week were evaluated. Birth weight, gestational week, and gender were recorded. An A-scan Biometer was used for obtaining axial measurements, including anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous length, and total axial length. Results: Gestational age and birth weight values ranged from 23 to 36 weeks and from 560 to 2,670 g, respectively. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 30.8 ± 2.8 weeks and 1,497.9 ± 483.6 g, respectively. During the first examination (4-5 weeks of postnatal age, birth weight and gestational age of the infants correlated significantly and positively with lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length (r>0.5, p<0.001, but not with anterior chamber depth (r<0.5. Increased vitreous and axial lengths correlated significantly with increasing postmenstrual age of the infants (r=0.669, p<0.001; r=0.845, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length, but not anterior chamber depth, were significantly correlated with birth weight and gestational age. All four parameters increased with increasing postmenstrual age, with higher correlations for vitreous and axial lengths than for anterior chamber depth and lens thickness. It was concluded that axial elongation resulted primarily from increasing posterior chamber length.

  16. Rerouting surgery of cardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous return in a premature newborn with very low birth weight.

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    Wu, En-Ting; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Chang, Chung-I

    2007-02-01

    Intracardiac repair for complex congenital heart defects in premature neonates with very low birth weight (VLBW) is still a challenge to pediatric cardiac surgeons. We report the successful rerouting of cardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) in a premature newborn (36th gestational week) with VLBW (1250 g). She had severe hypoxemia and low cardiac output despite medical treatment. Rerouting surgery of TAPVR was performed under deep hypothermia circulatory arrest at the age of 20 days. The sternum was left open and approximated 2 days later. Follow-up echocardiography showed good ventricular function without pulmonary venous obstruction. The endotracheal tube was removed 7 days postoperatively. She was then discharged without complication. In conclusion, with improved cardiopulmonary bypass technique and perioperative care, open heart surgery can be performed in premature newborns with VLBW.

  17. Preeclampsia and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Population-Based Study.

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    Hsin-Chung Huang

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are associated with impaired angiogenesis. Previous studies on the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP have produced conflicting results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal preeclampsia and ROP using a large population-based cohort of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants from 21 neonatal departments registered in the database of the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for preeclampsia with reference to ROP and severe ROP. A total of 5,718 VLBW infants (844 cases with maternal preeclampsia were included for analysis. The overall incidences of mild and severe ROP were 36.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Univariable analysis showed lower GA and lower birth weight, vaginal delivery, non-SGA, RDS, PDA, sepsis, transfusion, and absence of maternal preeclampsia to be associated with mild and severe ROP development. However, OR (95% CI adjusted for the variables that were significant according to univariable analysis showed the risks of developing any-stage ROP and severe ROP for maternal preeclampsia to be 1.00 (0.84-1.20 and 0.89 (0.63-1.25, respectively. The results remained unchanged in stratified analyses according to SGA status. Our data showed that maternal preeclampsia was not associated with the subsequent development of any stage or severe ROP in VLBW infants.

  18. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

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    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84% o

  19. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

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    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... Medical Birth Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to identify all individuals born between 1 January 1974 and 31 December 1990 and diagnosed prior to 29 August 2003 with affective disorder alone (ICD-10 F3; 4297 females, 1861 males), schizophrenia alone (ICD-10 F2; 1364 females, 2292...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  20. Work activities and risk of prematurity, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia

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    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Harris, E Clare

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the evidence relating preterm delivery (PTD), low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension to five occupational exposures (working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and physical workload). We conducted a systematic search......-eclampsia/gestational hypertension); 33 reports were new to this review. For PTD, findings across a substantial evidence base were generally consistent, effectively ruling out large effects (eg, RR>1.2). Larger and higher quality studies were less positive, while meta-estimates of risk were smaller than in previous analyses...... and best estimates pointed to modest or null effects (RR 1.04 to 1.18). For SGA, the position was similar but meta-estimates were even closer to the null (eight of nine RRs≤1.07). For pre-eclampsia/gestational hypertension the evidence base remains insufficient. Conclusions The balance of evidence...

  1. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

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    Rosane Reis de Mello

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g. DESIGN: A cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public healthcare institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis. The significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%, whereas 20 (23.3% had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H2O/kg and 63.7 cm H2O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72% infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H2O/kg high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H2O/kg and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H2O/kg were significantly different (p = 0.015. Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. CONCLUSION: The results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic abnormalities in asymptomatic very low

  2. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

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    Mello, Rosane Reis de; Dutra, Maria Virginia Peixoto; Ramos, Jose Roberto; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Andrade Lopes, Jose Maria de [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Fernandes Figueira

    2003-07-01

    Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. The objective is to evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g). The design presents a cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance) and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public health care institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis). The significance level was set at 0.05. The results showed abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%), whereas 20 (23.3%) had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg and 63.7 cm H{sub 2} O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72%) infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) were significantly different (p = 0.015). Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. The conclusion was that the results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic

  3. Size and Composition of the Lexicon in Prematurely Born Very-Low-Birth-Weight and Full-Term Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

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    Stolt, Suvi; Klippi, Anu; Launonen, Kaisa; Munck, Petriina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the aspects of the lexicon in 66 prematurely born very-low-birth-weight and 87 full-term Finnish children at 2;0, studied using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventory". The groups did not differ in vocabulary size. Furthermore, the female advantage in vocabulary size was not seen…

  4. An Influence of Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Apgar Score on Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Children with History of Prematurity

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    Marta Michalczuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of our study was to examine a possible influence of gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score on amplitudes and latencies of P100 wave in preterm born school-age children. Materials and Methods. We examined the following group of school-age children: 28 with history of prematurity (mean age 10.56 ± 1.66 years and 25 born at term (mean age 11.2 ± 1.94 years. The monocular PVEP was performed in all children. Results. The P100 wave amplitudes and latencies significantly differ between preterm born school-age children and those born at term. There was an essential positive linear correlation of the P100 wave amplitudes with birth weight, gestational age, and Apgar score. There were the negative linear correlations of P100 latencies in 15-minute stimulation from O1 and Oz electrode with Apgar score and O1 and O2 electrode with gestational age. Conclusions. PVEP responses vary in preterm born children in comparison to term. Low birth weight, early gestational age, and poor baseline output seem to be the predicting factors for the developmental rate of a brain function in children with history of prematurity. Further investigations are necessary to determine perinatal factors that can affect the modified visual system function in preterm born children.

  5. Analysis on Influencing Factors of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants%早产低体重儿相关影响因素分析

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    曹蓓; 黄广文; 龚瑾; 彭湘莲; 冯彬彬

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨早产低出生体重儿发生的相关影响因素.方法 分析398例早产低出生体重儿的一般情况、产科及母孕期情况.采用多元逐步回归分析对398例早产低出生体重儿母亲年龄、多胎妊娠、孕周、胎盘早剥、胎膜早破、妊娠高血压综合征、母亲贫血、羊水异常、母亲心血管疾病等与早产低出生体重的关系进行分析.结果 孕周≤32周16.3%;胎盘早剥12.8%;胎膜早破48.2%;多胎妊娠35.9%;妊娠高血压综合征21.9%;母亲贫血27.9%;羊水异常11.1%;母亲心血管疾病2.5%.孕周、妊娠高血压综合征、胎盘早剥是早产低出生体重发生的重要影响因素.结论 加强孕期保健,早期诊断及防治妊娠期合并症及并发症有利于预防和减少早产低出生体重儿的发生.%Objective To explore the influencing factors of premature and low birth weight infants.Methods Cornmon complexion, tocology and gestation complexion of 398 premature and low birth weight neonates and mother were examined.The correlation between premature and low birth weight neonates with age of mother, twin gestation, gestation week, placenta peeling early, caul breakage early, pregnancy induced hypertension, anemia of mother, abnormity of amniocentesis, disease of heart and vas of mother were analyzed by multiple regression analysis.Results Gestation week ≤32 weeks was 16.3%, placenta peeling early was 12.8%, caul breakage early was 48.2%, twin gestation was 35.9%, pregnancy induced hypertension was 21.9%, anemia of mother was 27.9%, abnormity of amniotic water was 11.1%, disease of heart and vas of mother was 2.5%.Gestation week, pregnancy induced hypertension, end placenta peeling early were the important influencing factors of occurring premature and low birth weight infant.Conclusions Intensifying health care of gestation, diagnosing early, and preventing and curing syndrome of gestation would be benefit to prevent and reduce the

  6. Effects of poverty on home environment: an analysis of three-year outcome data for low birth weight premature infants.

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    Watson, J E; Kirby, R S; Kelleher, K J; Bradley, R H

    1996-06-01

    Investigated the relationship between poverty and parenting in a sample of low birth weight (poverty levels, poor families scored lower on the HOME inventory (used to measure the caregiving environment) than nonpoor families. A regression model including poverty, race, site, and representative environmental, maternal, and child variables accounted for 60% of variance in total HOME scores. Poverty and maternal IQ had significant and independent effects on HOME scores, whereas maternal distress accounted for little of the variance. In a LBWPT sample, our results find a strong relationship between parenting and poverty, suggest a modest role for maternal psychological distress in this relationship, and indicate that the influence of poverty likely extends beyond commonly measured environmental, maternal, and child factors.

  7. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Pregnant Women in the Brazilian Amazon and the Risk Factors Associated with Prematurity and Low Birth Weight: A Descriptive Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Bôtto-Menezes

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent malaria species in the American region. Brazil accounts for the higher number of the malaria cases reported in pregnant women in the Americas. This study aims to describe the characteristics of pregnant women with malaria in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon and the risk factors associated with prematurity and low birth weight (LBW.Between December 2005 and March 2008, 503 pregnant women with malaria that attended a tertiary health centre were enrolled and followed up until delivery and reported a total of 1016 malaria episodes. More than half of study women (54% were between 20-29 years old, and almost a third were adolescents. The prevalence of anaemia at enrolment was 59%. Most women (286/503 reported more than one malaria episode and most malaria episodes (84.5%, 846/1001 were due to P. vivax infection. Among women with only P. vivax malaria, the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight decreased in multigravidae (OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.16-0.82]; p = 0.015 and OR 0.24 [95% CI, 0.10-0.58]; p = 0.001, respectively. The risk of preterm birth decreased with higher maternal age (OR 0.43 [95% CI, 0.19-0.95]; p = 0.037 and among those women who reported higher antenatal care (ANC attendance (OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.15-0.70]; p = 0.005.This study shows that P. vivax is the prevailing species among pregnant women with malaria in the region and shows that vivax clinical malaria may represent harmful consequences for the health of the mother and their offsprings particularly on specific groups such as adolescents, primigravidae and those women with lower ANC attendance.

  8. Preterm (Premature) Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications, such as multiple pregnancy and vaginal bleeding • Lifestyle factors such as low prepregnancy weight, smoking during pregnancy, and substance abuse during pregnancy Can anything be ...

  9. The last and first frontier – emerging challenges for HIV treatment and prevention in the first week of life with emphasis on premature and low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Cotton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is new emphasis on identifying and treating HIV in the first days of life and also an appreciation that low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PTD frequently accompany HIV-related pregnancy. Even in the absence of HIV, PTD and LBW contribute substantially to neonatal and infant mortality. HIV-exposed and -infected infants with these characteristics have received little attention thus far. As HIV programs expand to meet the 90-90-90 target for ending the HIV pandemic, attention should focus on newborn infants, including those delivered preterm or of LBW. Discussion: In high prevalence settings, infant diagnosis of HIV is usually undertaken after the neonatal period. However, as in utero infection may be diagnosed at birth, earlier initiation of therapy may limit viral replication and prevent early damage. Globally, there is growing awareness that preterm and LBW infants constitute a substantial proportion of births each year. Preterm infants are at high risk for vertical transmission. Feeding difficulties, apnoea of prematurity and vulnerability to sepsis occur commonly. Feeding intolerance, a frequent occurrence, may compromise oral administration of medications. Although there is growing experience with post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-exposed term newborn infants, there is less experience with preterm and LBW infants. For treatment, there are even fewer options for preterm infants. Only zidovudine has adequate dosing recommendations for treating term and preterm infants and has an intravenous formulation, essential if feeding intolerance occurs. Nevirapine dosing for prevention, but not treatment, is well established for both term and preterm infants.HIV diagnosis at birth is likely to be extremely stressful for new parents, more so if caring for preterm or LBW infants. Programs need to adapt to support the medical and emotional needs of young infants and their parents, where interventions may be lifesaving

  10. Fatores prognósticos para o desenvolvimento cognitivo de prematuros de muito baixo peso Prognostic factors for cognitive development of very low birth weight premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalva Barbosa Baker Méio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Crianças prematuras, de muito baixo peso, podem apresentar alterações em seu desenvolvimento cognitivo. No Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre a evolução dessas crianças na idade pré-escolar. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o desenvolvimento cognitivo de uma população de recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso e verificar possíveis fatores prognósticos para desenvolvimento cognitivo anormal. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de coorte foi realizado com uma população de crianças pré-escolares, nascidas prematuras, de muito baixo peso, entre janeiro de 1991 e setembro de 1993. O desenvolvimento cognitivo foi avaliado por meio do teste WPPSI-R (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Intelligence Scales aplicado por psicólogas, utilizando dois pontos de corte para definição de anormalidade: escores abaixo de 1 e 2, desvios padrões da média (DP. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 79 crianças de quatro a cinco anos de idade. A média do escore total do teste WIPPSI-R foi de 75,6 (±11,9. A incidência de escore total anormal foi de 77,2% e de 32,9% (1DP e 2 DP, respectivamente. Após o ajuste por "tipo de parto", ser pequeno para a idade gestacional (OR=6,19; IC95% 1,60-23,86, ultra-som transfontanela anormal (OR=5,90; IC95% 1,04-9,83 e ser do sexo masculino (OR=3,20; IC 95% 1,32-26,35 foram os fatores que predisseram escore total OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight premature children often show cognitive development abnormalities. There is scarce information about the outcome of these children at preschool age in Brazil.The objective of the study is to describe the cognitive development of a population of premature newborns and to assess possible prognostic factors for abnormalities. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted in a preschool children population whose subjects were very low birth weight premature babies born between January 1991 and September 1993. WPPSI-R Test was used for cognitive evaluation and it was applied by psychologists. Two

  11. 孕妇牙周炎对早产低体重儿的影响研究及分析#%Study and Analysis of the Effect of Pregnant Women with Periodontitis on Premature Birth and Low Birth Weight Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟卫东; 王瑞平; 张立巧; 陈志岭; 李巧磊

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of pregnant women with periodontitis on premature birth and low birth weight.Methods:Randomly selected Xingtai City,the Third Hospital of stomatology in 2008 July to 2013 February treatment of pregnant and lying in women as the object of study,including pregnancy found suffering from periodontitis and timely treatment (group 1),found during pregnancy periodontitis and active treatment (GroupⅠ),pregnancy with periodontitis without treatment or treatment is not complete (GroupⅢ),pregnancy and pre pregnancy were not suffering from periodontitis of healthy pregnant women (Group IV) four groups,200,to carry out the questionnaire and oral examination,compared with four groups of maternal neonatal outcomes.Results:There was no significant difference in the rate of preterm birth and low birth weight infants (P>0.05),and the rate of preterm birth and low birth rate in group B was significantly lower than that in groupP<0.05.Conclusion:Pregnancy with periodontitis without active treatment or treatment is not proper,prematurity and low birth weight infants is extremely easy to occur,therefore,we should strengthen during pregnancy oral health instruction,the inclusion of oral health care in promoting the eugenics,minimize adverse pregnancy.%目的:探讨孕妇牙周炎对早产低体重儿的影响。方法:随机抽取邢台市第三医院口腔科2008年7月到2015年2月就诊的孕产妇作为研究对象,包括孕前发现患有牙周炎并及时治疗(Ⅰ组)、孕期发现牙周炎并积极治疗(Ⅱ组)、孕期患牙周炎未治疗或治疗不彻底(Ⅲ组)、孕期及孕前均未患牙周炎的健康孕妇(Ⅳ组)四个组别,各200名,实施问卷调查与口腔检查,对比四组孕产妇新生儿结局。结果:Ⅰ组与Ⅳ组在早产率、低体重儿率上无明显差异(P>0.05),均明显低于Ⅲ组(P<0.05)。结论:孕期患牙周炎不积极治疗或治疗不彻底,极

  12. Analysis on effects of fetal age and birth weight on prognosis of premature infants%胎龄和出生体重对早产儿预后影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫雅蓉; 章恒; 许兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨胎龄及出生体重对早产儿预后的影响.方法:回顾性分析无锡市妇幼保健院2008年1月~2009年12月间分娩的217例早产儿资料.结果:早产儿并发症的发生率和死亡率分别为43.8%和2.3%.早产儿并发症和死亡主要发生于胎龄<32周或出生体重<1 500 g的极低体重儿.缺氧缺血性脑病、窒息、呼吸窘迫综合症发生率和死亡率随胎龄或出生体重增加均呈下降趋势.结论:出生前加强孕期保健,尽可能延长胎龄,促进肺成熟;出生后防止早产儿窒息和加强低出生体重儿监护,将降低早产儿并发症发生率和死亡率.%Objective: To explore the effects of fetal age and birth weight on prognosis of premature infants. Methods: The clinical data of 217 premature infants born in the hospital from January 2008 to December 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The incidence of complication and mortality of premature infants were 43.8% and 2. 3%, respectively; the premature infants less than 32 gestational weeks or birth weight < 1 500 g had high incidence of complication and high mortality; the incidences of complications ( including hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome) and mortality of premature infants showed a decreasing trend with fetal age and the increase of birth weight. Conclusion: Enhancing pregnant health care before delivery, prolonging fetal age as far as possible,promoting fetal lung maturity, preventing neonatal asphyxia and strengthening the monitoring on low birth weight infants may reduce the incidence of complication and mortality of premature infants.

  13. Associação entre violência doméstica na gestação e peso ao nascer ou prematuridade The association between domestic violence during pregnancy and low birth weight or prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celene Aparecida Ferrari Audi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a violência doméstica na gestação está associada a desfechos desfavoráveis na saúde do lactente, medidos pelo baixo peso ao nascer ou prematuridade. MÉTODO: Estudo de coorte prospectiva, realizado com gestantes que fizeram pré-natal em 10 Unidades Básicas de Saúde do município de Campinas (SP, durante os anos de 2004 a 2006. Foi utilizado questionário estruturado e validado no Brasil. As gestantes tiveram, no mínimo, duas e, no máximo, três entrevistas realizadas durante pré e pós-natal. Foi utilizada análise descritiva dos dados. O teste t de Student foi utilizado para comparar as médias do peso ao nascer e da idade gestacional entre os grupos de gestantes que sofreram, durante a atual gestação, violência doméstica e aqueles que não sofreram. A análise de regressão logística foi utilizada para verificar os fatores associados ao baixo peso ou prematuridade. RESULTADOS: Foram acompanhadas durante o período de pré-natal e pós-natal (n = 1.229 89,1% das gestantes; 10,9% representam as perdas de acompanhamento, basicamente por mudança de endereço. O peso médio ao nascer foi de 3.233 g; idade gestacional foi em média 38,56 semanas. Apresentaram baixo peso ao nascer ou prematuridade 13,8% dos recém-nascidos. Condições de risco para baixo peso ao nascer ou prematuridade foram: gestante ter tido recém-nascido prematuro em outra gestação (p OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether domestic violence during pregnancy is associated with unfavorable infant health outcomes, measured by low birth weight or prematurity. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study enrolling pregnant women whose prenatal care was provided by 10 basic health units in the city of Campinas, SP, Brazil, between 2004 and 2006. A structured questionnaire was employed that had previously been validated for use in Brazil. Each mother attended a minimum of two and a maximum of three interviews during the prenatal and postnatal

  14. Foot Length, Chest Circumference, and Mid Upper Arm Circumference Are Good Predictors of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity in Ethnic Minority Newborns in Vietnam: A Hospital-Based Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Nguyen Thi

    Full Text Available The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age.An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8 were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared.485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-0.99, and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.92-0.96. The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ≤ 7.4 cm for foot length; ≤ 30.4 cm for chest circumference; and ≤ 9.0 cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm.All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure that the application of these measures is

  15. Premature birth: An Enigma for the Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at greater risk than infants born at term for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Complications include acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems, as well as longer-term motor, cognitive, visual, hearing, behavioral, social-emotional, health, and growth problems. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. The greatest risk of mortality and morbidity is for those infants born at the earliest gestational ages. However, those infants born nearer to term represent the greatest number of infants born preterm and also experience more complications than infants born at term. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality. This paper deals with various issues related to the premature deliveries from socio-biological perspectives.

  16. Wrap in Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants in the Clinical Application of Thermal Analysis%保鲜膜在早产儿和低出生体重儿保暖中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康晓; 魏桃; 邵惠明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the fresh-keeping film used in preterm infantsand warm in low birth weight infants nursing ef ect. Methods Branch born premature and low birth weight infants 40 cases were divided into 2 groups, 20cases were placed directly in the warm box to keep warm, the other 20 cases ofthe plastic wrap and then placed in warm box to keep warm, while monitoring theaxil ary temperature temperature rising speed. Results The plastic wrap andplaced in the warm box wrapped in warm premature and low birth weight infants is higher than the temperature rising speed is directly placed in warm box warmpremature and low birth weight infants. Conclusion The nursing intervention, can cause premature and low birth weight infants temperature increased significantlyin a short period of time, reduce the occurrence of low temperature, lowtemperature reduction caused by hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis,microcirculation disturbance, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hemorrhage and other complications, shorten the the hospitalization time.%目的探讨保鲜膜应用于早产儿和低出生体重儿保暖中取得的护理效果。方法选择我科出生的早产儿和低出生体重儿40例分为两组,20例直接置于暖箱内保暖,另20例先将保鲜膜包裹身体后再置于暖箱内保暖,同时监测腋温比较体温上升的快慢。结果包裹保鲜膜后置于暖箱内保暖的早产儿和低出生体重儿体温上升速度高于直接置于暖箱内保暖的早产儿和低出生体重儿。结论通过采取护理干预,能使早产儿和低出生体重儿的体温在短时间内上升明显,较大程度上减少了低体温的发生,减少了低体温带来的低血糖、代谢性酸中毒、微循环障碍,低氧血症,甚至发生肺出血等多种并发症,大大缩短了住院时间。

  17. Use of laryngeal mask airway in an extremely low birth weight premature infant undergoing laser photocoagulation treatment of retinopathy of prematurity with general anesthesia%喉罩通气道全麻用于超低出生体重儿视网膜病变激光光凝术的麻醉处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兰; 张建文; 左云霞

    2013-01-01

    报道1例胎龄27+4周,现月龄1月27 d,体重1.67 kg的超低出生体重伴双眼早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的早产儿在喉罩通气道全麻下行双眼激光光凝术治疗.%This case report describes the successful use of laryngeal mask airway in an extremely low birth weight premature infant undergoing laser photocoagulation treatment.The premature infant with gestational age of 27 ~ weeks is retinopathy in both eyes,57 d old,and 1.67 kg weight.

  18. 治疗孕妇牙周病对早产及低出生体重儿的影响%The influence of periodontal therapy among pregnant women on premature and low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔巍巍; 刘英奇; 陆慧; 孔永霞; 冯瑞红; 卢丽先; 刘红霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the treatment of periodontal diseases would influence the premature and low birth weight infants. Methods The data of 489 pregnant women, which including 312 in the experimental group (treated for periodontitis) and 177 in the control group ( with untreated periodontitis), was collected from Maternal and child health Bureau of our hospital. Periodontal status of women after 30 weeks' pregnance and the situation of the premature and low birth weight infants were analysed between the two groups. Results Compared with the control group, PI.BI.PD and CALwere decreased significantly, which was Statistically significant (P<0.05). Premature and low birth weight infants compared with control group was significantly lower, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Periodontal therapy among pregnant women can decrease the incidence of premature and low birth weight infants, so pregnant women should strengthen to the attention of the oral health education%目的:比较孕妇牙周病治疗组与非治疗组对早产及低出生体重儿的影响.方法:收集在我院妇幼保健科建卡孕妇(妊娠4~5个月)816例,患牙周病者有489例,312名同意治疗为观察组,177名拒绝治疗为对照组,记录两组孕妇妊娠30周后的牙周状况及分娩后低出生体重儿和早产发生的情况.结果:治疗组的菌斑指数、探诊深度、出血指数和临床附着丧失均明显低于对照组,有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组低出生体重儿及早产与对照组相比明显降低,有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:孕妇牙周病的治疗可降低早产及低出生体重儿的发生率,是优生优育不可忽视的因素.

  19. 低体重早产儿动脉导管未闭治疗进展%Therapy progress of patent ductus arteriosus in low-birth-weight premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑祥鑫(综述); 王文生(审校)

    2015-01-01

    动脉导管未闭是一种新生儿常见疾病。在早产儿,尤其是低体重儿中其发病率更高。如未及时治疗,往往会导致新生儿颅内出血、呼吸窘迫综合征、慢性肺疾病等严重并发症。目前临床上有药物治疗、手术治疗、介入治疗及对症治疗,该文对低体重早产儿动脉导管未闭治疗的进展作一综述。%Patent ductus arteriosus( PDA) has high morbidity in new-borns. This disease tends to occur in premature,especially in the low-birth-weight infants. It can lead to severe complications including intracranial hemorrhage,respiratory distress syndrome,and chronic lung disease without treatment. Treatment for PDA usual-ly involves medications,operations,interventions and symptomatic treatment. This paper summarizes the progres-ses of the therapy of PDA in low-birth-weight premature infants.

  20. 早产低出生体质量儿乳牙萌出和相关影响因素的调查研究%Deciduous tooth eruption time in low birth-weight prematurely born children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 卢东旭; 邓文娇; 李海飞; 江文; 刘寿桃

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌时间,并追踪观察早产低出生体质量儿多个时间点乳牙萌出的数目,探索影响乳牙萌出的相关因素.方法:选择早产低出生体质量儿35例和足月出生婴儿71例为对象,定期进行口腔检查并记录牙齿初萌时间、萌出牙位、萌出数目,统计分析孕周、出生体质量、性别、分娩方式、胎数、喂养方式等因素对乳牙萌出有无影响.结果:①两组最早萌出的牙均为下颌乳前牙,足月儿乳牙初萌明显早于早产低出生体质量儿(P<0.05),其中早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌年龄平均为出生后8.9个月,足月儿为出生后7个月;②按照牙齿初萌的生理年龄计算,早产低出生体质量儿牙齿初萌为70.4周,而足月儿为67.3周,两组婴儿间无统计学差异(P>0.05);③早产低出生体质量儿在出生后9个月、12个月时牙齿萌出数目明显低于足月儿(P<0.05);④在影响牙齿萌出的相关因素中,孕周、出生体质量与牙齿初萌年龄呈明显负相关,与牙齿萌出数目明显正相关;而喂养方式、性别、分娩方式以及胎数对乳牙萌出时间没有影响.结论:早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌明显较足月儿推迟,但以生理年龄计算,两组婴儿牙齿初萌时间无统计学差异.出生体质量与孕周是影响牙齿初萌时间和牙齿萌出数目的相关因素.%AIM: To compare the eruption time of first deciduous tooth in low birth-weight prematurely bom children with normal birth weight full-term born children so as to find out whether the eruption of first deciduous tooth is affected by the birth status. METHODS: Thirty-five low birth weight prematurely born infants and 71 normal birth weight full-term born children were included in this study. Dental examination was performed at 6, 9 and 12 months and all the eruption teeth were recorded. Birth status data was obtained from the medical history of hospital. RESULTS

  1. 营养护理对早产低出生体重儿营养状况的影响%Influence of nutritional nursing on the nutrition condition of low birth weight premature infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎娟; 杜惠妍; 陈汶钰; 黄艾艾

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of nutritional nursing on the nutrition condition of the premature low birth weight infant. Methods 86 premature low birth weight infants who were born in our hospital from October,2011 to October,2013 were selected and divided into control group and interfere group by digital randomized according to the order of admission, each group included 43 infants. Infants in the control group were nursed in regular nursing method while the infants in the interfere group were nursed with nutritional nursing. We compared the blood sugar level, albumin level, time to grow to regular birth weight and the like. Results The nutritional interfere in premature low birth weight infant can significantly lower reduce the time for growing to regular birth weight, nasal tube and the intestinal nutrition level increasing to 418.4kj/kg(P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the blood total protein level, the albumin level, the blood sugar level and the total lymphocyte level of interfere group significantly increase and the blood urea nitrogen decrease(P<0.05).The curative effective rate in interfere group is higher than that of the control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion Early nutritional nursing interfere in premature low birth weight infant can well prevent the occurrence of malnutrition.%目的:探讨营养护理干预对早产低出生体质量儿营养状况的影响。方法选取2011年10月~2013年10月在我院出生的早产低出生体质量儿86例,并根据患者入院顺序按数字随机法分为对照组和干预组,每组各43例。对照组进行常规护理,干预组进行早期营养护理干预,比较实验前后两组血糖、白蛋白和恢复出生体质量的时间等。结果对早产低出生体质量儿进行营养护理干预可缩短其恢复出生体质所需时间、留置鼻管时间以及肠道营养达到418.4kj/kg时间(P<0.05)。与对照组比较,干预组试验后的血浆总蛋白、血浆白

  2. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  3. Ansiedade na gestação, prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascer: uma revisão sistemática da literatura Anxiety during pregnancy, prematurity, and low birth weight: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Marano Rocha Araújo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão �� examinar publicações que investigaram o efeito da ansiedade no maior risco de prematuridade e/ou baixo peso ao nascer. Os bancos de dados MEDLINE versão PubMed, BVS, CINAHL e HEALTHSTAR, referentes aos anos de 1966 a 2006, foram rastreados usando-se a combinação dos seguintes descritores: anxiety, pregnancy, low birth weight e prematurity. Foram localizados 13 estudos: 11 coortes, 1 transversal e 1 caso-controle. A maioria (7/13 dos estudos foi realizado nos Estados Unidos. Quatro estudos foram considerados de excelente qualidade, pois excluíram adolescentes e/ou mulheres acima de 34 anos, aferiram a ansiedade a partir do primeiro e/ou segundo trimestre de gestação, utilizaram escalas validadas para medir ansiedade, apresentaram perdas de seguimento inferiores a 30% e controlaram os mais importantes fatores de confusão. A ansiedade na gestação foi associada à prematuridade e/ou ao baixo peso ao nascer em oito estudos. Os valores de razão de chance e risco relativo variaram de 1,08 a 2,31. São necessários estudos cuidadosamente desenhados para esclarecer a relação entre ansiedade na gestação, prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascer, já que as evidências observadas ainda são contraditórias.The purpose of this systematic literature review was to examine publications that had investigated the effect of anxiety on prematurity and/or low birth weight. The PubMed, BVS, CINAHL, and HEALTHSTAR databases, published from 1966 to 2006, were tracked using the following key words: "anxiety", "pregnancy", "low birth weight", and "prematurity". Thirteen studies were found: 11 cohorts, 1 cross-sectional, and 1 case-control. Most studies (7/13 were conducted in the United States. The most reliable results came from four studies, whose strengths were: exclusion of adolescents and/or women older than 34 years, studies that analyzed anxiety during the second and/or third trimester of pregnancy, used validated

  4. PREMATURE BIRTH, MORPHOLOGY OF PLACENTA AND INTRAUTERINE GROWTH RETARDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospectively studied following and outcome of pregnancy, women with non carrying of pregnancy, women that give birth to children with development delay (1 group and women that give birth in proper time (2 group. Premature birth arranged 4,4% of 2962 delivery. Fetus development delay was established by 38,1% of premature babies and by 10,5% of borne in proper time. Non carrying of pregnancy stipulated by motherґs urogenital infection, high expressed gestosis and others obsterical and extra genital complications. Each third of women that give birth to premature babies with development delay, have inflammatory overpatching in placenta, each fifth have morphological proved FPI. Realized researches allowed to conclude, that for decreasing frequencies of premature births and fetus development delay is necessary doing opportunely urogenital tract sonation, pre-clinical diagnostics of gestosis Noncarryng of pregnancy and treat this disease preventive.

  5. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  6. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.

  7. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, th

  8. 60例早产低体重儿静脉营养支持临床疗效观察%Clinical efficacy of parenteral nutrition support in 60 premature newborns with low birth weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宗燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of early parenteral nutrition in premature newborns with low birth weight. Methods Sixty premature newborns with low birth weight were randomly divided into traditional parenteral nutrition group ( n = 30) and early parenteral nutrition group (n = 30). The early parenteral nutrition group received intravenous nutrition support from the first day after birth,while the traditional parenteral nutrition group received conventional parenteral nutrition support. The time for two groups returning to birth weight,weight gains,duration of hospital stay,the transition to total parenteral feeding time,incidence of complications and biochemical indexes one week after the treatment were observed. Results In the early parenteral nutrition group,weight restoration,duration of hospital stay,the transition to gastrointestinal feeding time were significantly shorter than those in the conventional parenteral nutrition group ( P < 0. 01). Body weight increase was significantly bigger than that in the conventional parenteral nutrition group (P<0.01). Biochemical indicators and the incidence of complications during the treatment showed no significant difference in the two groups. Conclusion Early intravenous nutrition can better meet the energy needs of premature newborns with low birth weight and improve their quality of life.%目的 探讨早期静脉营养在早产低体重儿营养支持治疗中的作用.方法 60例早产低体重儿随机分为传统静脉营养组和早期静脉营养组,各30例.早期静脉营养组从出生后第1d开始应用静脉营养,传统静脉营养组应用传统静脉营养治疗.观察2组患儿恢复至出生体重时间、增加体重、住院时间、过渡到全胃肠道喂养时间;并发症发生情况;治疗1周后各项生化指标.结果 早期静脉营养组恢复体重时间、住院时间、过渡到胃肠道喂养时间明显短于传统静脉营养组(P<0.01),增加体重明显

  9. Therapy of patent ductus arteriosus in very-low-birth-weight premature infants%极低体重早产儿动脉导管未闭的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕林; 郭立琳; 徐瑞燚; 朱文玲; 苗齐

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨极低体重早产儿动脉导管未闭(PDA)的治疗方法.方法:本研究回顾性分析6例经外科手术治疗的PDA的极低体重早产儿的临床特点.结果:4例患者布洛芬治疗失败、2例患者因药物禁忌行动脉导管结扎术,术后由对呼吸机依赖转为3~4 d过渡脱机,胃肠内喂养耐受性及体重增加显著改善[(45±41)∶(258±77)g/周,P<0.001],5例存活患者均无手术并发症,1例患者死于早产儿并发症.结论:对于有手术指征的PDA的极低体重早产儿,外科手术结扎是安全而有效的方法.%To explore the therapy of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very low birth weight pre mature infants. Method: Clinical features of six very low birth weight premature infants who underwent surgical ligation of PDA were analyzed. Result:Six infants underwent surgical closure of PDA after failure (4/6) of or hav ing contraindications (2/6) to medical treatment. Five infants who were ventilator dependent stopped ventilator use in 3 -4 days after operation. Surgical ligation of PDA improved enteral feeding tolerance and body growth [45 + 41]g/week vs [258+77]g/week, P<0. 001). There was one death caused by complications of prematurity af ter operation. Conclusion; Surgical ligation is safe and effective for PDA in very low birth weight premature infantswith indication.

  10. Research on the health-related quality of life in prematures with low birth weight%早产低出生体重儿健康相关生活质量的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶秀霞; 孙建华; 黄萍; 步军; 贝斐; 胡雯; 叶晓来; 黄红

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in prematures with low birth weight. [Methods] A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai. A self-administrated questionnaire (TAPQOL) was completed by the primary caregivers of the prematures with mild to moderate birth weight and normal controls at the age of 1 ~ 5. [Results] Among the three groups, significant differences were found at the level of stomach, skin .sleep, appetite, motion function,problem behavior and cognitive function (P<0. 05 or <0. 01 ). [Conclusions] Children born with low birth weight do not experience an overall lower HR-QOL at preschool age. Children with moderate low birth weight perform more poor in physical function,cognitive function and behaviors. More attention and family-based health intervention are needed.%[目的]了解早产低出生体重儿健康相关生活质量现况,为该群体小儿的健康干预提供理论依据. [方法]横断面研究,由符合入组标准的1~4岁早产低出生体重儿包括早产中度低出生体重组(1 500g≤BW<2 000 g)、早产轻度低出生体重组(2 000 g≤BW<2 500 g)和足月正常出生体重组(BW≥2 500 g)的主要带养人完成TAPQOL问卷.[结果]三组在胃部问题、皮肤问题、睡眠问题、胃纳和运动功能方面,以及问题行为和认知功能方面差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或<0.01). [结论]早产低出生体重儿健康相关生活质量总体得分并不低,中度低出生体重儿表现出更多的身体机能和认知行为问题.应加强对这部分人群的重视和关怀,并建立基于家庭基础上的健康干预措施.

  11. Low birth weight in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, H M; Ismail, N N; Gebbie, D A

    1991-06-01

    Low birth weight babies are defined as those weighing under 2,500 g. They make 13.5% of all births at the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur but contribute to 74.8% of all deaths. They are most likely to be Indian babies and least likely to be Chinese. Among all 3 communities, the primigravidae tend to produce smaller babies than multiparae but this is also true for the Indian of parity more than 3. The Malay teenager is more likely to produce small babies than their older counterparts but not so with the Indian and Chinese. There are definite clinical factors associated with or causing the births of small babies and the lighter the baby, the more influential are these factors. Maternal hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage, multiple pregnancy and unexplained intrauterine death are the 4 outstanding associations with both low birth weight and perinatal death. Although the spontaneous (often premature) onset of labour was the commonest preceding factor, it was much less important in the lowest birth weight groups of babies and was a less important contributor to perinatal death.

  12. Associação entre o uso de sais de ferro durante a gestação e nascimento pré-termo, baixo peso ao nascer e muito baixo peso ao nascer Association between iron supplementation during pregnancy and prematurity, low birth weight, and very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane da Silva Dal Pizzol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a associação entre o uso de ferro profilático ou terapêutico com nascimento pré-termo e baixo peso ao nascer. Gestantes com vinte anos ou mais e idade gestacional entre 21 e 28 semanas foram arroladas consecutivamente em ambulatórios de pré-natal ligados ao Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS de seis capitais brasileiras entre 1991 e 1995. Características sócio-demográficas e o uso declarado de sais de ferro até a 28ª semana de gestação foram obtidos por meio de entrevista. Os desfechos e demais variáveis foram coletados no prontuário. A prevalência de anemia entre as 3.865 gestantes analisadas foi de 31,3%. Entre as gestantes anêmicas, 29,8% utilizavam ferro e entre as não-anêmicas o percentual foi de 16,7%. Após ajustamento para potenciais confundidores, o uso de ferro não mostrou associação com nascimento pré-termo (RC = 0,88; IC95%: 0,73-1,07, baixo peso ao nascer (RC = 0,99; IC95%: 0,75-1,31 e muito baixo peso ao nascer (RC = 0,58; IC95%: 0,29-1,13. Os resultados sugerem que o uso de ferro até a 28ª semana de gestação não diminui o risco de nascimento pré-termo, baixo peso ao nascer e muito baixo peso ao nascer.The objective was to evaluate the association between prophylactic iron supplementation and prematurity and low birth weight. Pregnant women 20 years and older with 21 to 28 weeks of gestational age were enrolled consecutively in prenatal services in the Unified National Health System in six Brazilian State capitals between 1991 and 1995. Socio-demographic data and information on iron supplementation up until the 28th gestational week were obtained by means of an interview. Outcomes and other variables were collected from medical records. Anemia was present in 31.3% of the 3,865 women. Among anemic women (hemoglobin 11.0g/dL. After adjusting for potential confounders, iron was not associated with prematurity (OR = 0.88; 95%CI: 0.73-1.07, low birth weight (OR = 0.99; 95%CI: 0.75-1.31, or

  13. 极低出生体重早产儿早期干预的临床效果%The clinical effect of early intervention on very low birth weight premature infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷克竞; 李永佳; 唐国红; 张本金

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of early intervention on physical and intelligent development of premature infants with very low birth weight. Methods Selected 32 premature infants of very lowbirth weight treated in neonatal intensive care unit during November 2011 to October 2012 as the intervention group. To avoid the violation of medical ethics, we select another 32 premature infants with very low birth weight who were born before November 2011and aged between 9 to 15 months as the control group. The intervention group was treated with early intervention, including regular physical development evaluation, neuromotor examination and test of intelligence. The intervention group was followed-up until correction age of 1 year and the control group was only at the year of correction age of 1 year. Results The physical development in the intervention group was better than the control group at the age of 1, the mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) significantly higher than those of the control group as well. The incidences of low intelligence and cerebral palsy were lower than those of the control group. The differences were statistically significant. Conclusion Early intervention is obviously effective in promoting the physical and intelligent development of very low birth weight premature infants, reducing the incidence of low intelligence and cerebral palsy, and improving the long-term living quality of the survivors. Still, the method centers on family, and therefore, is feasible and effective. So the doctors for children′s care from basic hospitals should vigorously promote the method.%目的:探讨早期干预对极低出生体重早产儿体格及智能发育的影响。方法:选择本院2011年11月至2012年10月新生儿重症监护病房救治存活的极低出生体重早产儿32例做为干预组,选择2011年11月以前出生的9~15个月极低出生体重早产儿连续收录32例做为对照组,对干

  14. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  15. New Information About Premature Births (For Consumers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    A new study finds that prematurity is the most frequent cause of infant death in the United States. Learn more.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  16. Is periodontal disease a reason or result for premature birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Demir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a known fact that there is a connection between periodontal disease and certain systemic conditions. Even though there are some contradictory results in the conducted studies, periodontal disease has been accepted as a risk factor affecting the negative terminations of pregnancy in recent years (premature birth [PB], low birth weight. This consideration is associated with a positive correlation between two conditions in some studies. The Hypothesis: Although there is such a relationship between periodontal disease and PB, the linking mechanism has not been explained as presence of the relation cannot reveal the cause-effect relationship. It should be discussed whether or not this positive connection is caused by the fact that periodontal disease is an independent risk factor for PB, or the change (hormonal, inflammatory in the systemic condition in PB cases causes a risk for periodontal disease. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The fact that in PB cases the changes in steroid hormone levels might increase the incidence and severity of periodontal disease as in pregnancy, or there could be a common risk factor that may cause both cases, has not been revealed yet and should be taken into consideration.

  17. The effects of music on the selected stress behaviors, weight, caloric and formula intake, and length of hospital stay of premature and low birth weight neonates in a newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, J

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music on selected stress behaviors, weight, caloric and formula intake, and length of hospital stay. Subjects were 52 preterm and low birth weight newborns in a newborn intensive care unit (NBICU) who were in stable condition and restricted to isolettes. Subjects in the experimental and control groups were matched for equivalency based on sex, birth weight, and diagnostic criticality. Eleven males and 15 females were assigned to the control group and received routine auditory stimulation. The experimental group of 11 males and 15 females received music stimulation, which consisted of approximately 60 minutes of tape recorded vocal music, including lullabies and children's music, and routine auditory stimulation. Thirty-minute segments of the recording were played alternatively with 30 minutes of routine auditory stimulation three times daily. Exposure to music stimulation occurred only during the infants' stay in the NBICU. Results suggest music stimulation may have significantly reduced initial weight loss, increased daily average weight, increased formula and caloric intake, significantly reduced length of the NBICU and total hospital stays, and significantly reduced the daily group mean of stress behaviors for the experimental group. Data analyses suggest the length of hospital stay may be correlated with the amount of stress experienced by the neonate and not with weight gains. Theoretical and practical aspects of these results are discussed.

  18. 低出生体重儿及早产儿心脏手术的早期疗效分析%Early Outcome of Open Heart Surgery for Congenital Heart Diseases in Low Birth Weight Infants and Premature Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾嵘; 庄建; 陈寄梅; 岑坚正; 丁以群; 王晟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the early outcomes of open heart surgery for congenital heart diseases in sixty low birth weight infants and premature infants. Methods Sixty low birth weight infants (body weight < 2 500 g) and premature infants with congenital heart diseases undergoing surgical repair from May 2003 to October 2011 were studied retrospectively in Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute. There were 43 male patients and 17 female patients with their mean gestational age of 33.5±4.1 weeks (ranging from 26 to 42 weeks) and mean age at operation of 24.9±12.5 d (ranging from 4 to 55 d). Among them there were 47 premature infants with their mean birth weight of 1 729.3±522.5 g (ranging from 640 to 2 500 g) and mean weight at operation of 1 953.2±463.6 g(ranging from 650 to 2 712 g). All the patients received preoperative treatment in newborn intensive care unit (NICU) and underwent surgical repair under general anesthesia, including 29 patients without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 31 patients with CPB . All surviving patients received postoperative monitoring and treatment in NICU, and their postoperative complications and in-hospital death were reported. Results A total of 13 patients died during hospitalization with a total in-hospital mortality of 21.7% (13/60), including 4 intra-operative deaths, 6 early deaths (within 72 h postoperatively) and 3 patients giving up postoperative treatment. CPB time was 121.0±74.7 min, aortic clamp time was 74.8±44. 7 min, and postoperative mechanical ventilation time was (136.9±138.1) h. Thirteen patients underwent delayed sternal closure. Eight patients underwent reexploation for postoperative bleeding. Ten patients had severe pneumonia, 2 patients had pulmonary hypertensive crisis, and 8 patients had low cardiac output syndrome. All the postoperative complications were resolved or improved after proper treatment. Follow-up was complete in 47 patients from 2 to 12 monthes. And all the patients were alive during follow

  19. 基于二孩政策的活产儿出生顺序与早产及低出生体质量关系研究%Relationship between birth order of live neonates and premature and low birth weight:a cross-sectional study due to the two-child policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计德永; 王君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨活产儿出生顺序与早产及低出生体质量的关系,为提高人口出生质量提供参考。方法选取2013年在某市妇幼保健院分娩的所有单胎活产儿为研究对象,资料收集于新生儿出生医学信息登记系统。结果活产儿出生顺序在1~8之间(1.4±0.6),出生顺序为1占65.9%(4055/6151),出生顺序为2占29.8%(1835/6151),出生顺序为3及以上占4.2%(261/6151)。出生顺序为1、2、3及以上的活产儿的早产检出率分别为8.2%、14.1%和27.2%(趋势χ2=113.620, P<0.05),低出生体质量检出率分别为6.2%、11.1%和26.8%(趋势χ2=132.228, P<0.05)。控制产妇年龄、文化程度及户口所在地后多因素分析显示,出生顺序为2、3及以上的活产儿出现早产的危险性分别是出生顺序1的1.546倍和3.186倍,出现低出生体质量的危险性分别是出生顺序1的1.991倍和5.530倍。结论高出生顺序为早产及低出生体质量发生的高危因素。%Objective To explore the relationship between birth order and premature, low birth weight among live neonates in order to provide the basis for improving birth quality. Methods All live neonates of single birth were selected from this hospital in 2013, and the data were collected from Medical Birth Register. Results The number of birth order was 1~8 (1. 4 ± 0. 6), the proportion of first birth or-der was 65. 9% (4 055/6 151), second birth order was 29. 8% (1 835/6 151), and third or more birth order was 4. 2% (261/6 151). The prevalence rate of premature birth was 8. 2% in first birth order, 14. 1% in second birth and 27. 2% in third or more birth (χ2 =113. 620, P<0. 05), and the prevalence rate of low birth weight was 6. 2 in first birth order, 11. 1% in second birth and 26. 8% in third or more birth (χ2 =132. 228, P<0. 05). The factors of maternal age, educational level and residence were controlled and multivariate analysis showed that, the risk of premature

  20. Type I retinopathy of prematurity in infants with birth weight less than 1251 g: Incidence and risk factors for its development in a nursery in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek B Wani

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The rate of Type I ROP in this study is higher than that in previous studies due to the higher number of infants with BW <1000 g in our cohort and the treatment of more eyes with stage 2+ ROP. However, all the treated eyes had a favorable outcome. Gestational age at birth and number of ventilated days were independent risk factors for the development of Type I ROP.

  1. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Last reviewed: January, 2013 Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  2. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  3. A possible role of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile in screening for autism: a proof-of-concept study in the specific sample of prematurely born children with birth weights <1,500 g

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranova, Stepanka; Stoklasa, Jan; Dudova, Iva; Markova, Daniela; Kasparova, Martina; Zemankova, Jana; Urbanek, Tomas; Talasek, Tomas; Luukka, Pasi; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the potential of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP) as a screening tool for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in prematurely born children. Methods Parents of 157 children with birth weights tools subsequently underwent clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Results We used classification trees to answer the question whether ITSP (or some of its subscales) could be combined with the M-CHAT and/or the CSBS-DP-ITC or its subscales into an effective ASD screening tool. Using the CSBS-DP-ITC, overall score, and the Sensation Seeking subscale of the ITSP, we obtained a screening tool that was able to identify all of the ASD children in our sample (confirmed by cross-validation). The proposed screening tool is scored as follows: 1) if the overall CSBS-DP-ITC value is <45.5, then the screening is positive; 2) if the overall CSBS-DP-ITC value is ≥45.5 and the z-score of the Sensation Seeking subscale of ITSP is ≥1.54, then the screening is positive; 3) otherwise, the screening is negative. Conclusion The use of CSBS-DP-ITC in combination with the Sensation Seeking subscale of the ITSP improved the accuracy of autism screening in preterm children. PMID:28182143

  4. Aplicação clínica da ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lúcia Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o valor do diagnóstico precoce de alterações hemodinâmicas em hemorragias e eventos hipóxico-isquêmicos pela avaliação de imagens e mensuração do índice de resistência por meio da ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Cinquenta neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso foram submetidos a ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler com a técnica transfontanela anterior e transtemporal sequenciais. RESULTADOS: Foram detectadas alterações cerebrais em 32% dos prematuros, sendo 22% com hemorragia intracraniana, 8% com leucomalácia periventricular e 2% com toxoplasmose. Dentre os 34 casos (68%, do total de neonatos, nos quais não foram detectadas lesões cerebrais pela ultrassonografia craniana, 18 (53% apresentaram alterações no índice de resistência. O índice de resistência variou conforme a época do exame. CONCLUSÃO: Existe correlação entre a presença de alterações na hemodinâmica cerebral e subsequente desenvolvimento de hemorragias e lesões hipóxico-isquêmicas, pela mensuração do índice de resistência. Alterações do índice de resistência, embora não preditoras de morte, estão relacionadas com a gravidade do quadro clínico em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. RESULTS: Cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis

  5. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  6. The piglet's behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  7. 139例出生体重≤1500g早产儿视网膜病变筛查分析%Screening analysis of retinopathy of prematurity in 139 cases with a birth weight of 1500g or less

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓蓉; 袁高乐; 周琼; 邵毅; 黄歆; 何军荣

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解低出生体重(≤1500g)早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)发病相关情况,并分析其影响因素及预后.方法 2012年10月至2014年12月收治的出生体重≤1500g的139例早产儿进行ROP筛查.其中,男婴86例,女婴53例.孕龄26-37周,平均(31.17±2.51)周.出生体重为698-1500g,平均(1296.5±218.1)g,根据结果分为正常组和ROP组,并对两组间性别、出生体重、出生孕龄、分娩方式、吸氧情况、呼吸窘迫综合症、缺血缺氧性脑病、贫血等因素进行分析.结果 139例患儿中有57例发生不同程度的ROP,占41.0%.其中,1期病变9例,约占本组的15.78%;2期病变18例,占31.57%;3期病变29例,约占50.87%;4期病变1例,约占1.75%;无5期病变患儿.接受激光光凝治疗17只例,手术治疗1例.ROP组的平均出生体重(1237.2±182.6)g低于正常组患儿的平均出生体重(1354.1±169.4)g,ROP组的平均孕龄(29.67±2.09)周低于正常组患儿平均孕龄(32.12±2.67)周,均有显著性差异(P均5d、缺血缺氧性脑病与ROP的发生有相关性(P均0.05).结论 出生体重≤1500g早产儿ROP的发生率为41.0%;低孕龄、低出生体重、氧疗和缺血缺氧性脑病是影响ROP发生和发展的高危因素.%Objective To estimate the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP)in preterm infants with a birth weight of 1500g or less,to identify the related risk factors and to assess the outcome of these cases. Methods From October 2012 to De-cember 2014,A ROP screening survey was performed in a total of 139 preterm infants (86 males and 53 females) with a birth weight of 1500g or less. Their gestational ages were from 26 to 37 weeks,with a mean of (31.17±2.51) weeks,Their birth weights were from 698 to 1500 grams,with a mean of (1296.5±218.1g). According to the screening results,all cases were divided into nor-mal group and ROP group. We also assessed the risk factors for ROP:the sex,gestational age,birth weight,delivery mode,oxygen therapy

  8. 药浴水疗对早产儿及低体重儿胆红素及血糖的影响%The effects of medicated hydrotherapy on bilirubin and blood glucose in premature and low birth weight neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小华; 朱湘陵; 冯兰青; 卢群娣; 曹辉娟; 叶惠梅; 陈婉婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 根据新生儿黄疸药浴方制成适合早产儿及低体重儿的药浴水疗方,观察此药浴水疗方对早产儿及低体重儿黄疸及血糖的影响.方法 选择住院的采用药浴水疗的38例早产儿或低体重儿为药浴组,同期非药浴水疗的38例早产儿或低体重儿为对照组,以新生儿黄疸的药浴方加减制成适合早产儿或低体重儿生理特点的药浴方,配成500 mL的药液,两组均在出生后24 h进行水疗或沐浴,监测其血糖值、经皮胆红素值的变化.结果 (1)药浴组药浴前后血糖比较,第1、3天差异有统计学意义(P0.05);(2)两组胆红素值比较:第24、48小时两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),出生后第96、144小时差异有统计学意义(P 0.05). There was no significant difference of bilirubin between two groups at the 24th and 48 th hour after birth (P > 0. 05 ) ; while it was significantly lower in hydrotherapy group than that in control group at the 96th and 144th hour (P < 0.01). Conclusion The medicated hydrotherapy can reduce hyperbilirubinemia in premature infants and low birth weight infants within 24 hours after birth and alleviate physiological jaundice . And there is no hypoglycemia in medicated bathing.

  9. Clinical efficacy of two different parenteral nutrition (PN) method for premature and low birth weight infants%不同肠外营养方法对早产低出生体质量儿的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe and discuss clinical effect of early parenteral nutrition ( PN) born within 24h and late PN within 72h on premature and low birth weight infants .Methods 68 admitted cases were divided into treatment group(n=35)and control group(n=33)with random number table.Treatment group was infused of amino acids(initial value 1g/kg· d)and fat emulsion(initial value 0.5-1.0g/kg· d)born within 24h,control group was in-fused of amino acids(initial value 0.5g/kg· d)and fat emulsion(initial value 0.5-1.0g/kg· d)born after 72h,dur-ing which breast feeding was arranged in terms of suitable situation ,and body weight ,liver and kidney function ,blood lipid,blood glucose,complications were noted and compared between two groups born after 7d.Results (1)The pre-term children born after 7d of physicochemical parameters were significantly improved after birth ( the treatment group t=2.169,5.963,11.773,5.920,5.870,8.998,2.076,the control group t=1.755,2.610,9.255,4.697,4.062, 7.489,2.042,all P0.05).Two groups of children in hyperlipidemia hyperbilirubi-nemia,cholestasis,secondary infection,the incidence of complications was no significant difference (χ2 =0.215, 0.235,0.173,0.190,all P>0.05).Conclusion Under the premise of initial value of amino acid ,fat emulsion were 1g/kg· d,0.5-1.0g/kg· d,early PN born within 24h compared with late PN born after 72h can better improve nutri-tional status of premature and low birth weight infants ,and clinical safety of two methods are much similar;for prema-ture and low birth weight infants ,amino acid and fat emulsion may be considered to intake born within 24h.%目的:探讨对早产低出生体质量儿出生24 h内行早期肠外营养(parenteral nutrition,PN)与出生72 h后行晚期肠外营养的临床效果。方法选取68例早产低出生体质量儿,随机分治疗组35例和对照组33例,治疗组出生24 h内输注氨基酸(初始量1 g· kg -1· d-1)与脂肪乳(初始量0.5~1.0 g· kg-1

  10. Social representations of mothers about gestational hypertension and premature birth

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the meanings attributed by mothers to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) and their consequences, such as premature birth and hospitalization of the infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). METHOD: A qualitative study, based on the Central Nucleus Theory, with 70 women who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm delivery. We used the technique of free word association (FWAT) with three stimuli: high blood pressur...

  11. Child Health USA 2014: Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent of infants born very preterm or at low birth weight. However, even babies born “late preterm” (34–36 weeks’ gestation) or at moderately low birth weight (1,500–2,499 grams) are more ...

  12. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N Ardissone

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth.Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches.Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of <33 weeks gestational age was observed. Approximately 61·1% of reads sequenced were classified to genera that have been reported in amniotic fluid. Gestational age had the largest influence on microbial community structure (R = 0·161; p = 0·029, while mode of delivery (C-section versus vaginal delivery had an effect as well (R = 0·100; p = 0·044. Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Photorhabdus, and Tannerella, were negatively correlated with gestational age and have been reported to incite inflammatory responses, suggesting a causative role in premature birth.This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  13. Retinopathy of Prematurity: Single versus Multiple-Birth Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Riazi-Esfahani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To compare the frequency and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP among singleton and multiple-birth neonates referred to Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran-Iran. METHODS: In this retrospective study, records of 99 consecutive neonates from multiple-gestation pregnancies including 68 twins, 26 triplets and 5 quadruplets who were screened for ROP from 2002 to 2004 were reviewed. The frequency, severity and risk factors for ROP were determined and compared to a group of singletons who were matched in terms of gender, birth weight (BW, gestational age (GA, oxygen therapy, respiratory distress syndrome, blood transfusion, sepsis and phototherapy. RESULTS: ROP was present in 12.1% of multiple-birth neonates as compared to 15.1% of singletons (P=0.53. Threshold ROP was present in 6.1% of multiple-birth neonates versus 7.1% of singletons (P=0.62. ROP was detected in 60% of quadruplets versus 9.6% of twins and triplets; threshold disease was observed in 40% of quadruplets as compared to 4.2% of twins and triplets (P < 0.03. However, considering the effect of BW and GA, logistic regression analysis revealed no statistically significant difference in the frequency and

  14. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne;

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age...

  15. The related research between different seasons and the premature/low birth weight babies occurrence regularity%不同季节与早产儿/低出生体重儿发生规律的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文燕; 谭玮; 丁香平; 胡向文

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨早产儿/低出生体重儿与不同季节的相关性.方法:收集2008年5月~ 2010年5月在江西省妇幼保健院出生早产儿/低出生体重儿临床资料,分析各月份及各气候季型中早产儿分布、死亡情况及与气候的关系.结果:研究期间出生的早产儿/低出生体重儿l 638例,占该医院同期出生总人数的7.72%(1 638/21 229).其中秋冬季节早产儿/低出生体重儿占8.16%高于春夏季节7.21%(P<0.01);秋冬季节早产儿/低出生体重儿病死率2.92%和春夏季节2.31%差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:秋冬季节早产儿/低出生体重儿的发生显著高于春夏季节,表明气候与早产儿/低出生体重儿的发生相关.%Objective:To investigate the correlation between the preterm/low birth weight babies and different season in Jiangxi province maternal and child care hospital.Methods:The deaths and the distribution of the premature/low birth weight babies in May 2008 to May 2010 were collected,four seasons in the Gregorian calendar,March,April,May months for spring,June,July and August for the summer,September,October,November months for autumn,with the December,January,February months for winter were divided and the correlation between the preterm/low birth weight babies and the climate in the different months and the climate season types were analyzed.Results:Premature/low birth weight babies which borned in our hospital were 1 638 cases in the study period,accounting for the total number born during the same period of the constituent ratio was 7.72% (1 638/21 229).Constituent ratio of the premature/low birth weight babies in autumn and winter season (8.16%) were higher than those of spring and summer season (7.21%) (P <0.01).There was no statistical difference in the mortality in premature/low birth weight babies between autumn and winter season (2.92 %) and spring and summer season (2.31%).Conclusion:The premature/low birth weight babies

  16. Skewed birth sex ratio and premature mortality in elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2009-10-01

    Sex allocation theories predict equal offspring number of both sexes unless differential investment is required or some competition exists. Left undisturbed, elephants reproduce well and in approximately even numbers in the wild. We report an excess of males are born and substantial juvenile mortality occurs, perinatally, in captivity. Studbook data on captive births (CB, n=487) and premature deaths (PD, 6 months with maternal insufficient milk production, natural hazards and accidents being the main causes. European Asian and Myanmar elephants PD was biased towards males (0.71, P=0.024 and 0.56, P<0.001, respectively). The skewed birth sex ratio and high juvenile mortality hinder efforts to help captive populations become self-sustaining. Efforts should be invested to identify the mechanism behind these trends and seek solutions for them.

  17. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  18. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  19. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  20. Prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade: estudo com 450 pré-termos de muito baixo peso Prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity: study with 450 very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Borges Fortes Filho

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Analisar prevalência e fatores de risco para a retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP entre pré-termos com peso de nascimento (PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou idade gestacional (IG d"32 semanas admitidos em uma instituição hospitalar universitária de nível terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte institucional, prospectivo e descritivo, realizado entre outubro de 2002 e julho de 2008, incluindo todos os pré-termos com PN d"1.500 gramas e/ou com IG d"32 semanas, que sobreviveram até a 42ª semana de IG corrigida. Foram determinadas a prevalência da ROP em seus vários estadiamentos evolutivos. Os principais fatores de risco para o surgimento da ROP no período pós-natal foram comparados por análises uni e multivariadas entre os pacientes que desenvolveram e os que não desenvolveram a doença. Para a análise das variáveis contínuas entre os dois grupos, foi usado o Teste t (Student para amostras independentes e para a comparação das variáveis categóricas, o Qui-Quadrado. A regressão logística incluiu as variáveis com significância após a análise univariada. RESULTADOS:Foram estudadas 450 crianças cuja média de PN e IG foram 1.213,50 gramas (± 277,4 e 30,3 semanas (± 2,2, respectivamente. A ROP, em qualquer estadiamento, afetou 24,2% das crianças. Doença limiar, necessitando de tratamento pela fotocoagulação, ocorreu em 24 pacientes (5,3%. Após análise univariada, a IG, o PN, o ganho ponderal do nascimento até a 6ª semana de vida, o uso de oxigenioterapia em ventilação mecânica e de indometacina, as ocorrências de sepse e hemorragia intraventricular e a necessidade de transfusões sanguíneas, estiveram associados com a ROP. A regressão logística confirmou a importância da IG (OR: 0,856; IC95%: 1,141-1,447; P=0,014, do baixo ganho ponderal (OR: 0,997; IC95%: 0,996-0,999; PPURPOSE: This study aims to analyze prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP among preterms with birth weight (BW d"1

  1. RISK FACTORS IN PREGNANCY AND THEIR RELATION TO BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azordegan

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available In 17 hospitals, 13123 new births were born during 1989 in Tehran. Some well-trained personnel observed the events, filling the required questionnaires, interviewing, and collecting necessary information. Among them 730 newborns was low birth weight (less than 2500 grams which was considered as cases. Immediately after each case was born, two normal newborn were randomly selected as controls. So at the end of data collection, a total of 1460 births were considered controls. In a case-control study the effect of some risk factors during pregnancy of mothers on birth weight and death rate of newborn during first 4 weeks of their life were fully investigated. Some of the findings are as follows: The past history of miscarriages will decrease the birth weight of the newborn and thereby will increase the death rate in the first 28 days of their life. In this respect the difference between case and control was highly significant. Other variables like past history of premature birth, chronic diseases, hemorrhage and severe vomiting showed the same results.

  2. Consumo de cafeína entre gestantes e a prevalência do baixo peso ao nascer e da prematuridade: uma revisão sistemática Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and prevalence of low birth weight and prematurity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Helena de Resende Nóra Pacheco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se revisão sistemática sobre o consumo de cafeína em gestantes na ocorrência de baixo peso ao nascer e prematuridade, enfocando métodos para quantificação deste consumo e confundimentos controlados na análise. A revisão consistiu na busca de artigos publicados de 1996 a 2006 nas bases MEDLINE, LILACS e PubMed, utilizando-se as palavras-chave: "caffeine", "coffee", "low birth weight", "birth weight", "preterm", "premature" e "prematurity". Dez artigos foram selecionados. Os métodos utilizados para quantificar o consumo de cafeína foram: questionário de freqüência alimentar semiquantitativo - da dieta ou apenas de produtos cafeinados, sendo um do tipo auto-aplicado; recordatório alimentar; perguntas sobre tipo e modo de preparo; análise de amostras; e dosagens urinária e plasmática. Em três estudos revisados, o consumo elevado de cafeína associou-se com baixo peso ao nascer e/ou prematuridade. Contradições nos achados devem-se a dificuldades na mensuração do consumo de cafeína; às fontes abordadas; a variações no preparo e na quantidade consumida; e ao tamanho amostral. Não foi demonstrada associação entre ingestão moderada de cafeína e crescimento fetal, sendo necessária uma avaliação mais precisa do consumo dessa substância.This article reports on a systematic review of studies on caffeine intake during pregnancy and prevalence of low birth weight and prematurity, focusing on methods to quantify intake and control for confounding. The review consisted of an article search from 1996 to 2006 in MEDLINE, LILACS, and PubMed, using the key words: "caffeine", "coffee", "low birth weight", "birth weight", "preterm", "premature", and "prematurity". Ten articles were selected. Methods used to quantify caffeine consumption were: semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires for diet or only caffeinated products, including one self-applied questionnaire; food recall; questions on type and method of

  3. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusharisupeni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity. Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types. Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:177-80.].

  4. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusharisupeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality.Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing.Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity.Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types.Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence.

  5. 103例超未成熟儿及超低出生体重儿转归及影响因素分析%Outcome and influencing factors of 103 cases of extremely premature infant and extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓磊; 梅花; 刘春枝; 张亚昱; 刘春丽; 宋丹; 张钰恒

    2016-01-01

    目的 总结超未成熟儿及超低出生体重儿发生的原因、相关影响因素及转归情况.方法 分析内蒙古医科大学附属医院2009年1月至2015年12月NICU收治的符合条件的103例超低出生体重儿及超未成熟儿的临床资料,包括母孕期病史、新生儿出生时情况、诊治经过及预后.结果 103例患儿存活67例,死亡36例,存活率65.0% (67/103).妊娠高血压综合征、感染、胎膜早破等为发生超未成熟和超低出生体重儿的主要因素,影响两者的转归因素包括胎龄、性别、出生体重、肺出血、支气管肺发育不良、坏死性小肠结肠炎(P<0.05).长期住院的存活患儿后期易并发贫血.死亡直接原因前4位包括肺出血、呼吸窘迫综合征、新生儿肺炎及坏死性小肠结肠炎.结论 加强高危妊娠监测管理,预防早产,加强NICU超未成熟儿及超低出生体重儿的监护管理,及早发现、及早处理各种并发症,防止医院感染发生,是提高两者存活率,改善生活质量的根本措施.%Objective To summarize the causes,related factors and outcome of extremely premature infants and extremely low birth weight infants.Methods One hundred and three cases of extremely premature infants and extremely low birth weight infants were admired to First Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University between January 2009 and December 2015.The study was performed to analyze the clinical data of the 103 cases,included history of pregnancy,birth situation,treatment and prognosis.Results In these 103 cases,67 infants survived,36 infants died.The survival rate was 65.0% (67/103).The extremely premature infants and extremely low birth weight infants were mainly associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension,infection,premature rupture of membranes.Factors that could affect the outcome of these cases included gestational age,sex,birth weight,pulmonary hemorrhage,bronchopulmonary dysplasia and necrotizing

  6. Children born with very low birth weight show difficulties with sustained attention but not response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Healy, Elaine; Dooley, Barbara; Kelly, Simon P; McNicholas, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight perform poorly on executive function and attention measures. Any difficulties with sustained attention may underpin impairments in performance on tasks measuring higher order cognitive control. Previous sustained attention research in very low birth weight cohorts has used tasks that involve arousing stimuli, potentially spoiling the measure of sustained attention. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of very low birth weight and normal birth weight children on a well-controlled task of sustained attention. The Fixed and Random versions of the Sustained Attention to Response Task were given to 17 very low birth weight and 18 normal birth weight children. The very low birth weight group performed the Fixed and Random Sustained Attention to Response Tasks in a similar manner as the normal birth weight group on all measures except for the omission error and Slow Frequency Area under the Spectra variables on the Fixed Sustained Attention to Response Task. These measures index lapses in sustained attention that may be underpinned by declining arousal. The very low birth weight group showed no response inhibition deficits. Omission errors and slow-timescale response-time variability on predictable tasks may thus present sensitive indices of difficulties with sustained attention and arousal associated with premature birth and low birth weight.

  7. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...... birth weight increased the risk of infantile colic in children born at term (gestational weeks 37-41)....

  8. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  9. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  10. 早产的高危因素分析%The analysis of the risk factors of premature birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁丰

    2013-01-01

      目前早产及早产儿死亡有一定的发病率,而早产的高危因素多样性。现对早产的高危因素作一综述。%There are certain incidence of disease of premature birth and premature death , and there are variety of the risk factors of premature birth . Here , this paper summarizes the risk factors of premature birth .

  11. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeadi, Reza; Ghorbani, Zahra; Shapouri Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU)-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05). The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000). The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  12. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  13. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  14. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

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    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  15. Emotional reactions of mothers facing premature births: study of 100 mother-infant dyads 32 gestational weeks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Eutrope

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This current study has been conducted to clarify the relationship between the mother's post-traumatic reaction triggered by premature birth and the mother-infant interactions. In this article, the precocious maternal feelings are described. METHODS: A multicenter prospective study was performed in three French hospitals. 100 dyads with 100 very premature infants and their mothers were recruited. Mothers completed, at two different times self-questionnaires of depression/anxiety, trauma and social support. The quality of interactions in the dyads was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent of the mothers obtained a score at HADS suggesting a high risk of depression at the first visit and approximately one-third at visit two. Seventy-five percent of the mothers were at risk of suffering from an anxiety disorder at visit one and half remained so at visit two. A "depressed" score at visits one and two correlated with a hospitalization for a threatened premature labor. We noted a high risk of trauma for 35% of the mothers and high interactional synchrony was observed for approximately two-thirds of the dyads. The mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety or postnatal depression correlate strongly with the presence of an initial trauma. At visit one and visit two, a high score of satisfaction concerning social support correlates negatively with presence of a trauma. A maternal risk of trauma is more frequent with a C-section delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' psychological reactions such as depression and anxiety correlate greatly with the presence of an initial trauma. The maternal traumatic reaction linked to premature birth does not correlate with the term at birth, but rather with the weight of the baby. Social support perceived by the mother is correlated with the absence of maternal trauma before returning home, and also seems to inhibit from depressive symptoms from the time of the infant's premature birth.

  16. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  17. The impact of birth weight on the level of lung function and lung function decline in the general adult population. The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Sophie; Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    's age at birth, parity, prematurity, multiple pregnancy, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and lung symptoms as covariates. RESULTS: Birth weight was positively associated with spirometric variables. For a 1 kg increase in birth weight, FEV1 increased by 86 ml (CI95%: 34-139) and FVC by 88 ml (CI95...

  18. Follow-up Observation and Analysis of Catch-up Growth in Low Birth Weight Premature Infants after Discharge%低出生体重早产儿出院后追赶性生长的随访观察及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佃东春; 杨凤娥; 唐凤娇; 张春莲

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究强化母乳喂养对低出生体重早产儿出院后追赶性生长的随访观察。方法:在本院收治的低出生体重早产儿中随机抽取出60例作为本次研究的对象,随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组各30例。对照组单纯采用纯母乳喂养,治疗组则给予母乳+母乳强化剂喂养,对比分析两组患儿矫正胎龄后1岁时的贝利婴幼儿发展量表神经行为差别、生长参数等指标。结果:1岁时,治疗组患儿的头围、身高、体重、PDI和MDI指数均明显高于对照组,两组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:对低出生体重早产儿出院后采用强化母乳喂养有助于促进患儿的追赶性生长,促进患儿的运动、智力发育,值得应用。%Objective:To explore the improved breastfeeding for low birth weight premature infants and catch-up growth of follow-up after discharge.Method:60 cases of low birth weight premature infants with low birth weight were selected as the subjects of this study,they were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,30 cases in each group.The control group was given only with pure breastfeeding,the treatment group was given breast milk+breastfeeding enhancer feeding,the differences of the neurobehavioral and growth parameters between the two groups were compared after correction of gestational age at 1 year.Result:At the age of 1 year,the children head circumference,height,body weight PDI and MDI index indexes of treatment group were significantly greater than the control group,the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion:The use of enhanced breast feeding after discharge in low birth weight premature infants is helpful to promote the catch-up growth of children and promote the development of children's sports and intelligence.

  19. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  20. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  1. Protective effect of maternal uteroplacental insufficiency on oxygen-induced retinopathy in offspring: removing bias of premature birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Silke; Wang, Haibo; Yu, Baifeng; Brown, Randy; Han, Xiaokun; Lane, Robert H.; Hartnett, M. Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    To address the hypothesis that maternal uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) increases severity of retinopathy of prematurity, we developed a composite rat model of UPI and oxygen-fluctuations and removed premature birth as a confounding factor. Timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams underwent bilateral uterine artery ligation or anesthesia (control) at e19.5. Full-term pups developed in room air (RA) or an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) model. Isolectin-stained retinal flat-mounts were analyzed for percent of areas of avascular/total retina (AVA) and of intravitreal neovascular/total retina (IVNV). Pup weights and serum and mRNA of liver and kidney VEGF, IGF-1, and erythropoietin (EPO) were determined. Multivariable mixed effects linear regressions and Pearson correlations were performed using STATA14. Postnatal growth restriction occurred in pups in UPI/RA, but not in UPI/OIR. Weight gain was similar between UPI/OIR and control/OIR pups. AVA was reduced and a trend toward reduced IVNV was seen in UPI/OIR compared to control/OIR. No difference in birth weights of UPI/OIR vs. control/OIR pups occurred. Serum and renal IGF-1 and EPO were significantly increased in UPI/OIR compared to control/OIR pups. In the absence of prematurity, UPI increased angiogenic factors in association with reduced OIR severity, suggesting that ischemia from UPI could yield protective angiogenic effects by offspring. PMID:28195189

  2. 早产儿/低出生体质量儿经口喂养准备评估量表的编制及信效度测定%Formulation and validity and reliability testing of oral feeding preparation scale for premature baby or low birth weight infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 陆美英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To design the oral feeding preparation scale for premature baby or low birth weight infant, and test its validity and reliability. Methods We utilized method of literature review, consulted experts, and combined with clinical experience to protocol the clause of initial scale. A total of 114 premature babies had been chosen to survey. The scale was evaluated by program analysis, exploratory factor analysis, correlation analysis, internal consistency testing, split-half reliability analysis, content validity, etc. Results The initial clauses were 14, and after discussions, program analysis, exploratory factor analysis, we deleted 3 clauses and added 1. The exploratory factor distilled 5 common factors;its cumulative contribution rate reached 77. 639%, and correlation coefficient of each dimension was 0. 443-0. 999; Cronbach′s α coefficient and split-half coefficient maintained 0. 778 and 0. 880. The outcome scale of different oral feeding ways had statistical significance (P<0. 05), and had some certain differentiate validity. Conclusions The validity of oral feeding preparation scale for premature babies or low birth weight infant is good, which can be the measure tool for assessment of premature babies or low birth weight infant′s oral feeding preparation.%目的:自制评价早产儿/低出生体质量儿经口喂养准备评估量表,并进行信效度检验。方法采用文献回顾法,咨询专家,结合临床经验,拟定初量表条目。选取114例早产儿进行预调查。采用项目分析、探索性因子分析、相关性分析、内部一致性检验、折半信度分析、内容效度等对量表进行评价。结果初步形成14个条目,经反复探讨和项目分析、探索性因子分析后删除3个条目,增加1个条目。探索性因子分析提取了5个公因子,累积贡献率为77.639%,各维度相关系数为0.443~0.999, Cronbach′sα系数及折半系数分别为0.778,0.880,不同经口喂养结局量表分数

  3. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  4. The nutritional status of the hospitalized premature infants with very low birth weight in China:a retrospective multicenter study%极低出生体质量早产儿院内营养现状多中心调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中国医师协会新生儿专业委员会-营养专家委员会协作组

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of the hospitalized premature infants with birth weight lower than 1 500 g in the different areas in China, and to analyze the related inlfuence factors of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR). Methods The retrospective survey method was used to collect clinical data of the premature infants with birth weight lower than 1 500 g and hospital stay of more than 2 weeks in 15 hospitals between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012. A descriptive analysis was performed for intestinal and parenteral nutrition and weight gain, and the related inlfuence factors of EUGR were analyzed. Results A total of 572 premature infants were selected. The mean gestational age was 30.6±2.0 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 1255.7±164.8 g. The mean enteral feeding starting time after birth was 68.2±85.4 hours, and the mean age to reach oral calorie of 100 kcal/(kg·d) was 29.9±14.1 days. During hospitalization, the mean weight growth velocity after return to birth weight was 11.8±5.5 g/(kg·d). The duration of hospitalization was 42.2±20.8 days and the corrected gestational age was 36.6±2.7 weeks at the time of discharge. At birth, the percentage of birth weight below P10 was 52.6%, and below P3 was 29.0%. At the time of discharge, the percentage of weight below P10 was 80.9%, and below P3 was 63.6%. There were differences between two time points (P2周、出生体质量<1500 g的早产儿临床资料,包括住院期间的喂养方式、营养状况、并发症及诊断和治疗,并对早产儿住院期间的肠内外营养、体质量增长情况进行描述性分析,并分析EUGR的相关因素。结果入选572例早产儿,出生胎龄(30.6±2.0)周,出生体质量(1255.7±164.8)g;开始肠道喂养的时间为(68.2±85.4)h,口服能量达到100 kcal/(kg·d)(1cal=418.68J)的日龄为(29.9±14.1)d;住院期间在恢复至出生体质量后其体质量增长速度为(11.8±5.5)g

  5. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects.......A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects....

  6. Clinical comparison of early prophylactic application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure and pulmonary surfactant in the premature very low birth weight infants%早产极低出生体重儿早期预防性应用鼻塞式持续气道正压与肺表面活性物质的临床比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高薇薇; 谭三智; 杨杰; 张永; 叶秀桢; 聂川; 王越; 王俊平

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨在早产极低出生体重儿中生后早期使用鼻塞式持续气道正压(nCPAP)或应用肺表面活性剂(PS)以预防新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS)的临床疗效比较.方法:采用前瞻性对照研究,对出生后早期使用nCPAP辅助通气或早期使用PS替代治疗的早产极低出生体重儿进行对照研究,观察其死亡率、支气管肺发育不良发生率、辅助通气时间及临床并发症.结果:共106例患儿人选,死亡率和支气管肺发育不良(BPD)发生率组间比较差异无统计学意义.机械辅助通气、总用氧时间组间比较差异无统计学意义;nCPAP组PS使用数少于对照组(Odds Ratio:0.37,90% CI 0.209~0.655);气漏发生率低(Odds Ratio:0.476,90% CI0.233~0.971),IVH发生率低(Odds Ratio:o.778,90%CI 0.319~1.898).其他临床并发症组间比较差异无统计学意义.结论:早期应用nCPAP是预防早产极低出生体重儿呼吸窘迫综合征另一良好选择.%Objective; To explore the clinical effects of early prophylactic application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and pulmonary surfactant (PS) in prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome ( NROS) among the premature very low birth weight infants. Methods: The clinical effects of early prophylactic application of nCPAP and PS in the premature very low birth weight infants were compared, the death rates, the incidences of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the duration times of assisted ventilation, and clinical complications in the two groups were observed. Results; A total of 106 infants were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in the death rate and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the duration time of mechanical ventilation and total using oxygen time between the two groups; the number of infants using PS in nCPAP group was fewer than that in control group (Odds ratio; 0. 37, 90

  7. New Information About Premature Births (For Healthcare Providers)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-10-06

    Dr. William Callaghan describes the findings from a CDC study which sought to understand how preterm birth contributes to infant mortality rates in the United States.  Created: 10/6/2006 by CDC Division of Reproductive Health.   Date Released: 10/6/2006.

  8. Effects of immune nutritional enhancing therapy on the prognosis of premature very low birth weight infants%免疫强化营养治疗对早产极低出生体质量儿预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李素萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the effects of immune nutritional enhancing therapy on the prognosis of premature very low birth weight infants(VLBWI). Methods One hundred and six cases of premature VLBWI were se-lected as the research objects and randomly divided into the observation group and the control group. Fifty-three cases were included into each group. The newborn infants in the observation group were fed with breast milk combined with human milk fortifier,while newborn infants in the control group were fed with formative milk for the premature infants. The hospi-talized time and serum albumin levels,weight at discharge,hospital infection rates and the incidences of gastrointestinal dysfunction of the infants in the two groups were observed and compared. Results The differences of the hospitalized time and the weight at discharge of the infants in the two groups were not significant(P > 0. 05),while the serum albumin level of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group(P 0. 05). Conclusions Early application of breast feeding combined with human milk fortifier in the treatment of premature VLBWI can significantly improve the nutritional status of the infants,and contribute to the achievement of the‘catch-up growth’. Meanwhile,the effects of promoting the immune function of the premature infants of this therapy are equivalent to the application of the formula milk feeding.%目的:观察和分析免疫强化营养治疗对早产极低出生体质量儿(VLBWI)预后的影响。方法选取106例早产 VLBWI 作为研究对象,将其随机分为观察组和对照组,每组53例,观察组新生儿应用母乳加母乳强化剂的喂养方式,对照组新生儿应用早产儿配方奶进行喂养,对两组新生儿的住院时间和血清白蛋白水平、出院时体质量、住院期间感染发生率和胃肠功能紊乱发生率的情况进行观察和比较。结果两组在住院时间和出院体质

  9. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design....

  10. 早产预测方法的探讨%The discussion of the prediction method of premature birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁丰

    2013-01-01

    目前早产及早产儿死亡有一定的发病率,而对于早产的预测有各种不同的方法。本文就各种早产预测方法在临床中的应用情况进行综述。%There are certain incidence of disease of premature birth and premature death , and there are all kinds of different prediction methods of premature birth. This paper summarizes the application of all kinds of prediction methods of premature birth in clinical.

  11. Evolución del riesgo de mortalidad fetal tardía, prematuridad y bajo peso al nacer, asociado a la edad materna avanzada, en España (1996-2005 Trends in the risk of late fetal mortality, prematurity and low birth weight associated with advanced maternal age in Spain (1996-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Luque Fernández

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la evolución de la fecundidad, la mortalidad fetal tardía, la prematuridad y el bajo peso al nacer, así como su asociación con la edad materna avanzada, en España, durante el período 1996-2005. Métodos: Estudio ecológico. La prematuridad y el bajo peso en función de la edad materna se analizan mediante tablas de contingencia. La evolución de las tasas de mortalidad fetal tardía se analiza mediante una estandarización directa. El riesgo de mortalidad fetal tardía, ajustado por la edad materna y la prematuridad, se analiza mediante una regresión de Poisson. Resultados: Las tasas de mortalidad fetal tardía y de fecundidad han aumentado en las mujeres de más de 35 años de edad, sobre todo en las mayores de 45 años. El riesgo de mortalidad fetal tardía es 2,7 veces superior para las mujeres a partir de los 45 años (razón de tasas: 2,7; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 1,8-3,0, con una fracción etiológica de la exposición del 69% (IC95%: 55,2-78,6. La prevalencia de prematuridad y de bajo peso para este mismo grupo es 3 veces superior, con una razón de prevalencias de prematuridad de 2,9 (IC95%: 2,7-3,1 y de bajo peso de 3,1 (IC95%: 2,9-3,3. Conclusiones: El elevado riesgo de las mujeres de 45 o más años de edad se explica por el aumento de la proporción de embarazos en este grupo de edad. Se requieren nuevos estudios, en el ámbito de la epidemiología perinatal, que analicen el impacto de las técnicas de reproducción asistida en los embarazos a edades avanzadas, así como la dinamización de la puesta en marcha del registro nacional de técnicas de reproducción asistida.Objectives: To describe trends in fertility, fetal death rate, prematurity and low birth weight, as well as their association with advanced maternal age, in Spain from 1996 to 2005. Methods: We performed an ecological study. The association between low birth weight and prematurity with maternal age was analyzed through

  12. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  13. Contrasts in Infant Classical Eyeblink Conditioning as a Function of Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Jane S.; Eckerman, Carol O.; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of premature birth on associative learning was evaluated using simple delay eyeblink conditioning in which a tone conditional stimulus was paired with an air puff unconditional stimulus. Fourteen preterm (28-31 weeks gestation) and 11 full-term infants completed at least 3 conditioning sessions, 1 week apart, at 5 months of age…

  14. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C

    2006-01-01

    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies...... are limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...... pubertal development, testicular hormone production or sperm quality, available evidence points towards a subtle impairment of both Sertoli cell and Leydig cell function. Animal studies support the hypothesis that impaired perinatal growth restriction, depending on the timing, can affect postnatal testis...

  15. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  16. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2014-01-01

    Background: A low birth weight has been extensively related to poor adult health outcomes. Birth weight can be seen as a proxy for environmental conditions during prenatal development. Identical twin pairs discordant for birth weight provide an extraordinary model for investigating the association...... between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... in association with birth weight discordance. Results: Our association analysis revealed no CpG site with genome-wide statistical significance (FDR twin...

  17. Medical, nutritional, and dental considerations in children with low birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Susan

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that 8 to 26 percent of infants are born with low birth weight (LBW) worldwide. These children are at risk for medical problems in childhood and adulthood and often have poor oral health. The influence of fetal growth on birth weight and its relevance to childhood growth and future adult health is controversial. Evidence now indicates that the postnatal period is a critical time when nutrition may predispose the child to lifelong metabolic disturbance and obesity. Given the lack of consensus on optimum infant nutrition for LBW, premature, and small-for-gestational-age infants, many such infants may be suboptimally managed. This may result in rapid postnatal weight gain and ongoing health problems. The purpose of this review was to summarize medical terminology and issues related to fetal growth, morbidity associated with being born low birth weight, premature, or small for gestational age, and the importance of appropriate nutrition in such infants. Pediatric dentists can play an important role in supporting healthy feeding practices and improving long-term health in these children. Early integrated medical and dental care should be encouraged for all children with low birth weight.

  18. Preliminary study of evaluation criterion for continuing health education in parents of very low birth weight premature infants%极低出生体质量早产儿家长延续性健康教育评价标准体系的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华; 钱小芳; 欧萍; 徐玉英; 谢燕钦

    2014-01-01

    目的 构建极低出生体质量早产儿家长院外延续性健康教育评价标准,并检测其信效度.方法 通过文献回顾法、理论分析法和质性研究法初步建立条目池,并运用德尔菲函询法构建极低出生体质量早产儿家长延续性健康教育评价标准,对1 12例极低出生体质量早产儿家长进行信效度测评.结果 以健康教育知信行理论为框架,参照护理结局分类与护理措施分类系统,构建涵盖院外延续性健康教育知识、信念、行为三个维度共29个条目的评价标准,量表内容效度指数为0.944,主成分提取3个公因子,累计贡献率分别为49.70%、73.25%、46.90%,总量表的Cronbach'α系数为0.934,重测信度为0.865,评分者间一致信度为0.940.结论 极低出生体质量早产儿家长院外延续性护理健康教育评价标准具有较好的信效度,可作为我国极低出生体质量早产儿院外延续性护理健康教育效果的测量工具,也为构建院外延续性护理模式提供依据.%Objective To develop and evaluate the reliability and validity of evaluation criterion for continuing health education in very low birth weight premature infants.Methods The literature review,theoretical analysis,qualitative research and Delphi technique were conducted to identify the evaluation criterion for continuing health education.The reliability and validity of evaluation criterion was tested in 112 parents of very low birth weight premature infants.Results The evaluation criterion which was based on the frame of KABP Model and Nursing Outcomes Classification as well as Nursing Interventions Classification consisted of 3 projects with 29 specific items.The content validity index for the scale was 0.950.Three common factors were extracted by the principal components extraction analysis and the cumulative contribution rate was 49.70%,73.25% and 46.90% respectively.The Cronbach' s alpha coefficient was 0.934,the retest

  19. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  20. Definition and outpatient management of the very low-birth-weight infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Jessie R; Makari, Doris

    2012-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as chronic lung disease of prematurity, is the major cause of pulmonary disease in infants. The pathophysiology and management of BPD have evolved over the past four decades as improved neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) modalities have increased survival rates. The likelihood for developing BPD increases with the degree of prematurity and reaches 25-35% in very low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants. BPD affects many organ systems, and infants with BPD are at increased risk for rehospitalization and numerous complications following NICU discharge. The management of BPD and medically related problems, particularly during the first 2 years of life, remains a continuing challenge for parents and healthcare providers. It is important that a multidisciplinary team consisting of the neonatologist/attending physician, primary care physician, and other specialized support staff work in concert and meet regularly to provide continuity of care and accurate patient assessments.

  1. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  2. Prematurity at birth and increased cardiovascular risk: is a metabolomic approach the right solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Bassareo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, steady progress in the field of physiopathology and the use of increasingly sophisticated technological procedures have resulted in an increase in the survival rates of babies born preterm. However, some of these individuals, although surviving, may at times be faced with severe consequences. Some conditions may be manifested at an early age (particularly dysmorphisms as well as neurological and ophthalmological conditions, whilst others (namely renal and cardiovascular events, evolve gradually and are manifested only years later. In a number of reports in literature it has been demonstrated how prematurity and consequent low weight at birth are risk factors for developing hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes, QTc interval prolongation at basal electrocardiogram, early endothelial dysfunction, structural and functional cardiac modifications, and increased death rates from coronary heart disease. Even some drugs used in the neonatal management of preterm babies may have a detrimental effect on their future cardiac function. The aim of this narrative review was to overview the up to know few reports about metabolomics (a new and promising technique which allows the systematic study of the complete set of metabolites in a biological sample applied to the identification of a possible future cardiovascular system involvement in subjects born preterm. An outlook of the requirements for future researches has been also discussed.

  3. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  4. Very Low Birth Weight Infant Necessitating Nissen Fundoplication for Weaning off the Mechanical Ventilator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Güney Varal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER is one of the common problems of neonatal intensive care units. Although this condition does not always need to be treated, it occasionally causes clinically serious consequences. Initial management is medical; however, in some cases surgery might be required. A premature neonate with birth weight of 1370 grams was managed in our ICU. The patient was mechanical ventilator dependent due to GER. The patient needed Nissen fundoplication for successfully weaning off the ventilator.

  5. The Study of Mothers’ Periodontal Status and Newborn’s Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirinzad

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recent studies have presented evidence that periodontal disease in pregnant women may be a determining factor for newborn’s low birth weight. The present investigation was carried out to verify whether there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight of newborns.Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 330 women, containing 110 mothers having live newborns with weight 2500 g (control group. The existence of an association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight was evaluated by means of analytic statistics that considered other risk factors for low weight. The two groups were compared with regard to urinary infection, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membrane, placenta previa, primiparous, smoking, age, height, socioeconomic status and periodontal disease.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups for any of the covariables (P>0.05, but there was significant differences for principal independent variable (periodontal disease P<0.05.Conclusion: Results indicated a positive association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight. Thus periodontal disease is a possible risk factor for low birth weight.

  6. Incidence of low birth weight and associated risk factors during March 2002-2003 in Tonekabon, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Hosseini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Low birth weight (LBW; birthweight 2500 g. or below is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This prospective study was conducted during March 2002 - 2003, to determine the incidence of low birth weight infants and associated risk factors in neonates born at Shahid Rajaee Hospital in Tonekabone, Iran.Materials and methods: For every LBW case, maternal age, sex, gestational age, parity, route of delivery and spacing between pregnancies of low birth weight were analyzed. For control, the first baby born before and immediately after the LBW baby who weighed more than 2500 g. at birth were analyzed.Results: The results revealed that the incidence of low birth weight was 4.2 % which is lower than population of other cities and only 0.34% (7 cases of newborns weighted 1500 g. or less. The higher incidence of low birth weight was found in the primigravid (P=0.042, in cesarean section (P=0.025 and close spacing of pregnancy (P=0.033. Maternal age and sex of baby had no significant effect on the incidence of low birth weight. There were more premature deliveries in cases than controls (P=0.000.Conclusion: According to present findings, LBW incidence of albeit in Tonekabon in comparison with other cities throught the country is at acceptable level, prevention of premature delivery and conduction of health education programs for high risk groups, especially primigravid can lower the rates.

  7. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random-effects m......The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...... with a birth weight greater than 4 kg, SBP increased with birth weight (p groups (p

  8. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  9. Clinical Study on Preventive and Curative Effects of Caffeine Citrate on Apnea of Prematurity of Children with Very Low Birth Weight%枸橼酸咖啡因防治极低出生体重儿呼吸暂停的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵剑锋; 李俊燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨枸橼酸咖啡因对极低出生体重儿呼吸暂停的防治情况。方法收集极低体重儿80例,随机将患儿分成两组,咖啡因预防组40例,对照组40例,咖啡因预防组患儿入组即给予枸橼酸咖啡因,对照组患儿发生呼吸暂停后及时给予枸橼酸咖啡因。结果咖啡因预防组早产儿呼吸暂停(AOP)发病人数为11例(36.7%),对照组发病人数为24例(80.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患儿治疗有效率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论枸橼酸咖啡因对极低体重患儿呼吸暂停有预防作用,且疗效显著。%Objective To study the preventive and curative effects of caffeine citrate on apnea of prematurity (AOP) of children with very low birth weight. Methods 80 children with very low birth weight were included in this study, which were divided into two groups randomly. 40 patients are included in control group, and the other 40 patients were included in intervention group. The patients in intervention group were given caffeine citrate immediately, and the children in the control group were treated with caffeine citrate after onset of apnea. Results There were 11 AOP cases in caffeine prevention group (incidence of 36.7%) and 24 AOP cases in the control group (incidence of 80.0%), the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Caffeine citrate can prevent the onset of AOP, and the curative effect is significant.

  10. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  11. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    was constant for all ages investigated and did not differ between men and women. Compared with subjects having birth weights in the reference category (3251-3750 g), those with the lowest birth weights (2000-2750 g) had 17% higher mortality (95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.22), and those with the highest...

  12. Premature Birth with Complicated Perinatal Course Delaying Diagnosis of Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome in the newborn is essentially characterized by marked hypotonia, feeding difficulties, hypogonadism, and possible characteristic facial features. However, diagnosis at this age may be particularly difficult, and dysmorphic features may be subtle or absent. Prematurity can furthermore delay clinical features recognition and typical complications due to preterm birth may contribute to divert the diagnosis. We describe a preterm baby with a complicated perinatal course later diagnosed as PWS.

  13. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  14. A Study of Surrogate Parameters of Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Y

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : Which anthropometric parameter is correlating highly with birth weight? Can we use this parameter as a screening test for predicting birth weight? What is their cut-off value? Hypothesis: Various anthropometric parameters of newborn correlate each other positively. Objective : To find out the most effective anthropometric parameter in the newborn to assess birth weight so that newborn with LBW can be identified.. Study design: Hospital based cross-sectional study. Participants : Newborn babies born in KIMS, Karad. Results : Relatively highest correlation was observed between birth weight & thigh circumfirence (T.C. (r = 0.8637 & next with chest circumfirence (C.C.. (r = 0.8247 Cut-off values of T.C. & C.C. had better sensitivity, specificity & predictive value for identifying LBW babies. Conclusion : T.C. is the best effective parameter to predict birth weight. Next to it is C.C.

  15. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...... for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term...

  16. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck;

    2006-01-01

    .002 (-0.010 to 0.014); P = 0.77]. When restricting the analysis to twin pairs with a within-pair difference in birth weight of 500 g or greater or to twin pairs born 4 wk or more before term, the regression coefficients were almost unchanged. Controlling for potential confounders (sex, zygosity......CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight...

  17. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  18. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  19. Executive functions of six-year-old boys with normal birth weight and gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Yee-Ling Phua

    Full Text Available Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g and gestational age (37-41 weeks within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions.

  20. Effect of using pulmonary surfactant mixed with budesonide on blood gas analysis in very low birth weight premature with acute respiratory distress syndrome%肺表面活性物质联合布地奈德对急性呼吸窘迫综合征极低出生体质量儿血气分析的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红娟; 任秀伟; 刘俊影; 王会悦; 宋思佳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨肺表面活性物质( PS)联合布地奈德对急性呼吸窘迫综合征( ARDS)极低出生体质量儿血气分析的影响,并评价用药的治疗效果。方法:2013年12月~2014年11月在大庆油田总医院新生儿科收治的的胎龄<33周、出生体质量<1500 g、出生6小时内发生ARDS的早产儿28例,随机分为实验组和治疗组,实验组使用肺表面活性物质(固尔苏)100mg/kg+布地奈德0.25mg /kg(男8例,女6例)气管内滴入配合机械通气,治疗组单独使用肺表面活性物质100mg/kg(男9例,女5例)气管内滴注配合机械通气,药物滴注时间在出生60分钟内。监测2组的血气情况。结果:实验组新生儿与治疗组第1、6、12、24小时血气分析pH值、氧分压( Pa O2)、二氧化碳分压( pa CO2)、肺泡动脉氧分压差( AaDO2)比较均有显著差异( P<0.05)。结论:用PS联合布地奈德对极低出生体质量儿ARDS血气分析明显改善,改善呼吸困难,缩短吸氧时间,有利于早产儿尽早停氧,降低了肺损伤,减轻了患者的医疗费用,值得临床推广。%Objective:To explore the influence of Blood gas analysis in very low birth weight premature with acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS) after using pulmonary surfactant(PS) mixed with budesonide,and evaluate the therapeutic effect of combination. Methods:Twenty-eight premature infants with gestational age <33weeks,birth weight <1500 g,whose ARDS occurred within 6 hours after birth were andomly assigned into the experimental group and treatment group in Daqing Oil Field Gneral Hspital from December 2013 to November 2014,Experimental group using lung pulmonary surfactant 100mg/kg +budesonide 0.25mg/kg (male 8 cases, female 6 ca-ses) drip endotracheal cooperate with mechanical ventilation.The treatment group used alone lung pulmonary surfactant ( male 9 case,fe-male 5 cases) , 100mg/kg endotracheal

  1. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood pres

  2. The 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants (ETTNO)' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Jes; Veiergang, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infants with extremely low birth weight uniformly develop anemia of prematurity and frequently require red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). Although RBCT is widely practiced, the indications remain controversial in the absence of conclusive data on the long-term effects of RBCT. Objec...

  3. Which factors could explain the low birth weight paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight children are unusual among well-off families. However, in Brazil, low birth weight rate was higher in a more developed city than in a less developed one. The study objective was to find out the reasons to explain this paradox. METHODS: A study was carried out in two municipalities, Ribeirão Preto (Southeastern Brazil and São Luís (Northeastern Brazil, which low birth weight rates were 10.7% and 7.6% respectively. Data from two birth cohorts were analyzed: 2,839 newborns in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and 2,439 births in São Luís in 1997-1998. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Low birth weight risk factors in São Luís were primiparity, maternal smoking and maternal age less than 18 years. In Ribeirão Preto, the associated variables were family income between one and three minimum wages, maternal age less than 18 and equal to or more than 35 years, maternal smoking and cesarean section. In a combined model including both cohorts, Ribeirão Preto presented a 45% higher risk of low birth weight than São Luís. When adjusted for maternal smoking habit, the excess risk for low birth weight in Ribeirão Preto compared to São Luís was reduced by 49%, but the confidence interval was marginally significant. Differences in cesarean section rates between both cities contributed to partially explain the paradox. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking was the most important risk factor for explaining the difference in low birth weight between both cities. The other factors contributed little to explain the difference in low birth weight rates.

  4. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    the children were between 9 and 11 years of age, we gathered information about their school performance (reading, spelling, and arithmetic) from questionnaires completed by the parents and the children's primary school teachers. RESULTS: The association between birth weight and reading, as well as spelling......BACKGROUND: Children born extremely premature (birth weight (children born at term with a normal birth weight. Much less is known about children of higher gestational ages and birth weights. We studied gestational age...... after 32 completed weeks and birth weight in relation to the child's school performance at the age of 10 years. METHODS: We performed a follow-up study of 5319 children born between January 1990 and June 1992. We got the information on birth weight and gestational age from birth registration forms; when...

  5. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  6. STUDY REGARDING THE CORRELATION BETWEEN NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND WEIGHT IN NORMAL PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPING OF THE PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodorca Raluca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature is a newborn alive whose birth weight is equal to or less than 2500 grams, regardless of the duration of gestation. Prematurity have sometimes negative effects on child development by slowing the psychomotor development (child goes to talk later, you can recover delay until the age of 3-5 years. Some of these older children, will be clumsy. PURPOSE: To verify the importance of the adapted recovery program making a correlation between neuro-psychological assessment tests and weight of children born prematurely. HYPOTHESIS: Early systematic and continuous intervention, using adapted physical therapy methods lead to a improved neuromotor development of the premature by reaching the normal range. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 10 children, 6 boys and 4 girls, born prematurely. They were subjected to the test "assessment of neuro-psychological development in children 0-36 months" (it is a battery of tests that help to evaluate their development monthly and test weight. Applied therapeutic program included: exercise (performed by the game, massage, neuromotor rehabilitation methods (Bobath, Vojta, Kabat, hydrotherapy and music therapy. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: If neuro-psychological tests, we proceeded to calculate averages scores for the 3 test, which is further correlated with children's weight. Average scores range between 7 and 10. 333, with an overall average of 9.371. In all 3 tests averages ranging from 8,575 in the initial stage, in 9386, and 10,152 in the midway point in the final stage. CONCLUSIONS: Weight, explain in smaller proportions, and other parameters and results of neuro-psychological tests children (65.6%. ANOVA models indicate statistically significant relationships between parameters and neuro-psychological testing stages, showing progressive improvement of children's performance. Following statistical interpretation can confirm the effectiveness of the recovery program implemented so we suggest to the parents

  7. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...... female children born of Danish mothers in Denmark between 1973 and 1991 were included (n = 523,757) and followed for a total of 4,739,547 person-years at risk. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Information on birth weight was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The cohort...... was followed up in the NPR for PCOS diagnoses from age 15 years until the end of 2006. Furthermore, information on maternal diabetes diagnoses was extracted from the NPR. RESULT(S): The risk of PCOS was significantly increased in women with birth weight =4,500 g (incidence rate ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence...

  8. 院内不同喂养方式对早产/低出生体质量儿体格生长影响的比较%Comparison of the growth of hospitalized premature/low birth weight infants among different modes of feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋静; 钟晓云; 龚华; 吴艳; 陈文; 李玲; 李刚; 王琪; 李仁凤

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过前瞻性随机对照研究评价比较不同喂养方式下,早产/低出生体质量儿住院期间的体格生长、血液生化和喂养安全性.方法按照不同喂养方式将出生胎龄<37周、出生体质量≤2500g的158例早产儿分为早产/低出生体质量婴儿液态配方奶组(早产奶组,58例)、纯母乳喂养组(母乳组,47例)、液态配方奶及纯母乳混合喂养组(混合组,53例),比较各组的体格生长、血液生化指标,喂养不耐受、感染事件发生率,静脉营养使用时间,住院时间及宫外发育迟缓(EUGR)发生率等项目.结果早产奶组、母乳组、混合组婴儿的体质量增长速率分别为(16.46±5.14)g/(kg·d)、(11.56±4.11)g/(kg·d)、(15.19±4.53)g/(kg·d),三组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);头围增长速率分别为(0.725±0.34)cm/周、(0.49±0.34)em/周、(0.71±0.29)cm/周,三组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);身长增长速率分别为(0.89±0.41)cm/周、(0.69±0.38)cm/周、(0.89±0.39)cm/周,三组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).早产奶组的出生体质量恢复时间、静脉营养使用时间也短于其余两组,住院时间各组差异无统计学意义;出生3 d和2周后各组早产儿组间比较表明血尿素氮、白蛋白水平相似,但组内比较显示入院2周后各组均有尿素氮下降和白蛋白上升;喂养不耐受、感染事件发生率的差异无统计学意义.出院时早产奶组婴儿头围、EUGR发生率低于母乳组(P<0.05).结论早产儿院内喂养采用早产奶安全,并且在促进早产儿体格生长方面优于单纯母乳喂养.%Objective To Compare the growth velocity, blood biochemical indices and the safely in hospitalized premature/low birth weight infants among different modes of feeding through the prospective randomized study. Methods The 1. 58 infants with a birth weight <2 500 g and gestational age <37 weeks were enrolled and divided into three groups, preterm formula group (n=58

  9. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  10. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.;

    1999-01-01

    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men. T...

  11. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  12. [The meanings that postpartum women assign to gestational hypertension and premature birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Nilba Lima; Araujo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Céu Clara

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the meanings that postpartum women assign to gestational hypertension that resulted in premature birth. Participants were 70 women, with a mean age of 28 years, 85.7% of whom delivered between the 32nd and 36th gestational week. A questionnaire with subjective questions was applied to identify the meanings of gestational hypertension and premature delivery for postpartum women. Results were analyzed based on the Theory of Social Representations. We observed the construction of a negative social representation, with death as the central nucleus and negative aspects as the peripheral nuclei. The latter derive from the risks the mother and fetus were exposed to during pregnancy and later in the postpartum period with the hospitalization of the child in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  13. Weight at birth and all-cause mortality in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years. Associations...... with death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality...... was constant for all ages investigated and did not differ between men and women. Compared with subjects having birth weights in the reference category (3251-3750 g), those with the lowest birth weights (2000-2750 g) had 17% higher mortality (95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.22), and those with the highest...

  14. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects. METHOD: Subjects were born at the Copenhagen University Hospital between 1959...... and 1961 (N = 9,125). A comprehensive series of measures was obtained for each of the 8,109 surviving and eligible infants before birth, during birth, shortly after birth, and at 1 year. The adult alcoholism outcome was defined as any ICD-10 F10 diagnosis (Mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use......) or an equivalent ICD-8 diagnosis found in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register or the Municipal Alcohol Clinics of Copenhagen by 2007. RESULTS: Multiple perinatal markers of premature birth independently predicted the development of an alcoholism diagnosis in male (n = 310) but not female (n = 138...

  15. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Objective: A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects. Method: Subjects were born at the Copenhagen University Hospital...... between 1959 and 1961 (N = 9,125). A comprehensive series of measures was obtained for each of the 8,109 surviving and eligible infants before birth, during birth, shortly after birth, and at 1 year. The adult alcoholism outcome was defined as any ICD-10 F10 diagnosis (Mental and behavioral disorders due...... to alcohol use) or an equivalent ICD-8 diagnosis found in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register or the Municipal Alcohol Clinics of Copenhagen by 2007. Results: Multiple perinatal markers of premature birth independently predicted the development of an alcoholism diagnosis in male (n = 310...

  16. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

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    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  17. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  18. Determinants of low birth weight in rural Bangladesh

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    Manzur Kader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is an important public health concern. The study was aimed to identify the important socioeconomic, anthropometric and nutritional determinants associated with LBW. Factors included maternal household wealth status, age, literacy, nutritional status, parity, stature, gestational age and chewing betel nut or tobacco. Methods: The study included data of 4436 enrolled pregnant women in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention Matlab (MINIMat trial from November 2001 to October 2003. A random subset of (n= 3267 single live birth infants born between May 2002 and June 2004 with complete information on birth weight was analyzed. Pearson’s chi square test and logistic regression analysis were done to assess the association between the factors and LBW. Results: Almost one third of the infants were born with LBW and mean birth weight was 2693 g. Maternal poor wealth status, BMI less than 18.5, short stature (height < 152 cm and preterm (<37 weeks birth were found to be strong predictors of LBW. Women’s age, hemoglobin status and chewing tobacco or betel nut were not found to be associated with LBW. Conclusion: Women’s wealth status, literacy, maternal nutrition and prevention of preterm birth are the key factors that need to be considered to improve birth weight of infants. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 130-134

  19. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

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    Lund Line K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g, 55 term SGA (birth weight  Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ. The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW and social acceptance (SGA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

  20. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...

  1. The 5-minute Apgar score: survival and short-term outcomes in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Ann Gibbons; Kirkby, Sharon; Dysart, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Apgar score is a standardized tool for evaluating newborns in the delivery room. Despite its long history and widespread use, debate remains over its reliability of predicting neonatal outcomes, especially in extremely low-birth-weight premature infants. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the 5-minute Apgar score of extremely low-birth-weight infants, as it relates to survival and morbidities associated with prematurity and length of hospital stay. A retrospective query of the Alere neonatal database from 2001 to 2011 examined all infants less than 32 weeks' gestation and less than 1000-g birth weight. The 5-minute Apgar score was divided into 2 groups, score of 4 or greater or less than 4. The study compared results of the 5-minute Apgar score and associated morbidities in surviving infants. Statistical analyses included chi-square, Fisher exact test, t test, and multivariate regression. The sample consisted of 3898 infants with an 86.4% (n = 3366) survival rate. Controlling for gestational age and birth weight, surviving infants with a 5-minute Apgar score of less than 4 were more likely to demonstrate nonintact survival. Infants with a low 5-minute Apgar score have greater risk for mortality and morbidities associated with prematurity.

  2. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  3. Developmental outcome of low birth-weight and preterm newborns: a re-view of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems. Global statistics demonstrates an increase in the prevalence of low birth weight in the developing countries. Low birth weight infants are exposed to complications such as major neurosensory impairements, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances. The majority of infant's death and developmental disorders were due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight. Infants weighing less than 2500 g, is a major determinant of both neonatal and infant mortality rates and, together with congenital anomalies (e.g., cardiac, central nervous system, and respiratory, contributes significantly to childhood morbidity. Various studies indicate that low birth weight infants are suffering from physiological and psychosocial disabilities, two to three times more than the other children. At school age, preterm and low birth weight infants have poorer physical growth, cognitive function, and school performance. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Although the survival rates have increased dramatically and the incidence of morbidities has decreased, the complications are still considered to be associated with economical and social burdens. Most children with Low birth weight suffer from multiple disabilities. Therefore, they need special and consistent care. On demand of reducing the infant mortality rate, the need to decrease the complications in low birth weight and preterm infants should be considered by the policy makers in health care system. In this review article, we assessed current evidences on developmental outcomes of low birth weight and

  4. Protective effect of Budesonide mixed with pulmonary surfactant on brain damage of very low birth weight premature treated with mechanical ventilation%布地奈德联合肺表面活性物质对机械通气极低出生体质量儿脑损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏路标; 韩树萍; 储晓彬; 郭锡熔; 余章斌

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨对机械通气极低出生体质量儿使用肺表面活性物质(PS)联合布地奈德(BUD)后对脑血流的影响,寻求对脑损伤的保护机制.方法 2010年8月至2012年3月南京妇幼保健院收治的胎龄< 34周,出生体质量<1 500 g,出生1h内发生呼吸窘迫综合征(RDS)需要机械通气的早产儿40例,随机分为研究组和对照组.研究组使用PS和BUD混合剂(每70 mg PS中加入0.25 mg BUD),剂量PS 70 mg/kg,BUD 0.25mg/kg.对照组单独使用PS,剂量70 mg/kg.在出生30 ~ 60 min由气管内滴入.通过多普勒超声监测2组患儿大脑中动脉血流速度指标和血管弹性指标[包括收缩期峰值流速(Vs)、舒张末期血流速度(Vd)、平均血流速度(Vm)、血流阻力指数(RI)、搏动指数(PI)],随访2组患儿脑室周围-脑室内出血(PVH-IVH)和脑室周围白质软化(PVL)的发生率.结果 研究组Vs稳定上升,对照组不稳定,第4、5、6、7天2组间比较差异均有统计学意义(t=3.21、2.95、3.12、3.43,P均<0.05);研究组Vd稳定上升,对照组不稳定,第4、5、6、7天2组间比较差异均有统计学意义(t=4.21、3.10、3.98、4.56,P均<0.05);研究组Vm高于对照组,第4、5、6、7天2组间比较差异均有统计学意义(t=2.68、2.98、3.98、3.57,P均<0.05);研究组RI值高于对照组,第5、6、7天2组间比较差异均有统计学意义(t=3.10、3.98、4.06,P均<0.05);PI值研究组平稳,对照组不稳定,第5、6、7天2组间比较差异均有统计学意义(t =4.18、3.23、3.02,P均<0.05).研究组重度PVH-IVH发生率比对照组减少(x2 =4.80,P<0.05);PVL发生率研究组比对照组减少,差异有统计学意义(x2=3.31,P<0.05).结论 使用BUD联合PS可以稳定机械通气极低出生体质量儿脑血流变化,减少脑损伤发生.%Objective To explore the influence of middle cerebral artery blood flow on mechanical ventilation in very low birth weight premature after using Budesonide(BUD) mixed with

  5. Predictors of birth weight and gestational age among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-10-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994-1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24-32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context.

  6. The Relationship between Folic Acid Intake and Infant Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Esmailzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Folic acid is a B vitamin which 5mg daily intake before gestation and until the tenth week of pregnancy is recommended. Since no study has been conducted in some regions of East Azerbaijan including Bostanabad, Khosroshahr and Sarab and no prevalence was spotted in country specific studies, therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between folic acid intake and infant birth weight. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort. In this study, 1939 of pregnant women who were referred to health care centers before pregnancy were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups: first group of pregnant women who regularly took folic acid before pregnancy and second group included the women who did not take folic acid supplements. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using T-Test and ANOVA. Results: This study was conducted on 1939 mothers who had an average age of 25.98 years and average infants birth weight was 3.209 kg. Totally, 92.9% of the mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. Analysis of the results showed that with increasing maternal BMI, birth weight also increased. It showed a significant relationship between regular folic acid intake and increase in infant birth weight. Conclusion : Our results showed that both high maternal pre-pregnancy weight and folic acid intake lead to higher birth weight infants.

  7. Physiological response to hypoxia in piglets of different birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ramírez-Necoechea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to extend the characterization of the proposed naturalistic experimental model of piglets born with hypoxia by assessing the relationship between birth weight, intra partum asphyxia and gross indicators of neurophysiological alterations in newborn piglets. Three groups of 50 piglets each were classified according to their birth weight into normal (1000-1350 g, low (below 1000 g, and high (over 1350 g. In comparison to piglets within normal weight, those born with high birth weights showed acid-base imbalance as reflected by lower pH levels (7.03±0.01, hypercapnia (88.50±13.20 mmHg, and lactic acidosis (lactate levels: 89.40±26.30. These piglets had lower viability scores (5.40±0.60 and longer periods of time to contact the udder (52.30±8.30 than piglets with normal birth weight. In conclusion, data show that piglets with birth weight over 1350 g are at a higher risk of gross neurophysiological deficits, probably secondary to neonatal hypoxia.

  8. Maternal serum magnesium level and low birth weight neonate

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    Seyed Mohammadreza Parizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of study was to compare the serum level of magnesium in mothers having low birth weight with those having normal birth weight neonates. Methods: In a case-control study, women who delivered low birth weight neonate (cases, compared with normal birth weight (controls in serum concentration of magnesium. Blood samples collected within 24 h after delivery. Concentration of magnesium assessed by standard atomic absorption spectro-photometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to control of potential confounding variables. Results: A total of 116 mothers (67 cases and 49 control were studied. Mothers in two groups did not differ in age, body mass index, and socioeconomic or demographic factors. Maternal magnesium concentration did not differ between two groups 0.86 ± 0.11 m.mol/l versus 0.94 ± 0.22 m.mol/l respectively ( P = 0.09. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between serum magnesium levels of low birth weight infants′ mother and normal weight infants′ mother.

  9. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

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    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  10. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  11. Reading, Mathematics and Fine Motor Skills at 5 Years of Age in US Children who were Extremely Premature at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miryoung; Pascoe, John M; McNicholas, Caroline I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of extreme prematurity at birth has increased, but little research has examined its impact on developmental outcomes in large representative samples within the United States. This study examined the association of extreme prematurity with kindergarteners' reading skills, mathematics skills and fine motor skills. Methods The early childhood longitudinal study-birth cohort, a representative sample of the US children born in 2001 was analyzed for this study. Early reading and mathematics skills and fine motor skills were compared among 200 extremely premature children (EPC) (gestational age sampling weights, children's age, race, sex, and general health status, and parental marital status and education among singleton children. Results At age 5 years, EPC were 2.6(95 % CI 1.7-3.8) times more likely to fail build a gate and were 3.1(95 % CI 1.6-5.8) times more likely to fail all four drawing tasks compared to TC (p values gate, 1.3[95 % CI 1.0-1.7]; failed to draw all four shapes, 1.1[95 % CI 0.8-1.6]) was not significantly different from TC. Mean early reading scale score (36.8[SE:1.3]) of EPC was 4.0 points lower than TC (p value sample of infants, the biological risk of extreme prematurity persists after adjusting for other factors related to development.

  12. The Effect of Mother’s Hypertension and Weight and Parent’s Smoking Habit on Low Birth Weight Deliveries in Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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    Latiffah A Latiff

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maternal factors such as age, health, diet, and environment are significantly associated with low birth weight. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, distribution and major risk factors of low birth weight in Hospital Kuala Lumpur.Materials and methods: A hospital based case–control study was done in Obstetric Ward of Maternity Hospital in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Data was obtained using questionnaire and Performa. Out of 1021 deliveries, 330 were selected randomly as respondents that comprises of 110 cases and 220 controls. The outcome measure was low birth weight (<2500 grams.Results: The incidence of low birth weight was 10.8%. Among races, the highest occurrence of low birth weight was in Malay, while the highest age group was between 21 years old to 34 years old with majority of the respondent were married. Among the maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal height of less than 150 cm has a significant relationship with low birth weight. In addition, maternal weight of 45 kg and less and maternal weight gain during pregnancy of less than 10 kg were also found to be risk factors. However, none of the socio-demographic factors were significantly associated with low birth weight deliveries. Similarly, signs of premature delivery, maternal vaginal bleeding and fetal growth retardation (IUGR had a significant association.Conclusion: The mothers that have experienced any of the risks that were identified should be monitored and effective prevention should be taken to decrease the chances of low birth weight but not forgetting to promote a health lifestyle to the mother and father as well.

  13. Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes at preschool age for children with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Wang, Tien-Ni; Wang, Lan-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight children without major impairment at 5 years of age, as well as to identify the contribution of early neurodevelopmental assessment to preterm children's later developmental outcomes. The participants in this study included 126 children who were prematurely born with very low birth weight. Outcomes of the childrens' later development were measured in tests that factored cognitive function, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. The results indicated that more than 50% of full-scale intelligence and 30% of both motor performance and adaptive behavior at the age of 5 can be explained by four predictors. The four predictors include preterm children's medical complications at birth, maternal education, early motor assessments, and cognitive assessments. Adding each test score obtained in early ages provides additional information to predict children's cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior at 5 years of age. Manifold assessments conducted in multiple time periods strengthen the predictive values of later developmental outcomes. In addition, the findings of this study indicate that very low birth weight children tend to have lower adaptive behavior at 5 years old. With regard to our findings, we believe that having adaptive function is a reflection of a child's overall integrated abilities. Further study is warranted to increase understanding of this topic, as well as to be able to predict adaptive strengths and weakness and pinpoint limiting factors that may be useful for targeting behaviors in intervention.

  14. Maternal Hemoglobin Levels during Pregnancy and their Association with Birth Weight of Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam Tabrizi, F; Barjasteh, S

    2015-01-01

    Back ground Anemia in pregnancy is associated with increased rates of maternal and perinatal mortality, premature delivery, low birth weight, and other adverse outcomes Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted on 1405 Iranian pregnant women who delivered during 2015. Blood was collected from all the subjects to measure the hemoglobin (Hb) during 16-19 weeks, 22-24 weeks, and 34-36 weeks of gestation. According to the level of hemoglobin, it is divided into 4 groups. Group 1; Hb > 10.1 gm/100ml (control group), Group 2; Hb= 8.1-10 gm/100ml (mild anemia) Group 3; Hb= 6.5-8 gm/100ml (moderate anemia) Group 4; Hb 10 g/dl), considered as normal gave birth to heavier and normal babies (3.3 kg). The severity of anemia during three trimesters was closely associated with birth weight of newborns. Conclusion The low hemoglobin values during three trimesters of pregnancy were associated with low birth weight in Iran. The anemia can lead to intra uterine growth retardation. PMID:26985354

  15. Race, ethnicity, concentrated poverty, and low birth weight disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group.

  16. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    of 16.9 per 10,000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (plow birth weight) infants among cases with hypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68......AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations...... of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. RESULTS: 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence...

  17. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  18. Hearing loss in low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, D; Petmezakis, J; Papazissis, G; Messaritakis, J; Matsaniotis, N

    1982-07-01

    The hearing of 98 perinatal intensive care survivors with a mean birth weight of 1,540 g was assessed at a mean age of 6 1/2 years. They represented 73% of the long-term survivors with birth weights of 1,800 g or less who had been cared for in our neonatal unit during the three-year period 1971 through 1973. Nine of the 98 infants had sensorineural hearing loss, and 14 had exudative otitis media. During their neonatal period, the infants with hearing loss experienced more frequent apneic attacks, hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin level, greater than 14 mg/dL), and hypothermia compared with their healthy counterparts. There was no evidence that the duration of stay in the incubator or the use of stay in the incubator or the use of ototoxic drugs had affected the hearing of these low-birth-weight infants.

  19. Risk Factors for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Larijani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors which predispose to the development of high grade IVH (grade 3 and 4 in very low birth weight infants. Material & Methods: In a retrospective case control clinical study files of all premature infants with birth weights less than 1500 grams admitted between April 2004 and Oct 2005 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Akbar Abadi hospital in Tehran were reviewed. 39 infants with IVH grade 3 and 4 were identified. A control group of 82 VLBW infants matched for gestational age and birth weight were selected. Prenatal data, delivery characteristics, neonatal course data and reports of cranial ultrasonography were carefully collected for both groups. Those variables that achieved significance (p<0.05 in univariate analysis entered to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Findings: A total of 325 VLBW infants were evaluated. Mortality rate was 21.5%. Of the remaining the incidence of high grade IVH was 15.5%. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that following factors are associated with greater risk of high grade IVH occurrence: Low gestational age (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low birth weight (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low Apgar score at 5 minute (OR:1.58; 95% CI:1.59-6.32, hyaline membrane disease (HMD, OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.42-7.45 and maternal tocolytic therapy with magnesium sulfate (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 1.10-24.5. Conclusion: Our results showed that maternal tocolytic therapy, mechanical ventilation, low gestational age, low birth weight, apnea, and low 5 minute Apgar score increased the risk of major IVH.

  20. Is adolescent pregnancy a risk factor for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria D'avila Nery Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether adolescent pregnancy is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW babies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and their newborns from a birth cohort in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected consecutively from March to July 2005. Information collected included socioeconomic, biological and reproductive aspects of the mothers, using a standardized questionnaire. The impact of early pregnancy on birth weight was evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 4,746 pairs of mothers and their babies. Of these, 20.6% were adolescents (< 20 years of age. Adolescent mothers had worse socioeconomic and reproductive conditions and perinatal outcomes when compared to other age groups. Having no prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors associated with low birth weight. Adolescent pregnancy, when linked to marital status "without partner", was associated with an increased proportion of low birth weight babies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence was a risk factor for LBW only for mothers without partners. Smoking during pregnancy and lack of prenatal care were considered to be independent risk factors for LBW.

  1. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  2. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  3. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  4. Nutritional support of very low birth weight newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzenberger, Georgia

    2009-06-01

    Nutritional support to promote optimal postnatal growth for very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns less than 1500 g at birth during the initial prolonged hospitalization is a significant issue. This article reviews the concepts involved in the nutritional support of VLBW newborns, including definitions and discussions of growth, optimal postnatal growth, body composition, initial weight loss, growth expectations, growth assessment tools used during the postnatal period, the relation between inadequate nutrition and neurodevelopment, the relation between protein intake and cognitive outcome, postnatal nutrition balance, the potential for programming of future adult-onset chronic conditions, a review of fetal nutritional intake, and current recommendations for nutritional support of VLBW newborns.

  5. Life expectancies and outcomes in extremely low birth weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeri F, Amini E, Shariat M, Mansoori B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Background: Much has changed in neonatal care for extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1000g infants over the recent years in Iran, resulting in an increase in their survival rate. We determined neonatal survival and short-term morbidity rates among ELBW infants, and the correlation of these factors with mortality risk. "n"nMethods: All single live-born ELBW babies delivered at Vali-e-Asr Hospital over a four-year period were identified. Data that were prospectively collected included: maternal age, prenatal and perinatal complications, antenatal steroid use, birth weight, gestational age, route of delivery, sex, need for resuscitation, APGAR score, need for mechanical  ventilation, and complications including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, sepsis, jaundice, intraventricular  hemorrhage (IVH, necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC metabolic and hematologic and cardiac disorders. Information was statistically analyzed and a probability value of <0.05 was considered significant. "n"nResults: A total of 93 neonates were included in the study. The survival rate in the delivery room was 36.6%. The lowest birth weight was 400g, with a mean birth weight of 850.43(±136.48g, and the lowest gestational age was 22 weeks. The mean gestational period was 28.31(±2.77 weeks. The most frequent complication after birth was RDS(69.89% and the least frequent was NEC (6.4%. Short and normal gestation was observed in 44.08% and 48.4% of the neonates, respectively. There was a significant relationship between neonatal mortality and the need for resuscitation after birth, RDS and need for a respirator (p<0.05. "n"nFurthermore, there was significant increase in mortality among neonates with gestational age <30 weeks, birth weight under 750g and lack of steroids before birth (p<0.05. "n"nConclusions: To enhance perinatal and neonatal care and decrease the rate of preterm labor, improved standard resuscitation and increased administration of antenatal

  6. Effects of Second Trimester Maternal Hemoglobin Levels on Birth Weight and Birth Time

    OpenAIRE

    DÜNDAR, Özgür; ÇİFTPINAR, Tolga; TÜTÜNCÜ, Levent; ERGÜR, Ali Rüştü; ATAY, Mehmet Vedat; MÜNGEN, Ercüment; YERGÖK, Yusuf Ziya

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of anemia at the second trimester on birth weight and birth time. Patients and Methods: The medical reports of 1116 pregnant women who attended and delivered at our clinic between January 2005 and October 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups as having <9 gr/dl hemoglobin or ≥9 gr/dl hemoglobin levels. The gestational and the perinatal outcomes of the normal a...

  7. Intrauterine nicotine exposure, birth weight, gestational age and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background and aim: Infantile colic is characterised by crying bouts in a healthy infant during the first months. Smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight (BW) have been previously identified as risk factors for infantile colic. Nicotine acts as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect...... the intrauterine central nervous system development, while low BW and premature birth have both been related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We investigated the association between intrauterine nicotine exposure, BW, gestational age (GA) and infantile colic in a large cohort study. Materials and methods.......3-2.1]) and lower GA (OR for GAborn at term had a higher risk of infantile colic. Conclusion: Factors that are related to neurodevelopment were found to increase the risk of infantile colic, suggesting that central nervous system might be involved in the pathogenesis...

  8. 早产的临床研究进展%Clinical Research Progress of Premature Birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文思敏

    2012-01-01

    早产是导致围生儿发病和死亡的重要原因,因此研究早产预测及防治方法具有重要的临床意义.目前国内外对早产的预测研究较多,多项预测指标联合应用对早产预测临床意义较大.早产的治疗方法也越来越多,但药物治疗的效果存在争议.由于医学干预早产儿的死亡仍较难避免,因此国内外学者把目光投向早期早产预测,现就对早产有一定临床指导意义的预测指标以及治疗予以综述.%Preterm birth is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality, therefore it is of great clinical significance in researching the forecast and prevention methods of preterm birth. At present,a lot of researches on preterm birth prediction are going on in China and abroad, and combined application of multiple prediction indexes has great clinical significance. Treatments of preterm birth are becoming more and more,but the medication treatment effect is still controversial. Premature death due to medical intervention is still difficult to avoid, therefore scholars in China and abroad are turning their attention to early prediction of preterm labor. Here is to make a review on the prediction indexes and treatments of a certain clinical significance.

  9. Birth weight and altitude: a study in Peruvian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, J P; Frappell, P B; Aguero, L; Armstrong, K

    2000-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that at high altitude birth weight decreases once a critical barometric pressure (Pb) is reached. Birth weight data covering the 1-year period from November 1997 to October 1998 were collected in Peru from the data files of 15 community and mining centers between sea level and 4575 m altitude. These centers are scattered along the main road that joins Lima (on the Pacific shore) to Cerro de Pasco (4330 m) and surroundings. Above approximately 2000 m (ie, at Pb below approximately 590 mm Hg, inspired O(2) partial pressure of approximately 114 mm Hg) and up to approximately 4500 m altitude birth weight declined at an average of 65 g for every additional 500 m altitude (or 105 g for every additional 50 mm Hg drop in Pb). This pattern did not differ between sexes. Averages and modal distributions of the birth weight from 2 hospitals in Cerro de Pasco (4330 m) serving different social groups were similar. Body length at birth was similar at various altitudes, with the exception of the 2 highest locations above 4500 m, where it was slightly reduced. From these data, together with additional data collected in the North of Peru (Chacas, 3360 m) and with results from other ethnic groups previously published, we conclude that the drop in birth weight at altitude is (1) apparent once the critical Pb of approximately 590 mm Hg is reached, corresponding to an altitude of approximately 2000 m, (2) proportional to the increase in altitude between approximately 2000 m and 4500 m, and (3) independent from socioeconomic factors.

  10. The impact of premature birth on fear of personal death and attachment of styles in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ofra; Gilat, Itzhak

    2002-09-01

    The differences between adolescents born pre-term (n = 50) and a matched sample of adolescents born full-term were examined in relation to fear of personal death, attachment styles, and the relation between the two variables. Findings revealed that adolescents born pre-term showed a higher level of fear of personal death and a lower frequency of secure attachment style than adolescents born full-term. In addition, secure full-term born adolescents exhibited a lower level of fear of personal death compared with insecure adolescents; whereas among those born pre-term, attachment styles did not affect the level of fear of personal death. Results are discussed in terms of the long-term impact of premature birth on affect regulation in adolescence.

  11. Low birth weight at term and its determinants in a tertiary hospital of Nepal: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Raj Sharma

    Full Text Available Birth weight of a child is an important indicator of its vulnerability for childhood illness and chances of survival. A large number of infant deaths can be averted by appropriate management of low birth weight babies and prevention of factors associated with low birth weight. The prevalence of low birth weight babies in Nepal is estimated to be about 12-32%.Our study aimed at identifying major determinants of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal. A hospital-based retrospective case control study was conducted in maternity ward of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from February to July 2011. A total of 155 LBW babies and 310 controls were included in the study. Mothers admitted to maternity ward during the study period were interviewed, medical records were assessed and anthropometric measurements were done. Risk factors, broadly classified into proximal and distal factors, were assessed for any association with birth of low-birth weight babies. Regression analysis revealed that a history of premature delivery (adjusted odds ratio; aOR5.24, CI 1.05-26.28, hard physical work during pregnancy (aOR1.48, CI 0.97-2.26, younger age of mother (aOR1.98, CI 1.15-3.41, mothers with haemoglobin level less than 11gm/dl (aOR0.51, CI0.24-1.07 and lack of consumption of nutritious food during pregnancy (aOR1.99, CI 1.28-3.10 were significantly associated with the birth of LBW babies. These factors should be addressed with appropriate measures so as to decrease the prevalence of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal.

  12. Psychiatric disorder in early adulthood and risk of premature mortality in the 1946 British Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Richard D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies of the association between psychiatric disorder and premature death have adjusted for key confounders and used structured psychiatric interviews. We aimed to investigate if psychiatric disorder was associated with a higher risk of mortality and whether any excess mortality was due to suicide, or explained by other health or socioeconomic risk factors. Methods We used data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally representative UK birth cohort. 3283 men and women completed the Present State Examination at age 36. The main outcome measure was all-cause mortality before age 60. Results Those with psychiatric disorder at age 36 had a higher risk of death even after adjusting for potential confounders (Hazard ratio = 1.84, 95% C.I. 1.22-2.78. Censoring violent deaths and suicides led to similar results. Conclusions Psychiatric disorder was associated with excess premature mortality not explained by suicide or other health or socioeconomic risk factors.

  13. What is the strongest predictor of birth weight: Gestational age, hbalc, maternal weight, weight gain, or birth weight of sibling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus

    Aim: To assess the effect of various maternal characteristics in diabetic pregnancies on birthweight (BW) taking into account birthweight of an elderly sibling.  Method: We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County. Birthweight and certain maternal characteristics including H...... for various increments in each of the 9 variables are seen in the table. All significant values are in bold face.  Conclusion: Weight of sibling is a very strong predictor of birthweight attenuating the predictive power of all other variablesapart from gestational age....... adjusted for age and sex using a Danish reference. E.g. an observed sibling weight of 3800 g with expected BW 3400 g predicts 11.8% extra weight equal to 134 grams (114x11.8) and one extra gestational day predicts an additional weight of 27 grams.  Results: The effects in terms of additional grams in BW...

  14. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  15. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight.

  16. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille;

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India...

  17. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t

  18. Screening for Dysregulation among Toddlers Born Very Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne Woolsey; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for regulatory difficulties. However, identifying toddlers at risk has been impeded by a lack of screening measures appropriate for this population. Methods: We studied the nature of dysregulation in toddlers born VLBW (N = 32) using the Infant-Toddler Social and…

  19. Housing instability and birth weight among young urban mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Bianca V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-02-01

    Housing instability is an understudied social condition that may be a severe stressor during pregnancy. Aims of this study are to identify correlates of housing instability and to explore the association between housing instability and birth weight among pregnant teens and young mothers. Participants included pregnant women ages 14-21 from seven community hospitals and health centers in New York City (N = 623). Data were collected via structured surveys during the second trimester of pregnancy (14 to 24 weeks gestation, M = 19.35, SD = 3.20). Birth weight was obtained through labor and delivery logs. Housing instability was operationalized as two or more moves within the past year. More than one in four (28.5 %) pregnant teens and young women in this sample reported housing instability. Women who reported housing instability were less likely to be enrolled in school, have parents as main source of financial support, live in a single-family home or apartment, or be food secure; they were more likely to smoke (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for important clinical, behavioral, and demographic factors typically associated with lower birth weight, housing instability remained a significant predictor of lower birth weight (B (SE) = -83.96(35.47), p = 0.018). Results highlight the importance of housing stability during pregnancy for infant health. Future interventions and policies should ensure that women are housing stable before, during, and after pregnancy.

  20. Low Birth Weight, Preschool Education, and School Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Arteaga, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Studies have documented a strong relationship between low birth-weight status and adverse child outcomes such as poor school performance and need for special education services. Following a cohort of more than 1,300 low-income and predominately African American children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, the authors investigate whether birth…

  1. Results of longterm follow-up of children with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research is a long-term follow up study of children with low birth weight. Materials and methods. 115 premature children from 0 to 7 years old took part in the research process. The children gestational age was 30-35 weeks and their birth weight was less than 2500 g. All children had thorough clinical and laboratory, instrumental and psychological examination up to the age of seven. Their parents took part in questionnaire survey. Results. Development of all aspects of mentality is retarded and such retardation can be observed in the first months of life as slow learning of new things and peculiarities of psychological interrelations with the world around in the form of negative response to the influence of sensory stimuli, behavioral disorders and difficulties in social adaptation. Conclusion. Children with low birth weight are included into the high-risk group of disabling abnormalities and persistent non-disabling disorders. These children need early comprehensive rehabilitation and, at the same time, extremely careful prognosis of their further development.

  2. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  3. A clinical analysis on 268 cases with premature birth%268例早产临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵莉萍; 陈友国; 杨纪实

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨早产的相关因素及高危因素.方法 回顾性分析268例早产产妇(早产组)临床资料,并随机抽样等量足月产妇资料(对照组),比较两组孕产史、产前检查以及孕妇的产科合并症等危险因素.结果 早产组有人工流产史者124例(46.2%),人工流产≥2次者60例(22.4%),均明显多于对照组的99例(36.9%)和30例(11.2%)(P<0.05).早产组规则产前检查者148例(55.2%),明显低于对照组的196例(73.1%)(P<0.05).胎膜早破、子痫前期、多胎、胎位不正等为导致早产的高危因素.结论 早产是多因素作用的结果;应注重产前检查,加强围生期保健,降低早产的发生率.%Objective To investigate the factors and high risk factors for premature birth. Methods Data of 268 patients (group A) with premature birth were analyzed. Another 268 full-term parturients (group B) in the same period were randomly selected as the controls. The risk factors such as gestation and birth, antenatal care and complications of pregnancy were compared between two groups. Results The number of induced abortion and without regular routine prenatal tests were the premature birth-related factors. There were 124 cases(46. 2%) with a histry of induced abortion, of whom 60 cases(22. 4%) underwent induced abortion for ≥ twice in group A. There were 99 cases (36. 9%) with a histry of induced abortion,of whom 30 cases(11. 2%) underwent induced abortion for≥ twice in group B. The differences were significant between two groups(P<0. 05). The high risk factors for premature birth were preterm premature rupture of membrane, preeclampsia, multiple pregnancy and abnormal position of fetus. Conclusion Premature birth is caused by many factors. Attention should be paid to the prepartal examination and perinatal care for reducing the rate of premature birth.

  4. Enteral glutamine supplementation for very low birth weight infants decreases morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, J; Roig, J C; Meetze, W H; Veerman, M; Carter, C; Millsaps, M; Bowling, D; Dallas, M J; Sleasman, J; Knight, T; Auestad, N

    1997-11-01

    Glutamine, described as a "conditionally essential" amino acid for critically ill patients, has not been routinely added to parenteral amino acid formulations for critically ill neonates and is provided in only small quantities by the enteral route when enteral intake is low. We conducted a blinded, randomized study of enteral glutamine supplementation in 68 very low birth weight neonates randomly assigned to receive glutamine-supplemented premature formula versus premature formula alone between days 3 and 30 of life. Primary end points consisted of hospital-acquired sepsis, tolerance to subsequent enteral feedings (days with no oral intake), and duration of hospital stay. Hospital acquired sepsis was 30% (control group) and 11% (glutamine group). Logistic regression with birth weight as a covariate showed that: (1) feeding group was significant (p = 0.048) in determining the probability of developing proven sepsis over the course of hospitalization and (2) the estimated odds of developing sepsis were 3.8 times higher for infants in the control group than for those treated with glutamine. Glutamine-supplemented infants had better tolerance to enteral feedings as measured by percent of days on which feedings needed to be withheld (mean percentage of 8.8 vs 23.8, p = 0.007). Analysis of T cells demonstrated a blunting of the rise in HLA-DR+ and CD16 subsets in glutamine-supplemented infants. There were no differences in growth; in serum ammonia, urea, liver transaminase, or prealbumin concentrations; or in mean hospital stay. This study provides evidence for decreased morbidity in very-low-birth-weight neonates who receive enteral glutamine supplementation.

  5. Low Birth Weight due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction and/or Preterm Birth: Effects on Nephron Number and Long-Term Renal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislava Zohdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a strong association between low birth weight and long-term renal disease. A potential mediator of this long-term risk is a reduction in nephron endowment in the low birth weight infant at the beginning of life. Importantly, nephrons are only formed early in life; during normal gestation, nephrogenesis is complete by about 32–36 weeks, with no new nephrons formed after this time during the lifetime of the individual. Hence, given that a loss of a critical number of nephrons is the hallmark of renal disease, an increased severity and acceleration of renal disease is likely when the number of nephrons is already reduced prior to disease onset. Low birth weight can result from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR or preterm birth; a high proportion of babies born prematurely also exhibit IUGR. In this paper, we describe how IUGR and preterm birth adversely impact on nephrogenesis and how a subsequent reduced nephron endowment at the beginning of life may lead to long-term risk of renal disease, but not necessarily hypertension.

  6. Patch-based augmentation of Expectation-Maximization for brain MRI tissue segmentation at arbitrary age after premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengyuan; Kitsch, Averi; Miller, Steven; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth; Rousseau, Francois; Shaw, Dennis; Studholme, Colin

    2016-02-15

    Accurate automated tissue segmentation of premature neonatal magnetic resonance images is a crucial task for quantification of brain injury and its impact on early postnatal growth and later cognitive development. In such studies it is common for scans to be acquired shortly after birth or later during the hospital stay and therefore occur at arbitrary gestational ages during a period of rapid developmental change. It is important to be able to segment any of these scans with comparable accuracy. Previous work on brain tissue segmentation in premature neonates has focused on segmentation at specific ages. Here we look at solving the more general problem using adaptations of age specific atlas based methods and evaluate this using a unique manually traced database of high resolution images spanning 20 gestational weeks of development. We examine the complimentary strengths of age specific atlas-based Expectation-Maximization approaches and patch-based methods for this problem and explore the development of two new hybrid techniques, patch-based augmentation of Expectation-Maximization with weighted fusion and a spatial variability constrained patch search. The former approach seeks to combine the advantages of both atlas- and patch-based methods by learning from the performance of the two techniques across the brain anatomy at different developmental ages, while the latter technique aims to use anatomical variability maps learnt from atlas training data to locally constrain the patch-based search range. The proposed approaches were evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Compared with the conventional age specific atlas-based segmentation and direct patch based segmentation, both new approaches demonstrate improved accuracy in the automated labeling of cortical gray matter, white matter, ventricles and sulcal cortical-spinal fluid regions, while maintaining comparable results in deep gray matter.

  7. Effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight

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    Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight.Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  8. Effect of Ramadan Fasting during Pregnancy on Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight. Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  9. IS LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ASSOCIATED WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Nalini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Daily we see lots of still birth cases and the agony associated with it after carrying the fetus for so many months with the negative outcome it is quite disheartening. Malnutrition is quite rampant in the country as far as the females are concerned and in the name of the religion and rituals, it complicates the issue further. If the mother is malnourished, the chance of low birth weight baby is high. OBJECTIVES To correlate the prevalence of cardiac anomalies in low birth weight fetuses. MATERIAL AND METHOD The study was carried out in 40 stillbirth fetuses with detailed account of nutritional status of the mother, consanguinity, history of previous pregnancies, miscarriages, socio-economic status and exposure to drugs/radiation. The number of cases with fetus having cardiac anomalies was quite significant. RESULTS Out of total 40 stillbirth fetuses, 29 (72.5% stillbirths were from less than 2.5kg and 11 (27.5% were from more than 2.5kg. Cardiac anomalies were present in 16 and 02 cases respectively. Fused heart-01, mesocardia-01, Dextrocardia with CORV-02, Interrupted aortic arch-02, Abnormal origin of right subclavian artery-01, Tetralogy of Fallot-01, VSD-07, ASD-01, transposition of great vessels-01, persistent truncus arteriosus with tricuspid atresia, elongated hypertrophied abnormally positioned Rt. Atrium, rudimentary Rt. Ventricle-01, mal-attachment of ductus arteriosus-03, double superior vena cava-01, dilated caval system-01. CONCLUSION Considering the high incidence of cardiac anomalies in fetuses of low birth weight, we must try to create awareness and support the expectant mothers to avoid the low birth weight babies and thus the congenital anomalies.

  10. Gestational Weight Gain and Fetal Birth Weight in Rural Regions of Rasht/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Panahandeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Proper nutrition during pregnancy is essential for optimal fetal growth. Investigation of the relation between pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in rural regions of Rasht, center of Guilan Province in Iran, was the purpose of this study. Methods: In this cohort study, prenatal data of 918 women who attended local health centers with singleton term pregnancies were recorded. Maternal demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, total pregnancy weight gain and birth weight were recorded by health workers. The women were stratified based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI into four groups: underweight women, women with normal weight, overweight women and obese women. The relation between weight gain and low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g and macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g was studied in these four groups. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals. Findings: More than 50% of underweight women and women with normal weight and almost 30% of overweight and obese women gained weight less than what is mentioned in the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations. The incidence rate of LBW was 7.1% and that of macrosomia was 5%. Mean weight gain of women with LBW was significantly less than mean weight gain of women who had an infant with a birth weight more than 2500 g (P=0.002. Women who gained weight less than the recommended range had higher rate of LBW in their infants (P=0.01 and the incidence of macrosomia in women with a weight gain above the recommended weight was higher than that in others (P=0.012. Pregnancy weight gain less than what is mentioned in the IOM guideline was the only predictor for LBW (OR=2.79, CI=1.16-6.73, P=0.02. Conclusion:Pregnancy weight gains less than what is mentioned in the IOM recommendation was a significant predictor of LBW, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.

  11. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Kelly R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Seidel, Frank G. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study. (orig.)

  12. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  14. The definition of life: a survey of obstetricians and neonatologists in New York City hospitals regarding extremely premature births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Sharon M; Santella, Regina M

    2011-05-01

    Among obstetricians and neonatologists in administrative roles in New York City hospitals, a survey was initiated to compare the physicians' definitions of live birth and fetal death, the gestational age at which they consider infants viable, and the resuscitation practices of the neonatologists. The target survey population was 34 neonatologists, and 39 obstetricians representing 41 of the City's 43 maternity hospitals. A telephone survey was used to gather qualitative data from the physicians regarding their definitions of live birth, fetal death, and viability, and their practices regarding extremely premature births. Surveys were completed for 58 physicians, a response rate of 79% (94% for neonatologists and 67% for obstetricians). Physicians' definitions of live birth and fetal death varied, with almost a third (29%) of physicians including gestational age as part of their live birth criteria. Most of the physicians (90%) consider infants born at ≥23 weeks gestation viable. Most neonatologists (97%) said they always resuscitate infants born at ≥23 weeks gestation, and most (94%) said they would never resuscitate infants born at death. Whereas reporting requirements are based on definitions of live birth and fetal death, physicians make resuscitation and other clinical decisions regarding extremely premature infants based on definitions of viability.

  15. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben;

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  16. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated....... These results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...

  17. [Does shift work cause spontaneous abortion, preterm birth or low birth weight?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Viskum, Sven; Omland, Øyvind; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2007-03-05

    In Denmark 30% of females in the reproductive age regularly have shift work. 22 epidemiological papers were studied looking at associations between shift work and abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth weight. No convincing associations were observed between rotating shift work or fixed nightshift and negative pregnancy outcome. Some epidemiological support was found for a relation between fixed nightshift and late abortions/stillbirth. If fixed night work for all pregnant women is avoided, seven late abortion/stillbirths a year can be prevented. Fixed night work for pregnant women should be avoided.

  18. Changes in Perinatal Care and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mortality of very low birth weight premature infants is of great public health concern. To better guide local intervention program, it is essential that current and reliable statistics be collected to understand the factors associated with mortality of these infants.Methods: Data of very low birth weight premature infants admitted to a neonatal unit during 2002-2009 was retrospectively collected. Changes in perinatal care between two halves of the study period (2002-2005 and 2006-2009 were identified. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were found by logistic regression and a predictive score model was established.Findings: A total of 475 cases were enrolled. In-hospital mortality decreased from 29.8% in 2002-2005 to 28.1% in 2006-2009 (P>0.05. More infants born<28 gestational weeks survived to discharge in the latter epoch (38.1% vs 8.3%, P<0.05. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, pulmonary hemorrhage,birth weight <000 grams, gestational age <33 weeks, feeding before 3 postnatal days and enteral feeding were found predictors of in-hospital mortality by logistic regression. The discriminating ability of the predictivemodel was 82.4% and the cutoff point was -0.56.Conclusion: Survival of very low birth weight premature neonates was not significantly improved in 2006-2009 than 2002-2005. Infants with a score higher than -0.56 were assessed to be at high risk of in-hospital mortality. Multi-center studies of planned follow-up are needed to develop a comprehensive and applicable score system.

  19. Trends of preterm birth and low birth weight in Japan: a one hospital-based study

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    Yorifuji Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportions of preterm birth (PTB, ie., delivered before 37 gestational weeks and low birth weight (LBW, ie., birth weight less than 2500 g at delivery have been rising in developed countries. We sought to examine the factors contributing to the rise in Japan, with particular focus on the effects of obstetric interventions. Methods We used a database maintained by one large regional hospital in Shizuoka, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers who delivered live singleton births from 1997 to 2010 (n = 19,221. We assessed the temporal trends in PTB and LBW, then divided the study period into four intervals and compared the proportions of PTB and LBW. We also compared the newborns’ outcomes between the intervals. Results PTB, in particular medically indicated PTB, increased considerably. The increase was largely explained by changes in caesarean sections. The neonatal outcomes did not worsen, and instead the Apgar scores and proportions requiring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission improved. In particular, the risks of NICU admission in the interval from 2007 to 2010 were decreased among all births [odds ratio (OR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.75, 0.95] and medically indicated births (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68 compared with the interval from 1997 to 2000. Conclusions Despite the increases in PTB as well as LBW, the present study suggests benefits of obstetric interventions. Rather than simple categorization of PTB or LBW, indicators such as perinatal mortality or other outcomes may be more appropriate for evaluation of perinatal health in developed countries.

  20. 品管圈干预下纯母乳喂养对极低体重早产儿生长发育的影响%Effects of Exclusive Breastfeeding on the Growth and Development of Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants Under the Influence of the Quality Control Circle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英荣

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨品管圈干预下纯母乳喂养对极低体重早产儿生长发育的影响。方法我院将2013年2月~2014年1月收治的60例纯母乳喂养的极低体重早产儿进行随机分组为对照组与观察组,对照组实施传统的护理,观察组实施品管圈方案干预,并观察两组早产儿的日均体质量增长值、周均身长增长值、周均头围增长值。结果观察组纯母乳喂养的上述各项指标均高于对照组,P<0.05。结论品管圈干预下纯母乳喂养对极低体重早产儿生长发育的影响显著。%Objective To investigate the QCC intervention of exclusive breastfeeding in very low birth weight child growth and development.MethodsIn the hospital,60 cases of exclusive breastfeeding for very low birth weight infants were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group from February 2013 to January 2014. control group was in the implementation of traditional nursing,the observation group implemented QCC program interventions and observed daily weight gain in preterm children the values of the two groups,both circumferential length value growth, increase the value of head circumference al week.Results The above indicators of exclusive breastfeeding in the observation group were higher,P<0.05. Conclusion The growth and development of very low birth weight preterm children under QCC intervention,the effect of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly.

  1. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW). Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor o...

  2. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S. D.; Zhang, M.G.; De, G.; Mathur, S.; Mina, T.H.; Reynolds, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EM...

  3. Intergenerational predictors of birth weight in the Philippines: correlations with mother's and father's birth weight and test of maternal constraint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Kuzawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth weight (BW predicts many health outcomes, but the relative contributions of genes and environmental factors to BW remain uncertain. Some studies report stronger mother-offspring than father-offspring BW correlations, with attenuated father-offspring BW correlations when the mother is stunted. These findings have been interpreted as evidence that maternal genetic or environmental factors play an important role in determining birth size, with small maternal size constraining paternal genetic contributions to offspring BW. Here we evaluate mother-offspring and father-offspring birth weight (BW associations and evaluate whether maternal stunting constrains genetic contributions to offspring birth size. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data include BW of offspring (n = 1,101 born to female members (n = 382 and spouses of male members (n = 275 of a birth cohort (born 1983-84 in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Regression was used to relate parental and offspring BW adjusting for confounders. Resampling testing was used to evaluate whether false paternity could explain any evidence for excess matrilineal inheritance. In a pooled model adjusting for maternal height and confounders, parental BW was a borderline-significantly stronger predictor of offspring BW in mothers compared to fathers (sex of parent interaction p = 0.068. In separate multivariate models, each kg in mother's and father's BW predicted a 271±53 g (p25% and likely 50% would be needed to explain these differences. There was no interaction between maternal stature and maternal BW (interaction p = 0.520 or paternal BW (p = 0.545. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Each kg change in mother's BW predicted twice the change in offspring BW as predicted by a change in father's BW, consistent with an intergenerational maternal effect on offspring BW. Evidence for excess matrilineal BW heritability at all levels of maternal stature points to indirect genetic

  4. Mathematics deficiencies in children with very low birth weight or very preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, >2500 g and >36 weeks GA). MD are found even in children without global disorders in cognition or neurosensory status and when IQ is controlled, and they are associated with other learning problems and weaknesses in perceptual motor abilities and executive function. Factors related to poorer mathematics outcomes include lower birth weight and GA, neonatal complications, and possible abnormalities in brain structure. While little is known about the nature of MD in these children, studies of MLD in other neurodevelopmental disorders and in children with learning disabilities provide useful models for further investigation. Further investigation of the neuropsychological and neuropathological correlates of distinct types of mathematics difficulties is also needed. Studies along these lines will yield information about the unique features of MD in children with VLBW/VPTB and about the nature and origins of poor mathematics achievement more generally.

  5. Does Mother's IQ Explain the Association between Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J.; Der, Geoff; Shenkin, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a significant association between birth weight and cognitive test scores in childhood, even among individuals born at term and with normal birth weight. The association is not explained by the child's social background. Here we examine whether mother's cognitive ability accounts for the birth weight-cognitive ability association. We…

  6. Postnatal transitional weight loss and adverse outcomes in extremely premature neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita P. Verma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The early postnatal weight loss (EPWL is highly variable in the extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight <1000 g, ELBW. It is reported to be unassociated with adverse outcomes within a range of 3- 21% of birth weight. Its wide range might have contributed to this lack of association. The aim of our paper is to study the effects of maximum EPWL, graded as low, medium and large on clinical outcomes in ELBW infants. In a retrospective cohort observational study EPWL was measured as maximum weight loss from birth weight (MWL in ELBW infants and grouped as low (5-12% moderate (18.1-12% and high (18-25%. The clinical course and complications of infants were compared between the groups. Gestational age (GA was highest and surfactant administration, peak inspiratory pressure requirement, fluid intake, urinary output, oxygen dependent days and the number of oxygen dependent infants at age 28 days were lower in the low MWL compared to the high MWL group. However, all these significant P-values declined after controlling for GA. Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy associated hypertension were not noted in mothers in high MWL group, whereas 38% of mothers in low MWL group suffered from the latter (P=0.05. Maximum postnatal transitional weight loss, assessed in the range of low, moderate and high, is not associated with adverse outcomes independent of gestational age in ELBW infants. Maternal hypertension decreases EPWL in them.

  7. Respostas fisiológicas da Posição Mãe-Canguru em bebês pré-termos, de baixo peso e ventilando espontaneamente Physiological responses of the Kangaroo Mother Position in low birth weight, spontaneous ventilating premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline R Miltersteiner

    2003-12-01

    -test, post-test intervention study design was used in which babies were their own controls. Data were registered in the first minute (T01 to the 30th minute (T30 and from the 30th to the 60th minute (T60. Student's "t" test was used to compare both groups. RESULTS: patients present a mean gestational age of 34 weeks, mean weight of 1780 g and median age of 264 hours of life. Increase with statistical significant difference in oxygen saturation at T30 and T60 was demonstrated, as well as heart rate at T30 and axillary temperature a T60, when comparing Group II to I. CONCLUSIONS: KMP promotes improvement of physiological parameters in low weight premature children, when procedure is initiated within a period of one hour as compared to the same observation period in the incubator. KMP is possible during physiotherapeutic care.

  8. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  9. IVF for premature ovarian failure: first reported births using oocytes donated from a twin sister.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian failure (POF) remains a clinically challenging entity because in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with donor oocytes is currently the only treatment known to be effective. METHODS: A 33 year-old nulligravid patient with a normal karyotype was diagnosed with POF; she had a history of failed fertility treatments and had an elevated serum FSH (42 mIU\\/ml). Oocytes donated by her dizygotic twin sister were used for IVF. The donor had already completed a successful pregnancy herself and subsequently produced a total of 10 oocytes after a combined FSH\\/LH superovulation regime. These eggs were fertilised with sperm from the recipient\\'s husband via intracytoplasmic injection and two fresh embryos were transferred to the recipient on day three. RESULTS: A healthy twin pregnancy resulted from IVF; two boys were delivered by caesarean section at 39 weeks\\' gestation. Additionally, four embryos were cryopreserved for the recipient\\'s future use. The sister-donor achieved another natural pregnancy six months after oocyte retrieval, resulting in a healthy singleton delivery. CONCLUSION: POF is believed to affect approximately 1% of reproductive age females, and POF patients with a sister who can be an oocyte donor for IVF are rare. Most such IVF patients will conceive from treatment using oocytes from an anonymous oocyte donor. This is the first report of births following sister-donor oocyte IVF in Ireland. Indeed, while sister-donor IVF has been successfully undertaken by IVF units elsewhere, this is the only known case where oocyte donation involved twin sisters. As with all types of donor gamete therapy, pre-treatment counselling is important in the circumstance of sister oocyte donation.

  10. Cord Blood Metabolome Is Highly Associated with Birth Weight, but Less Predictive for Later Weight Development

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    Christian Hellmuth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence. Methods: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA, polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform. Cord blood metabolites were related to growth factors by linear regression models adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Cord blood metabolites were highly associated with birth weight. Lysophosphatidylcholines C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C18:2, C20:4, C14:0, C16:0, C18:3, GPL-FA C20:3n-9, and GPL-FA C22:5n-6 were positively related to birth weight, while higher cord blood concentrations of NEFA C22:6, NEFA C20:5, GPL-FA C18:3n-3, and PCe C38:0 were associated with lower birth weight. Postnatal weight gain and BMI z-scores in adolescents were not significantly associated with cord blood metabolites after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: Potential long-term programming effects of the intrauterine environment and metabolism on later health cannot be predicted with profiling of the cord blood metabolome.

  11. Low birthweight and premature birth are both associated with type 2 diabetes in a random sample of middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, K; Færch, K; Carstensen, B;

    2010-01-01

    We studied the associations of size at birth and prematurity with type 2 diabetes, insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in the Danish population-based Inter99 study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00289237).......We studied the associations of size at birth and prematurity with type 2 diabetes, insulin sensitivity and beta cell function in the Danish population-based Inter99 study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00289237)....

  12. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (BW) has been associated with poor bone health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BW and bone mass and metabolism in adult BW discordant monozygotic twins (MZ). METHODS: 153 BW extremely discordant MZ twin-pairs were...... individuals using regression analyses with or without adjustment for height, weight, age, sex, and intra-pair correlation. Within-pair differences were assessed using Student's T-test and fixed-regression models. RESULTS: BW was not associated with BTMs, LS-, TH-, FN- or WB-BMD, but BW was associated with WB......-BMC, and -WB-Area after adjustments. Compared to the co-twin, twins with the highest BW were heavier and taller in adulthood (Mean differences (SD): 3.0 (10.5) kg; 1.6 (2.6) cm, both p ...

  13. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DP Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  14. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants

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    Firas S. Azzeh

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. Objective: To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i Low Birth Weight (LBW infants (15012500 g birth weight, (ii Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW infants (1001-1500 g birth weight and (iii Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW infants ( 0.05 were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05 than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05 in ELBW group. Conclusion: Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups.

  15. Effects of the pacifier activated lullaby on weight gain of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Andrea M; Grant, Roy E

    2005-01-01

    Within the past 5 years there has been an increase of premature infants surviving in the neonatal intensive care unit as well as an increasing cost for each day the infant is kept there. It is important for the premature infant to acquire the feeding skills necessary for weight gain, which lead to discharge from the hospital, and recent advancements have indicated the effectiveness in using contingent music to teach sucking skills to premature infants. The purpose of the first analysis in this study was to determine the effects of Pacifier Activated Lullaby (PAL) trials on weight gain of premature infants. During a 2-year time period, 62 infants from a sample of 188 met criteria for analysis. A one-way analysis of variance showed no significance in daily weight gain for the number of PAL trials completed. The mean weight gains for infants with 1 PAL trial = 13.85 grams, 2 trials = 26.67, 3 trials = 29.64, and 4 or more = 22.89. The Pearson product-moment correlation between the mean percent of music earned via nonnutritive sucking (NNS) and mean weight gain of all trials approached significance (p = .077, r = 0.18). In a second analysis, weight gained prior to use of PAL, during use of PAL, and post use of PAL was analyzed. Results indicated no significant difference between weight gain 1 day prior to use of PAL, the day of PAL trial, and 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for those infants who participated in 1 PAL trial was 8.49 grams for 1 day prior to use of PAL, 18.73 the day of PAL trial, and 24.81 for 1 day post use of PAL. Mean weight gain for 3 days prior to using the PAL was 10.78, 11.30 on the day of PAL trial, and 24.78 grams for 3 days post PAL use. The analyses show definite trends of greater weight gain with PAL use; however, individual variability within groups was greater than group differences leading to no significance in statistical analysis. In the third analysis the effect of proximity between premature infants' feeding schedule and PAL

  16. A Major Cause of Mortality and Morbidity of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Patent Ductus Arteriosus

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    Fatih Aygün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA, a cardiac pathology commonly seen in preterm infants, has negative effects on mortality and morbidity. Persistent patency of PDA is positively correlated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, prolonged respiratory support, pulmonary hemorrhage, broncopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal failure, neurodevelopmental impairment (cerebral palsy, retinopathy of prematurity and death. The standard treatment regimen is to close symptomatic PDA and cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin, ibuprofen are the first choises. Our aim in this study is to report PDA rate, treatment and complications in premature infants. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively enrolled 103 infants born <33 gestational weeks, without any major congenital anomaly or congenital heart defects between January 2010-November 2011. Echocardiograms was performed in the first week. PDA related pulmonary hemorrhage, NEC, BPD, ROP and death were demonstrated.Results: Among of 103 infants, 45 were male and 58 were female. Seventy infants were born with cesarian section and 33 were born with normal labor. The mean gestational week was 29.7±2.2, the mean gestational week of infants with PDA was 28.8±2.3. The mean birth weight of infants was 1323±375 grams. The mean Apgar score was 7.25±1.83, the scores of infants with patent ductus arteriosus were significantly low (6.7±1.9. Echocardiography was performed on the mean of 4.8±4.4 days, PDA was determined in 48 of 103 infants (%46. The mean of birth weight of infants with persistant PDA was 1162±351 grams, it was 1465±340 g in the closed group. The rate of pulmonary hemorrhage, NEC, BPD, ROP and death was significantly higher in infants with PDA compared with infants having ductal closure (p<0.05.Conclusion: The early closure of PDA in very low birth weight infants will reduce both mortality and early or late

  17. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. Methods The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500–4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother’s Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother’s job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother’s poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. Results The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother’s job style had the most adverse effect (B=−0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother’s level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother’s job style and household income (B=−0.17). Conclusion According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother’s job situation in order to

  18. Alterations in Functional Connectivity for Language in Prematurely Born Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robin J.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Vohr, Betty; Kesler, Shelli R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan L.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest recovery of language systems but persistent structural abnormalities in the prematurely born. We tested the hypothesis that subjects who were born prematurely develop alternative networks for processing language. Subjects who were born prematurely (n = 22; 600-1250 g birth weight), without neonatal brain injury on neonatal…

  19. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    -for-gestational age (LGA) or small-for-gestational age and postpartum weight retention (PPWR). Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002), including data on gestational and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and 18 months postpartum. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Information...

  20. The influence of high birth weight on the blood pressure during childhood-a cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of high birth weight(HBW) on blood pressure(BP) during childhood. Meth-ods A total of 1 435 couples with high or normal birth weight were selected from a birth cohort who were born between 1993 and 1995 in Wuxi,China and,followed between 2005 and 2007. A questionnaire survey was

  1. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Paulina O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (% of preterm births ( Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend  The overall rate of low birth weight infants ( Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid basis for planning interventions to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes. This epidemiological information also showed the need to assess several factors that could contribute to explain these trends, as the demographics changes, medical interventions and the increasing probability of survival of extremely and very preterm child.

  2. Rapid fetal fibronectin testing to predict preterm birth in women with symptoms of premature labour : a systematic review and cost analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshpande, S N; van Asselt, A D I; Tomini, F; Armstrong, N; Allen, A; Noake, C; Khan, K; Severens, J L; Kleijnen, J; Westwood, M E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premature birth is defined as birth of before 37 completed weeks' gestation. Not all pregnant women showing symptoms of preterm labour will go on to deliver before 37 weeks' gestation. Hence, addition of fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing to the diagnostic workup of women with suspected pre

  3. Outcomes and milestone achievement differences for very low-birth-weight multiples compared with singleton infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Sharon; Genen, Linda; Turenne, Wendy; Dysart, Kevin

    2010-06-01

    We examined if very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants of multiple gestation pregnancies experience more complications and take longer to achieve clinical milestones compared with similar singletons. We performed a retrospective analysis of all infants less than 1500 g at birth in a large neonatal database. Singletons were compared with twins and higher-order multiples for demographic, morbidities, and process milestones including feeding, respiratory, thermoregulation, and length of stay. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounding variables. A total of 5507 infants were included: 3792 singletons, 1391 twins, and 324 higher-order multiples. There were no differences in Apgar scores, small for gestational age status, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, severe retinopathy of prematurity, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or the need for surgery. Multiples had higher rates of apnea and patent ductus arteriosus than singletons. VLBW multiples achieved milestones at similar rates in most areas compared with singletons except for the achievement of full oral feedings. Length of stay, after controlling for confounding variables, did not differ between the groups. Compared with singletons, VLBW multiples had similar morbidity and achieved most feeding and thermoregulation milestones at similar rates.

  4. Maternal education, birth weight, and infant mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Timothy B; Fang, Fu; O'Neill, Erin; Dirienzo, Greg

    2013-04-01

    This research determines whether the observed decline in infant mortality with socioeconomic level, operationalized as maternal education (dichotomized as college or more, versus high school or less), is due to its "indirect" effect (operating through birth weight) and/or to its "direct" effect (independent of birth weight). The data used are the 2001 U.S. national African American, Mexican American, and European American birth cohorts by sex. The analysis explores the birth outcomes of infants undergoing normal and compromised fetal development separately by using covariate density defined mixture of logistic regressions (CDDmlr). Among normal births, mean birth weight increases significantly (by 27-108 g) with higher maternal education. Mortality declines significantly (by a factor of 0.40-0.96) through the direct effect of education. The indirect effect of education among normal births is small but significant in three cohorts. Furthermore, the indirect effect of maternal education tends to increase mortality despite improved birth weight. Among compromised births, education has small and inconsistent effects on birth weight and infant mortality. Overall, our results are consistent with the view that the decrease in infant death by socioeconomic level is not mediated by improved birth weight. Interventions targeting birth weight may not result in lower infant mortality.

  5. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoliina Wehkalampi

    Full Text Available People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development.We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2 locus (IGF2/H19 in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We studied 158 VLBW and 161 control subjects aged 18 to 27 years from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Methylation fraction at two IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs - IGF2 antisense transcript (IGF2AS, also known as IGF2 DMR0 and last exon of IGF2 (IGF2_05, also known as IGF2 DMR2 - were measured with Sequenom Epityper. We used linear regression and adjustment for covariates to compare methylation fractions at these DMRs between VLBW and control subjects.At one IGF2AS CpG site, methylation was significantly lower in VLBW than in control subjects, mean difference -0.017 (95% CI; -0.028, -0.005, P = 0.004. Methylation at IGF2_05 was not different between the groups.Methylation of IGF2AS is altered 20 years after preterm birth at VLBW. Altered methylation may be a mechanism of later increased disease risk but more data are needed to indicate causality.

  6. Retinopathy of prematurity in Asian Indian babies weighing greater than 1250 grams at birth: Ten year data from a tertiary care center in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinekar Anand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an important cause of childhood blindness in developing countries. Aim: To report the spectrum of ROP and associated risk factors in babies weighing > 1250 g at birth in a developing country. Setting and Design: Institutional, retrospective, non-randomized, observational clinical case series. Materials and Methods : Retrospective analysis (10 years of 275 eyes (138 babies with ROP. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative data with the Chi-square test. Quantitative data using the unpaired t test or the ANOVA and further tested using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The mean birth weight was 1533.9 g (range 1251 to 2750 g and the mean period of gestation was 30.9 weeks (range 26 to 35. One hundred and twenty-four of 275 eyes (45.1% had threshold or worse ROP. Risk factors for threshold or worse disease were, ′outborn babies′ ( P < 0.001, respiratory distress syndrome ( P = 0.007 and exchange transfusion ( P = 0.003. The sensitivity of the American and British screening guidelines to pick up threshold or worse ROP in our study group was 82.4% and 77.4% respectively. Conclusions : Severe ROP is often encountered in babies weighing greater than 1250 g at birth in developing countries. Western screening guidelines may require modifications before application in developing countries.

  7. Birth weight pattern in the only referral teaching hospital in Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoijam, B S; Thangjam, N D; Singh, K T; Devi, S R; Devi, R K P

    2006-01-01

    Birth weight is an important determinant for child development and survival. Birth weight has been reported to be increasing with the passing years. There is no such accurate documentation from the state of Manipur. This cross sectional study has been attempted to see the birth weight pattern in the largest referral hospital in Manipur. Birth weights of four reference years in the last 15 years have been extracted from the records and analysed. There were 19478 singleton deliveries in the four reference years. The mean birth weight showed a gradual increase in these years. There was a gain of 88.9 g in 2000 since 1986 in term deliveries. There were significant differences in the mean birth weights among the four years, even after stratifying for gestation. However, there was no significant decrease in the percentage of low birth weight babies in these years. Low birth weight showed significant association with parity, age of the mother, booking status, haemoglobin level, and literacy of the mother. Since there was no significant decrease in low birth weight babies in spite of increasing birth weight, there is a need for continued and committed effort to realize the goals of RCH.

  8. Seasonal effects on gestation length and birth weight in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G H; Dodds, K G; Moore, G H; Bruce, G D

    1997-04-01

    Gestation lengths and birth weights were measured in 162 pregnancies in alpacas (Lama pacos) farmed in the high country of the South Island of New Zealand. A comparison of pregnancies from spring (mid-October to mid-December) and autumn (mid-February to late April) matings showed that gestation lengths were 12.5 days longer in spring (348.9 +/- 1.4 days vs. 336.4 +/- 1.2 days; P gestation length of 0.11 days (P gestation length. After adjustment for gestation length, crias born in autumn weighed 1.0 kg more than those born in spring (8.8 +/- 0.15 kg vs. 7.8 +/- 0.18 kg: P < 0.001). Female crias weighed 0.4 kg less than males at birth (P < 0.05). The results suggest that in this environment it will be difficult to maintain spring-mated females in a 12 month breeding cycle.

  9. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, S D; Zhang, M G; Der, G; Mathur, S; Mina, T H; Reynolds, R M

    2017-04-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range -86-129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI -4.0-6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57-103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.

  10. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight of the neonate in a Nigerian Hospital

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    Abubakar A Panti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been several publications from different countries on the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, such reports from Nigeria are lacking in literature. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate at term pregnancy in a Nigerian hospital. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto between 1 st October 2008 and 31 st March 2009. Data gestational age at delivery (in weeks, parity, mode of delivery, fetal birth weight, placental weight, fetal gender, presence or absence of maternal medical diseases were obtained from 1009 singleton term deliveries who met the inclusion criteria for the study. The data was processed using EPI-INFO version 2005 and statistical analysis performed using one-way analysis of variance. A probability of 0.05 was set for statistical significance. Results: The placental birth weight ranged from 300 to 890 g with a mean of 590±82 g while the birth weight of the neonate ranged from 2030 to 5020 g with an average of 3275±469 g. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38.8±1.1 weeks while the mean placental birth weight ratio was 18.2±2.4 Increase in birth weight of the neonate was associated with corresponding increase in placental weight. However, as the gestational age at term advances the proportion of increase in the former was greater than that of the latter. Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, the ratio of the placental and neonatal birth weights at term decreases with advancing gestational age. Thus, prolongation of pregnancy at term may adversely affect the fetus.

  11. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

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    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  12. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

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    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-03-22

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation.

  13. Effects of Maternal Factors on Birth Weight in Japan

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    Misato Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the possible factors related to the birth weight (BW using the Japanese perinatal database. Methods. The live infants born at 37 to 41 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Cases with diabetic pregnancy, preeclampsia, an anomalous fetus, and a fetus with chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. A multiple regression analysis for confounding factors and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for comparing the BW in 2006 and 2010 were used for the statistical analysis. Results. The BW significantly decreased from 2950.8 g in 2006 (n=27,723 to 2937.5 g in 2010 (n=38,008 in the overall population, and this decrease was similar for male and female neonates. All confounding factors, except for the mode of delivery, affected the BW. Primiparity, smoking, and a female gender were related to the decrease in BW, whereas maternal age, maternal height, weight gain during pregnancy, BMI, the use of in vitro fertilization, induction of labor, and gestational duration were related to an increased BW. The ANCOVA showed that no significant change of the BW was seen between 2006 and 2010 (the difference was 2.164 g, P=0.414. Conclusion. The gestational duration is the most important factor affecting the BW in singleton term infants.

  14. Autonomic Functioning in Young Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Karen J. Mathewson PhD; Ryan J. Van Lieshout MD, PhD; Saroj Saigal MD; Katherine M. Morrison MD; Michael H. Boyle PhD; Louis A. Schmidt PhD

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic functioning is altered in infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2500 g). HF in the smallest-born ELBW participants was significantly lower than in NBW controls. In both groups, greater birth weight was associated with higher HF. Among ELBW survivors, lower birth weight predicted faster heart rate and higher DBP, but neither heart rate nor DBP appeared to be well-coordinated with baroreflex activity (LF), the principal mechanism for short-term blood pressure regulation. A...

  15. The emergence of grammar in very-low-birth-weight Finnish children at two years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomäki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-03-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children (N = 156) and full-term controls (N = 146). At a group level, the grammatical skills of the VLBW children were significantly weaker than those of the controls. However, when the effect of lexicon size and premature birth on the emergence of grammar was analyzed in detail, few significant differences were found between the groups. The results suggest that even though grammar emerges more slowly for the VLBW children, it emerges in a manner comparable to that of the controls, when the effect of lexicon size is taken into consideration.

  16. Anthropometric surrogates for screening of low birth weight newborns: a community-based study.

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    Rustagi, Neeti; Prasuna, J G; Taneja, D K

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries, where about 75% of births occur at home or in the community, logistic problems prevent the weighing of every newborn child. This study compares various anthropometric surrogates for identification of low birth weight neonates. A longitudinal community based study was done in an urban resettlement colony and 283 singleton neonates within 7 days of birth were examined for the anthropometric measurements such as head, chest, mid upper arm circumference and foot length as a screening tool for low birth weight. Chest circumference measured within 7 days of birth appeared to be the most appropriate surrogate of low birth weight with highest sensitivity (75.4%), specificity (78.4%), and positive predictive value (48.9%) as compared with other anthropometric parameters. Low birth weight neonates in absence of weighing scales can be early identified by using simple anthropometric measurements for enhanced home-based care and timely referral.

  17. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

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    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  18. Maternal and cord blood LC-HRMS metabolomics reveal alterations in energy and polyamine metabolism, and oxidative stress in very-low birth weight infants.

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    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Moyon, Thomas; Küster, Alice; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Tea, Illa; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Darmaun, Dominique

    2013-06-07

    To assess the global effect of preterm birth on fetal metabolism and maternal-fetal nutrient transfer, we used a mass spectrometric-based chemical phenotyping approach on cord blood obtained at the time of birth. We sampled umbilical venous, umbilical arterial, and maternal blood from mothers delivering very-low birth weight (VLBW, with a median gestational age and weight of 29 weeks, and 1210 g, respectively) premature or full-term (FT) neonates. In VLBW group, we observed a significant elevation in the levels and maternal-fetal gradients of butyryl-, isovaleryl-, hexanoyl- and octanoyl-carnitines, suggesting enhanced short- and medium chain fatty acid β-oxidation in human preterm feto-placental unit. The significant decrease in glutamine-glutamate in preterm arterial cord blood beside lower levels of amino acid precursors of Krebs cycle suggest increased glutamine utilization in the fast growing tissues of preterm fetus with a deregulation in placental glutamate-glutamine shuttling. Enhanced glutathione utilization is likely to account for the decrease in precursor amino acids (serine, betaine, glutamate and methionine) in arterial cord blood. An increase in both the circulating levels and maternal-fetal gradients of several polyamines in their acetylated form (diacetylspermine and acetylputrescine) suggests an enhanced polyamine metabolic cycling in extreme prematurity. Our metabolomics study allowed the identification of alterations in fetal energy, antioxidant defense, and polyamines and purines flux as a signature of premature birth.

  19. Birth Weight and Risk of Adiposity among Adult Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille Falberg; Smith, Lærke Steenberg; Andersen, Gregers Stig

    2014-01-01

    circumference, FMI, FFMI and SAT with generally weaker associations among women compared to men. Birth weight was only associated with VAT after additional adjustment for waist circumference and appeared to be specific and inverse for men only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher birth weight among Inuit was associated...... splines. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, birthplace, ancestry and family history of obesity. RESULTS: Spline analyses showed linear relations between birth weight and adult adiposity. In multiple regression analyses, birth weight was positively associated with BMI, waist...

  20. Regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in adulthood is not related to birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Petersen, Inge; Hegedüs, Laszlo;

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults.......Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults....

  1. The Nexus of Prematurity, Birth Defects, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Role for Plac1-Regulated Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fant, Michael E.; Fuentes, Juan; Kong, Xiaoyuan; Jackman, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased prevalence of birth defects and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) among infants born prematurely suggesting they share common biological determinants. The identification of key regulatory pathways contributing to this nexus is essential to ongoing efforts to develop effective intervention strategies. Plac1 is a paternally imprinted and X-linked gene that conforms to this paradigm. Examination of a mutant mouse model has confirmed that Plac1 is essential for normal placental development and function. Moreover, it is expressed throughout the developing embryo indicating that it also has broad relevance to embryogenesis. Most notably, its absence in the developing embryo is associated with abnormal brain development and an increased risk of lethal, postnatal hydrocephalus identifying it as a novel, X-linked determinant of brain development. The essential and non-redundant roles of Plac1 in placental and neurological development represent a novel regulatory paradigm for embryonic growth and pregnancy maintenance. Regulatory pathways influenced, in part, by Plac1 are likely to contribute to the observed nexus of IUGR, prematurity, and birth defects. PMID:24600606

  2. High incidence of rickets in extremely low birth weight infants with severe parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Namgung, Ran; Park, Min Soo; Eun, Ho Sun; Park, Kook In; Lee, Chul

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for rickets of prematurity have not been re-examined since introduction of high mineral formula, particularly in ELBW infants. We analyzed the incidence and the risk factors of rickets in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. As a retrospective case-control study from 2004 to 2008, risk factors were analyzed in 24 patients with rickets versus 31 patients without. The frequency of rickets in ELBW infants was 24/55 (44%). Infants with rickets were diagnosed at 48.2 ± 16.1 days of age, and improved by 85.3 ± 25.3 days. By radiologic evaluation, 29% were grade 1 rickets, 58% grade 2 and 13% grade 3. In univariate analysis, infants with rickets had significantly higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC), severe PNAC and moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for gestation and birth weight, rickets significantly correlated with severe PNAC and with moderate/severe BPD. Serum peak alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly elevated in rickets (P rickets of prematurity remains high and the incidence of severe PNAC and moderate/severe BPD was significantly increased 18 and 3 times, respectively.

  3. Does visceral osteopathic treatment accelerate meconium passage in very low birth weight infants?- A prospective randomized controlled trial.

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    Nadja Haiden

    Full Text Available To determine whether the complementary approach of visceral manipulative osteopathic treatment accelerates complete meconium excretion and improves feeding tolerance in very low birth weight infants.This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial in premature infants with a birth weight <1500 g and a gestational age <32 weeks who received a visceral osteopathic treatment 3 times during their first week of life or no treatment.Passage of the last meconium occurred after a median of 7.5 days (95% confidence interval: 6-9 days, n = 21 in the intervention group and after 6 days (95% confidence interval: 5-9 days, n = 20, in the control group (p = 0.11. However, osteopathic treatment was associated with a 8 day longer time to full enteral feedings (p = 0.02, and a 34 day longer hospital stay (Median = 66 vs. 100 days i.e.; p=0.14. Osteopathic treatment was tolerated well and no adverse events were observed.Visceral osteopathic treatment of the abdomen did not accelerate meconium excretion in VLBW (very low birth weight-infants. However infants in the osteopathic group had a longer time to full enteral feedings and a longer hospital stay, which could represent adverse effects. Based on our trial results, we cannot recommend visceral osteopathic techniques in VLBW-infants.Clinical trials.gov: NCT02140710.

  4. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

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    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  5. Loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions induce preterm cellular and structural remodeling of the cervix and premature birth.

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    Steven M Yellon

    Full Text Available A decline in serum progesterone or antagonism of progesterone receptor function results in preterm labor and birth. Whether characteristics of premature remodeling of the cervix after antiprogestins or ovariectomy are similar to that at term was the focus of the present study. Groups of pregnant rats were treated with vehicle, a progesterone receptor antagonist (onapristone or mifepristone, or ovariectomized on day 17 postbreeding. As expected, controls given vehicle delivered at term while rats delivered preterm after progesterone receptor antagonist treatment or ovariectomy. Similar to the cervix before term, the preterm cervix of progesterone receptor antagonist-treated rats was characterized by reduced cell nuclei density, decreased collagen content and structure, as well as a greater presence of macrophages per unit area. Thus, loss of nuclear progesterone receptor-mediated actions promoted structural remodeling of the cervix, increased census of resident macrophages, and preterm birth much like that found in the cervix at term. In contrast to the progesterone receptor antagonist-induced advance in characteristics associated with remodeling, ovariectomy-induced loss of systemic progesterone did not affect hypertrophy, extracellular collagen, or macrophage numbers in the cervix. Thus, the structure and macrophage census in the cervix appear sufficient for premature ripening and birth to occur well before term. With progesterone receptors predominantly localized on cells other than macrophages, the findings suggest that interactions between cells may facilitate the loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions as part of a final common mechanism that remodels the cervix in certain etiologies of preterm and with parturition at term.

  6. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

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    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  7. The Placental Microbiome Varies in Association with Low Birth Weight in Full-Term Neonates

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    Jia Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence indicated that low birth weight was an independent risk factor for obesity, impaired glucose regulation, and diabetes later in life. However, investigations into the association between low birth weight and placental microbiome in full-term neonates are limited. Placentas were collected from low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW full-term neonates (gestational age 37 w0d–41 w6d consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The anthropometric measurements were measured and 16S ribosomal DNAamplicon high-throughput sequencing were utilized to define bacteria within placenta tissues. It showed that birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference, and placenta weight were significantly lower in LBW than NBW neonates (p < 0.05. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs (p < 0.05 and the estimators of community richness (Chao indexes (p < 0.05 showed a significantly lower diversity in LBW than NBW neonates. There were significant variations in the composition of placenta microbiota between the LBW and NBW neonates at the phylum and genus level. Furthermore, it indicated that Lactobacillus percentage was positively associated with birth weight (r = 0.541, p = 0.025. In conclusion, our present study for the first time detected the relationship between birth weight and placental microbiome profile in full-term neonates. It is novel in showing that the placental microbiome varies in association with low birth weight in full-term neonates.

  8. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

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    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  9. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

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    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  10. Deficits in Top-Down Sensory Prediction in Infants At Risk due to Premature Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, Lauren L; Boldin, Alex M; Riccio, Julie E; Guillet, Ronnie; Aslin, Richard N

    2017-02-06

    A prominent theoretical view is that the brain is inherently predictive [1, 2] and that prediction helps drive the engine of development [3, 4]. Although infants exhibit neural signatures of top-down sensory prediction [5, 6], in order to establish that prediction supports development, it must be established that deficits in early prediction abilities alter trajectories. We investigated prediction in infants born prematurely, a leading cause of neuro-cognitive impairment worldwide [7]. Prematurity, independent of medical complications, leads to developmental disturbances [8-12] and a broad range of developmental delays [13-17]. Is an alteration in early prediction abilities the common cause? Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we measured top-down sensory prediction in preterm infants (born identification of infants at risk and could guide early intervention regimens.

  11. Effects of maternal and infant characteristics on birth weight and gestation length in a colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kelly J; Capozzi, Denise K; Newsome, Joseph T

    2008-12-01

    A retrospective study using maternal and birth statistics from an open, captive rhesus macaque colony was done to determine the effects of parity, exposure to simian retrovirus (SRV), housing, maternal parity, and maternal birth weight on infant birth weight, viability and gestation length. Retrospective colony statistics for a 23-y period indicated that birth weight, but not gestation length, differed between genders. Adjusted mean birth weights were higher in nonviable infants. Mothers positive for SRV had shorter gestations, but SRV exposure did not affect neonatal birth weights or viability. Infants born in cages had longer gestations than did those born in pens, but neither birth weight nor viability differed between these groups. Maternal birth weight did not correlate with infant birth weight but positively correlated with gestation length. Parity was correlated with birth weight and decreased viability. Increased parity of the mother was associated with higher birth weight of the infant. A transgenerational trend toward increasing birth weight was noted. The birth statistics of this colony were consistent with those of other macaque colonies. Unlike findings for humans, maternal birth weight had little predictive value for infant outcomes in rhesus macaques. Nonviable rhesus infants had higher birth weights, unlike their human counterparts, perhaps due to gestational diabetes occurring in a sedentary caged population. Similar to the situation for humans, multiparity had a protective effect on infant viability in rhesus macaques.

  12. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

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    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  13. Decline in the negative association between low birth weight and cognitive ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Berkay; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight predicts compromised cognitive ability. We used data from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS), and the 2000–2002 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to analyze how this association has changed over time. Birth weight was divided into two categories, <2,500 g (low) and 2,500–4,500 g (normal) and verbal cognitive ability was measured at the age of 10 or 11 y. A range of maternal and family characteristics collected at or soon after the time of birth were considered. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between birth weight and cognitive ability in a baseline model and in a model that adjusted for family characteristics. The standardized difference (SD) in cognitive scores between low-birth-weight and normal-birth-weight children was large in the NCDS [−0.37 SD, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.46, −0.27] and in the BCS (−0.34, 95% CI: −0.43, −0.25) cohorts, and it was more than halved for children born in the MCS cohort (−0.14, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.06). The adjustment for family characteristics did not explain the cross-cohort differences. The results show that the association between low birth weight and decreased cognitive ability has declined between the 1950s and 1970s birth cohorts and the 2000--2002 birth cohort, despite a higher proportion of the low-birth-weight babies having a very low birth weight (<1,500 g) in the more recent birth cohort. Advancements in obstetric and neonatal care may have attenuated the negative consequences associated with being born small. PMID:27994141

  14. Birth weight relates to blood pressure and microvascular function in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Objective The relationship between low birth weight and elevated blood pressure in adult life is well established but presently unexplained. Both microvascular dysfunction and insulin resistance have been proposed as a possible explanation. We have examined the relation between birth weight and bloo

  15. Association between maternal work activity on birth weight and gestational age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OmidAminian; SeyedAliAkbarSharifian; NazaninIzadi; KhosroSadeghniiat; AnahitaRashedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of maternal employment on birth weight and gestational age. Methods:In this project,1272 pregnant women were recruited from whom referred toTehran hospitals during1 year via randomized sampling.Data were gathered through history taking and medical records.In this study,564 employed women were classified as exposure group and708 housekeepers were as the control group.Chisquare test,t-test,One-wayANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze data. Results:In this study, mean mother age was25.01 years and mean birth weight was(2884±684) g.The mean birth weight in housekeepers was significantly higher (2991±457 g) than employees(2726±476 g)(P=0.002).The infants’ mean birth weights in farmer were the lowest and in office workers(2831±526 g) was the highest(P<0.01).Gestational age less than37 weeks was more common among employees.The mean birth weight decreased when the working hours increased(P<0.01).In those mothers who were working less than3 months there were a higher mean birth weight(P<0.01).Also the mean birth weight decreased due to the hours of standing during a day.Conclusion:Women employment during pregnancy has an important role in low birth weight and preterm labor compared to those who do not work.

  16. Smoking and low birth weight: absence of influence by carbon monoxide?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, EJ; Jong, PA de; Cornelissen, PJ; Kurver, PH; Oel, WC; Woensel, van

    1987-01-01

    Fetal outcome in 77 uneventful pregnancies was examined and related to venous cord carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels. 30 women were smokers, 47 were non-smokers. Birth weight and birth weight centiles were found to be substantially reduced in children of mothers who smoked. HbCO levels were significa

  17. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

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    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  18. Arthritis, osteomyelitis, septicemia and meningitis caused by Klebsiella in a low-birth-weight newborn: a case report

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    Ghorashi Sona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Klebsiella pneumoniae is in most cases a hospital-acquired infection and presents as pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis in patients with some predisposing factors, including prematurity, intravenous catheter, history of antibiotic therapy and intravenous nutrients. Case presentation A low-birth-weight, 33-day-old Caucasian girl with respiratory distress syndrome was admitted to our hospital. She developed septicemia, meningitis, polyarticular arthritis and osteomyelitis by nosocomial K. pneumoniae which was resistant to most antibiotics except ciprofloxacin. She was therefore treated with ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole for eight weeks. After completion of the treatment course, she completely improved with excellent weight gain and without any adverse effects during three years of follow-up. Conclusion In the resistant strain of K. pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin could be considered as a therapeutic option with the prospect of a good outcome, even in neonates and infants.

  19. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  20. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...... Children's Accelerometry Database. Birth weight was measured in hospitals or maternally reported, sedentary time was assessed by using accelerometry (

  1. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 children......, born from 1936 to 1972, from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register were followed prospectively in Danish health registers. Colon and rectal cancer cases were defined using the International Classification of Disease version 10 (colon: C18.0-18.9, rectal: 19.9 and 20.9). Only cancers classified....... No significant sex differences were observed; therefore combined results are presented. Birth weight was positively associated with colon cancers with a HR of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26) per kilogram of birth weight. For rectal cancer a significant association was not observed for birth weights below 3.5kg. Above 3...

  2. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine;

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in ad...

  3. Trisomy 21 in one of extremely low birth weight twins

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Benjamin D.; Balachandar, Divya; Perry, Karen; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Markello, Thomas C.; Rais-Bahrami, Khodayar

    2008-01-01

    Prematurity is frequently seen in the neonatal intensive care unit, and trisomy 21 is an often diagnosed neonatal disorder. We report a unique case of extremely premature twins, one of whom was ultimately diagnosed with trisomy 21. We were able to examine the neonatal courses and outcomes of these twins, which were similar despite the presence of trisomy 21 in one twin. This is the first report comparing the neonatal course of an infant with trisomy 21 to an unaffected twin in patients born s...

  4. Trial gain of weight and hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm infant in assistance for kangaroo mother care

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    Márcia Aparecida Giacomini Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC interferes in the gain of weight and in the hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm newborn (LWBPTN. For this, it was realized an analytic retrospective study, through the evaluation of the medical records of 60 LWBPTN with born weight less than 2000 g that received assistance by KMC, for a period of 2 hours per day and, 60 LWBPTN that received assistance by the Traditional Method of Care (TMC, admitted in the unity of neonatal intensive care and unity of premature of a private maternity in the city of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, comparing the gain of weight and the hospital length stay. We did not find differences statistically significant in relation to the gain of weight of the LWBPTN assisted by KMC, in relation to LWBPTN assisted by the TMC, 15,8 and 14,9 g/per day, respectively. In relation to the time of admission, we also did not find differences statistically significant, 27,3 and 26,2 days, for the LWBPTN in the KMC and TMC, respectively, although in the stratification of the sample, the LBWPTN with pregnancy age < 30 weeks or birth weight < 1500 g left the hospital 3 days earlier in the KMC. It was concluded that the KMC, in the conditions of this study, it seems not to interfere significatively in the gain of weight and in the time of admission of LWBPTN. We emphasize that the utilization of KMC in the assistance to the LWBPTN of low weight is a viable model, even for the private health institution.

  5. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, K E; Jakobson, L S; Saunders, D R; Troje, N F

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children--a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = -.36, p children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools.

  6. [Follow-up of infants with birth weight under 1,500 g].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldt, E; Valenzuela, B; Angulo, G; Muñoz, E; Gómez, S; Levy, M L; Rosselot, S; Norambuena, N

    1989-01-01

    A prospective study of 199 children with birth weight less than 1,500 g was done. 86 boys and 113 girls, 141 (71%) adequate for gestational age and 58 (29%) small for gestational age. At follow-up 43 (21.6%) infants were lost to control, 17 (7%) moved to other places and 7 (3.5%) died in the first year of life. In the first year of life, infants whose birthweights were adequate for gestational age had been hospitalized more frequently and the small for dates showed higher percentage of undernutrition. After the second year of life, it was possible to know the impairment. It was found 7.4% of cerebral palsy, 2.9% of hipoacusia and 2.2% of retinopathy of prematurity, these diagnosis were most frequent in children that were adequate for gestational age. We concluded that small for dates infants are at risk of undernutrition and that those adequate for gestational age are at risk of permanent sequelae.

  7. Examining the relationship between temperature, rainfall and low birth weight in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kathryn; Davenport, Frank; Hanson, Heidi; Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shradhanand

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between birth weight, precipitation, and temperature in 19 African countries. We matched recorded birth weights from Demographic and Health Surveys covering 1986 through 2010 with gridded monthly precipitation and temperature data derived from satellite and ground-based weather stations. Observed weather patterns during various stages of pregnancy were also used to examine the effect of temperature and precipitation on birth weight outcomes. In our empirical model we allowed the effect of weather factors to vary by the dominant food production strategy (livelihood zone) in a given region as well as by household wealth, mother's education and birth season. This allowed us to determine if certain populations are more or less vulnerable to unexpected weather changes after adjusting for known covariates. Finally we measured effect size by observing differences in birth weight outcomes in women who have one low birth weight experience and at least one healthy birth weight baby. The results indicated that climate does indeed impact birth weight and at a level comparable, in some cases, to the impact of increasing women's education or household electricity status.

  8. KIR and HLA-C: Immunogenetic regulation of human birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia E. Farrell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancies resulting in very small or very large babies are at higher risk of obstetric complications with increased morbidity for both mother and baby. Using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we have shown how human birth weight is still subject to stabilizing selection. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune genes have been implicated in pregnancies resulting in a low birth weight baby (<5th birth weight centile. More specifically, an inhibitory maternal KIRAA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. At the other end of the birth weight spectrum the presence of an activating maternal KIR2DS1 gene is associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p=0.005, OR=2.65. Thus, inhibitory maternal KIR combined with fetal HLA-C2 is more frequently associated with low birth weight, whereas activating maternal KIR with fetal HLA-C2 ligand is associated with increasing birth weight. Our findings using the MoBa cohort have replicated the association of KIR and HLA-C seen in poor placentation, and confirm the importance of maternal/fetal immune gene interactions in determining the outcome of pregnancy.

  9. Effect of litter size on the variation in birth and weaning weights of Landrace piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Duarte Prazeres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the size class of the litter at birth on the variation in birth and weaning weights and on the survival rate of piglets from birth to weaning. For this purpose, records of individual weight at birth and weaning of piglets obtained from a database of 295 Landrace litters born between 2000 and 2010 on a pig farm in the western region of the State of Paraná were used. The litters were classified as small (up to 7 piglets, medium (8 to 13 piglets, and large (> 14 piglets according to the total number of piglets born. The data were analyzed considering the effects of the year of sow mating and size class of the litter at birth. The correlations between mean weight and variance in litter weight and size were higher for medium and large litters. The size class of the litter significantly influenced the mean weight of piglets at birth and weaning and the variance in birth weight. Piglets born in medium and large litters weighed less and exhibited greater birth weight variation and a lower survival rate until weaning than piglets born in small litters.

  10. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Taylor F; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Garrett, Melanie E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Oades, Robert D; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Kollins, Scott H; Faraone, Stephen V; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP × birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD.

  11. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  12. Congenital malaria in newborns selected for low birth-weight, anemia, and other possible symptoms in Maumere, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Jahja, Natalia Erica; Huwae, Irene Ratridewi; Nara, Mario B; Berens-Riha, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Congenital malaria is assumed to be a risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality in endemic areas like Maumere, Indonesia. Infected infants are susceptible to its impact such as premature labor, low birth weight, anemia, and other unspecified symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of congenital malaria and the influence of mother-infant paired parasite densities on the clinical outcome of the newborns at TC Hillers Hospital, Maumere. An analytical cross sectional study was carried out in newborns which showed criteria associated with congenital malaria. A thick and thin blood smear confirmed by nested PCR was performed in both mothers and infants. The association of congenital malaria with the newborn's health status was then assessed. From 112 mother-infant pairs included in this study, 92 were evaluated further. Thirty-nine infants (42.4%) were found to be infected and half of them were asymptomatic. Infected newborns had a 4.7 times higher risk in developing anemia compared to uninfected newborns (95% CI, 1.3-17.1). The hemoglobin level, erythrocyte amount, and hematocrit level were affected by the infants' parasite densities (Pmalaria, the prevalence is almost 3 times higher than in an unselected collective. Low birth weight, anemia, and pre-term birth were the most common features. Anemia seems to be significantly influenced by infant parasite densities but not by maternal parasitemia.

  13. Risk factors for premature births: a cross-sectional analysis of hospital records in a Cameroonian health facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabi, Andreas; Mah, Evelyn M; Mvondo, Nicole; Nguefack, Seraphin; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Kamga, Karen K; Zhang, Shiyuan; Mboudou, Emile; Tchokoteu, Pierre F; Mbond, Elie

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for preterm births in the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital in Cameroon, and to describe their outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional analytical study of hospital records over eight years. The incidence of prematurity was 26.5 % of admissions over a period of 7 years 7 months. After controlling for confounding factors, we identified attending antenatal care visits in a health centre (Odds ratio [OR] 6.19; 95% Confidence interval [CI] 1.15 - 33.22; p = 0.033), having a urinary tract infection (OR 39.04; 95% CI 17.19 - 88.62; p causes of death were neonatal infections (27.6%), neonatal asphyxia (11.9%) and congenital malformations (10.3%). We recommend enhanced prenatal care and management of pathologies which arise during pregnancy.

  14. The Status at Two Years of Low-Birth-Weight Infants Born in 1974 with Birth Weights of Less Than 1,001 gm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, K. E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    For availibility see EC 103 548 Among findings of a 2-year followup study of 43 infants of birth weight less than 1000 grams were the following: average height at age 2 years was between the tenth and twenty-fifth percentiles; average weight was between the third and tenth percentiles; 15 Ss developed lower respiratory tract infections during the…

  15. Right ventricular outflow tract stenting in a low birth weight infant born with tetralogy of fallot and prostaglandin e1 dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Sunhee; Ko, Hong Ki; Yu, Jeong Jin; Han, Myung-Ki; Kim, Young-Hwue; Ko, Jae-Kon; Park, In-Sook

    2011-12-01

    Surgical skill and strategy for the correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) have improved and resulted in satisfactory outcomes. However, prematurity and low birth weight continue to remain risk factors for poor outcomes. We present a case of a 2,150 g neonate born with TOF, in whom palliation was achieved with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) stenting. Seventy-seven days after the procedure, stenosis of RVOT below the stent was identified. At that time his body weight was 4.9 kg and total corrective surgery was deemed feasible. Eight months following surgical repair, the patient remained well without medical intervention. RVOT stenting may be a viable interim procedure while waiting for a low birth weight neonate born with TOF and prostaglandin E1 dependency to reach optimal weight to undergo corrective surgery.

  16. [At the limits of viability: Dutch referral policy for premature birth too reserved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits-Kuiper, J.A.; Heus, R. de; Bouwers, H.A.; Visser, G.H.; Ouden, A.L. den; Kollee, L.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of policy and treatment of deliveries at the limits of viability in the Netherlands and resulting survival figures. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHOD: Within the framework of the European 'Models of organising access to intensive care for very preterm births in Europe' (MOSAIC) stud

  17. Survival Rate of Low and Very Low Birth Weight Neonates in an Iranian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Puyanfar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the incidence and survival rates of neonates weighing less than 2500g for duration of the first 28 days in an Iranian community.Methods: In this prospective longitudinal study, all neonates with birth weight less than 2500g were selected from the list of all neonates born in the only public-sector referral hospital, for a six months period. The weight of neonates at birth along with some demographic variables was recorded on a checklist. A cohort of neonates with birth weight less than 2500g were followed for 28 days. Mortality within 28 days of birth was used as end point. Continuous variables were summarized using mean and 95% confidence intervals, while categorical variables were presented as ratios and percentages.Results: About 1750 neonates were born of which 168 neonates with birth weights less than 2500g were recorded giving a proportion of 9.6%. Of 168 neonates, 21 (12.5% had very low birth weights (VLBW (birth weights<1500g. Survival rates for the groups of LBW (1500<birth weights<2500g and VLBW neonates were 98.4% and 66.6%, respectively. Regression analysis showed birth weight has, unsurprisingly, the most effect (beta= 0.501 on the survival rate among variables studied in this research.Conclusion: The survival rate among VLBW births in our study is dramatically low (66.6%. Not only attempts must be made to reduce the incidence and prevalence of this problem but also we need to work on the related factors of neonates' survival rate in this community.

  18. DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES BY AN ANTHROPOMETRIC SURROGATE MEASURE: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Birth weight is an indicator of both neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal health, nutrition and quality of antenatal services. OBJECTIVE: To find out important anthropometric parameter(s in the newborn as related to birth weight so that newborns with low birth weight can be identified. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cross sectional, analytical, hospital based study was conducted at Amritsar on 200 term low birth weight newborn babies(<2.5 kg born during a period of 10 months and their various anthropometric measurements (HC, CC, MAC, TC, CFC were taken according to standard techniques. RESULTS: The study showed a strong correlation (p <0.001 between mid-arm circumference (r=0.834 and birth weight, followed by head circumference (r=0.816 and birth weight. Other parameters were also strongly correlated (p < 0.001. A value of <9.2 cm and <7.6 cm for mid-arm circumference showed highest validity for picking up newborns weighing <2500 gm and <2000 gm respectively. CONCLUSION: Measurement of arm circumference is easier, convenient and statistically superior to other anthropometrical parameters in detection of low birth weight newborn babies. The researchers recommend designing of a simple 'Tri-colored tape' for early detection of 'At Risk' LBW newborns in rural communities for their timely management.

  19. Birth Weight, Physical Morbidity, and Mortality: A Population-based Sibling-Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Rickert, Martin E.; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between low birth weight (≤2,500 g) and increased risk of mortality and morbidity provided the foundation for the “developmental origins of health and disease” hypothesis. Previous between-family studies could not control for unmeasured confounders. Therefore, we compared differentially exposed siblings to estimate the extent to which the associations were due to uncontrolled factors. Our population cohort included 3,291,773 persons born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008. Analyses controlled for gestational age, among other covariates, and considered birth weight as both an ordinal and a continuous variable. Outcomes included mortality after 1 year, cardiac-related death, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation problems, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We fitted fixed-effects models to compare siblings and conducted sensitivity analyses to test alternative explanations. Across the population, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk of mortality (e.g., cardiac-related death (low birth weight hazard ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 3.53)) and morbidity (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (low birth weight hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.14)) outcomes in comparison with normal birth weight. All associations were independent of shared familial confounders and measured covariates. Results emphasize the importance of birth weight as a risk factor for subsequent mortality and morbidity. PMID:24355331

  20. Sex, birth weight, and the risk of stillbirth in Scotland, 1980-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C

    2000-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of stillbirth associated with male fetal sex was modified by fetal growth. The study group consisted of all singleton first births weighing greater than 500 g delivered between 28 and 43 weeks gestation in Scotland in 1980-1996 (n = 469,152). Overall, male fetuses were at an increased risk of stillbirth (relative risk = 1.19, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.10, 1.29). There was a significant negative interaction between male sex and increasing birth weight quintile in term, but not preterm, births. The interaction was virtually identical when calculated independently for births in the periods 1980-1987 and 1988-1996. There were linear decreases in the proportion of stillbirths and the proportion of birth weights in the lowest quintile over the period 1980-1996. Adjustment for year of birth did not affect the relation between male sex and stillbirth. However, adjustment for birth weight resulted in a loss of the association between year of birth and risk of stillbirth. The authors concluded that 1) the association between male sex and stillbirth diminishes with increasing birth weight quintile, and 2) there was a fall in the proportion of stillbirths in Scotland between 1980 and 1996, which may have been due to a fall in the proportion of small babies over the same period.

  1. From infancy to pregnancy: birth weight, body mass index, and the risk of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Hanson, Ulf; Wikström, Anna-Karin

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for gestational diabetes, whereas the role of the mother's birth weight is more uncertain. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of mothers' birth-weight-for-gestational-age and early pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) in relation to risk of gestational diabetes. Between 1973 and 2006, we identified a cohort of 323,083 women included in the Swedish Medical Birth Register both as infants and as mothers. Main exposures were mothers' birth-weight-for-gestational-age (categorized into five groups according to deviation from national mean birth weight) and early pregnancy BMI (classified according to WHO). Rates of gestational diabetes increased with adult BMI, independently of birth-weight-for-gestational-age. However, compared to women with appropriate birth-weight-for-gestational-age [appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA); -1 to +1 SD] and BMI (born small-for-gestational-age [small for gestational age (SGA); born large-for-gestational-age [large-for-gestational-age (LGA); >2SD], and OR = 10.4 (95 % CI 8.4-13.0) if born AGA. Risk of gestational diabetes is not only increased among obese women, but also among women born SGA and LGA. Severely obese women born with a low or a high birth-weight-for-gestational-age seem more vulnerable to the development of gestational diabetes compared to normal weight women. Normal pre-pregnancy BMI diminishes the increased risk birth size may confer in terms of gestational diabetes. Therefore, the importance of keeping a healthy weight cannot be overemphasized.

  2. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    with mandatory fortification of margarine during 1961-1985 and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk between 1972 and 1976. The influence of prenatal vitamin D exposure on birth weight was investigated among 51 883 Danish children, by comparing birth weight among individuals born during 2 years before or after......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... than non-exposed children (margarine initiation 27·4 (95 % CI 10·8, 44·0) g). No differences in the odds of high (>4000 g) or low ( weight were observed between the children exposed and non-exposed to vitamin D fortification prenatally. Prenatal exposure to vitamin D from fortified...

  3. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part I: From Birth to Expansion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…

  4. [Premature birth in patient with cervix incompetence and history of myasthenia gravis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Maximiliano; Troncoso, Miguel; Vallejos, Joaquin; Ponce, Sebastian; Villablanca, Nelson; Melita, Pablo

    2013-09-01

    Cervical incompetence it's a dilatation of the cervix during the third trimester of pregnancy that ends with the interruption of it. The incidence in Chile is about 0.1-2% of the total pregnancies and it's one of the causes of preterm birth. A 34 years old pregnant patient. Timectomized at age 18 to treat her miastenia gravis, previously trated with medication, had 4 previous preterm labours all of them under 25 weeks and vaginal births. All fetuses died postpartum. A cerclage was made during the third, fourth and fifth pregnancies. She didn't present hypertension during the gestation and no cervical diameter under 15mm. Since the fourth gestation the following tests are taken: Antifosfolipidic antibodies, APTT,PT. All the results are either normal or negative. Microbial cultures were negative. No amniocentesis was made. A McDonald cervical cerclage was made during pregnancies number 3, 4 and 5 on the 16th week to delay the labor. Also oral micronized progesterone, on a 400mg/24 hours dosis, was administered to avoid preterm birth. On the 24th week the pharmacological treatment started including Intramuscular Betamethasone, 12 mg/24 hours (2 doses), to induce lung maturity on the fetus. It is thought that the administration of progesterone could have improved the situation of the patient, because it acts as a labour repressants. The use of cerclage could have helped, but the factors that may influence the effectiveness of this method are unknown. Perhaps there is some immunologic factor associated with the miastenia gravis that alters the normal course of pregnancy.

  5. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  6. Sex Differences in the Association Between Birth Weight and Adult Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.;

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but the risk at high birth weight levels remains uncertain. Potential sex differences in the associations are unexplored. We investigated whether sex influences the association of birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes, using....... Future search for sex-specific causal mechanisms may provide new insights into the early origins of type 2 diabetes.......Low birth weight is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but the risk at high birth weight levels remains uncertain. Potential sex differences in the associations are unexplored. We investigated whether sex influences the association of birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes, using...... a cohort of 113,801 men and 109,298 women, born 1936-1983, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, Denmark. During 5.6 million person-years of follow-up, 7,750 men and 4,736 women had a diagnosis of adult type 2 diabetes (30 years of age or older) obtained from national registers. When birth...

  7. High Birth Weight Is a Risk Factor of Dental Caries Increment during Adolescence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Julihn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether birth weight is associated with dental caries during the teenage period. In this register-based cohort study, all children of 13 years of age (n = 18,142 who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, were included. The cohort was followed until individuals were 19 years of age. Information regarding dental caries was collected from the Public Health Care Administration in Stockholm. Data concerning prenatal and perinatal factors and parental socio-demographic determinants were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and National Registers at Statistics Sweden. The final logistic regression model showed that birth weight ≥4000 g, adjusted for potential confounders, was significantly associated with caries increment (DMFT ≥ 1 (D = decayed, M = missing, F = filled, T = teeth between 13 and 19 age (OR, 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09–1.36. The relatively enhanced risk OR was further increased from 1.22 to 1.43 in subjects with birth weight ≥4600 g. On the contrary, subjects with birth weight <2500 g exhibited a significantly lower risk (OR, 0.67; 95% CI = 0.50–0.89 for exhibiting caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4 at 19 years of age. In conclusion, high birth weight can be regarded as a predictor for dental caries, and especially, birth weight ≥4500 g is a risk factor for caries increment during adolescence.

  8. Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight. Cienfuegos Municipality. 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Villafuerte Reinante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: reducing low birth weight is a priority in Cuba’s health policy since it is critical to reduce infant mortality. Objective: to identify the major risk factors associated with low birth weight in Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving all women who gave birth to low-birth-weight infants was conducted in Cienfuegos municipality from January 2010 through December 2014. Maternal age, maternal medical history, weight gain during pregnancy, nutritional assessment in early pregnancy, interpregnancy interval, gestational age at birth and pregnancy-related conditions were analyzed. Results: Four hundred fifty low-birth-weight infants were born. Hypertension as major illness in the maternal medical history was the main cause of maternal morbidity. In the obstetric history, an interpregnancy interval less than 2 years was frequently observed. It was demonstrated that the conditions mostly associated with pregnancy were vaginal infection, anemia and hypertension. Preterm infants predominated. Conclusions: the modification of these risk factors would have a favorable impact on the reduction of low birth weight.

  9. 极低及超低出生体重儿的预后因素分析%Prognostic factors in very low birth weight infants and extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恋; 李娟; 毛健; 张静; 陈丹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical data of very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) (birth weight≤1 200 g) and to provide prewarning indicators for prognostic evaluation and clinical intervention. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 108 VLBWIs and ELBWIs to investigate the maternal history of diseases during pregnancy, neonatal birth status, the process of diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine prognostic factors. Results Of the 108 preterm infants, 15 had a birth weight of<800 g, 29 had a birth weight of 800-999 g, and 64 had a birth weight of 1000-1200 g. The mortality was 33.3%(36/108). Placenta previa and Apgar score≤3 at 5 minutes were the main risk factors for death within 24 hours of birth;premature rupture of membrane, Apgar score≤3 at 5 minutes, and pulmonary hemorrhage were the main risk factors for death between 24 hours and 7 days after birth;late-onset sepsis caused by invasive fungal infection was an independent risk factor for death over 7 days after birth, while pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome was a protective factor. Conclusions The mortality in VLBWIs and ELBWIs is relatively high, and the prognostic factors vary between preterm infants of different ages. Clinicians should discuss management options for the infants on the basis of these ifndings to increase the survival of preterm infants.%目的:分析极低及超低出生体重儿(出生体重≤1200 g)的临床资料,为其预后及临床干预提供预警指标。方法回顾性分析108例极低及超低出生体重儿的母孕期病史、新生儿出生时情况、诊治经过及预后,采用非条件logistic回归分析筛选预后的影响因素。结果108例极低及超低出生体重儿,出生体重范围在<800 g,800~999 g和1000~1200 g的早产儿分别为15例、29例和64例。存活72例,死亡36

  10. A study of birth weight of full term neonates and its′ determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R Kadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is highly prevalent in India and has a multifactorial causation. There is a need to study and identify the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors determining birth weight. This will help in planning ante natal care more effectively. Materials and Methods : Study-type-cross-sectional study-setting: Hospital based. Study-subject: Mothers and their new borns. Sample size: All the births taken place during the study period. Study period: July 2010-June 2011. Study tools : (0 i Questionnaire. (ii pediatric weighing machine. Inclusion criteria : m0 others attending ante natal care (ANC clinic from 1 st trimester with minimum three antenatal visits, non-anemic at the end of 2 nd trimester, had full-term and singleton delivery. Exclusion criteria : H/O pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, diabetes mellieutus (DM, tuberculosis (TB, urinary tract infection (UTI, delivered preterm and tobacco chewers or mishri users. Statistical Analysis : Percentages, mean and SD of birth weight, χ2 test, ANOVA, Z-test, and Binary logistic. Results: By using birth weight as a continuous data it was observed that birth-weight was significantly associated with maternal age (F = 3.360, df = 2, P = 0.035, education (F = 4.401, df = 4, P = 0.002 and breakfast (z = 3.970, P = 0.00. Proportion of LBW was 42.4%. For analysis, groups of newborns on the basis of birth weight showed significant association between LBW and maternal education (χ2 = 12.734, df = 4, P = 0.013, breakfast (χ2 = 13.241, df = 1, P = 0.00 and evening snacks (χ2 = 4.275, df = 1, P = 0.013. According to the binary logistic regression, breakfast and education were significant and best predictors for birth weight. Conclusion: Education and breakfast are strong determinants of birth-weight. Less educated women need more intense health education.

  11. Association between birth weight and blood pressure is robust, amplifies with age, and may be underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anna A; Smith, George Davey; May, Margaret T; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2006-09-01

    Data on the early life origins of adult hypertension have been widely reported: however, recent research shows that the strength of association between small size at birth and higher blood pressure weakens as study size increases. In this article, we retest the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in a large cohort, examine whether age interacts with birth weight to predict blood pressure, and explore reasons why birth weight-blood pressure associations tend to weaken with increasing study size. Measurements from 25874 employees of a large United Kingdom company (mean [SD] age: 38.0 [7.9] years), undertaking voluntary occupational health screening, were available. Using linear regression analysis, we observed that systolic blood pressure changed -0.8 (95% CI: -1.1 to -0.5) mmHg per 1-kg increase in birth weight (P<0.001) adjusted for age and sex and -1.1 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.8) mmHg/kg (P<0.001) after further adjustment for body size. This inverse association amplified with age (age/birth weight interaction term P<0.001). In participants reporting birth weight from hospital records (n=744), systolic blood pressure changed -1.4 (95% CI: -3.1 to 0.2) mmHg/kg compared with -0.8 (95% CI: -1.0 to -0.5) mmHg/kg in all of the other participants. Finally, the data show evidence of "fixed-category blood pressure allocation," where participants are allocated certain blood pressure values, such as 120/80 mmHg, independent of actual blood pressure. Although the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure was weaker than observed in smaller studies, recalled birth weight and fixed blood pressure measurement error may generate a trend toward weaker associations in larger studies.

  12. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy

  13. Vitamin D supplementation, cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2017-01-01

    prospective population-based cohort, who gave birth to singletons and donated a blood sample for s-25(OH)D measurements were included (n = 2082). RESULTS: The prevalence of cord vitamin D deficiency was 16.7% and 41.0% for insufficiency. White skin, winter season at birth, maternal supplementation dose of ... μg/day, non-western ethnicity and high body mass index (BMI) were identified as independent risk factors of both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Adherence to the recommended vitamin D supplementation dose (10 μg/day) was reported by 87% (primipara 91% vs. multipara 81%, p

  14. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  15. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence of ...

  16. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To id

  17. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476 Dutc

  18. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  19. Is low back pain in youth associated with weight at birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    they are still largely unaffected by the influence of working life. Possible associations between low back pain, birth weight, birth length, ponderal index, gestational age and Apgar scores are investigated by the use of logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio for the lifetime prevalence of low...

  20. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  1. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.R. Tyrrell; R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); T.M. Palmer (Tom); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); J. Rangarajan (Janani); S. Metrustry (Sarah); A. Cavadino (Alana); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); L.L. Armstrong (Loren L.); N.M.G. De Silva (N. Maneka G.); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); F. Geller (Frank); R. Myhre (Ronny); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); I. Huikari (Ille); J.N. Painter (Jodie N.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); C. Allard (Catherine); D. Berry (Diane); L. Bouchard (Luigi); S. Das; D.M. Evans (David); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); M.G. Hayes (M. Geoffrey); J. Heikkinen (Jani); A. Hofman (Albert); B.A. Knight (Bridget); P.A. Lind (Penelope); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); G. Mcmahon (George); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Melbye (Mads); A.P. Morris (Andrew); M. Nodzenski (Michael); C. Reichetzeder (Christoph); S.M. Ring (Susan); S. Sebert (Sylvain); V. Sengpiel (Verena); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Power (Christine); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); H. Bisgaard (Hans); S.F. Grant; C. Nohr (Christian); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); B. Jacobsson (Bo); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey C.); B. Hocher (Berthold); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); G.D. Smith; M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J.F. Felix (Janine); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.L. Lowe Jr. (William); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To test for genetic evide

  2. Normal birth weight piglets with impaired preweaning growth utilize alternative metabolic pathways in the liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered hepatic metabolism, as reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Eight pairs of average birth weight pigs (1.57 +/- 0.05 kg) were identified that diverged in weight by...

  3. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Taal, H. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Charoen, Pimphen; Kaakinen, Marika; Cousminer, Diana L.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Warrington, Nicole M.; Bustamante, Mariona; Feenstra, Bjarke; Berry, Diane J.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pfab, Thiemo; Barton, Sheila J.; Shields, Beverley M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; van Leeuwen, Elisa; Fulford, Anthony J.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Zhao, Jing Hua; den Hoed, Marcel; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindi, Virpi; Goh, Liang-Kee; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wu, Ying; Raitakari, Olli T.; Harder, Marie N.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Ntalla, Ioanna; Salem, Rany M.; Jameson, Karen A.; Zhou, Kaixin; Monies, Dorota M.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Kirin, Mirna; Heikkinen, Jani; Adair, Linda S.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Al-Odaib, Ali; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Estivill, Xavier; Flexeder, Claudia; Froguel, Philippe; Geller, Frank; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gottrand, Frederic; Groves, Christopher J.; Hansen, Torben; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Inskip, Hazel M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Jorgensen, Torben; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kemp, John P.; Kiess, Wieland; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Knight, Bridget A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McMahon, George; Newnham, John P.; Niinikoski, Harri; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Louise; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Simell, Olli; Slowinski, Torsten; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Toenjes, Anke; Vaag, Allan; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Stumvoll, Michael; Prentice, Andrew M.; Meyer, Brian F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Boreham, Colin A. G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gillman, Matthew W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Moreno, Luis A.; Pedersen, Oluf; Saarinen, Maiju; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lakka, Timo A.; Koerner, Antje; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ong, Ken K.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Holloway, John W.; Hocher, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Power, Chris; Melbye, Mads; Guxens, Monica; Pennell, Craig E.; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Pouta, Anneli; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood(1). Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type

  4. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type...

  5. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L.; Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Sankey, Heather Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p < 0.016). Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5) and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0) women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8). GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p < 0.001). Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed. PMID:27688913

  6. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  7. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. Methods We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Results Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Conclusion Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to

  8. Invited commentary: Interpreting associations between high birth weight and later health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy

    2014-11-01

    High birth weight (>4.0 kg) has been associated with a wide range of health problems later in life. The interpretation of these statistical associations may be difficult, however. These difficulties are closely linked to methodological challenges in this research, such as filtering out confounding from family factors, disentangling associations with prenatal processes from associations with postnatal processes, and uncovering what birth weight actually represents. The well-conducted study by Kristensen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(9):876-884), presented in this issue of the Journal, offers an interesting example of how one can filter out confounding from family factors. In an elegant series of analyses, the authors show how an apparent inverse association between birth weight and later intelligence among those in the highest range of the birth weight scale became a positive association when proper adjustment for family factors was made. Sibling comparisons were important here.

  9. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  10. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua;

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) can have an impact on health outcomes in later life, especially in relation to pre-disposition to metabolic disease. Several studies suggest that LBW resulting from restricted intrauterine growth leaves a footprint on DNA methylation in utero, and this influence likely...... persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg...... was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent...

  11. Fat-free mass mediates the association between birth weight and aerobic fitness in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, C L; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Anderssen, S

    2011-01-01

    test. Physical activity was collected in a subset (n = 1 505) using a hip-worn accelerometer and defined as total activity counts/wear time, all children with >600 minutes/day for ≥3 days of wear were included. Results. Lower birth weight was associated with lower aerobic fitness, after adjusting.......7). Birth weight was also significantly associated with fat-free mass (ß = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8, p physical activity did not alter the findings. Conclusion. Birth weight...... for sex, age group, country, sexual maturity and socio-economic status (ß = 5.4; 95% CI: 3.5, 7.3 W per 1 kg increase in birth weight, p

  12. Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alyssa J; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-12-20

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  13. Breastfeeding maintenance of very low weight premature babies: experience of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Carvalho Ciaciare

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comprehend the breastfeeding process from reports of mothers of premature babies and identify factors facilitating or complicating this process. A descriptive qualitative study regarding the family centered care. We conducted 12 interviews with mothers of six months premature babies of chronological age and we submitted data to content analysis. Four categories emerged: The previous breastfeeding experience in the process of breastfeeding the premature baby; Emotional context versus the breastfeeding process; The ability to manage breastfeeding the premature baby and, Successes and failures. We concluded that family and professional support, adequate management and the welcoming of individualized services in the prematurity context were majorly responsible for the breastfeeding success, being even able to surpass the previous maternal desire. Breastfeeding accompaniment after discharge is indispensable for its success with premature babies.

  14. Aquired Cytomegalovirus Infection of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Alan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a major source for acquired cytomegalovirus infection especially in premature infants and acquired CMV infection occurs in infants whose mothers were seropositive for CMV. Although most of mothers of premature infants are seropositive in Turkey, acquired life-threatening breast milk acquired CMV infection was reported occasionally. Treatment of preterm with symptomatic breast milk acquired CMV infection should be done according to the severity of clinical signs. In this report, a preterm case with a diagnosis of breast milk-acquired CMV meningitis and sepsis without multiorgan failure on the 111th day of life, who did not require antiviral therapy was presented and discussed in the context of the acquired CMV literature. In preterm babies, when there is sepsis with no apparent causes, unexplained thrombocytopenia, elevated liver transaminases and direct hyperbilirubinemia acquired CMV infection should be suspected. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 138-41

  15. Sepsis-Related Mortality of Very Low Birth Weight Brazilian Infants: The Role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sylvia Maria Porto; de Almeida Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral; Figuexeds, Ana Lucia; Mattos, Haroldo; Rozembaum, Ronaldo; Ferreira, Vanessa Isidoro; Portinho, Maria Antonieta; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; da Costa, Elaine Sobral

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for sepsis-related mortality in low birth weight (1000 g), five-minute Apgar ≤7, gram-negative sepsis, mechanical ventilation (6.7 times higher than no use), and intravascular catheter. Sepsis-related mortality was due, mainly, to Pseudomonas aeruginosa; birth weight ≤1000 g and mechanical ventilation were strong sepsis-related mortality predictors. PMID:20182631

  16. Indicators of problems evaluated by parents and children stratified by birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES-PALUCCI,Claudia Mazzer; Loureiro,Sonia Regina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Studies on the impact of birth weight on child development require the participation of children as informants. The objective of this study was to compare the indicators of behavioral problems and depression in a cohort of school-age children stratified by birth weight and to investigate possible associations between the indicators of behavioral problems, evaluated by the parents, and depression, evaluated by the children. A total of 665 children, aged 10-11 years, distributed into f...

  17. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Secher, N.J.;

    1995-01-01

    between n- 3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....

  18. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Secher, N.J.;

    1995-01-01

    between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....

  19. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  20. Maternal KIR in combination with paternal HLA-C2 regulate human birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Susan E; Apps, Richard; Chazara, Olympe; Farrell, Lydia E; Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill; Gjessing, Håkon K; Carrington, Mary; Moffett, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Human birth weight is subject to stabilizing selection; babies born too small or too large are less likely to survive. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune system genes are associated with pregnancies where the babies are ≤ 5th birth weight centile, specifically an inhibitory maternal KIR AA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. We have now analyzed maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C combinations at the opposite end of the birth weight spectrum. Mother/baby pairs (n = 1316) were genotyped for maternal KIR as well as fetal and maternal HLA-C. Presence of a maternal-activating KIR2DS1 gene was associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p = 0.005, n = 1316). Effect of KIR2DS1 was most significant in pregnancies where its ligand, HLA-C2, was paternally but not maternally inherited by a fetus (p = 0.005, odds ratio = 2.65). Thus, maternal KIR are more frequently inhibitory with small babies but activating with big babies. At both extremes of birth weight, the KIR associations occur when their HLA-C2 ligand is paternally inherited by a fetus. We conclude that the two polymorphic immune gene systems, KIR and HLA-C, contribute to successful reproduction by maintaining birth weight between two extremes with a clear role for paternal HLA.

  1. Down syndrome birth weight in England and Wales: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K; Cole, Tim J; Springett, Anna L; Dennis, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if syndrome-specific birth weight charts were beneficial for babies with Down syndrome in England and Wales. Birth weights of 8,825 babies with Down syndrome born in England and Wales in 1989-2010 were obtained from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register. Birth weight centiles for 30-42 weeks gestation by sex were fitted using the LMS method and were compared to those for unaffected babies from the UK-WHO growth charts. For babies born with Down syndrome the median birth weight from 37 to 42 weeks was 2,970 g (10th-90th centile: 2,115-3,680) for boys and 2930 g (2,100-3,629) for girls, and the modal age of gestation was 38 weeks, 2 weeks earlier than for unaffected babies. At 38 weeks gestation they were only slightly lighter than unaffected babies (159 g for boys and 86 g for girls). However at 40 weeks gestation the shortfall was much greater (304 g and 239 g, respectively). In neonates with Down syndrome there is little evidence of growth restriction before 38 weeks gestation, so up to this age it is appropriate to use the UK-WHO birth weight charts. Thereafter birth weight is below that of unaffected babies and it should be plotted on the UK Down syndrome growth charts.

  2. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  3. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124......,615 girls and 128,346 boys (ages 6 to 13 years), born between 1936 and 1983, were studied. Birth weight and annual measurements of height and weight were obtained from school health records. Overweight was defined by BMI in relation to internationally accepted criteria. The relative risk of being overweight...... by birth weight was calculated separately for each age, sex, and time period. RESULTS: The birth weight distribution remained relatively stable over time. Compared with children with a birth weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg, the risk of overweight increased consistently with each increase in birth weight category...

  4. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age: individual participant level meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Marchant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1 birth weight, (2 gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3 neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999-2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (< 2,500 g babies were either preterm (< 37 weeks gestation or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age. 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born < 34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4-121.4], with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34-36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0-10.7], but the likelihood for babies born 34-36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3-47.4]. Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  5. Bayesian analysis of selection for greater weaning weight while maintaining birth weight in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, L M; Birchmeier, A N; Cappa, E P; Cantet, R J C

    2009-10-01

    An experimental Hereford herd established in 1960 was used from 1986 to 2006 to select for increased weaning weight (W) without increasing birth weight (B). Data were B and W collected over the 47 yr from 2,124 calves. Including ancestors, the pedigree file had 2,369 animals. Selection was practiced only in males. In the first stage (1986 to 1993), mass-selected bulls were chosen with the index I = B + 9374.76 RDG (relative daily gain). From 1994 to 2006, the selection criterion for bull i was I(i) = BLUP(i)(WD) - 2.33 BLUP(i)(BD), where the BLUP were for the direct BV of B (BD) and W (WD), respectively. Predictions were obtained from a 2-trait animal model with B having only BD, and W with WD and WM (maternal additive effects). Selection response was estimated using a Bayesian approach by means of the Gibbs sampler for a 2-trait animal model including BD, BM (maternal BV for B), WD, and WM. Estimated heritabilities for BD, BM, WD, and WM were 0.40, 0.23, 0.05, and 0.23, respectively. The correlation between BD and BM was close to zero (0.01), and between WD and WM was positive (0.37). The correlation between BD and WD was 0.07, and between BM and WM was 0.58. The 2 methods used to estimate selection response gave similar results. In both periods BD decreased, whereas BM increased. The reduction of BD due to selection was slightly larger in the second period than in the first one. The regression of BV for W increased due to selection in both stages, but selection response was 21.6% larger from 1986 to 1992 than from 1993 to 2006. The maternal effect, WM increased more than 3 times compared with WD in the first period, but ended up being almost the same value as WD in period 2. The Bulmer effect was manifested by the decrease in magnitude of all (co)variance components during selection. It is concluded that selection to increase BW at weaning in beef cattle, although not increasing BW at birth, was moderately effective.

  6. Green teeth are a late complication of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battineni, Sireesha; Clarke, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Eruption of green, discolored teeth affecting the primary dentition has been described in association with congenital viral infection, sepsis, hemolytic jaundice, and cholestasis. The purpose of this paper was to present the cases of 3 extremely low birth weight preterm infants who were noted to have green teeth at the corrected ages of 10 to 12 months. All had a history of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia during their time in neonatal intensive care. For infants with prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, extreme preterm birth and/or extremely low birth weight may be additional risk factors predisposing to the eruption of green teeth in later infancy.

  7. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ladinig

    Full Text Available The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1 were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing. The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection.

  8. The effect of low birth weight on height, weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run. While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive outcomes have found effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthood, others have found a diminishing negative effect over time. The purpose of this paper was to bring new evidence to this issue by analyzing the medium run effects of low birth weight on child behavioral outcomes as well as physical growth at ages 6 months, 3, 7 and 11 years using data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time enabled us to chart the evolution of anthropometric and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helped understanding the nature and timing of interventions.

  9. Effect of environmental factors and fetal and maternal genotype on gestation length and birth weight of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, L J; Williams, C J

    1978-10-01

    Records of gestation length and birth weight on 1522 live single births (from 1958 to 1976) of Holstein calves were from 81 sires and 552 dams. Average gestation length was 282.3 days, and average birth weight was 42.9 kg. Male calves were carried 1.7 days longer than female calves and weighed 2.9 kg more at birth. Both gestation length and birth weight increased with parity. Calves born in spring and summer were carried shorter times and weighed less than those born in fall and winter. Heritabilities of gestation length and birth weight as progeny traits were .73 and .51 and as maternal traits were .19 and .26. Genetic correlations between gestation length and birth weight were .46 as a progeny trait and .35 as a maternal trait. Genetic correlations between progeny traits and maternal traits were negative. The phenotypic correlation between gestation length and birth weight was .37, and environmental correlation was .30.

  10. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  11. The agreement between two screening tests for language evaluation in premature and low weight children

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    Paulo Roberto Bezerra de Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to evaluate the agreement of the results in two screening tests on children's development - Denver II and Early Language Milestone Scale (ELM aged two to three years old, born prematurely and with low weight. Methods: two screening instruments: Denver II and ELM were applied for the development in an observational cross-sectional descriptive study. The agreement between Denver II Test and its language sector and ELM were assessed by Kappa coefficient. Results: 77 children evaluated, 36.3% had an overall loss of the development performed by Denver II and 32.5% loss of the language by ELM. The agreement between the results of Denver II test considering all sectors versus ELM showed Kappa coefficient of 0.856 (p<0.001 and considering only the language sector of Denver II versus ELM, the Kappa coefficient was 0.886 (p<0.001. Conclusions: the developmental impairment observed in the children studied by assessing Denver II and through its language sector showed agreement with changes in the language abilities observed in ELM.

  12. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Palmer, Tom M.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L.; De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Wood, Andrew R.; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J.; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E.; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P.; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Spector, Tim D.; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F.A.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Scholtens, Denise M.; Smith, George Davey; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F.; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Structured abstract Importance Neonates born to overweight/obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. Objective To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Design, Setting and Participants We used Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are causally related to offspring birth weight. Mendelian randomization makes use of the fact that genotypes are randomly determined at conception and are thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. Data were analysed on 30,487 women from 18 studies. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies located in Europe, North America or Australia and participating in the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. We tested associations between a genetic score of 30 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (i) maternal BMI and (ii) birth weight, to estimate the causal relationship between BMI and birth weight. Analyses were repeated for other obesity-related traits. Exposures Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol level, vitamin D status and adiponectin level. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Offspring birth weight measured by trained study personnel (n=2 studies), from medical records (n= 10 studies) or from maternal report (n=6 studies). Results Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2g (95%CI: 0, 3g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P=0.008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were

  13. Nrf2 regulates gene-environment interactions in an animal model of intrauterine inflammation: Implications for preterm birth and prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussan, Thomas E.; Sudini, Kuladeep; Talbot, C. Conover; Wang, Xiaobin; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Burd, Irina; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of neonatal mortality, and surviving infants are at increased risk for lifelong disabilities. Intrauterine inflammation is an etiological factor that drives PTB, and oxidative stress is associated with PTB. Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that is the key regulator of the response to oxidative and inflammatory stress. Here, we used the established mouse model of intrauterine inflammation-induced PTB to determine whether Nrf2 is a modifier of susceptibility to PTB and prematurity-related morbidity and mortality in the offspring. We determined that Nr2-deficient (Nrf2−/−) mice exhibited a greater sensitivity to intrauterine inflammation, as indicated by decreased time to delivery, reduced birthweight, and 100% mortality. Placentas from preterm Nrf2−/− mice showed elevated levels of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death, and transcriptomic analysis identified numerous key signaling pathways that were differentially expressed between wild-type (WT) and Nrf2−/− mice in both preterm and control samples. Thus, Nrf2 could be a critical factor for gene-environment interactions that may determine susceptibility to PTB. Further studies are needed to determine if Nrf2 is a viable therapeutic target in women who are at risk for PTB and associated complications in the affected offspring. PMID:28071748

  14. Birth weight as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the U-shaped curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, D J; Jovanovic, L

    2001-08-01

    Recent findings have sparked intense interest in birth weight as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In some populations, there is an inverse association between birth size and disease; however, in the Pima Indians, a population with very high rates of gestational diabetes, high birth weight and low birth weight are associated with diabetes. This results in a U-shaped curve with higher diabetes rates in both tails of the distribution. Similarly, there are reports of an inverse association between stature and prevalence of gestational diabetes, but, in California Latina women with gestational diabetes, there is a positive association between stature and glucose concentration. Could these disparate findings also represent the two ends of a U-shaped curve? The disparities are likely due to differences in the environment, both in utero and postnatally, that different groups experience.

  15. Low birth weight and risk of albuminuria in living kidney donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, D; MacDonald, D; Jackson, S; Spong, R; Issa, N; Kukla, A; Reule, S; Weber, M; Matas, AJ; Ibrahim, HN

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is linked to hypertension, chronic kidney disease and even end stage renal disease. We hypothesized that living kidney donors born with lower birth weight may be at increased risk of hypertension, albuminuria or reduced GFR beyond what is typical following uninephrectomy. 257 living kidney donors who donated at the University of Minnesota between 1967 and 2005 underwent iohexol GFR and urinary albumin excretion measurements. Predictors of iohexol GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, albuminuria and hypertension were examined using logistic regression. Predictors examined include age at GFR measurement, time since donation, BMI, gender, serum creatinine level (at donation and GFR measurement), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, race, and birth weight. The latter was obtained through self-report and verified through birth certificates and family members. Older age, higher BMI, and time from donation were associated with reduced GFR. Older age and higher BMI were also associated with hypertension. Birth weight was not associated with GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2: OR=0.70, 95% CI (0.28, 1.74, p=0.45) or hypertension: OR=0.92, 95% CI (0.46, 1.84), p=0.82 but was associated with albuminuria: OR=0.37, 95% CI (0.15, 0.92), p=0.03. This data further strengthens the link between low birth weight and potential adverse renal outcomes. PMID:24547690

  16. Long-term effects of birth weight and breastfeeding duration on inflammation in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDade, Thomas W; Metzger, Molly W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Garfield, Craig; Adam, Emma K

    2014-06-07

    Chronic inflammation is a potentially important physiological mechanism linking early life environments and health in adulthood. Elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP)--a key biomarker of inflammation--predict increased cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk in adulthood, but the developmental factors that shape the regulation of inflammation are not known. We investigated birth weight and breastfeeding duration in infancy as predictors of CRP in young adulthood in a large representative cohort study (n = 6951). Birth weight was significantly associated with CRP in young adulthood, with a negative association for birth weights 2.8 kg and higher. Compared with individuals not breastfed, CRP concentrations were 20.1%, 26.7%, 29.6% and 29.8% lower among individuals breastfed for less than three months, three to six months, 6-12 months and greater than 12 months, respectively. In sibling comparison models, higher birth weight was associated with lower CRP for birth weights above 2.5 kg, and breastfeeding greater than or equal to three months was significantly associated with lower CRP. Efforts to promote breastfeeding and improve birth outcomes may have clinically relevant effects on reducing chronic inflammation and lowering risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adulthood.

  17. Birth weight and risk of asthma in 3-9-year-old twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindlund, Karin; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between birth weight and risk of asthma in a population of twins. METHODS: Birth weight of all live twins (8280 pairs) born in Denmark between 1994 and 2000 was linked to information on asthma obtained from parent-completed questionnaires at age 3-9 years...... weight, OR (per 100 g) 1.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.05), ptwin pairs, the lower birthweight twin had a significantly increased risk of asthma compared with the heavier co-twin (11.3% vs 9.9%), OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.54), p=0.002. The result remained significant after adjusting for sex, birth...... length and Apgar score, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.65), p=0.027. The risk tended to be higher in monozygotic co-twins compared with dizygotic co-twins, especially for high birth weight differences. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight is a risk factor for asthma independently of gestational age, sex, birth...

  18. Outcome of Very Lov Birth Weight Infants in Neonatal Care Unit of Dicle University Faculty of Medicine

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    Selahattin Katar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for infants weighing less than 1500 g, who were admitted to the neonatal care unit of our hospital from April 2005 to February 2006.The number of VLBW admissions to the our neonatal care unit was 91, fourty one percent female and %49 were male. The mean birth weight was 1191±261 g and gestational age was 29±2.4 weeks. The mortality rate was 37.3 %. Antenatal steroids had been given to only 8% of mothers. The most important maternal risk factors were preeclampsia/eclampsia 30%, premature rupture of membranes 13%, hemorhage 8%. Respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed 47%, surfactant was given to 40% of these infants. The major causes of death were sepsis, respiratuar distres syndrome, and extreme prematurity.Compared with reports from other developed NICU, VLBW infants at our center had higher mortality rates. We conclude that, the major cause of high mortality rate depends on low-social –cultural –education conditions associated with insufficient prenatal care, neonatal care and inaccurate neonatal transport in our region.

  19. Could elective cesarean sections influence the birth weight of full-term infants?

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    Eddie Fernando Candido Murta

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There are no studies on birth weights among full-term infants born by means of elective cesarean section. We aimed to study this in private and public hospitals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil. METHODS: Data were collected from the municipal medical birth register of Uberaba from January to December 2000. The data obtained (maternal age, type of delivery, number of prenatal care visits and birth weight, from full-term pregnancy from the university hospital (UH, which is a tertiary hospital that only attends patients within the National Health System (SUS, were compared with data from four private hospitals (PHs that attend health insurance plans and private patients. Student's t test, chi2 test and multiple logistic regression were used for statistical analysis, with the significance level set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: In the PHs, 1,100 out of 1,354 births (81.2% were by cesarean section and in the UH, 373 out of 1,332 (28%. Birth weight increased significantly in association with increasing numbers of prenatal care visits, except for cesarean section cases in PHs. Birth weights among vaginal delivery cases in PHs were greater than in the UH (p < 0.05, but this was not observed among cesarean section cases. Multiple logistic regression showed that there was greater risk of low birth weight in PHs (odds ratio: 2.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 4.55. CONCLUSION: Elective cesarean section performed in PHs may be associated with low birth weight among full-term infants.

  20. [The use of caspofungin in extremely low birth weight preterm infants based on clinical trials and reports considering the own experience (case report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Walas, Wojciech; Gregorek-Pełka, Edyta; Kamińska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, despite of significant progress in the treatment of premature infants with extremely low body weight, still a significant problem remains severe, treatment-resistant generalized infections among which the percentage of fungal infections is increasing. The invasive candidiasis, especially caused by non-albicans species of Candida, are of particular importance. In the case of resistance on fluconazole and amphotericin B the use of echinocandin drug may be a useful choice. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in neonates and children, as well as the case reports and clinical trials on the use of caspofungin in neonates, including the premature infants. We describe also the premature neonate with low birth weight and a generalized infection caused by Candida glabrata, where, despite of the treatment based on the sensitivity of the fungus it did not achieve clinical improvement and sterilization of cultures. It was not until the lead-in of caspofungin in dose 2 mg/kg/day allowed to cure the patient. There was a transient increase in the activity of aminotransferases and level of bilirubin as a complication of treatment. At the end of application of caspofungin the liver functions have been slowly normalized. Caspofungin appeared to be effective in the treatment of systemic fungal C. glabrata in premature neonate with extremely low birth weight. Echinocandins, including caspofungin, appear to be a promising alternative to previously used agents in the treatment of invasive Candida infections in newborns. However, the further randomized trials on the use of caspofungin in preterm neonates, regarding long term follow-up, should be undertaken.

  1. Relationship between Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Frontoinsular Gray Matter and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Children at the Age of 4.

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    Wojciech Durlak

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight is associated with long term neurodevelopmental complications. Macroscopic brain abnormalities in prematurity survivors have been investigated in several studies. However, there is limited data regarding local cerebral metabolic status and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between proton magnetic resonance spectra in basal ganglia, frontal white matter and frontoinsular gray matter, neurodevelopmental outcomes assessed with the Leiter scale and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception and selected socioeconomic variables in a cohort of very low birth weight children at the age of four. Children were divided in three groups based on the severity of neurodevelopmental impairment. There were no differences in spectroscopy in basal ganglia and frontal white matter between the groups. Lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline (Cho and myoinositol (mI were observed in the frontoinsular cortex of the left hemisphere in children with neurodevelopmental impairment compared to children with normal neurodevelopmental outcomes. Higher parental education, daycare attendance and breastfeeding after birth were associated with more favorable neurodevelopmental prognosis, whereas rural residence was more prevalent in children with moderate and severe impairment. Our study demonstrates the role of long term neurometabolic disruption in the left frontoinsular cortex and selected socioeconomic variables in determination of neurodevelopmental prognosis in prematurity survivors.

  2. The Effects of Fetal Surgery on Retinopathy of Prematurity Development

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    Sudha Nallasamy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal surgery is selectively offered for severe or life-threatening fetal malformations. These infants are often born prematurely and are thus at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. It is not known whether fetal surgery confers an increased risk of developing severe ROP relative to published rates in standard premature populations ≤37 weeks of age grouped by birth weight (

  3. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: Cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months

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    Rohrer-Baumgartner Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010. Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Results Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Conclusions Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties.

  4. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  5. Low Birth Weight, Renal Morphometry and Blood Pressure in Adolescent Females

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    Ninive Núñez López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: nowadays, hypertension is a health problem directly causing disability and death. Epidemiological data suggest that pre- and postnatal nutrition can be an important factor in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. Objective: to evaluate the effects of low birth weight on blood pressure and kidney size in adolescent females. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 adolescent females from Marianao, Havana. The following variables were measured: weight, height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, birth weight and length and body mass index. Kidney length, width, parenchyma and volume were measured by ultrasound. Results: differences in blood pressure related to weight and length at birth were nonsignificant. Renal variables did not show significant changes in the classification by birth weight. An important relationship between systolic blood pressure and two indicators of the relative kidney size was found. Conclusion: results did not show an association between low birth weight and high blood pressure. It is demonstrated that blood pressure values are positively related to body adiposity and small kidney size.

  6. Replication of a Genome-Wide Association Study of Birth Weight in Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Feenstra, Bjarke; Shaffer, John R.; Bream, Elise NA; Geller, Frank; Feingold, Eleanor; Weeks, Daniel E; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Saleme, Cesar; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Merrill, David; Fong, Chin-To; Busch, Tamara; Berends, Susan K; Comas, Belen; Camelo, Jorge L; Boyd, Heather; Laurie, Cathy; Crosslin, David; Zhang, Qi; Doheny, Kim F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Melbye, Mads; Marazita, Mary L; Dagle, John M; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine associations in a preterm population between rs9883204 in ADCY5 and rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 with birth weight. Both markers were associated with birth weight in a term population in a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study by Freathy et al. Study design A meta-analysis of mother and infant samples was performed for associations of rs900400 and rs9883204 with birth weight in 393 families from the U.S., 265 families from Argentina and 735 mother-infant pairs from Denmark. Z scores adjusted for infant sex and gestational age were generated for each population separately and regressed on allele counts. Association evidence was combined across sites by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Results Each additional C allele of rs900400 (LEKR1/CCNL1) in infants was marginally associated with a 0.069 standard deviation (SD) lower birth weight (95% CI = −0.159 – 0.022, P = 0.068). This result was slightly more pronounced after adjusting for smoking (P = 0.036). There were no significant associations identified with rs9883204 or in maternal samples. Conclusions These results indicate the potential importance of this marker on birth weight irrespective of gestational age. PMID:21885063

  7. Weight-for-length relationship at birth to predict neonatal diseases

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    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth curves are extremely useful for classifying newborn children and predicting neonatal diseases. However, such curves rely on knowledge of the gestational age, which is not always easily obtained. Therefore, the study of other anthropometric measurements and their interrelationship is always desirable, in order to attain such objectives. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether newborns' birth weight and length can identify neonatal diseases, independent of knowledge of the gestational age. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective study. SETTING: Institute of Teaching and Research of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: During the period from February 1995 to January 1998, 8,397 live newborns were studied in the hospital's maternity ward. PROCEDURES: The weight and length of live newborns were obtained at birth, thus allowing the analysis of weight-for-length adequacy, i.e. the distribution of birth weight for each class of birth lenght. These measurements were determined for the first 4,634 live newborns and the 10th and 90th percentiles were established. These parameters were applied to the next 3,763 consecutive newborns of the same population. The relationships between these variables and some neonatal diseases were investigated. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Birth weight and length, weight-for-length adequacy (10th and 90th percentiles for weight distribution in each 1-cm length class, weight/length index (10th and 90th percentiles of newborn's weight divided by the length and frequent neonatal diseases in this population. RESULTS: There was a significant association of adequacy and index with the following affections: asphyxia, jaundice, hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, congenital pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension and sepsis. Additionally, there was a relationship between the index and respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea and persistent ductus arteriosus

  8. Awake caudal anesthesia for inguinal hernia operations: successful use in low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geze, S; Imamoğlu, M; Cekic, B

    2011-09-01

    Neonates with inguinal hernia face a relatively high risk of incarcerated hernia and bowel obstruction and this therefore requires surgical treatment. Complications following general anesthesia even for minor surgery are more common in low birth weight neonates than in term neonates. Caudal epidural anesthesia without adjunct general anesthesia has been recommended for neonates to reduce the risk of postoperative complications. The successful application of awake caudal anesthesia with levobupivacaine for inguinal hernia repair in 15 low birth weight neonates is reported. Single dose caudal epidural anesthesia was administered for inguinal hernia surgery to avoid complications associated with general anesthesia. Caudal block was performed with 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) levobupivacaine. Caudal anesthesia can be recommended as an effective technique for avoiding postoperative anesthetic complications in low birth weight neonates.

  9. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence.

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    Signe Fabricius-Bjerre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and to study if the effect differed between adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA vs. appropriate for gestational age (AGA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from 30 SGA and 57 AGA healthy young Danish adolescents were analysed. They had a mean age of 17.6 years and all were born at term. Data on early infant weight gain from birth to three months as well as from birth to one year were available in the majority of subjects. In adolescence, glucose metabolism was assessed by a simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test and body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood pressures as well as plasma concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Early infant weight gain from birth to three months was positively associated with the fasting insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, basal lipid levels and systolic blood pressure at 17 years. There was a differential effect of postnatal weight gain on HOMA-IR in AGA and SGA participants (P for interaction = 0.03. No significant associations were seen between postnatal weight gain and body composition or parameters of glucose metabolism assessed by the simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test. In subgroup analysis, all associations with early infant weight gain were absent in the AGA group, but the associations with basal insulin and HOMA-IR were still present in the SGA group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that accelerated growth during the first three months of life may confer an increased risk of later metabolic disturbances--particularly of glucose metabolism--in individuals born SGA.

  10. Comparison of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Selenium Levels in Low and Normal Birth Weight Neonates

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    Lyly Nazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the maternal and umbilical cord serum selenium concentrations in Low and normal birth weight neonates.Materials and methods:A case-control study was carried out in Vali-Asr and Akbarabadi Hospitals (Jan. to Dec. 2013. Two groups; case group; 91 mothers who delivered a low birth weight (LBW neonate and control group; 86 subjects who delivered a normal birth weight neonate were selected. Immediately after birth, 5 ml of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, and sent to laboratory to assay Se concentrations. To compare both groups' blood Se concentration, data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0.Results:Eighty six (48.6% mothers with normal birth weight neonates and 91 (51.4% mothers with low birth weight infants entered the study. Mean maternal mothers' age and mean maternal blood Se were 28.55+5.90 years and 79.3756+26.46915. A significant association was seen between maternal blood and cord blood Se level in control and case group (P value<0.0001, r = 0.69 and(P value<0.001, r = 0.79. On the other hand no differences were seen between 2 groups' maternal blood Se level (P Value = 0.65. Umbilical Cord blood Se concentration was not also different between case and control group (P value = 0.46.Conclusion:We found that maternal and umbilical cord blood Se concentrations were not different in low and adequate birth weight infants, however; umbilical cord Se concentrations were positively correlated with maternal blood Se concentrations.

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL Analysis for Production Traits of Birth Weight and Weight 360 days in Backcross Sheep

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    ENDANG TRI MARGAWATI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Four half-sib families (n = 382 consisting predominantly of ITT x Merino x Merino backcross progeny, including some F2 progeny were used to analyze QTL for two production traits (Birth weight = BW1 and Body weight at 360 days = BW360. The study exploited differences in weight performance between the Merino and ITT sheep. A total of 141 informative microsatellite markers were used in a genome-wide scan covering the 26 autosomal sheep chromosomes. QTL analysis was conducted online using QTL Express. This study reports the effect of QTL for birth weight on Chromosomes 5 (p < 0.05 at 112cM (0cM-128cM. Location of candidate genes for birth weight was predicted at the region of flanking markers MCM527-BMS1247. A QTL for BW360 days existed on Chromosome 18 (p < 0.01 at 104cM (25.0-125cM. Location of candidate genes related to production traits for body weight 360 days was predicted at the segment of flanking markers of CSSM018-TMR1. Only the QTL on Chromosome 18 retained significance (p < 0.01 under experiment-wide significance testing. This QTL region is being examined for candidate genes by investigating to the homologous human chromosomal segments.

  12. Intrauterine nicotine exposure, birth weight, gestational age and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Preterm and growth restricted infants may have developmental delays or deviant organ function related to the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Since both organ systems are hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of infantile colic, a condition characterized...... by excessive crying during the first months of life, impaired fetal growth and preterm birth may be risk factors for infantile colic. Objectives To investigate the association between gestational age, birth weight, and infantile colic. Methods We used maternal interviews from the Danish National Birth Cohort...... (1996 to 2002) conducted at gestational week 17 and at six months post partum. We included 62 761 live-born singletons with complete information on birth weight, gestational age, and crying symptoms recorded at six months of age. Infantile colic was defined according to Wessel's modified criteria...

  13. Frequency of neonatal complications after premature delivery

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    Gordana Grgić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm delivery is the delivery before 37 weeks of gestation are completed. The incidence of preterm birth ranges from 5 to 15%. Aims of the study were to determine the average body weight, Apgar score after one and five minutes, and the frequency of the most common complications in preterminfants.Methods: The study involved a total of 631 newborns, of whom 331 were born prematurely Aims of this study were to (24th-37th gestational weeks-experimental group, while 300 infants were born in time (37-42 weeks of gestation-control group.Results: Average body weight of prematurely born infants was 2382 grams, while the average Apgar score in this group after the fi rst minute was 7.32 and 7.79 after the fifth minute. The incidence of respiratory distress syndrome was 50%, intracranial hemorrhage, 28.1% and 4.8% of sepsis. Respiratory distresssyndrome was more common in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. Mortality of premature infants is present in 9.1% and is higher than that of infants born at term.Conclusions: Birth body weight and Apgar scores was lower in preterm infants. Respiratory distress syndrome is the most common fetal complication of prematurity. Intracranial hemorrhage is the second most common complication of prematurity. Mortality of premature infants is higher than the mortality of infants born at term birth.

  14. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population.

  15. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality Among Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004 were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02, low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001, Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001, resuscitation at birth (P=0.001, respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001 need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001, neurological complications (P=0.001 and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  16. Specific Association of Teratogen and Toxicant Metals in Hair of Newborns with Congenital Birth Defects or Developmentally Premature Birth in a Cohort of Couples with Documented Parental Exposure to Military Attacks: Observational Study at Al Shifa Hospital, Gaza, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Manduca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Gaza, Palestine, in a cohort of babies born in 2011. Hair samples of newborns were analyzed for metal load by DRC-ICP-MS. We report specific level of contamination by teratogen/toxicants metals of newborn babies, environmentally unexposed, according to their phenotypes at birth: normal full term babies, birth defects or developmentally premature. The occurrence of birth defects was previously shown to be correlated in this cohort to documented exposure of parents to weapons containing metal contaminants, during attacks in 2009. We detect, in significantly higher amounts than in normal babies, different specific teratogen or toxicant elements, known weapons’ components, characteristic for each of birth defect or premature babies. This is the first attempt to our knowledge to directly link a phenotype at birth with the in utero presence of specific teratogen and/or toxicant metals in a cohort with known episodes of acute exposure of parents to environmental contamination by these same metals, in this case delivered by weaponry The babies were conceived 20–25 months after the major known parental exposure; the specific link of newborn phenotypes to war-remnant metal contaminants, suggests that mothers’ contamination persists in time, and that the exposure may have a long term effect.

  17. Comparison of primary dentition caries experience in pre-term low birth-weight and full-term normal birth-weight children aged one to six years

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    Sowmya Anaberu Rajshekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the study were to determine and compare the primary dentition caries experience and the variables that may influence the occurrence of caries, in preterm low birth weight and full term normal birth weight children aged one to six years. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 250 full term normal birth weight (FTNBW and 250 preterm low birth weight (PTLBW children one to six years, born in the two hospitals in Davangere: Bapuji Hospital and Chigatere Hospital. A purposive sampling was used to select the study group. Materials and Methods: Required and relevant information regarding demographic characteristics, feeding practices and oral hygiene practices were obtained. Dentition status and treatment need index (World Health Organization 1997 was used to record dental caries. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test, Student′s t-test and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference was observed in caries prevalence between PTLBW and FTNBW groups (P<0.05, however, the difference in mean Decayed, missing and filled teeth index (dmft was not statistically significant (P=0.30. Statistically significant differences were observed in caries experience between the two groups in relation to exclusive breast feeding for longer duration, i.e 7-12 months (P<0.05, bottle feeding habits (P<0.05 and sticky food consumption (P<0.01. Conclusions: A significant relationship was found between caries and PTLBW status though the difference in caries experience between the groups was not statistically significant, thus illustrating the higher caries risk in PTLBW children compared to FTNBW children.

  18. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka;

    2008-01-01

    of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...... of later-born boys by 29 g (p = 0.0001) and 38 g (p = 0.0001) and later-born girls by 17 g (p = 0.0001) and 21 g (p = 0.0001) compared with later-born siblings with no brothers. Part of this association was due to a shorter gestation among later-born siblings with brothers. An explanation for these results...

  19. PERINATAL OUTCOMES OF PREMATURITY AND BIRTH WEIGHT ACCORDING TO MATERNAL CAFFEINE CONSUMPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Natalia; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Martínez-Ruiz, Virginia; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Mozas, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Objetivo: identificar si existe un aumento del riesgo en resultados perinatales adversos de prematuridad y disminucion del peso de los recien nacidos asociados al consumo de cafeina durante la primera mitad del embarazo en gestantes de nuestra poblacion. Métodos: estudio transversal llevado a cabo en 1.175 gestantes del Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves de Granada (Espana). La informacion sobre el consumo de cafeina durante la primera mitad del embarazo y los resultados perinatales estudiados se obtuvieron mediante entrevista personal, consulta de la historia clinica y llamada telefonica tras el parto. La ingesta media de cafeina se calculo a partir de las comidas y bebidas incluidas en un cuestionario validado. Resultados: no hubo diferencias en el consumo de cafeina en gestantes con recien nacidos de peso ≥2.500 g y.

  20. Low birth weight is associated with NIDDM in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, P; Vaag, Allan; Kyvik, K O;

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low weight at birth and risk of later development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is not known whether this association is due to an impact of intrauterine malnutrition per se, or whether it is due to a coincidence....... Furthermore, monozygotic (MZ) twins have identical genotypes. Original midwife birth weight record determinations were traced in MZ and dizygotic (DZ) twins discordant for NIDDM. Birth weights were lower in the NIDDM twins (n = 2 x 14) compared with both their identical (MZ; n = 14) and non-identical (DZ; n...... = 14) non-diabetic co-twins, respectively (MZ: mean +/- SEM 2634 +/- 135 vs 2829 +/- 131 g, p

  1. PPARGC1A DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in low birth weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillberg, Linn; Jacobsen, Stine; Rönn, Tina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased DNA methylation of the metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) has been reported in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects and from low birth weight (LBW) subjects with an increased risk of T2D. High-fat...... overfeeding increases PPARGC1A DNA methylation in muscle in a birth weight dependent manner. However, PPARGC1A DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in LBW subjects has not previously been investigated. Our objective was to determine PPARGC1A DNA methylation and mRNA expression in basal...... and insulin-stimulated SAT from LBW and matched normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during control and high-fat overfeeding. MATERIALS/METHODS: Nineteen young healthy men with LBW and 26 NBW controls were studied after both a 5-day high-fat overfeeding and a control diet in a randomized crossover setting. DNA...

  2. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M;

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... in glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR...... and experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  3. Premature delivery

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    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

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    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  5. Placental Malaria is associated with reduced early life weight development of affected children independent of low birth weight

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    Palmero Melba S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy contributes substantially to the disease burden in both mothers and offspring. Placental malaria may lead to intrauterine growth restriction or preterm delivery resulting in low birth weight (LBW, which, in general, is associated with increased infant morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the possible direct impact of the specific disease processes occurring in PM on longer term outcomes such as subsequent retarded growth development independent of LBW. Methods In an existing West-African cohort, 783 healthy infants with a birth weight of at least 2,000 g were followed up during their first year of life. The aim of the study was to investigate if Plasmodium falciparum infection of the placenta, assessed by placental histology, has an impact on several anthropometric parameters, measured at birth and after three, six and 12 months using generalized estimating equations models adjusting for moderate low birth weight. Results Independent of LBW, first to third born infants who were exposed to either past, chronic or acute placental malaria during pregnancy had significantly lower weight-for-age (-0.43, 95% CI: -0.80;-0.07, weight-for-length (-0.47, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 and BMI-for-age z-scores (-0.57, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 compared to infants born to mothers who were not diagnosed with placental malaria (p = 0.019, 0.013, and 0.012, respectively. Interestingly, the longitudinal data on histology-based diagnosis of PM also document a sharp decline of PM prevalence in the Sukuta cohort from 16.5% in 2002 to 5.4% in 2004. Conclusions It was demonstrated that PM has a negative impact on the infant's subsequent weight development that is independent of LBW, suggesting that the longer term effects of PM have been underestimated, even in areas where malaria transmission is declining.

  6. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The impact of birth weight and gestational age on the management of juvenile essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogas Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension in children is a very important biological aspect in child pathology, caused by the synergic action of multiple risk factors, with an increasing prevalence. Since there is not much knowledge about juvenile essential hypertension in childhood, in this paper we will clarify the existing data about this pathology and its management, mainly by referring to the correlations during different stages. We found significant correlations between hypertension and the individual values of birth weight and gestational age, which suggest that there is an important relationship between birth weight and gestational age, as important biological markers vs. the different stages of essential hypertension.

  8. Assessment of clinical methods and ultrasound in predicting fetal birth weight in term pregnant women

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    Ruby Yadav

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Clinical estimation of birth weight clearly has a role in management of labour and delivery in a term pregnancy. Clinical estimation especially by SFH and times;AG method is as accurate as routine USG estimated in average birth weight. SFH and times; AG clinical formula can be of great value in developing countries like ours, where ultrasound is not available at many health care centers especially in a rural area. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2775-2779

  9. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects. METHODS: Twenty LBW and 20 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects were investigated using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp with excision of skeletal muscle...... is not explained by impaired muscle insulin or AMPK signaling in subjects with or without LBW. Lower muscle insulin signaling in LBW subjects post bed rest despite similar degree of insulin resistance as seen in controls may to some extent support the idea that LBW subjects are at higher risk of developing type 2...

  10. Epigenome-wide association study on identical twins discordant for birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Christiansen, Lene

    induces persistent epigenetic modification detectable at adult ages, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in peripheral blood of 150 pairs of identical Danish twins discordant for birth weight using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip featuring 485,000 CpG sites across...... the genome. After quality control and data preprocessing using free R package minfi, data were analysed by a mixed effects model including fixed effect variables such as birth weight difference, age and sex of twin pairs; random effect variables such as batch, well, and sample position on the array, etc....... Statistical analysis revealed 12 probes with p valuetwins is not associated...

  11. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

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    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  12. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

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    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  13. Relationships between birth weight and serum cholesterol levels in healthy Japanese late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sanae; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Uemura, Yukari; Kodama, Momoko; Fukuoka, Hideoki

    2014-01-01

    Poor growth in utero has been suggested to be associated with adverse levels of serum cholesterol concentrations in later life. In Asia, there have only been a limited number of studies examining the relationship between fetal status and serum lipids, especially in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between birth weight and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels; adjusting for current physical status including percent body fat, physical activity and nutrient intake in healthy Japanese late adolescents. The data of 573 late adolescents with an average age of 17.6 (287 boys and 286 girls) who underwent physical examinations which included blood sampling and who had all the required data, were analyzed. Birth weight was obtained from their maternal and child health handbook. Multiple regression analysis showed that birth weight was positively associated with serum HDL in girls, independently of percent body fat or fat intake, when adjusted for current body height and weight. There were no associations between birth weight and serum HDL in boys, or serum LDL in either sex.

  14. The Relationship between Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Nasrin Khalessi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Maternal hypovitaminosis D may impair fetal growth and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction and neonatal low birth weight. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and neonate’s birth weight.Materials and methods:A cross-sectional, descriptive analytical study was carried out in the nursery ward of 2 hospitals (Tehran-Iran during one year (January 2011- January 2012. One hundred and two neonates were categorized into two groups, neonates with birth weight< 2500 gr (n=52 and neonates with birth weight>2500 gr (n=50. Data regarding medical history, physical examination and anthropometric measurements of neonates were noted in a questionnaire. Birth time blood samples of their mothers were analyzed for serum 25-(OH-vitamin D by ELISA method. Maternal vitamin D status was compared in two groups.Results:Mean maternal vitamin D (vit D level was 31.46 nmol/L. Forty eight percent of mothers had vitamin D deficiency, 27.5% had vit D insufficiency and 24.5% were normal. Mean maternal vitamin D level of LBW neonates was lower than other group; 25.05 vs. 38.13 (p= 0.001. All mothers of neonates with head circumference ≤ 33 cm also had vitamin D deficiency (p= 0.007.Conclusion:Maternal Vitamin Ddeficiency may increase the risk of low birth weight neonate and modifying maternal nutrition behavior and their vit D level could be beneficial on pregnancy outcome.

  15. Weight growth of triplet infants from birth to twelve years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed the characteristics associated with the growth in weight of Japanese triplets from birth to 12 years of age. The study included 376 mothers and their 1,128 triplet children, who were born between 1978 and 2006. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to the mothers asking for information recorded in medical records. For these births, data on triplets' weight growth, gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age at delivery, maternal height, and maternal body mass index were obtained from records in the Maternal and Child Health Handbooks and records in the school where children receive health check-ups. The weight deficit of the triplets compared to the general population of Japan remained between 10% and 17% until 12 years of age. Moreover, at 12 years of age, the differences of weight between the general population and triplets were approximately -4.75 kg for boys and -6.00 kg for girls. Very low birth weight had the strongest contribution to body weight until 8 years of age. After 8 years of age, maternal body mass index was a significant factor affecting the weight of triplets until 12 years of age.

  16. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  17. High birth weight and perinatal mortality among siblings: A register based study in Norway, 1967-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Susser, Ezra; Corbett, Karina; Irgens, Lorentz M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal mortality according to birth weight has an inverse J-pattern. Our aim was to estimate the influence of familial factors on this pattern, applying a cohort sibling design. We focused on excess mortality among macrosomic infants (>2 SD above the mean) and hypothesized that the birth weight-mortality association could be explained by confounding shared family factors. We also estimated how the participant’s deviation from mean sibling birth weight influenced the association. Methods and findings We included 1 925 929 singletons, born term or post-term to mothers with more than one delivery 1967–2011 registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We examined z-score birth weight and perinatal mortality in random-effects and sibling fixed-effects logistic regression models including measured confounders (e.g. maternal diabetes) as well as unmeasured shared family confounders (through fixed effects models). Birth weight-specific mortality showed an inverse J-pattern, being lowest (2.0 per 1000) at reference weight (z-score +1 to +2) and increasing for higher weights. Mortality in the highest weight category was 15-fold higher than reference. This pattern changed little in multivariable models. Deviance from mean sibling birth weight modified the mortality pattern across the birth weight spectrum: small and medium-sized infants had increased mortality when being smaller than their siblings, and large-sized infants had an increased risk when outweighing their siblings. Maternal diabetes and birth weight acted in a synergistic fashion with mortality among macrosomic infants in diabetic pregnancies in excess of what would be expected for additive effects. Conclusions The inverse J-pattern between birth weight and mortality is not explained by measured confounders or unmeasured shared family factors. Infants are at particularly high mortality risk when their birth weight deviates substantially from their siblings. Sensitivity analysis suggests

  18. Infant mortality and low birth weight in cities of Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of low birth weight (LBW, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA, and infant mortality in two birth cohorts in Brazil. METHODS: The two cohorts were performed during the 1990s, in São Luís, located in a less developed area in Northeastern Brazil, and Ribeirão Preto, situated in a more developed region in Southeastern Brazil. Data from one-third of all live births in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 were collected (2,839 single deliveries. In São Luís, systematic sampling of deliveries stratified by maternity hospital was performed from 1997 to 1998 (2,439 single deliveries. The chi-squared (for categories and trends and Student t tests were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The LBW rate was lower in São Luís, thus presenting an epidemiological paradox. The preterm birth rates were similar, although expected to be higher in Ribeirão Preto because of the direct relationship between preterm birth and LBW. Dissociation between LBW and infant mortality was observed, since São Luís showed a lower LBW rate and higher infant mortality, while the opposite occurred in Ribeirão Preto. CONCLUSIONS: Higher prevalence of maternal smoking and better access to and quality of perinatal care, thereby leading to earlier medical interventions (cesarean section and induced preterm births that resulted in more low weight live births than stillbirths in Ribeirão Preto, may explain these paradoxes. The ecological dissociation observed between LBW and infant mortality indicates that the LBW rate should no longer be systematically considered as an indicator of social development.

  19. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Shi, Li-Ping; Pan, Jia-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Yi, Bing; Liu, Ling; Chen, Yun-Bing; Wei, Qiu-Fen; Wu, Hui-Qing; Li, Mei; Liu, Cui-Qing; Gao, Xi-Rong; Xia, Shi-Wen; Li, Wen-Bin; Yan, Chao-Ying; He, Ling; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Han, Shu-Ping; Lyu, Qin; Qiu, Yin-Ping; Li, Wen; Chen, Dong-Mei; Lu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Hong; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Xiong, Hong; Yue, Shao-Jie; Zhuang, Si-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019). BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed

  20. Maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies are associated with reduced birth weight in thrombocytopenic neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, J; Husebekk, A; Acharya, G; Flo, K; Stuge, T B; Skogen, B; Straume, B; Tiller, H

    2016-02-01

    In this comparative cross-sectional study, possible associations between maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies and birth weight in neonatal thrombocytopenia are explored. Although commonly detected in pregnancies and generally regarded as harmless, it has been suggested that such antibodies might be associated with fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). As a link between FNAIT due to human platelet antigen 1a-specific antibodies and reduced birth weight in boys has previously been demonstrated, we wanted to explore whether maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies might also affect birth weight. To examine this, suspected cases of FNAIT referred to the Norwegian National Unit for Platelet Immunology during the period 1998-2009 were identified. Pregnancies where the only finding was maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies were included. An unselected group of pregnant women participating in a prospective study investigating maternal-fetal hemodynamics at the University Hospital North Norway during the years 2006-2010 served as controls. Twenty-nine percent of controls had anti-HLA class I antibodies. The thrombocytopenic neonates had a significantly lower adjusted birth weight (linear regression, P=0.036) and significantly higher odds of being small for gestational age (OR=6.72, P<0.001) compared with controls. Increasing anti-HLA class I antibody levels in the mother were significantly associated with lower birth weight and placental weight among thrombocytopenic neonates, but not among controls. These results indicate that maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies in thrombocytopenic neonates are associated with reduced fetal growth. Further studies are needed to test if placental function is affected.

  1. Factors affecting birth weight of a newborn--a community based study in rural Karnataka, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra S Metgud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is a major public health problem in many developing countries, especially so in India. Although we do not know all the causes of LBW, maternal and environmental factors appear to be significant risk factors in its occurrence. OBJECTIVES: To know the factors affecting the birth weight of a newborn and to estimate the prevalence of LBW. METHODS: The present study was carried out amongst 1138 pregnant women and their newborns residing in area covered by Kinaye Primary Health Centre in rural Karnataka, India. The study was conducted from 1(st June 2008 to 31(st December 2009. RESULTS: The mean birth weight of newborns was 2.6 kg with a range of 1.2 to 3.8 kg. The prevalence of LBW was 22.9%. Among the studied risk factors, 25 of them were significantly associated with the birth weight of a newborn on univariate logistic regression analysis. Maternal education [Odds Ratio (OR 3.2], exposure to passive smoking [OR 2.3], age at first pregnancy ≥25 years [OR 3.6], birth interval <2 years [OR 2.4], previous history of LBW baby [OR 3.3], weight gain ≤4 kg during pregnancy [OR 7.0], maternal weight at last week of gestation ≤45 kg [OR 2.3], pregnancy induced hypertension [OR 3.3], high risk pregnancy [OR 3.6] and late antenatal registration [OR 3.6] emerged as significant risk factors on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: The problem of LBW is multidimensional, and hence, we need an integrated approach incorporating medical, social, economical and educational measures to address this issue.

  2. Sports and leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and birth weight: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, H K; Petersson, K; Hedegaard, M;

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sports and other leisure-time physical activities during pregnancy and birth weight of babies born after 37 completed weeks of gestation. All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics, Aarhus University...... moderate to heavy leisure-time physical active during the early second or the early third trimester gave birth to infants with a similar birth weight as inactive women. The proportion of newborns with a low (/=4500 g) was also unchanged. In conclusion, in this large population-based study, we found...... no association between sports and leisure-time physical activity and low-birth weight, high-birth weight, or average-birth weight....

  3. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  4. Additional Protein Fortification Is Necessary in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants Fed Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Houeto, Nellie; Buffin, Rachel; Loys, Claire-Marie; Godbert, Isabelle; Haÿs, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, approximately one in three (49/152, 32.2%) extremely low-birth-weight infants were demonstrated to require additional protein intake to supplement the standard fortification to achieve satisfactory weight gain. This additional protein fortification also resulted in a rapid increase in length-for-age (P < 0.001) and head circumference-for-age (P = 0.02) z scores.

  5. Genome-wide associations for birth weight and correlations with adult disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Beaumont, Robin N; Day, Felix R;

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) has been shown to be influenced by both fetal and maternal factors and in observational studies is reproducibly associated with future risk of adult metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. These life-course associations have often been attr...

  6. Maternal Characteristics of a Cohort of Preterm Infants with a Birth Weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, Marieke J.; de Vries, Linda S.; Bruinse, Hein W.

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to describe the obstetric complications of women who delivered an extremely low-birth-weight infant by comparing two consecutive 5-year periods and infants appropriate for gestational age (AGA) versus infants small for gestational age (SGA). This descriptive study included women

  7. Cytokine responses in very low birth weight infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van den Berg; R.M. van Elburg; L. Vermeij; A. van Zwol; G.R. van den Brink; J.W.R. Twisk; E.E.S. Nieuwenhuis; W.P.F. Fetter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may present with a lower infection rate, which may result from enhanced antimicrobial innate or Th1 cytokine responses. We investigated whether glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in VLBW infants increase

  8. Treatment Failure of Nosocomial Pertussis Infection in a Very-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Farnoux, Caroline; Bidet, Philippe; Caro, Valérie; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Benhayoun, Mounir; Aujard, Yannick; Guiso, Nicole; Bingen, Edouard

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of nosocomial maternal transmission of Bordetella pertussis to a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonate in whom treatment was unsuccessful. This case underscores the need for rapid and sensitive PCR diagnosis in VLBW neonates and in parents with clinical signs of pertussis and suggests that standard treatment may not be appropriate for VLBW neonates. PMID:17021121

  9. Childhood Height and Birth Weight in Relation to Future Prostate Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Michael B; Gamborg, Michael; Aarestrup, Julie;

    2013-01-01

    Adult height has been positively associated with prostate cancer risk. However, the exposure window of importance is currently unknown and assessments of height during earlier growth periods are scarce. In addition, the association between birth weight and prostate cancer remains undetermined. We...

  10. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1998-01-01

    We correlated arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status with anthropometric measures and growth rates in a group of low birth weight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g; gestational ages 30-41 weeks; n = 143). AA and DHA status were measured in erythrocytes (RBC) and plasma chole

  11. Ethnic differences in the association of birth weight and blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberg, Sara; Ge, Dongliang; Cnattingius, Sven; Svensson, Anna; Treiber, Frank A.; Snieder, Harold; Iliadou, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    Background: African Americans (AAs) not only have higher blood-pressure levels, but also an increased risk of low weight at birth, compared with European Americans (EAs). In light of fetal programming theories, it has been suggested that ethnic differences in blood pressure originate in utero. Howev

  12. Thiamine supplementation to prevent induction of low birth weight by conventional therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Conventional treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus increases the proportion of infants born with a low birth weight, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in later life. Thiamine supplementation during pregnancy may be shown to be a safe preventive measure. During preg

  13. Anemia Prevalence among Pregnant Women and Birth Weight in Five Areas in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Sun, Y.Y.; Wang, Q.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the current prevalence of anemia among pregnant women in different areas of China and the association with birth weight and educational level. Methods: A total of 6,413 women aged 24-37 in the third trimester of pregnancy from five areas were randomly selected from all gra

  14. Contributing death factors in very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal deaths account for 40% of deaths under the age of 5 years worldwide. Therefore, efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing childhood mortality by two-thirds by 2015 are focused on reducing neonatal deaths in high-mortality countries. The aim of present study was to determine death factors among very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, medical records of 2,135 infants admitted between years 2008 and 2010 in neonatal intense care unit of Alzahra Educational-Medical centre (Tabriz, Iran were analysed by path method using statistical software SPSS 18. Results: Variables such as duration of hospitalisation, birth weight, gestational age have negative effect on infant mortality, and gestational blood pressure has positive direct effect on infant mortality that at whole represented 66.5% of infant mortality variance (F = 1018, P < 0.001. Gestational age termination in the positive form through birth weight, and also gestational blood pressure in negative form through hospitalisation period had indirect effect on infant mortality. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the duration of low-birth-weight infant′s hospitalisation is also associated with infant′s mortality (coefficient -0.7; P < 0.001. This study revealed that among the maternal factors only gestational blood pressure was in relationship with infants′ mortality.

  15. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arse...

  16. Impact of birth weight and genetic liability on psychopathology in children of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wals, M; Reichart, CG; Hillegers, MHJ; van Os, J; Verhulst, FC; Nolen, WA; Ormel, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To test different models for ways in which birth weight and familial loading influence the risk for psychopathology in bipolar offspring. Method: DSM-IV diagnoses of 140 bipolar offspring (12-21 years of age) were assessed with the K-SADS-PL. Parents were interviewed using the Family Hist

  17. Sports and leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Petersson, K; Hedegaard, M

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sports and other leisure-time physical activities during pregnancy and birth weight of babies born after 37 completed weeks of gestation. All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hosp...

  18. Survival Analysis of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  19. Survival Analysis of very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  20. General movements in the first fourteen days of life in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, N. K. S.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Bos, A. F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of general movements (GMs) in the first fourteen days of life in relation to obstetric and postnatal risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study design: The GMs of nineteen infants were assessed on days 2, 4, 6, 10

  1. Pigs as animal model for low-birth-weight babies. Developing cognitive tests and examining neuroprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the cognitive performance of piglets with low birth weight (LBW) caused by intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and the effects of a possible therapy to prevent IUGR-related brain damage and associated cognitive impairments were studied. To achieve these goals, several conditions

  2. Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.

  3. Decision-making under risk and ambiguity in low-birth-weight pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, Eimear; Kraak, Lynn; van den Broek, Jan; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) in humans is a risk factor for later cognitive, behavioural and emotional problems. In pigs, LBW is associated with higher mortality, but little is known about consequences for surviving piglets. Alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in LBW pigs suggests a

  4. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN YOUNG MEN FROM MAPUTO CITY, MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eugénio Tchamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years were divided into four groups (low birth weight 3.999 g, HBW, n = 31. Anthropometry and body composition were measured. Physical fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, and running speed. Results: IBW showed lower values of body mass and fat free mass while LBW and HBW had high values of hip circumference, suprailiac, subscapular and abdominal skinfold when compared to NBW. LBW and HBW showed a high percentage of individuals with low performance in flexibility, right handgrip, agility, abdominal resistance, arms strength, and horizontal long jump. Around 70% of HBW showed low performance in the running speed test. Conclusion: Both low and high birth weight can influence adult adiposity and the performance in physical fitness tests.

  5. Neuro-Cognitive Performance of Very Preterm or Very Low Birth Weight Adults at 26 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryigit Madzwamuse, Suna; Baumann, Nicole; Jaekel, Julia; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children born very preterm (VP low birth weight (VBLW <1500 g; subsequently VP/VLBW) have been previously reported to have more cognitive impairment and specific executive functioning problems than term children; however, it remains unclear whether these problems persist into adulthood. This…

  6. The SMILE Program: Does Timing and Dosing of Nurse Home Visits Matter in Reducing Adverse Birth Outcomes for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    The dependent variables were birth outcomes, indexed by birth weight, gestational age at birth, and presence of birth anomalies as defined below...aspiration, prenatal drug exposure, anemia , sickle cell trait, or identification of any other adverse health condition to include premature birth

  7. Socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of low birth weight babies: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiti Narain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO definition, infants with birth weights of less than 2,500 grams are classified as low birth weight (LBW. LBW is a sensitive indicator for predicting the chances of both infant survival and healthy childhood growth and development, and it also reflects the present and past health status of the mother. LBW constitutes an important factor affecting neonatal mortality and morbidity.Objective: To find the incidence of low birth weight babies and its determinants Materials and methods: Present study was a cross sectional type. All mothers delivering live born singleton neonate in study place (Postnatal ward of Rohilkhand Medical College and hospital were interviewed with pretested, predesigned schedule. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21software and chi square test, OR etc.Results: Overall incidence of LBW was 20% and mean birth weight was 2776.85 + 383.6 gm LBW was found to be more common in the rural population and poor educational status. A higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with inadequate diet and those who were anaemic. Conclusion: Low birth weight still poses a fair problem in our perspective, and when we cannot control ethnic factors like height, or do a drastic socio-economic upliftment, some basic factors, like good ANC care, correcting anemia, and above all motivating the mother to follow some habits in the ANC period like adequate consumption of food and adequate rest, institutional deliveries shall take a long way forward in addressing the problem.

  8. Influencia del nacimiento prematuro en el desarrollo neuropsicológico infantil. Influence of premature birth in the neuropsychological development of childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Flórez, Jorge Alexander; Cano Martínez, Inique Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Influence of premature birth in the neuropsychological development of childhood.Resumen El nacimiento prematuro es un problema que se presenta a nivel mundial, con mayor prevalencia en los países de ingresos bajos. Los sujetos con esta condición pueden presentar problemas conductuales y emocionales, enfermedades de carácter físico y deficiencias en las diferentes funciones cognitivas. Debido a la vulnerabilidad de dicha población, diversas disciplinas, especialmente la neuropsicología, se han...

  9. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  10. Estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso gestacional e peso ao nascer Maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of

  11. Standards of Birth Weight According to Gestational Age in the Northwestern Regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodych O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the neonatal registry for 2001-2010 years in Rivne and Volyn regions of Ukraine as well as 2006-2011 years of Khmelnytsky region was carried out. General information was available about body weight of 366 607 newborns, among which 188 687 were boys and 177 920 girls. Based on the analysis we developed local standards of birth body weight in relation to gestational age separately for boys and girls. Procedure for processing local standards met international standards that have been developed by the WHO. Availability of processed local standards depending on gestational age will enable neonatologists, pediatricians and researchers to clearly identify anomalies in the health of newborns in the northwestern regions of Ukraine. Therefore, identification of newborns with low or high birth weight will enable adequate and timely steps to improve their health.

  12. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  13. When and why Filipino mothers of term low birth weight infants interrupted breastfeeding exclusively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrasada, Grace V; Kylberg, Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    This paper makes use of data collected in a randomised controlled trial that was designed to test the efficacy of postpartum breastfeeding counselling to increase exclusive breastfeeding among term low birth weight infants in Manila during the first six months. Mothers were randomised to a control group or one of two home visit interventions: by trained breastfeeding counsellors or child care counsellors without breastfeeding support training. Sixty mothers received peer breastfeeding counselling while a further 119 mothers did not. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers who received counselling was five weeks versus two weeks among those who received no counselling (pbreastfeeding was interrupted to offer infants water, traditional herbal extracts or artificial baby milk. Mothers who interrupted exclusive breastfeeding claimed they had insufficient milk or that their infants had slow weight gain. Early and sustained breastfeeding support will enable mothers to exclusively breastfeed low birth weight infants for the first six months.

  14. Preterm birth and low birth weight among in vitro fertilization singletons: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah D; Han, Zhen; Mulla, Sohail; Murphy, Kellie E; Beyene, Joseph; Ohlsson, Arne

    2009-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the risks of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) in singletons conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF)+/-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) compared to spontaneously conceived singletons after matching or controlling for at least maternal age. The MOOSE guidelines for meta-analysis of observational studies were followed. Medline and Embase were searched using comprehensive search strategies. Bibliographies of identified articles were reviewed. English language studies examining LBW or PTB in singletons conceived by IVF or IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection, compared with spontaneously conceived singletons, that matched or controlled for at least maternal age. Two reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts, full articles and study quality and extracted data. Dichotomous data were meta-analyzed using relative risks (RR) as measures of effect size with a random effects model and for continuous data weighted mean difference was calculated. Seventeen studies were included with 31,032 singletons conceived through IVF (+/-ICSI) and 81,119 spontaneously conceived singletons. After matching or controlling for maternal age and often other factors, compared to spontaneously conceived singletons, IVF singletons had increased risks of our two primary outcomes, PTB (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.54, 2.21) and LBW (<2500 g, RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29, 1.98). Singletons conceived through IVF or IVF/ICSI were at increased risk for late PTB (32-36 weeks, RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01, 2.30), moderate PTB <32-33 weeks (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.73, 2.97), very LBW (<1500 g, RR 2.65, 95% CI 1.83, 3.84), and intrauterine growth restriction (RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04, 2.00), lower birth weights (-97 g, 95% CI -161 g, -33 g) and shorter mean gestations (-0.6 weeks, 95% CI -0.9 weeks, -0.4 weeks). In conclusion, IVF singletons have significantly increased risks of PTB, LBW and other adverse perinatal outcomes compared to spontaneously conceived singletons after

  15. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van L.M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R.E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher n

  16. Testing post-weaning food motivation in low and normal birth weight pigs in a runway and operant conditioning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, L. M.; Antonides, A.; Nordquist, R. E.; van der Staay, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) pigs face more welfare challenges than their normal birth weight (NBW) siblings. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of cognitive and learning abilities in these pigs may help to improve their welfare. Early competition in life over resources, combined with the higher need

  17. Gluconeogenesis is Not Regulated by Either Glucose or Insulin in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Ordonez, Jorge; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Study design Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 1

  18. Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms in Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Prospective Swedish Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Christina M.; Torrang, Anna; Tuvblad, Catherine; Cnattingius, Sven; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low birth weight increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and early adolescence. Method: In a population-based sample of 1,480 twin pairs born in the period 1985-1986 ascertained from the Swedish Twin Registry, birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical…

  19. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    associated with LBW. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 20 healthy 19-yr-old men with birth weights at 10th percentile or lower for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls, matched for body fat, physical fitness, and whole-body glucose...

  20. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2014-11-14

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality.

  1. 258例早产的临床因素分析%Clinical analysis on factors of 258 patients with premature birth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹海燕

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate and analyze risk factors of preterm birth and to explore interventions to reduce incidence of pretenn birth. METHODS Carried out case control study to investigate clinical data of 258 cases of premature and 258 mature maternities. In this study, used the Chi-square test to select the risk factors of pretenn birth and non-conditional Logistic regression analysis was used to further screen the main risk factors of preterm birth. RESULTS Pregnant women ≥30 years of age; suffering from pregnancy-induced hypertension; premature rupture of membranes; pregnancy reproductive tract infections; pregnancy smoking or passive smoking were the risk factors for preterm birth. CONCLUSION It should instruct pregnant women avoiding from a variety of risk factors for pretenn birth, and prevent and treat various complications during pregnancy to prevent preterm birth.%目的 探讨早产的相关危险因素,为降低早产的发生率提供理论依据.方法 采用病例对照研究,对258例早产产妇和258例足月产妇的临床资料进行调查,采用单因素卡方检验进行单因素分析筛选出早产危险因素;多因素非条件Logistic回归进一步筛选早产的主要危险因素.结果 孕妇≥30岁;患有妊高症;胎膜早破;孕期生殖道感染;孕期吸烟或被动吸烟是早产发生的危险因素.结论 应指导孕妇避免各种早产的危险因素,并对妊娠期的各种并发症进行积极防治,从而有效地预防早产的发生.

  2. Increased birth weight associated with regular pre-pregnancy deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for Vietnamese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation program given to women of reproductive age in north-west Vietnam. The program was made available to all women of reproductive age (estimated 51,623 in two districts in Yen Bai Province for 20 months prior to commencement of birth weight data collection. Data were obtained for births at the district hospitals of the two intervention districts as well as from two control districts where women did not have access to the intervention, but had similar maternal and child health indicators and socio-economic backgrounds. The primary outcome was low birth weight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The birth weights of 463 infants born in district hospitals in the intervention (168 and control districts (295 were recorded. Twenty-six months after the program was started, the prevalence of low birth weight was 3% in intervention districts compared to 7.4% in control districts (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.81, p = 0.017. The mean birth weight was 124 g (CI 68 - 255 g, p<0.001 greater in the intervention districts compared to control districts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study suggest that providing women with regular deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplements before pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight in rural Vietnam. The impact of this health system-integrated intervention on birth outcomes should be further evaluated through a more extensive randomised-controlled trial.

  3. Selective deficit in spatial location memory in extremely low birth weight children at age six: the PETIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Brandt, Jason; Ahronovich, Margot D; Baker, Robin; Erickson, Kristine; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Spatial location memory has rarely been assessed in young children due to a scarcity of developmentally appropriate tests. This study sought to compare nonverbal learning and recall in children born extremely low birth weight (ELBW; children at early school age using a recently developed and adapted test. We administered a modification of the Hopkins Board to 210 children at age six; 84 born ELBW (35 born children had worse general cognition, item naming, delayed item recall, delayed location recall, and percent retention than term-born children. Delayed item recall and percent retention performances of ELBW children remained worse after correction for general cognition. ELBW groups (children in naming and delayed item recall with chronological age as covariate. Those born before 26 GW, but not 26-33 GW, performed worse than term-born children in delayed location recall and percent retention. Differences remained significant after controlling for gender, maternal education, and delivery type. All three groups' performance declined from final learning trial to delayed location recall, with a decline greater for less than 26 GW than term-born children. Extreme prematurity (spatial location memory deficit. The modified Hopkins Board discriminated high-risk preterm and term-born children at early school age and appears to be a useful test to measure this rarely studied cognitive capacity.

  4. Periodontal infection as a risk factor for preterm low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhimadhi D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an overwhelming body of evidence strongly suggesting that periodontal infection may have a significant negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. The aim of this study was to determine the association, if any, between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. Materials and Methods : A total of 211 mothers between the ages of 17 and 35 were grouped into two categories based on the gestational age and weight of the baby as cases (< 37 weeks, < 2500 g and controls (>37 weeks, >2500 g. Relevant obstetric history and information on other primary risk factors for preterm low birth weight were obtained. Investigation reports on blood group, Rh factor and hemoglobin (Hb were also gathered. Oral assessments included: simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results: Cases had significantly more attachment loss and probing pocket depth, poor oral hygiene, more percentage of sites with attachment loss (Extent and more mean attachment loss per site (Severity and less Hb than controls. The number of visits for prenatal care and the percentage of sites with CAL≥2mm (Extent 2 remained significant when compared to other variables. Conclusion: The study indicated that periodontal disease is a contributing factor for preterm low birth weight.

  5. TP53 gene polymorphism: Importance to cancer, ethnicity and birth weight in a Brazilian cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Helena S Thurow; Ricardo Haack; Fernando P Hartwig; Isabel Ode Oliveira; Odir A Dellagostin; Denise P Gigante; Bernardo L Horta; Tiago Collares; Fabiana K Seixas

    2011-12-01

    Arg72Pro SNP of p53 has been associated with many types of cancer as well as with survival and longevity. We evaluated the Arg72Pro SNP frequencies of a Brazilian birth cohort and their association with current, demographic and birth epidemiological parameters available. In 1982, all hospital births of Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified and studied prospectively. In 2004–5, blood samples were collected and DNA extracted. PCR-RFLP was used to genotype the Arg72Pro SNP in 3794 individual samples of the Brazil birth cohort and DNA sequencing was performed to confirm the genotypes. The genotype distribution, which was in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, showed a predominance of the arginine amino acid with a frequency of 46.9% Arg/Arg, 42.2% Arg/Pro and 10.9% Pro/Pro. The allele frequency was 0.68 of Arginine and 0.32 of Proline. The Arg72Pro SNP genotype and allelic frequency were related to skin colour where proline amino acid was observed more among black subjects, while arginine amino acid was observed more among white subjects. The individuals without family history of cancer and those with low birth weight were associated with arginine amino acid. The Arg72Pro SNP was strongly associated with important epidemiological variables confirming that genetic profiles on cohort studies can improve our understanding of the susceptibility of diseases and its risk factors.

  6. Hepatitis B Postexposure Prophylaxis in Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Waitz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Recommendations for immunoprophylaxis in low-birth-weight (LBW infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-positive mothers vary. We successfully immunized an HBsAg-exposed infant (birth weight: 400 g and performed a literature review on the outcome of postexposure immunoprophylaxis in HBsAg-exposed preterm and LBW infants. Methods - By use of PubMed we identified articles relevant to the topic. Studies were included if the intended vaccine schedule was completed and follow-up data were reported. Results - Antibody response was reported in 31 LBW infants (birth weight < 2,500 g and 49 infants with gestational age of < 38 weeks. Low anti-HBs antibody levels (< 100 IU/L were found in 9 (29% of the 31 LBW infants. Overall, 2 of 20 (10% preterm infants and 2 of 17 (12% LBW were HBsAg-positive on follow-up. In one study, none of the 26 exposed very LBW infants became infected. Conclusion - Due to heterogeneity in immunization schedules, lack of information on transmission rates, and the small number of included subjects, no firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the optimal postexposure prophylaxis in LBW infants. We propose that active and passive immunization at birth should be completed by three further active doses (0–1–2–12 month schedule until further prospective studies are available.

  7. Variants close to NTRK2 gene are associated with birth weight in female twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrustry, Sarah J; Edwards, Mark H; Medland, Sarah E; Holloway, John W; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Tim D; Cooper, Cyrus; Valdes, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    Low weight at birth has previously been shown to be associated with a number of adult diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, and obesity later in life. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been published for singleton-born individuals, but the role of genetic variation in birth weight (BW) in twins has not yet been fully investigated. A GWAS was performed in 4,593 female study participants with BW data available from the TwinsUK cohort. A genome-wide significant signal was found in chromosome 9, close to the NTRK2 gene (OMIM: 600456). QIMR, an Australian twin cohort (n = 3,003), and UK-based singleton-birth individuals from the Hertfordshire cohort (n = 2,997) were used as replication for the top two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) underpinning this signal, rs12340987 and rs7849941. The top SNP, rs12340987, was found to be in the same direction in the Australian twins and in the singleton-born females (fixed effects meta-analysis beta = -0.13, SE = 0.02, and p = 1.48 × 10-8) but not in the singleton-born males tested. These findings provide an important insight into the genetic component of BW in twins who are normally excluded due to their lower BW when compared with singleton births, as well as the difference in BW between twins. The NTRK2 gene identified in this study has previously been associated with obesity.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight in the Southeast of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Mohsen; Danaei, Mina; Kermani, Akram Jabbari Nejad; Bakhshandeh, Marzieh; Foroodnia, Shohreh; Mahmoudabadi, Zahra; Amirzadeh, Raheleh; Safizadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and related factors of low birth weight (LBW) in the Southeast of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Kerman province. Data were collected from Iranian Maternal and Neonatal Network at public and private hospitals. All live births from March 2014 to March 2015 considered as the source population. The risk factors including maternal age, gravida, parity, abortion, pregnancy risk factors, maternal nationality, maternal education, maternity insurance, place of living, consanguinity, neonate sex, preterm labor, place of birth, delivery manager, and delivery type were compared between LBW and normal birth weight groups. Results: The prevalence of LBW was 9.4% in the present study. Preterm labor (odds ratio [OR]: 22.06; P 35 years (OR: 1.21; P = 0.001), delivery by cesarean section (OR: 1.17; P = 0.002), pregnancy risk factors (OR: 1.67; P 35 years old, and maternal medical risk factors are some critical interventions to reduce its burden. Increasing the access to high-quality health-care services in rural and deprived areas is another effective strategy for the prevention of LBW.

  9. Placental Growth Measures in Relation to Birth Weight in a Latin American Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlos; Veiga, Angélica; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso, Viviane

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The placenta, translates how the fetus experiences the maternal environment and is a principal influence on birth weight (BW). Objective To explore the relationship between placental growth measures (PGMs) and BW in a public maternity hospital. Methods Observational retrospective study of 870 singleton live born infants at Hospital Maternidad Sardá, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, between January 2011 and August 2012 with complete data of PGMs. Details of history, clinical and obstetrical maternal data, labor and delivery and neonatal outcome data, including placental measures derived from the records, were evaluated. The following manual measurements of the placenta according to standard methods were performed: placental weight (PW, g), larger and smaller diameters (cm), eccentricity, width (cm), shape, area (cm(2)), BW/PW ratio (BPR) and PW/BW ratio (PBR), and efficiency. Associations between BW and PGMs were examined using multiple linear regression. Results Birth weight was correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.001), whereas gestational age was moderately correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.001). By gestational age, there was a positive trend for PW and BPR, but an inverse relationship with PBR (p < 0.001). Placental weight alone accounted for 49% of birth weight variability (p < 0,001), whereas all PGMs accounted for 52% (p < 0,001). Combined, PGMs, maternal characteristics (parity, pre-eclampsia, tobacco use), gestational age and gender explained 77.8% of BW variations (p < 0,001). Among preterm births, 59% of BW variances were accounted for by PGMs, compared with 44% at term. All placental measures except BPR were consistently higher in females than in males, which was also not significant. Indices of placental efficiency showed weakly clinical relevance. Conclusions Reliable measures of placental growth estimate 53.6% of BW variances and project this outcome to a

  10. Disposal of household burned garbage and risk of low birth weight in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pembakaran sampah di dalam rumah tanggadapat mempengaruhi berat badan bayi lahir rendah (BBLR. Pada tulisan ini disajikan pembakaran sampah di rumah tangga terhadap risiko BBLR.Metode: Analisis data menggunakan sebagian data studi potong lintang Riskesdas 2013 di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Data yang dianalisis ialah data bayi berusia 0-11 bulan. Berat badan bayi waktu lahir berdasarkan catatan berat bayi saat lahir yang tercatat dalam kuesioner Riskesdas. Bayi dikategorikan BBLR jika berat badan waktu lahir kurang dari 2500 gram. Hasil: Di antara 281 bayi yang mempunyai catatan berat badan lahir terdapat 10,6% (23 bayi yang BBLR. Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan perilaku pengelolaan sampah dengan cara dibakar dibandingkan dengan selain dibakar mempunyai risiko 2,3 kali lipat mengalami BBLR (RRa=2,28; 95% CI=1,18-8,61. Kesimpulan: Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan sampah dibakar dibandingkan dengan tanpa sampah dibakar mempunyai risiko lebih tinggi BBLR di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:89-93Kata kunci: berat badan lahir rendah, pembakaran sampahAbstractBackground: The management of household waste by burning can affect the incidence of low birth weight (LBW. This paper aims to identify the burning of garbage at home and risk of low birth weight. Methods: This analysis used a part of Riskesdas 2013 data in the Central Sulawesi Province. Subjects analyzed were infants aged 0-11 months. Baby’s weight was based on the baby’s birth weightwhich was recorded in the questionnaire of Riskesdas. The infants were categorized as LBW, if the recorded birth weight was less than 2500 grams. Results: Out of 392 babies,  281 babies had recorded birth weightswhich could be proved by documentary evidence. The majority of babies were boys (50.9% and lived in rural areas (58.7%. The proportion of babies who had LBW was 10.6% (23 infants. The babies who were living in households with

  11. Metabolic and transcriptional changes in cultured muscle stem cells from low birth weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ninna S; Hjort, Line; Broholm, Christa

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Developmental programming of human muscle stem cells could in part explain why individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. We hypothesized that immature muscle stem cell functions including abnormal...... differentiation potential and metabolic function could link LBW with risk of developing T2D. Design/settings/participants: We recruited 23 young men with LBW and 16 age-matched control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW). Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis and muscle stem cells were isolated...... as well as decreased levels of glucose transporter-1 and -4 mRNA and of the Akt substrate of 160 kDa mRNA and protein in myotubes from LBW individuals compared with NBW individuals. The myogenic differentiation markers, myogenin and myosin heavy chain 1 and 2, were decreased during late differentiation...

  12. Birth weight and coronary artery disease. The effect of gender and diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Banci, Patrizia Saccucci, Alessandro Dofcaci, Ilaria Sansoni, Andrea Magrini, Egidio Bottini, Fulvia Gloria-Bottini

    2009-01-01

    Background: The developmental origin theory of coronary heart disease proposes that undernutrition in utero permanently changes body functions and metabolism leading to an increased risk of coronary artery diseases (CAD) in adult life. Some studies support this theory but others suggest that birth weight (BW) is not a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Gender differences concerning the association between BW and risk factors for CAD have been reported in some studies but not in ot...

  13. Impact of birth weight and postnatal diet on the gut microbiota of young adult guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kait Al

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The gastrointestinal tract (GIT microbiota is essential to metabolic health, and the prevalence of the Western diet (WD high in fat and sugar is increasing, with evidence highlighting a negative interaction between the GIT and WD, resulting in liver dysfunction. Additionally, an adverse in utero environment such as placental insufficiency resulting in low birth weight (LBW offspring, contributes to an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as fatty liver infiltration and liver dysfunction in later life. We sought to understand the potential interactive effects of exposure to a WD upon growing LBW offspring. We postulated that LBW offspring when challenged with a poor postnatal diet, would display an altered microbiota and more severe liver metabolic dysfunction. Methods The fecal microbiota of normal birth weight (NBW and LBW young guinea pig offspring, weaned onto either a control diet (CD or WD was determined with 16S rRNA gene next generation sequencing at young adulthood following the early rapid growth phase after weaning. A liver blood chemistry profile was also performed. Results The life-long consumption of WD following weaning into young adulthood resulted in increased total cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase levels in association with an altered GIT microbiota when compared to offspring consuming CD. Neither birth weight nor sex were associated with any significant changes in microbiota alpha diversity, by measuring the Shannon’s diversity index. One hundred forty-eight operational taxonomic units were statistically distinct between the diet groups, independent of birth weight. In the WD group, significant decreases were detected in Barnesiella, Methanobrevibacter smithii and relatives of Oscillospira guillermondii, while Butyricimonas and Bacteroides spp. were increased. Discussion These results describe the GIT microbiota in a guinea pig model of LBW and WD associated metabolic syndrome and

  14. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-con...

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder, child abuse history, birth weight, and gestational age: A prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Julia S.; Low, Lisa Kane; Sperlich, Mickey; Ronis, David L.; Liberzon, Israel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent to which prenatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with lower birth weight and shorter gestation, and to explore the effects of childhood maltreatment as the antecedent trauma exposure. Design Prospective three-cohort study Setting Ann Arbor and Detroit, Michigan, United States Sample 839 diverse nulliparas in PTSD-positive (n=255), trauma-exposed, resilient (n=307), and non-exposed to trauma (n=277) cohorts Methods Standardised telephone interview prior to 28 weeks to ascertain trauma history, PTSD, depression, substance use, mental health treatment history, and sociodemographics, with chart abstraction to obtain chronic condition history, antepartum complications, and prenatal care data, as well as outcomes. Main outcome measures Infant birth weight and gestational age per delivery record. Results Women with PTSD during pregnancy had a mean birth weight 283 grams less than trauma-exposed, resilient women and 221 grams less than non-exposed women (F(3, 835) = 5.4, p = .001). PTSD was also associated with shorter gestation in multivariate models that took childhood abuse history into account. Stratified models indicated that PTSD subsequent to child abuse trauma exposure was most strongly associated with adverse outcomes. PTSD was a stronger predictor than African American race of shorter gestation and a nearly equal predictor of birth weight. Prenatal care was not associated with better outcomes among women abused in childhood. Conclusions Abuse-related PTSD may be an additional or alternative explanation for adverse perinatal outcomes associated with low socioeconomic status and African American race in the United States. Biological and interventions research is warranted along with replication studies in other nations. PMID:21790957

  16. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  17. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  18. Molecular basis of reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women: mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.

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    Garrabou, Glòria; Hernàndez, Ana-Sandra; Catalán García, Marc; Morén, Constanza; Tobías, Ester; Córdoba, Sarai; López, Marta; Figueras, Francesc; Grau, Josep M; Cardellach, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    In utero exposure of fetuses to tobacco is associated with reduced birth weight. We hypothesized that this may be due to the toxic effect of carbon monoxide (CO) from tobacco, which has previously been described to damage mitochondria in non-pregnant adult smokers. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), newborn cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and placenta were collected from 30 smoking pregnant women and their newborns and classified as moderate and severe smoking groups, and compared to a cohort of 21 non-smoking controls. A biomarker for tobacco consumption (cotinine) was assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following parameters were measured in all tissues: mitochondrial chain complex IV [cytochrome c oxidase (COX)] activity by spectrophotometry, mitochondrial DNA levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, oxidative stress by spectrophotometric lipid peroxide quantification, mitochondrial mass through citrate synthase spectrophotometric activity and apoptosis by Western blot parallelly confirmed by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling) assay in placenta. Newborns from smoking pregnant women presented reduced birth weight by 10.75 percent. Materno-fetal mitochondrial and apoptotic PBMC and CBMC parameters showed altered and correlated values regarding COX activity, mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Placenta partially compensated this dysfunction by increasing mitochondrial number; even so ratios of oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased. A CO-induced mitotoxic and apoptotic fingerprint is present in smoking pregnant women and their newborn, with a lack of filtering effect from the placenta. Tobacco consumption correlated with a reduction in birth weight and mitochondrial and apoptotic impairment, suggesting that both could be the cause of the reduced birth weight in smoking pregnant women.

  19. Impact of birth weight and postnatal diet on the gut microbiota of young adult guinea pigs

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    Al, Kait; Sarr, Ousseynou; Dunlop, Kristyn; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor; Regnault, Timothy R.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is essential to metabolic health, and the prevalence of the Western diet (WD) high in fat and sugar is increasing, with evidence highlighting a negative interaction between the GIT and WD, resulting in liver dysfunction. Additionally, an adverse in utero environment such as placental insufficiency resulting in low birth weight (LBW) offspring, contributes to an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as fatty liver infiltration and liver dysfunction in later life. We sought to understand the potential interactive effects of exposure to a WD upon growing LBW offspring. We postulated that LBW offspring when challenged with a poor postnatal diet, would display an altered microbiota and more severe liver metabolic dysfunction. Methods The fecal microbiota of normal birth weight (NBW) and LBW young guinea pig offspring, weaned onto either a control diet (CD) or WD was determined with 16S rRNA gene next generation sequencing at young adulthood following the early rapid growth phase after weaning. A liver blood chemistry profile was also performed. Results The life-long consumption of WD following weaning into young adulthood resulted in increased total cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase levels in association with an altered GIT microbiota when compared to offspring consuming CD. Neither birth weight nor sex were associated with any significant changes in microbiota alpha diversity, by measuring the Shannon’s diversity index. One hundred forty-eight operational taxonomic units were statistically distinct between the diet groups, independent of birth weight. In the WD group, significant decreases were detected in Barnesiella, Methanobrevibacter smithii and relatives of Oscillospira guillermondii, while Butyricimonas and Bacteroides spp. were increased. Discussion These results describe the GIT microbiota in a guinea pig model of LBW and WD associated metabolic syndrome and highlight several WD

  20. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L.; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p-value for interaction=0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25-3.75 kg......Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. We investigated the association between birth weight and adult PLC......, and after accounting for diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders, viral hepatitis, and biliary cirrhosis. Prenatal exposures influence the risk of adult PLC, and the effects at the high birth weight levels appear to be sex-specific. Our findings underscore the importance of considering sex...

  1. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanda, Boniface; Verhoeff, Francine; le Cessie, Saskia; Brabin, John

    2009-06-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the incidence of infectious morbidity in infants in rural Malawi in relation to birth weight and fetal anaemia, a cohort of babies was followed for a year on the basis of LBW (<2500) and FA (cord haemoglobin < 12.5 g/dl). A matched group of normal birth weight (NBW), non-anaemic (NFA) new-borns were enrolled as controls. Morbidity episodes were recorded at 4-weekly intervals and at each extra visit made to a health centre with any illness. Infants in the NBW NFA group experienced an average of 1.15 (95% C.I. 0.99, 1.31), 1.04 (0.89, 1.19), 0.92 (0.73, 1.11) episodes per year of malaria, respiratory infection and diarrhoea respectively. Corresponding values for the LBW FA group were 0.83 (0.5, 1.16), 0.82 (0.5, 1.16) and 0.76 (0.33, 1.19). FA was not associated with a higher incidence of morbidity, but was significantly associated with a shorter time to first illness episode (p = 0.014). LBW was not a significant risk factor for higher morbidity incidence. LBW and FA were not significant risk factors for incidence of illness episodes in infants.

  2. Influence of the Umbilical Cord Insertion Site on the Optimal Individual Birth Weight Achievement

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    Sophie Brouillet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Question. To determine whether the umbilical cord insertion site of singleton pregnancies could be linked to the newborn birth weight at term and its individual growth potential achievement. Material and Methods. A cohort study including 528 records of term neonates was performed. Each neonate was assessed for growth adjusted for gestational age according to the infant’s growth potential using the AUDIPOG module. We considered two categories of umbilical cord insertions: central and peripheral. Intrauterine growth restriction was defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square, Student’s t test, Wilcoxon test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Results. We observed a total of 343 centrally inserted cords versus 185 peripheral cords. There were twice as many smokers in the mothers of the peripheral category compared to the centrally inserted ones. More importantly, we demonstrated that only 17/343 (5.0% of infants with central cord insertion were growth restricted, compared to 37/185 (20.0% of the infants born with a peripheral insertion. Neonates with centrally inserted cord were significantly heavier. Conclusion. The umbilical cord insertion site of singleton pregnancies is associated with the newborn’s birth weight at term and its individual growth potential achievement.

  3. Influence of Parental Overweight on the Association of Birth Weight and Fat Distribution Later in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the association between birth weight and fat distribution in childhood is modified by parental overweight. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 728 Danish children aged 8-10 and 14-16 years. The main outcomes were waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, subscapular...... skinfold, and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold ratio. Analyses were stratified by parental overweight status (none vs. ≥1 overweight parent) for each dependent variable, expressed as z-scores. Results: Birth weight z-score was negatively associated with waist circumference (β -0.08 SD; 95% CI -0.15, -0...... in the group with ≥1 overweight parent. Birth weight was negatively associated with subscapular skinfold in groups with (β -0.16 SD; 95% CI -0.24, -0.06) and without overweight parents (β -0.09 SD; 95% CI -0.16, -0.02), but the magnitude of the association was greater in the former group. Conclusion...

  4. Effect of Women's Decision-Making Autonomy on Infant's Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh.

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    Sharma, Arpana; Kader, Manzur

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight (LBW), an outcome of maternal undernutrition, is a major public health concern in Bangladesh where the problem is most prominent. Women's decision-making autonomy is likely an important factor influencing maternal and child health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of women's decision-making autonomy on infant's birth weight (BW). Methods. The study included data of 2175 enrolled women (14-45 years of age) from the Maternal and Infant Nutritional Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat-study) in Bangladesh. Pearson's chi-square test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and logistic regression analysis were applied at the collected data. Results. Women with lowest decision-making autonomy were significantly more likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) child, after controlling for maternal age, education (woman's and her husband's), socioeconomic status (SES) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.8). BW was decreased significantly among women with lowest decision making autonomy after adjusting for all confounders. Conclusion. Women's decision-making autonomy has an independent effect on BW and LBW outcome. In addition, there is a need for further exploration to identify sociocultural attributes and gender related determinants of women decision-making autonomy in this study setting.

  5. Caffeine intake in pregnancy: Relationship between internal intake and effect on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partosch, F; Mielke, H; Stahlmann, R; Gundert-Remy, U

    2015-12-01

    We used a physiologically based kinetic model to simulate caffeine blood concentration-time profiles in non-pregnant and pregnant women. The model predicted concentration-time profile was in good accordance with experimental values. With 200 mg, the safe dose per occasion in non-pregnant women, AUC and peak concentration in pregnant women were nearly twice that of non-pregnant women. In order to derive a safe dose for the pregnant women we estimated the dose in the pregnant women model taken at once which would not exceed AUC and peak concentration in the non-pregnant women of 200 mg as single dose. The resulting dose is 100 mg caffeine per occasion which we recommend as safe. The caffeine dose of 200 mg per day is declared as safe for pregnant women with respect to the foetus by EFSA based on results on reduced birth weight in epidemiological studies. We modelled AUC and peak concentration for different caffeine doses to investigate the relationship between internal caffeine exposure and risk measures of reduced birth weight from epidemiological studies. The graphical analysis revealed that the reduction in birth weight was related to AUC and peak concentration up to a dose of 250 mg caffeine.

  6. Dificuldade de aprendizagem em escolares de muito baixo peso ao nascer Learning difficulties in schoolchildren born with very low birth weight

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    Maura C. C. de Rodrigues

    2006-02-01

    school by means of a systematic review of the literature, identifying patterns of learning difficulties among these schoolchildren, possible cognitive correlations, peculiarities of the lowest birth weight ranges and any interference with outcomes by socioeconomic and/or clinical factors. SOURCES OF DATA: Bibliographic search (MEDLINE, LILACS, Excerpta Medica, reference lists of original articles, periodicals related to the subject, information from experts in the area and thesis and dissertation databases on the keywords: prematurity/very low birth weight, learning difficulties/academic achievement/school performance, follow-up/results/cohort. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The search returned 114 articles and the 18 of these were selected as having investigated learning difficulties in schoolchildren born with very low birth weights using appropriate methodology. The academic performance of these children was observed to be inferior the whole study population was compared with those born full term. The subject most compromised was mathematics. The risk of suffering from learning difficulties increased in inverse proportion to birth weight. An association was identified between very low birth weight and cognitive compromise. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic approach corroborated the results obtained by published studies: schoolchildren born with very low birth weights exhibited increased risk of learning difficulties when compared with those born at full term. There was a predominance of children with multiple academic subjects compromised and mathematics was the most affected. Risk was observed to follow an ascending gradient as birth weight reduced. There was an association between very low birth weight and cognitive compromise.

  7. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Practices and Birth Weight in Northern Ghana

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    Jahn, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Background Adequate maternal nutrition is a key factor for achieving good pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, inadequate dietary intake during pregnancy is considered an important contributor to maternal malnutrition in developing countries. Although some studies have examined the effect of the entire diet on birth outcome, most studies have been very narrow because they considered the effect of single nutrient. The single nutrient approach is a major setback because usually several nutrient deficiencies are more likely to occur than single deficiencies especially in low-income settings. Objectives The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal dietary patterns, and practices and birth weight in Northern Ghana. Participant Settings A facility-based cross-sectional survey was performed in two districts in the Northern Region of Ghana. The selected districts were the Tamale Metropolis and Savelugu-Nanton District. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural populations, therefore ensuring that the distribution in social groups of the study population was similar to the entire population of the region. In all, 578 mothers who were drawing antenatal and postnatal care services were interviewed using a questionnaire, which asked the mothers about their frequency of consumption of individual foods per week since they became pregnant or when they were pregnant. Statistical Analysis We determined dietary patterns by applying a factor analysis with a varimax rotation using STATA. Multivariate analysis was used to establish association between maternal factors and dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between dietary practices and patterns and birth weight. Results Women who ate outside the home twice a week (OR = 1.6 & 95% CI; 1.1–2.45, P; 0.017) and those who practiced ‘pica’ (OR = 1.7 & 95% CI; 1.16–2.75, P; 0.008) had increased odds for low birth. Two

  8. Intelligence Quotient (IQ and Growth Indices in Children with the History of Low Birth Weight

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    Amin-Gooran Urimei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In two groups of children with and without the history of LBW, Intelligence Quotient (IQ and growth indices including weight and height are compared.Methods: In this historical cohort study performed in Zanjan City (Iran, 130 six-year-old children of both sexes in two equal groups, 65 with LBW history and 65 with normal birth weight (NBW, were selected randomly to be assessed for IQ, utilizing Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R and physical growth indices, including weight and height. The results were analyzed statistically and P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant.Findings: Verbal, non-verbal and total IQ, all were significantly different between LBW and NBW groups (P=0.02, P=0.04 and P=0.01, respectively. Mean total IQ was 93.66±8.27 and 99.32±11.05, respectively. Weight and height between case and control groups showed significant differences, too (P=0.001 and P= 0.005, respectively.Conclusion: The results of this study and similar studies emphasize paying special attention to the problem of low birth weight deliveries, recognizing related risk factors and trying to reduce them.

  9. Determinants of survival in very low birth weight neonates in a public sector hospital in Johannesburg

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    Cooper Peter A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Audit of disease and mortality patterns provides essential information for health budgeting and planning, as well as a benchmark for comparison. Neonatal mortality accounts for about 1/3 of deaths Methods This was a retrospective chart review of 474 VLBW infants admitted within 24 hours of birth, between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2007, to the neonatal unit of Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH in Johannesburg, South Africa. Binary outcome logistic regression on individual variables and multiple logistic regression was done to identify those factors determining survival. Results Overall survival was 70.5%. Survival of infants below 1001 grams birth weight was 34.9% compared to 85.8% for those between 1001 and 1500 grams at birth. The main determinant of survival was birth weight with an adjusted survival odds ratio of 23.44 (95% CI: 11.22 - 49.00 for babies weighing between 1001 and 1500 grams compared to those weighing below 1001 grams. Other predictors of survival were gender (OR 3. 21; 95% CI 1.6 - 6.3, birth before arrival at the hospital (BBA (OR 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.69, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC (OR 0.06; 95% CI: 0.02 - 0.20, hypotension (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01 - 0.21 and nasal continuous positive airways pressure (NCPAP (OR 4.58; 95% CI 1.58 - 13.31. Conclusions Survival rates compare favourably with other developing countries, but can be improved; especially in infants

  10. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

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    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  11. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M.; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented. PMID:27065486

  12. Early nCPAP versus intubation in very low birth weight infants

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    Pedro Neves Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation have been the standard of care for very low birth weight infants but, in the last decade, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been described in many studies as an option for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, recent studies have shown that early nCPAP is not associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and does not imply more days of ventilation support when compared to traditional ventilation techniques. The authors conducted a study to compare the outcomes (in terms of mortality, morbidity and need for medical support of very low birth weight infants treated with nCPAP or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One hundred and four newborns were enrolled in this study, 44 (42.3% were treated with nCPAP and 60 (57.7% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. A subgroup analysis of newborns with gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks was also performed. It included 57 newborns with similar demographic characteristics, 29 (50.9% treated with nCPAP and 28 (49.1% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (p = 0.033 and surfactant administration (p = 0.021 with lower rates in the nCPAP group. No other differences were found in the prevalence of other morbidities or in the need for medical support after birth. These results suggests that nCPAP might be chosen as primary ventilatory support choice in very low birth weight preterm, when there are no contraindications to its use.

  13. Anthropometric surrogates to identify low birth weight Nepalese newborns: a hospital-based study

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    Singh Dela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Nepal, more than 90% of the deliveries take place at home where birth weight is often not recorded. In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW, Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara between April and June, 2006. All consecutive full-term, singleton, live born babies were included. To ensure reliability and avoid inter-observer bias one of the investigators weighed all the newborns and carried out anthropometric measurements within 24 hours after birth. Circumferences of head, chest, mid-upper arm, thigh and calf were measured according to standard techniques. Non-parametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses were carried out using bootstrap to calculate 95% confidence intervals of areas under the curve (AUC. The cut-points with lowest total misclassification rate were chosen to identify LBW babies. Results Out of 400 newborns studied, 204 (51% were males and 196 (49% were females. The mean birth weight was 3029 ± 438 grams and 34 (8.5% newborns were LBW. By ROC-AUC analyses, head circumference (AUC = 0.89, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.93 and chest circumference (AUC = 0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.91 were identified as the optimal surrogate indicators of LBW babies. The optimal cut-points for head circumference and chest circumference to identify LBW newborns were ≥ 33.5 cm and ≥ 30.8 cm respectively. Conclusion Head and chest circumferences were the best anthropometric surrogates of LBW among Nepalese newborns. Further studies are needed in the field to cross-validate our results.

  14. Three interpretations of the association between birth weight and cardiovascular disease

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    Per Magnus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies of cardiovascular disease have had a focus on smoking, blood pressure, diet, physical activity and obesity in adulthood as determinants of cardiovascular disease. A few studies from the 1970s and onwards attempted to shed light on the early origins of this disease, and it is now established through cohort studies that there is a fairly strong and consistent relationship between low birth weight and increased risk of later cardiovascular disease. However, the interpretation of this relationship is under discussion. Three alternative interpretations of the association are discussed. The first interpretation, th