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Sample records for birth weight newborn

  1. Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital in Atwima ... Journal of the Ghana Science Association ... pregnancy. Intensification of health education efforts to improve maternal nutrition at ANC (Ante natal clinic) is recommended.

  2. Kangaroo position in low birth weight preterm newborns: descriptive study

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    Samilly Rodrigues Farias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To describe the number of periods that very low birth weight preterm newborns were in kangaroo position during admission in the neonatal unit and to look for relations between maternal and neonatal variables with kangaroo position. A retrospective and descriptive study with all preterm newborns admitted in 2012, weighing 1500g or less and, gestational age lower than 31 weeks, classified as high clinical risk patients according to the Clinical Risk Index for Babies. We identified 38 babies whose admittance time ranged from 18 to 136 days. The beginning of kangaroo position occurred on average at 30.8 days of post-natal life (SD=18.5 and the number of periods in kangaroo position was on average 10.7 times. The occurrence of kangaroo position was less frequent than opportunities from the maternal presence, and the position was related to a higher offering of free milk demand.

  3. Full-term newborns with normal birth weight requiring special care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The level of clinical care and facilities to support the often more viable full-term newborns with normal birth weight compared with preterm/low birth weight newborns that require special care at birth are likely to be attainable in many resource-poor settings. However, the nature of the required care is not evident ...

  4. Analysis of MicroRNA Expression in Newborns with Differential Birth Weight Using Newborn Screening Cards

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    Patricia Rodil-Garcia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight is an early predictor for metabolic diseases and microRNAs (miRNAs are proposed as fetal programming participants. To evaluate the use of dried blood spots (DBS on newborn screening cards (NSC as a source of analyzable miRNAs, we optimized a commercial protocol to recover total miRNA from normal birth weight (NBW, n = 17–20, low birth weight (LBW, n = 17–20 and high birth weight (macrosomia, n = 17–20 newborns and analyzed the relative expression of selected miRNAs by stem-loop RT-qPCR. The possible role of miRNAs on the fetal programming of metabolic diseases was explored by bioinformatic tools. The optimized extraction of RNA resulted in a 1.2-fold enrichment of miRNAs respect to the commercial kit. miR-33b and miR-375 were overexpressed in macrosomia 9.8-fold (p < 0.001 and 1.7-fold, (p < 0.05, respectively and miR-454-3p was overexpressed in both LBW and macrosomia (19.7-fold, p < 0.001 and 10.8-fold, p < 0.001, respectively, as compared to NBW. Potential target genes for these miRNAs are associated to cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, type 2 diabetes, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-βand Forkhead box O protein (FoxO pathways. In summary, we improved a protocol for analyzing miRNAs from NSC and provide the first evidence that birth weight modifies the expression of miRNAs associated to adult metabolic dysfunctions. Our work suggests archived NSC are an invaluable resource in the search for fetal programming biomarkers.

  5. Metabolomic profiling in blood from umbilical cords of low birth weight newborns

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    Ivorra Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight has been linked to an increased risk to develop obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in adult life, although the mechanisms underlying the association are not well understood. The objective was to determine whether the metabolomic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between low and normal birth weight newborns. Methods Fifty healthy pregnant women and their infants were selected. The eligibility criteria were being born at term and having a normal pregnancy. Pairs were grouped according to their birth weight: low birth weight (LBW, birth weight th percentile, n = 20 and control (control, birth weight between the 75th-90th percentiles, n = 30. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR was used to generate metabolic fingerprints of umbilical cord plasma samples. Simultaneously, the metabolomic profiles of the mothers were analysed. The resulting data were subjected to chemometric, principal component and partial least squares discriminant analyses. Results Umbilical cord plasma from LBW and control newborns displayed a clearly differentiated metabolic profile. Seven metabolites were identified that discriminate the LBW from the control group. LBW newborns had lower levels of choline, proline, glutamine, alanine and glucose than did the control newborns, while plasma levels of phenylalanine and citrulline were higher in LBW newborns (p Conclusions Low birth weight newborns display a differential metabolomic profile than those of normal birth weight, a finding not present in the mothers. The meaning and the potential utility of the findings as biomarkers of risk need to be addressed in future studies.

  6. Birth weights and gestational ages of Malawian newborns at Queen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the distributions of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) and calculate rates of still birth (SB) of four years delivery in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital( QECH). Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out on data of deliveries conducted between January 2000 and December 2003.

  7. Effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation in preterm low birth weight newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alo, D; Shahidullah, M; Mannan, M A; Noor, K

    2010-07-01

    This interventional study was done to determine the effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation on weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis in preterm low birth weight newborns during their hospital stay. It was carried out during the period of June 2006-May 2007 in the Newborn unit of a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Sixty preterm (28-34weeks), low birth weight (1000-1800g) AGA (appropriate for gestational age) newborns were enrolled within 24 hours of birth. Intervention and control newborns were matched in terms of birth weight and gestational age. Samples were volunteers. Parenteral amino acid (5%) supplementation in addition to usual nutritional management until enteral feeding reached three fourth of total calorie intake. Usual nutritional management was 10% intravenous dextrose and subsequent enteral feeding. Main outcome measured with weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis. Weight change was observed by two parameters such as mean percentage of maximum postnatal weight loss and mean days to reach birth weight, both were significantly lower in intervention than control group (psupplementation investigated in this study has been shown to have no effect. There was no difference in incidence of sepsis between intervention and control group (p>0.05). Improved nutritional supplementation with parenteral amino acids resulted in better growth as evident by lesser degree of weight loss and earlier regaining of birth weight in the early neonatal period. Biochemical parameters are not affected by parenteral amino acid supplementation.

  8. Ramadan during pregnancy and birth weight of newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I.; Amelia, Dwirani; Painter, Rebecca C.; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    P= 0·44), although there was a non-significant trend towards lower birth weight with fasting in the second and third trimester. Women who fasted had significantly lower total energy, macronutrient and water intake as compared with women who did not. Women's intake was also lower during Ramadan

  9. Maternal correlates of birth weight of newborn: A hospital based study

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    Samarjeet Kaur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: weight of the baby at birth is considered to be a major determinant of future health and survival of the child. It is one of the important factors which determine the readiness with which the newborn baby adjusts to its surrounding. Many maternal socio-biological factors influence birth weight. Objective: To determine maternal socio-biological factors influencing birth weight of newborn. Methodology: Hospital based cross- sectional study undertaken in Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward of Nehru hospital, Gorakhpur. The study period extended from July 2011 to August 2012. The study subject included recently delivered mothers and data was collected on semi-structured interview schedule to know various socio-biological variables such as mother’s age, parity, inter-pregnancy interval etc, influencing the low birth weight of newborn. Chi-Square test was applied to observe the significance of association.  Results: The overall proportion of low birth weight baby came out to be 32.06%. Out of various socio-biological factors taken the factors which came out to be statistically significant were age of mother, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, SLI, education. The factors which were not statistically significant were father’s education, religion. Conclusions:  It was concluded that teenage pregnancy, non-utilization of antenatal care practices, anaemia, illiteracy are unfavorable predictors of birth weight of newborn babies.

  10. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I.; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J. G.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Painter, Rebecca C.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2014-01-01

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to

  11. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2014-11-14

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality.

  12. Kangaroo position: Immediate effects on the physiological variables of preterm and low birth weight newborns

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    Érica Cesário Defilipo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method is a significant neonatal alternative that ensures better quality humanized care for preterm and low birth weight newborns. Objective: To analyze the immediate physiological effects of the kangaroo position in critically ill newborns. Methods: Open clinical trial with parallel interventions, involving preterm (up to 28 days old low or very low birth weight newborns (minimum weight of 1,250 grams of both sexes, that were clinically stable and undergoing enteral nutrition. The degree of respiratory distress was assessed and quantified using the Silverman-Anderson scoring system. Heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were collected using a pulse oximeter. Respiratory rate was determined by auscultation for one minute. The newborns were submitted to the kangaroo position once only, for 90 minutes. Results: Participants were 30 newborns, 56.7% of which were girls. Comparison of the variables before and after application of the kangaroo position using the Wilcoxon test showed a statistically significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.02 and Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01. The remaining variables showed no significant differences: heart rate (p = 0.21, peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.26 and axillary temperature (p = 0.12. Conclusion: There was a decline in the respiratory rate and Silverman-Anderson score after application of the kangaroo position, while peripheral oxygen saturation, axillary temperature and heart rate remained stable.

  13. [Adolescent pregnancy: maternal characteristics and their association with birth weight of the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucía; Zapata López, Natalia; Parra Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Escudero Vásquez, Luz Estela; Atalah, Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    In Colombia, adolescent pregnancy is a public health problem, with serious implications for the health and nutrition of the binomial mother-child. assess socio-demographic, economic, food security, health and maternal nutritional status characteristics by anthropometric measures in a group of pregnant adolescents in Medellin-Colombia on their third trimester of pregnancy and associate them with the newborns weight. A cross sectional analytical study was made with 294 pregnant women (week 27 to 40), who participating in prenatal control program of the public hospital network in Medellin-Colombia. We sought Association of weight at birth with the explanatory variables. underweight in pregnant women was presented in families that had lower income wages than the Standard Minimum Wage Income--SMWI-, adolescents who were younger than 15 years old and those who had a gynecological age less than five years. In newborns, the highest proportion of small children for pregnancy age was found in mothers who presented infections, low pregnancy weight and low family income less than the minimum wage. For those whose earnings was less than the minimum income the newborn weight decreased 118g (CI 95%: -2.5 a - 234.7), in addition, for each kilogram that increased the pre-pregnancy weight, newborn weight increased in 10,26g (CI 95%: 1.98 a-18.5). low-weight pregnancy and low-weight newborns are associated with low family income. Pre-pregnancy weight, body mass index in the third trimester of pregnancy and mother's presence of urinary tract and vaginal infections were associated with the newborn's weight.

  14. The birth weight of apparently healthy Nigerian newborns in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 253 babies were enrolled. Results: There were 131 males and 122 females giving a male: female ratio of 1.1:1. Gestational age by maternal dates ranged from 28 to 44 weeks. There was a consistent increase in mean values of weight as the ...

  15. Birth-weight, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR in newborns at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Castañeda-Chacón, Argelia; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2012-07-07

    Recent studies have demonstrated that low and high birth-weight at birth are risk factors of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if the abnormal birth-weight is related with hyperinsulinemia and elevated index of the Homeostasis Model assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) at birth, in at term newborns. Newborns with gestational age between 38 and 41 weeks, products of normal pregnancies of healthy mothers aged 18 to 39 years, were eligible to participate. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) newborns were compared with appropriate-for-gestational (AGA) age newborns. Incomplete or unclear data about mother's health status, diabetes, gestational diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and other conditions that affect glucose metabolism were exclusion criteria. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by serum insulin levels ≥13.0 μU/mL and IR by HOMA-IR ≥2.60. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) that computes the association between birth-weight (independent variable) with hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR index (dependent variables). A total of 107 newborns were enrolled; 13, 22, and 72 with SGA, LGA, and AGA, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia was identified in 2 (15.4%), 6 (27.3%), and 5 (6.9%) with SGA, LGA, and AGA (p=0.03), whereas IR in 3 (23.1%), 8 (36.4%), and 10 (13.9%) newborns with SGA, LGA and AGA (p=0.06). The LGA showed a strong association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 5.02; CI 95%, 1.15-22.3; p=0.01) and HOMA-IR (OR 3.54; CI 95%, 1.03-12.16; p=0.02); although without statistical significance, the SGA showed a tendency of association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 2.43; CI 95%, 0.43-17.3 p=0.29) and HOMA-IR (OR 1.86; CI 95%, 0.33-9.37; p=0.41). Our results suggest that LGA is associated with hyperinsulinemia and elevated HOMA-IR at birth whereas the SGA show a tendency of association.

  16. Intraventricular hemorrhage risk factors in very low birth weight newborns: a case-control study

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    Laura Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of variables that affect the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Methods: Analytic case-control study, in a population consisting of all VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a maternity hospital, between January 2002 and December 2007. The authors considered as cases all VLBW newborns with severe IVH (grade ≥ 3, and control all VLBW newborns without IVH. Independent variables included obstetric, perinatal and neonatal diagnosis and therapy. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Rresults: During this period, of the 864 VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, 9.7% had severe IVH. With bivariate analysis an association between severe IVH, gestational age and birth weight was found. Prenatal care and pre-eclampsia were associated with a decrease in the incidence of severe IVH. Amnionitis, being outborn, vaginal delivery, male gender, intubation in the delivery room, surfactant, hyaline membrane disease, pneumothorax, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC perforation and oscillatory high frequency ventilation were associated with an increased incidence of severe IVH. By multivariate logistic regression, the variables associated with increased risk of severe IVH were: pneumothorax (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 1.7-8.3, NEC with perforation (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 1.7-45.0, vaginal delivery (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.0-4.1 and high frequency ventilation (OR = 4.8; 95%CI = 1.3-17.3. The following were protective of severe IVH: gestational age (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.52-0.72, patent ductus arteriosus treatment with indomethacin (OR = 0.26; 95%CI = 0.11-0.6 and fertility treatment (OR = 0.24; 95%CI = 0.06-0.94. Cconclusion: These data outline the importance of improvement of pre and neonatal care to reduce severe IVH.

  17. Birth Weight, Cord Blood Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein Levels in Indian Newborns

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    Simmi Kharb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Primordial prevention of chronic disease is of clinical andpublic health importance. Considering the fetal onset of atherosclerosis,we aimed to determine the cord blood level of lipoproteins andapolipoproteins as well as their correlation with birth weight and gestationalage.Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 100 healthy Indiannewborns. Ten ml. of cord blood was collected from placental end ofumbilical vein. Serum was separated by centrifugation and analyzed onthe same day for lipid profile including total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides(TG, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C, very lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL and low density lipoproteincholesterol(LDL-C, apolipoproteins A-I and B (ApoA-I, ApoB.Atherogenic index (AI was calculated as the ratio of ApoB to ApoA-I.Results: Cord blood of female newborns had higher TC, HDL-C,LDL-C, Apo A-I, Apo B and AI as compared to male newborns,whereas TG and VLDL-C were higher in male than in female newborns.Significant positive correlation was observed between cordblood Apo A-I and HDL-C (r= 0.45, p0.05.Conclusions: These findings are another confirmatory evidence forthe association of prenatal factors with cord blood lipid profile, andcan serve as starting point for studying lipid transport system changesduring early life.

  18. Association of maternal periodontitis with low birth weight in newborns in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.S.; Ashraf, R.N.; Rahman, M.U.; Mashhadi, S.F.; Rashid, Z.; Nazar, A.F.; Syed, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight is a major public health problem in Pakistan. So there is a need for identification of its modifiable risk factors like periodontitis which will reduce its burden on the society. The objectives of the study were to find out the association between maternal periodontitis and low birth weight in new-borns of all gestational ages delivered in a tertiary care hospital of Abbottabad as well as to see the frequency of periodontitis severity in these subjects. Methods: A hospital-based matched case-control study was conducted among 160 postpartum mothers in Gynaecology/Obstetrics-B ward Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. The 80 cases were mothers of low birth weight babies (<2,500 g), the 80 controls were mothers of normal weight babies (=2,500 g) matched with maternal age and gestational age. Data was collected through the hospital records, interview and a periodontal examination. Results: Periodontitis was more in the cases than in the controls (OR: 4.167, 95 percentage CI: 2.142-8.109, ρ=0.000). On multivariate logistic regression, periodontitis was found to be a significant independent risk factor for low birth weight (aOR: 3.173, 95 percentage CI: 1.429-7.047, ρ=0.005). Other significant risk factors were educational level (aOR: 3.408, 95 percentage CI: 1.452-7.996, ρ=0.005), socioeconomic status (aOR: 3.173, 95 percentage CI: 1.366-7.368, ρ=0.007), maternal nutrition (aOR: 3.071, 95 percentage CI: 1.392-6.778, ρ=0.005) and moderate/severe anaemia (aOR: 3.035, 95 percentage CI: 1.052-8.756, p=0.040). Conclusions: Periodontitis is found to be a strong, independent, and clinically significant risk factor for low birth weight. So periodontal therapy should form a part of the antenatal care of the pregnant women in Abbottabad. (author)

  19. SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF PAROXYSMAL SUPRAVENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA IN A LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT NEWBORN BY INJECTION OF ADENOSINE-5'-TRIPHOSPHATE

    OpenAIRE

    古市, 康子; 吉田, 裕慈; 川口, 千晴; 桑原, 勲; 箕輪, 秀樹; 江國, 豊; 吉岡, 章; 高橋, 幸博; 松村, 正彦

    2002-01-01

    We report a case in which paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) in a low-birth-weight newborn, due to atrioventricular nodal re-entry, wassuccessfully treated by intravenous bolus injection of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP). The newborn was a male, born after 36 weeks and 1 day of gestation, weighing 2,204g. One hour after birth, he exhibited tachycardia, at 250 to 270 beats/min. A chest radiogragh revealed cardiomegaly, with a cardiothoracic ratio of 71%. Injection of ATP at a dose...

  20. Morbidity in extreme low birth weight newborns hospitalized in a high risk public maternity

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    Derijulie Siqueira Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the prevalence of the most common morbidities in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants hospitalized in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU and to evaluate the influence of these morbidities through the length of in-hospital stay. Methods: observational, longitudinal, prospective and analytical study in a high risk reference maternity NICU from Sergipe, realized with 158 ELBW infants admitted between March 2014 and April 2015. The analysis of the hospitalization time was realized through the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: the average weight of premature was 785,2g ± 138,2g. The gestational age vary from 22 to 35 weeks and the average was 26,8 weeks. Of those admitted at NICU, sixty three (39,9% were discharged and 95 (60,1% died. The time of hospitalization was influenced for morbidities as: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication (157 - 99,4%. The incidence of persistent arterial duct, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, hypothermia, hypoglycemia and retinopathy of prematurity was 39,2%, 17,1%, 32,3%,50,3%, 52,3% e 16,6% respectively. Conclusions: the morbidities from respiratory tract, cardiac, neurological and infectious were the most prevalent, whilst PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage and sepsis were the morbidities that significantly influenced the time of hospitalization.

  1. Developmental outcome of low birth-weight and preterm newborns: a re-view of current evidence

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    Farin Soleimani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems. Global statistics demonstrates an increase in the prevalence of low birth weight in the developing countries. Low birth weight infants are exposed to complications such as major neurosensory impairements, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances. The majority of infant's death and developmental disorders were due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight. Infants weighing less than 2500 g, is a major determinant of both neonatal and infant mortality rates and, together with congenital anomalies (e.g., cardiac, central nervous system, and respiratory, contributes significantly to childhood morbidity. Various studies indicate that low birth weight infants are suffering from physiological and psychosocial disabilities, two to three times more than the other children. At school age, preterm and low birth weight infants have poorer physical growth, cognitive function, and school performance. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Although the survival rates have increased dramatically and the incidence of morbidities has decreased, the complications are still considered to be associated with economical and social burdens. Most children with Low birth weight suffer from multiple disabilities. Therefore, they need special and consistent care. On demand of reducing the infant mortality rate, the need to decrease the complications in low birth weight and preterm infants should be considered by the policy makers in health care system. In this review article, we assessed current evidences on developmental outcomes of low birth weight and

  2. Effect of Kangaroo mother care on vital physiological parameters of the low birth weight newborn

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    Alpanamayi Bera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g, which is often associated with preterm birth, is a common problem in India. Both are recognized risk factors for neonatal mortality. Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a non-conventional, low-cost method for newborn care based upon intimate skin-to-skin contact between mother and baby. Our objective was to assess physiological state of LBW babies before and after KMC in a teaching hospital setting. Materials and Methods: Study cohort comprised in-born LBW babies and their mothers - 300 mother-baby pairs were selected through purposive sampling. Initially, KMC was started for 1 hour duration (at a stretch on first day and then increased by 1 hour each day for next 2 days. Axillary temperature, respiration rate (RR/ min, heart rate (HR/ min, and oxygen saturation (SpO 2 were assessed for 3 consecutive days, immediately before and after KMC. Results: Data from 265 mother-baby pairs were analyzed. Improvements occurred in all 4 recorded physiological parameters during the KMC sessions. Mean temperature rose by about 0.4°C, RR by 3 per minute, HR by 5 bpm, and SpO 2 by 5% following KMC sessions. Although modest, these changes were statistically significant on all 3 days. Individual abnormalities (e.g. hypothermia, bradycardia, tachycardia, low SpO 2 were often corrected during the KMC sessions. Conclusions: Babies receiving KMC showed modest but statistically significant improvement in vital physiological parameters on all 3 days. Thus, without using special equipment, the KMC strategy can offer improved care to LBW babies. These findings support wider implementation of this strategy.

  3. Peri-intraventricular hemorrhage and oxidative and inflammatory stress markers in very-low birth weight newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Jamil P S; Braghini, Carolina A; Mazzola, Taís N; Vilela, Maria M S; Marba, Sérgio T M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between oxidative and inflammatory stress markers with peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) in very-low birth weight newborns. This was a prospective study conducted in a level III neonatal unit. Basal and stimulated reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), reduced glutathione (GSH), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured in umbilical cord blood. Newborns underwent serial ultrasound at the bedside, at 6, 12, 24, and 72hours of life and at seven days for the diagnosis of PIVH, classified as grades I to IV. Two groups were assessed, those with and without PIVH; maternal and neonatal control variables were used for comparison. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were applied. A total of 125 newborns were assessed. PIVH incidence rate was 12.0%. In the univariate analysis, basal ROI, the use of two or more doses of corticosteroids, birth weight<1,000g, ventilatory support use, and SNAPPE II value ≥ 22 were significantly associated with PIVH. However, in the multivariate analysis, only antenatal steroid use was independently associated with the disease (OR 0,194; 95% CI: 0,048 to 0,773; p=0,02). ROI, GSH, and IL-6 levels were not associated with the occurrence of PIVH in very-low birth weight infants. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the Impact of a Pragmatic Nutrition Awareness Program for Expectant Mothers upon Birth Weight of the Newborn

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    Sanjeev Rastogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutritional status and substandard antenatal care, which result in increased women's risk, low birth weight and stillbirth, afflict many countries with weak or emerging economies even today. Studies that address the effect of extending nutrition awareness among pregnant women to the net outcome of pregnancy remain scarce. We aimed to compare and contrast the effect of a pragmatic nutrition awareness program for expectant mothers (NAPEM on birth weight of the newborn with a control group who received no such nutrition awareness activity. The effect of variables of mode of newborn delivery, associated complications at birth, and APGAR score of the newborn were also assessed. A pragmatic intervention trial of an antenatal care (ANC program that consisted in nutrition awareness was conducted involving 53 pregnant women. Awareness was given through one-to-one interview and through informational literature provided to the participants in the local language. A hospital registry for deliveries undertaken during the study period was screened for identification of variables. A control group of matched pregnant women (n = 53 was obtained from the same hospital registry from preceding years, when the nutrition awareness program was not executed. A statistically significant improvement in birth weight of the newborn was observed in the intervention group, where expectant mothers were made aware about desired nutrition during pregnancy. A reduced incidence of complications associated with pregnancy was also observed in the intervention group. Providing awareness about nutritional requirements during pregnancy and suggesting the pragmatic ways to meet them was shown to be one possible effective measure to deal with pregnancy-related undernutrition. We show the efficacy of the intervention for underprivileged regions of India marked by inadequate health care delivery and lower socio-economical standards. We discuss our findings in the context of

  5. Glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1, GSTT1) gene polymorphisms, maternal gestational weight gain, bioimpedance factors and their relationship with birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Romanian mothers and their newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărginean, Claudiu; Bănescu, Claudia Violeta; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Tripon, Florin; Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Iancu, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between mother-child GSTM1, GSTT1 gene polymorphisms, maternal weight gain, maternal bioimpedance parameters and newborn's weight, in order to identify the factors that influence birth weight. We performed a cross-sectional study on 405 mothers and their newborns, evaluated in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Tertiary Hospital from Romania. Newborns whose mothers had the null genotype of GSTT1 gene polymorphism were more likely to gain a birth weight of >3 kg, compared to newborns whose mothers had the T1 genotype (odds ratio - OR: 2.14, 95% confidence interval - CI: [1.03; 4.44]). Also, the null genotype of GSTM1 gene polymorphism in both mothers and newborns was associated with a higher birth weight. Gestational weight gain was positively associated with newborn's birth weight (pbirth weight of more than 3 kg (p=0.006 and p=0.037). The null genotype of GSTT1 gene polymorphism in mothers and the null genotype of GSTM1 in mothers and newborns had a positive effect on birth weight. Also, increased maternal fat mass and basal metabolism rate were associated with increased birth weight. We conclude that maternal GSTM1÷GSTT1 gene polymorphisms present an impact on birth weight, being involved in the neonatal nutritional status. The clinical relevance of our study is sustained by the importance of identifying the factors that influence birth weight, which can be triggers for childhood obesity.

  6. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  7. Infections reported in newborns with very low birth weight who required surgical treatment. Data from the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Helwich, Ewa; Borszewska-Kornacka, Maria; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Gulczyńska, Ewa; Kordek, Agnieszka; Pawlik, Dorota; Szczapa, Jerzy; Domańska, Joanna; Klamka, Jerzy; Heczko, Piotr B

    2013-01-01

    To determine the risk of various forms of infections appearing in very low birth weight newborns (VLBW) during the period of 30 days after surgical treatment in hospitals which have perinatal care departments with neonatal intensive care units that form the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network (PNSN). Continuous prospective monitoring of infections was carried out from January 1st to December 31st 2009 in six neonatal intensive care units which form the Polish Neonatal Surveillance Network. (PNSN). 910 newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW) were included in the study programme. 91 (10%) of this group underwent 118 surgical interventions. 12 newborns needed two or more surgeries. The most common procedure was the closure of persistent ductus artesiosus (PDA) and photocoagulation of vascular damage in the eye fundus. In the period of 30 days after surgery the following were diagnosed: in 3 newborns - necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), in 22 newborns - sepsis (BSI) and in 54 newborns - pneumonia (PNEU). Symptoms of BSI and PNEU were on average observed on the 10th day after surgical intervention, while in the case of NEC on the 17th day. The highest incidence of infection (148.4%) was observed after PDA closure and in connection with introducing a drain into the pleural cavity through the intercostal space. The incidence of PN EU (37.3%) was twice as high as the incidence of BSI (18.6%). Surgical procedure was a factor significantly increasing the risk of infection and morbidity (RR 2.1, P<001) In our investigations there was no case of the local infection of a surgical site. 11 newborns died (mortality was 12.1%). The most common bacterial strains found in our investigation were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Escherichia Coli. Taking into consideration the fact that surgical procedure in VLBW-newborns significantly increases the risk of pneumonia and to a minor degree the risk of NEC and BSI, further detailed investigation in the field of perisurgical

  8. RISK FACTORS FOR THE EARLY NEONATAL MORTALITY IN NEWBORNS WITH VERY LOW AND EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the association of perinatal factors with the early neonatal mortality in newborns with very low (VLBW and extremely low birth weight (ELBW.Methods: The statistical data was carried out, that is analysis of 17 perinatal factors of 28 newborns with an ELBW with gestation of 23–27 weeks and 18 newborns with a VLBW with gestation of 28–32 weeks, who died in the first 7 days of life. The comparison group consisted of 25 newborns with an ELBW and 56 children with a VLBW with gestation of 25–27 and 28–32 weeks, respectively, who survived the early neonatal period. The association of risk factors with the early neonatal mortality was assessed by means of a multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. A critical p error level was set equal to 0.05. Results: In newborns with a VLBW the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality depended on a gestation term (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.56–11.71; р = 0.002 and emergency Caesarean section (OR 7.48, 95% CI 1.28–43.74; р = 0.008. A vaginal birth increased the survival chance (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01–0.86; р = 0.032. Newborns with an ELBW had the following factors of the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality: gestational age (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.06–7.73; р = 0.038, Apgar score at the 5th minute (OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.99–3.69; р = 0.050 and presence of chorioamnionitis (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.0–29.53; p = 0.048. An elective Caesarean section increased the survival chance (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.001–0.44; p = 0.048. Conclusion: Summarizing the obtained data, we can conclude that besides a gestational age the risk of early neonatal mortality in newborns with a VLBW may be increased due to the emergency Caesarean section, with an ELBW — due to a low Apgar score at the 5th minute and the presence of mother's chorioamnionitis. A vaginal birth in newborns with a VLBW and an elective Caesarean section in children with an ELBW increase survival chances.

  9. Newborn birth-weight of pregnant women on methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment: A national contingency management approach trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Sason, Anat; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam

    2017-03-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the gold standard for pregnant women with opioid use disorders. Still, low birth-weights were reported, in particular of mothers who became pregnant before admission to MMT. We studied whether an escalating incentive contingency-management approach may contribute to better newborn birth-weights. A nationwide controlled randomized trial among all Israeli methadone/buprenorphine maintenance treatment (MBMT), newly or already in treatment pregnant women was performed. A modified contingency-management protocol with coupons of escalating value depending upon reduction of drug use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption was compared to standard care arm. Drugs in urine, smoking (Fagerstrom score), alcohol use, and depression were monitored. Thirty-five women had 46 pregnancies. In their first pregnancy, 19 from the contingency-management and 16 from the standard care arms were studied. Contingency-management group as compared to the standard care arm included more newly admitted women (36.8% vs. 6.3%, p = .05), with benzodiazepine and cannabis onset at a younger age, and higher proportion of any drug abuse while pregnant (100% vs. 68.8%, p = .01). Fifteen of the contingency-management and 14 of the control arm gave birth (78.9% vs. 87.5%, p = .3) with similar proportions of normal (>2,500 g) birth-weight (71.4% vs. 61.5%, p = .8). Newborns' birth-weight was comparable among the two study arms indicating no contribution of the contingency-management approach. Small sample and baseline differences between arms might have influenced results. Intensive intervention should be evaluated on a larger scale of participants. (Am J Addict 2017;26:167-175). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. [Relationship between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and birth weight of term singleton live-birth newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L Q; Zhang, Q; Zhao, D D; Wang, L L; Chen, Y; Mi, B B; Dang, S N; Yan, H

    2017-10-10

    Objective: This study explored the association between air pollution exposure and birth weight by using the multilevel linear model, after controlling related meteorological factors and individual differences of both mothers and babies. Methods: Women of childbearing age who were pregnant in Xi'an from 2010 to 2013, were selected as objects of this study. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 4 631 subjects followed by a self-designed questionnaire survey. Data related to quality of air and meteorology were gathered from routine monitoring system. Gestational age and date of birth, together with the average levels of air pollution were calculated for each trimester on each mother, and then the impact of air pollution on birth weight was assessed. A multilevel linear model was employed to investigate the association between the levels of exposure to air pollution by birth weight. Confounding factors were under control. We established three models in this study: Model 1 which involving the variable of air pollution exposure. Model 2 was adjusted for variables in Model 1 plus some other individual differences of both mother and baby. Model 3 was adjusted for variables in Model 2 plus meteorological factors. Results: There were significant differences seen in birth weight within the subgroups of gender, gestational age, mother's reproductive age, maternal education, residential areas and family incomes ( P 0.05). Data from Model 3 indicated that a decrease of 13.3 g(10.9 g in Model 2) and 6.6 g (5.9 g in Model 2) in birth weight that were associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester; A decrease of 13.7 g (9.8 g in Model 2) in birth weight was associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) during the third trimester. Conclusion: After controlling for meteorological factors, the levels of exposure to NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester and NO(2) during the

  11. [Disorders of the mother-child relationship in newborn infants with low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, J P; Calame, A; Marchand, C; Plancherel, B; Prod'hom, L S

    1981-02-01

    The influence of premature birth or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on the mother-child relationship has been studied in 80 children with birth-weight below 2000 g, treated in the Neonatology Unit of the Pediatric Department of Lausanne University. 40 children with birth-weight over 2500 g and without perinatal complications born in the Obstetrical Department of the same hospital were used as controls. The 80 infants with low birth-weight presented only minor neonatal disturbances and showed later on a normal psychomotor development. The mother-child relationship was evaluated by free and structured interviews accompanied by a questionnaire and by regular contacts throughout the first 12 months. With the exception of the professional work of the mother during and after pregnancy, all the family and social factors were not significantly different in the 3 groups. The mothers of premature children showed significantly more disturbances of their family relationship than the mothers in the control group. On the other hand, a significantly higher number of attachment problems is the only difference observed in the group of mothers of IUGR-babies. There was no mathematical correlation between these problems and the characteristics of the family and social-economic environment of the mothers. The importance of subjective, i.e. psychological, factors as cause of difficulties in the mother-child relationship is stressed.

  12. [Determinants of low birth weight among newborns to HIV-infected mothers not eligible for antiretroviral treatment in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, H; Meda, N; Nagot, N; Somé, E; Neboua, D; Kankasa, C; Hofmeyr, J; Tumwine, J; Vallo, R; Ye, D; Tylleskar, T; Van de Perre, P

    2013-10-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) increases the risk of infant death, but little is known about its rate and determinants among babies born to HIV-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted in South Africa, Burkina Faso, Uganda and Zambia, during the recruitment process of the PROMISE-PEP (ANRS 12174) clinical trial. The study sample included 1196 subjects screened between August 2009 and December 2011, respectively 254 in South Africa, 221 in Burkina Faso, 197 in Uganda and 524 in Zambia, all ineligible for antiretroviral therapy. Data were collected during ANRS12174 clinical trial antenatal and postnatal screening visits, and during an inclusion visit for completion of an electronic case report form (eCRF). The mean (±SD) age of mothers was 27±5years and their mean CD4 count was 576±195cells/μL. Most mothers lived in a couple (78.7%), had no employment (72.3%) and had a good level of education (74% had gone to school). Male newborns predominated (51.7%). The mean birth weight was 3043g±435g, and 7.8% ([95%CI: 6.3%-9.3%]) of newborns weighed less than 2500g. In univariate analyses, being married or cohabiting, body mass index, WHO HIV disease stage II, female newborn and low gestational age were associated with risk of LBW. In multivariate regression model, low gestational age (aOR=3.74, P<0.0001) and female newborn (aOR=1.63, P=0.04) were significantly associated with LBW. The risk factors for LBW found in HIV-infected women ineligible for antiretroviral therapy were the same as in the general population. There was no evidence of additional risk factors associated with HIV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF GESTATIONAL AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORN ON TOOTH ERUPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sandra Regina Piovezani; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the beginning of eruption of the first deciduous tooth in preterm infants (eruption. Methods: The neonatal records and the moment of eruption of the first deciduous tooth of 146 infants - 77 preterm infants and 69 full-term infants, ranging from 5 to 36 months old, of both genders – were recorded. All of them were under care at the Pediatric Ambulatory of Hospital Universitário Evangélico at Curitiba – Parana. Data were analyzed considering biological age and post-conception, or corrected, age – which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of eruption of the first deciduous tooth. Results: Results showed that when chronological age is considered, tooth eruption in preterm and very low birth weight infants is importantly delayed. However, when corrected age is considered, no statistically significant differences were found among groups. Conclusion: The delayed eruption may be related to the premature birth and not to a delay in dental development. PMID:19089267

  14. Free thyroxine values in dried blood spots on filter paper in newborns are related to both gestational age and birth body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, A; Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Falcone, M; Buratti, L; Ciampi, M; Giusti, L F; Grasso, L; Fenzi, G F; Martino, E

    1988-01-01

    The results of free thyroxine (FT4) measurements in dried blood spots on filter paper in 744 euthyroid newborns (616 at term, 128 preterm), 10 newborns with congenital hypothyroidism and 4 euthyroid newborns with congenital TBG deficiency are reported. FT4 was measured by column adsorption chromatography of free hormone followed by radioimmunoassay in the eluate. FT4 values averaged 24 +/- 0.2 pmol/L (mean +/- SE) in euthyroid newborns, 23.0 +/- 0.9 pmol/L in euthyroid newborns with TBG deficiency (p = NS), and 5.7 +/- 0.4 pmol/L in hypothyroid newborns (p less than 0.001 vs both groups). Total T4 (TT4) values in newborns with TBG deficiency were not different from those in hypothyroid newborns, but were significantly lower than those in euthyroid newborns without TBG abnormalities. FT4 values were higher in full-term newborns than in preterm newborns (25.2 +/- 0.3 vs 21.2 +/- 0.5 pmol/L, p less than 0.001). In both full-term and preterm newborns FT4 values in dried blood spots increased with birth body weight (bbw), virtually plateauing when bbw was greater than 2,500 g. The cut-off values established on the basis of the bbw (8.0 and 13.1 pmol/L for a bbw of less than or equal to 2,500 g and greater than 2,500 g, respectively) showed higher specificity and predictive value of positive results than the cut-off values based on the gestational age. In any case, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of FT4 determinations proved to be higher than those of TT4 and TSH measurements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Association of Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Cord Blood Nitric Oxide Level with Birth Weight of Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naghavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy affects the birth weight of neonates. Some of the undesirable pregnancy outcomes are linked to lower birth weights. This study aimed to assess the relationship between maternal dietary patterns, weight gain during pregnancy and nitric oxide (NO, as an endothelial relaxing factor, and the possible effects on birth weight.Materials and Methods: At first, a pilot study was done, and finally a number of 233 mothers who referred to 4 public and private hospitals in Isfahan, the Central of Iran, during March 2014 to March 2015 via a convenience sampling method, were elected and participant in this study. Dietary patterns were assessed using a Persian version of Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Gestational weight gain was measured, too. Cord blood nitric oxide (NO level, and neonate’s anthropometric characteristics were measured after delivery.Results: The study participants consisted of 233 mother-neonate pairs. Overall, 4.3% of boys and 11.8% of girls, had low birth weight (< 2.500 gr. Mean gestational weight gain was 12.85 ± 4.37 kg, and there was a statistically significant between three birth-weight categories (Low birth weight, normal birth weight and high birth weight (P

  16. Obstetric and newborn outcomes and risk factors for low birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There remains uncertainty about the impact of HIV on pregnancy outcomes and effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on fetal development. This study describes obstetric outcomes among HIV positive parturients at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. HIV positive parturients were identified in the birth register.

  17. Feeding of Low Birth Weight Newborns in Tertiary Care Hospitals in Pakistan: Do They Follow the World Health Organization Latest Guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jehangir; Stafstrom, Martin; Martines, Jose Carlos

    2015-08-01

    To determine the extent the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the care of Low Birth Weight (LBW) newborns are followed in Pakistani hospitals and analyze any difference in policy compliance between different hospitals. Descriptive analytical study. Data was collected from five tertiary care hospitals, one each from Peshawar, Lahore, Quetta, Karachi and Islamabad, from January to June 2012. LBW newborns data derived from medical records was used. It was collected using a questionnaire, which encompassed the recent WHO recommendations for feeding of LBW. Twenty questionnaires were collected from each hospital. STATA11.0 was used to analyze the data. Fifty seven LBW newborns (57%) were fed with mother's own milk, and 9 (9%) were fed on donor human milk. Forty four newborns (44%) were initiated breastfeeding within the first hour after birth. Most of the babies not able to be breastfed were fed with intra gastric tube. Feeding practices varied markedly across hospitals, ranging from one hospital where all newborns were fed formula milk to one where all were fed breast milk. The WHO guidelines were only partially implemented, with significant differences between hospitals in level of implementation of recommended practices. Given the benefits expected from the application of the guidelines, efforts should be made for the establishment and promotion of a single national policy for LBW feeding that follows the WHO new guidelines and streamlines the LBW feeding practices across the country.

  18. Changes in the newborn at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth - changes in the newborn ... heart and flows through the baby's body. At birth, the baby's lungs are filled with fluid. They ... gastrointestinal system doesn't fully function until after birth. In late pregnancy, the baby produces a tarry ...

  19. The association between higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and increased birth weight, adiposity and inflammation in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, K; Ponsonby, A-L; Collier, F; Allen, K; Tang, M L K; Carlin, J B; Saffery, R; Skilton, M R; Cheung, M; Ranganathan, S; Dwyer, T; Burgner, D; Vuillermin, P

    2018-01-01

    Excess adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; however, little is known regarding the determinants of adiposity-related inflammation at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn adiposity and inflammation. Paired maternal (28-week gestation) and infant (umbilical cord) blood samples were collected from a population-derived birth cohort (Barwon Infant Study, n = 1074). Data on maternal comorbidities and infant birth anthropomorphic measures were compiled, and infant aortic intima-media thickness was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound. In a selected subgroup of term infants (n = 161), matched maternal and cord lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and maternal soluble CD14 were measured. Analysis was completed by using pairwise correlation and linear regression. Because of their non-normal distribution, pathology blood measures were log transformed prior to analysis. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with increased birth weight (mean difference 17.8 g per kg m -2 , 95% CI 6.6 to 28.9; p = 0.002), newborn mean skin-fold thickness (mean difference 0.1 mm per kg m -2 , 95% CI 0.0 to 0.1; p pregnancy BMI, 95% CI 0.6 to 7.7%, p = 0.02), but not cord blood soluble CD14. Inclusion of maternal hsCRP as a covariate attenuated the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and both newborn skin-fold thickness and cord blood hsCRP. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with increased newborn adiposity and inflammation. These associations may be partially mediated by maternal inflammation during pregnancy. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  20. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    ) status. OBJECTIVES: To compare the birth weight distributions of the INTERGROWTH-21st international standard to commonly used US references and examine the differences in the prevalence and neonatal mortality risk of SGA status (below the 10th percentile of a population reference). DESIGN, SETTING...... variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000...... and no significant change in the associated neonatal mortality risk, resulting in a decrease in the percentage of neonatal death attributable to SGA. Our study sheds light on how previously published studies on SGA status may be reinterpreted with the introduction of this new birth weight standard....

  1. Nasal CPAP in the delivery room for newborns with extremely low birth weight in a hospital in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Goncalves-Ferri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the use of continuous positive airway pressure installed prophylactically in the delivery room (DR-CPAP, for infants with a birth weight between 500 and 1000 g in settings with limited resources. During 23 months, infants with a birth weight between 500 and 1000 g consecutively received DR-CPAP. A total of 33 infants with low birth weight were enrolled, 16 (48.5% were females. Only 14 (42.4% received antenatal corticosteroids and only 2 of those 14 (14.3% infants weighing 500-750 g were not intubated in the delivery room, and apnea was given as the reason for intubation of these patients. Of the 19 infants in the 751-1000 g weight range, 9 (47.4% were intubated in the delivery room, 6 due to apnea and 3 due to respiratory discomfort. For DR-CPAP to be successful, it is probably necessary for preterm babies to be more prepared at birth to withstand the respiratory effort without the need for intubation. Antenatal corticosteroids and better prenatal monitoring are fundamental for success of DR-CPAP.

  2. Nasal CPAP in the delivery room for newborns with extremely low birth weight in a hospital in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Ferri, W A; Martinez, F E

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of the use of continuous positive airway pressure installed prophylactically in the delivery room (DR-CPAP), for infants with a birth weight between 500 and 1000 g in settings with limited resources. During 23 months, infants with a birth weight between 500 and 1000 g consecutively received DR-CPAP. A total of 33 infants with low birth weight were enrolled, 16 (48.5%) were females. Only 14 (42.4%) received antenatal corticosteroids and only 2 of those 14 (14.3%) infants weighing 500-750 g were not intubated in the delivery room, and apnea was given as the reason for intubation of these patients. Of the 19 infants in the 751-1000 g weight range, 9 (47.4%) were intubated in the delivery room, 6 due to apnea and 3 due to respiratory discomfort. For DR-CPAP to be successful, it is probably necessary for preterm babies to be more prepared at birth to withstand the respiratory effort without the need for intubation. Antenatal corticosteroids and better prenatal monitoring are fundamental for success of DR-CPAP.

  3. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  4. C-Reactive Protein and Procalcitonin Diagnostic Value in Congenital Infection in Newborns with Extremely Low and Very Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Mikhaylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high frequency of infectious complications in the early neonatal period of adaptation in infants with extremely low (ELBW and very low birth weight (VLBW attracts particular attention. The aim of our study was to evaluate the sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in congenital pneumonia and congenital sepsis in newborn infants with extremely low and very low birth weight.Methods. In 160 preterm newborns that were included in our prospective study, 33 had early neonatal sepsis, 42 children had congenital pneumonia, and 85 infants were without neonatal infection. A comprehensive clinical and laboratoryinstrumental examination of the newborn was done, including determining the concentration of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin at the age of 48–72 hours of life. Results. Low sensitivity of CRP at the age of 48–72 hours of life in congenital sepsis and congenital pneumonia was observed. However, under these pathological conditions CRP and PCT are characterized by high specificity. It should also be noted that PCT has a high sensitivity in children with congenital sepsis aged 48–72 hours. Moreover, PCT also has a high specificity (Sp 80,6%, which determines its advantage in the use of sepsis diagnosis in extremely premature infants compared to CRP.Conclusion. Maximum specificity reaches 100%, co-located with the assessment of CRP and PCT, which determines the feasibility of using this combination for verification of congenital infectious conditions such as sepsis and pneumonia in children ELBW and VLBW aged 48–72 hours.

  5. The relationship of newborn adiposity to fetal growth outcome based on birth weight or the modified neonatal growth assessment score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Riggs, T; Koo, W; Deter, RL; Yeo, L; Romero, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives (1) Develop reference ranges of neonatal adiposity using air displacement plethysmography. (2) Use new reference ranges for neonatal adiposity to compare two different methods of evaluating neonatal nutritional status. Methods Three hundred and twenty-four normal neonates (35–41 weeks post-menstrual age) had body fat (%BF) and total fat mass (FM, g) measured using air displacement plethysmography shortly after delivery. Results were stratified for 92 of these neonates with corresponding fetal biometry using two methods for classifying nutritional status: (1) population-based weight percentiles; and (2) a modified neonatal growth assessment score (m3NGAS51). Results At the 50th percentile, &BF varied from 7.7% (35 weeks) to 11.8% (41 weeks), while the corresponding 50th percentiles for total FM were 186–436g. Among the subset of 92 neonates, no significant differences in adiposity were found between small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and large for gestational age (LGA) groups using population-based weight standards. Classification of the same neonates using m3NGAS51 showed significant differences in mean %BF between corresponding groups. Conclusions Population-based weight criteria for neonatal nutritional status can lead to misclassification on the basis of adiposity. A neonatal growth assessment score, that considers the growth potential of several anatomic parameters, appears to more effectively classify under-and over-nourished newborns. PMID:22494346

  6. Caracterización de neonatos con peso inferior a 2000 g Characterization of newborns with a birth weight under 2000 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Martín Blanco

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Los niños con bajo peso al nacer son 20 veces más propensos a morir y presentan mayor morbilidad que los nacidos con buen peso. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue caracterizar a los recién nacidos con peso inferior a 2000 g, nacidos entre el 1ro. de enero del 2005 y el 31 de diciembre del 2006 en el Hospital Universitario "América Arias". MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo-analítico, longitudinal y prospectivo, cuyo universo fueron los neonatos con peso inferior a 2000 g, nacidos en este período. En el análisis estadístico se utilizó la distribución de frecuencias, la media y la desviación estándar de la ganancia de peso, la talla, y las circunferencias cefálica y braquial. RESULTADOS. El 96,16 % de los pacientes estudiados nacieron con peso entre 1000 y 1999 g. El 93,27 % estuvo por debajo de las 36,6 semanas de gestación y en el 75,96 % de los casos el parto fue distócico. El 61,54 % de los neonatos tuvo peso adecuado para su edad gestacional. Predominaron los pacientes con factores de riesgo asociados. Más de la mitad presentó morbilidad asociada, principalmente por sepsis (25,96 %. Falleció el 10,58 % de los recién nacidos. CONCLUSIONES. Las principales causas del bajo peso de los recién nacidos fueron el embarazo múltiple y la enfermedad hipertensiva de la gestación. Las defunciones se comportaron por debajo de lo esperado. En los pacientes con crecimiento intrauterino retardado simétricos, la ganancia de peso y talla al alta fue significativamente mayor que en los asimétricos y adecuados para su edad gestacional.INTRODUCTION. Children with low birth weight are 20 times more prone to die and to have a greater morbidity than those with an adequate weight. The objective of this research was to characterize the newborn infants with a weight lower than 2000 g that were born between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st , 2006 in "America Arias" Children Hospital. METHODS

  7. Arthritis, osteomyelitis, septicemia and meningitis caused by Klebsiella in a low-birth-weight newborn: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorashi Sona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Klebsiella pneumoniae is in most cases a hospital-acquired infection and presents as pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis in patients with some predisposing factors, including prematurity, intravenous catheter, history of antibiotic therapy and intravenous nutrients. Case presentation A low-birth-weight, 33-day-old Caucasian girl with respiratory distress syndrome was admitted to our hospital. She developed septicemia, meningitis, polyarticular arthritis and osteomyelitis by nosocomial K. pneumoniae which was resistant to most antibiotics except ciprofloxacin. She was therefore treated with ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole for eight weeks. After completion of the treatment course, she completely improved with excellent weight gain and without any adverse effects during three years of follow-up. Conclusion In the resistant strain of K. pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin could be considered as a therapeutic option with the prospect of a good outcome, even in neonates and infants.

  8. Evaluation of the clinical risk index in very low birth weight newborns at a public tertiary maternity in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexandre Breuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the clinical risk index in very low birthweight newborns at a public maternity hospital, its associationwith mortality, some selected neonatal respiratory diseases andsurfactant therapy. Methods: A cohort prospective study carriedout at the Hospital Municipal Vila Nova Cachoeirinha e MaternidadeEscola, in São Paulo, Brazil. All newborns with gestational age< 31 weeks and birth weight < 1500 g were evaluated for theapplication of the clinical risk index for babies (CRIB. Newbornswho died in the first 12 hours of life or were referred from othermaternities were excluded from this study. Statistical analysesused logistic regression, Spearman correlation test and Student’st test. Results: Seventy-one cases were studied. The meangestational age was 27.30 ± 2.61 weeks; the mean weight was1032.61 ± 280.62 g. Birth weight and gestational age showedbetter predictive values for neonatal mortality than the clinicalrisk index for babies (80.30%, 76.10%, 73.20%. Twins showed nosignificant index differences (t = 0.601; p = 0.748. The scorewas inversely related to Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and wasassociated with the respiratory distress syndrome, pneumothoraxand the use of surfactants. There was no significant correlation withchronic lung disease. Conclusion: The clinical risk index for babieswas not the best predictor for neonatal mortality as compared toweight and gestational age, but showed a significant associationwith 1 and 5-minute Apgar scores, respiratory distress syndrome,extrapulmonary air and the use of surfactants. It was not predictivefor chronic lung disease. Twins were not associated with CRIB.

  9. Immobility reaction at birth in newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Pierre Victor; Francotte, Jacques; Fabbricatore, Maria; Frischen, Caroline; Duchateau, Delphine; Perin, Marie; Gauthier, Jean-Marie; Lahaye, Willy

    2014-08-01

    To describe an immobility reaction (IR) that was not previously reported at or immediately after birth in human newborns. We analyzed 31 videos of normal term vaginal deliveries recorded from Time 0 of birth defined as the as the moment that lies between the birth of the thorax and the pelvis of the infant. We searched for perinatal factors associated with newborn's IR. IR at birth was observed in 8 of the 31 newborns. The main features of their behavior were immobilization, frozen face, shallow breathing and bradycardia. One of the 8 newborns had sudden collapse 2h after birth. We found significant relationships between maternal prenatal stress (PS) and IR (p=.037), and a close to significant one between infants' lividness at Time 0 and IR (p=.053). The first breath of the 31 newborns occurred before and was not associated with the first cry (psyndrome. This first report of an IR reaction at birth in human infants could open up new paths for improving early neonatal care. Further research is needed for maternal PS, stress hormones, umbilical cord blood pH measurements in IR newborns. The challenge of education and support for parents of IR newborns is outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  11. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  12. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  13. Effects of gestation and transition diets, piglet birth weight, and fasting time on depletion of glycogen pools in liver and 3 muscles of newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, P K; Cordero, G; Henckel, P; Puggaard, L; Oksbjerg, N; Sørensen, M T

    2011-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to assess the effects of maternal nutrition in late gestation on glycogen pools of newborn piglets of different birth weights and to assess how rapidly the glycogen pools in the liver and 3 muscles are mobilized during fasting. Until d 108 of gestation, 48 sows were fed a gestation standard diet (GSD) with low dietary fiber (DF, 17.1%), or 1 of 3 diets with high DF (32.3 to 40.4%) consisting of pectin residue (GPR), potato pulp (GPP), or sugar-beet pulp (GSP). From d 108 until farrowing, sows were fed 1 of 6 transition diets with low or high dietary fat: one group received a standard diet (TSD; control) containing 3% animal fat, another group received the TSD diet + 2.5 g/d of hydroxy-methyl butyrate as topdressing (THB), and 4 other groups received diets with 8% added fat from coconut oil (TCO), sunflower oil (TSO), fish oil (TFO), or 4% octanoic acid + 4% fish oil (TOA). Two piglets per litter (the second and fifth born) were blood sampled, and 1 was killed immediately after birth, whereas the other, depending on the litter, was killed after 12, 24, or 28.5 to 36 h (mean 32.5 h) of fasting. Samples of liver, LM, M. semimembranousus (SM), and M. diaphragm (DP) were collected and analyzed for glycogen concentration. No dietary effects (P > 0.20) on glycogen concentrations in liver, LM, SM, or DP were observed. The weight of the liver was affected by gestation diet (P muscle mass, and glycogen pools (P muscles were not (P > 0.05). Liver weight; glycogen concentrations in liver, LM, SM, and DP; and glycogen pools in liver and muscles decreased (P muscle, was estimated to be depleted after 16.4 h of fasting. In conclusion, piglet size had a major impact on estimated glycogen pools, whereas sow nutrition in late gestation had a minor impact, if any. Furthermore, varying proportions of pools of glycogen present in liver and selected muscles were mobilized, and data indicate that newborn piglets are fatally depleted of energy after 16 h of

  14. [Outcome of newborn with birth weight less than or equal to 1500g and gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks, during the 2 first years of age corrected: comparison of two time periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Valdivieso, M J; Rodríguez López, J; Gómez Castillo, E; Bustos Lozano, G; Bergón Sendin, E; Pallás Alonso, C R

    2010-06-01

    Advances in perinatal care have resulted in increased survival rates for extremely low birth weight children, but it is fundamental to know if these improved survival rates have been accompanied by increased impairment rates. To compare, over two different time periods, the survival and disability rates at 2 years of corrected age, among newborns birth. Follow-up study that included 963 children born in the hospital between 1991 and 2004 who met the study criteria. Neonatal morbidity, mortality and disability to 2 years of corrected age in 2 time periods 1991-1998 (period I) and 1999-2004 (period II) have been evaluated and analysed by subgroups of weight (weight birth weight birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g ( 3,6% vs 9%). Analysing all children birth weight 1000-1500 g (67% vs 82%). In our study, globally analysing all children with birth weight birth weight 1000-1500 g subgroup. Copyright 2009 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on anaemia of pregnancy: Therapeutic response to haematinics and on the birth weights of their newborns, and role of malabsorption in anaemic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Anaemia is commonly found in Pakistan especially in pregnant women and children of low socio-economic classes. Malnutrition and anaemia in pregnancy is also associated with impaired foetal and infant health. The pregnant women (n=102) in their third trimester of pregnancy without any obstetrical complications were the subjects for this study and 53.9% of them were anaemic with haemoglobin levels less than 11 g/dl. They were treated with either iron alone (100 mg/day), supplemented with folic acid (10 mg/day) or with folic acid (10 mg/day), vitamin B 12 (2μg/day) and vitamin C (140 mg/day) for 4 weeks. The biochemical parameters were repeated after 4 weeks of treatment and an improvement was observed when iron was supplemented with folic acid. The effect of malnutrition and anaemia of pregnant moment was assessed on the birth weights of their newborns in 124 women. The newborns were divided in to 3 groups i.e. Small for age ( 3.5 Kg). The dietary history indicated a low intake of energy, protein and iron in mothers of small infants. On the basis of biochemical parameters it was concluded that the mothers were malnourished and anaemic which was more evident in mothers of small infants. The role of malabsorption was studied in 42 children suffering from malnutrition and anaemia and they were divided into 5 groups, i.e. fibrocystic disease of the pancreas. (n=9), coeliac disease (n=17), lactose intolerance (n=5), PEM (n=5) and non-specific diarrhea (n=6) on the basis of history, clinical impression and biochemical findings. Xylose and lactose tolerance tests were performed after oral dose of xylose or lactose respectively. The various biochemical indices studied indicate that malabsorption plays an important role in malnutrition and anaemia. (abstract only)

  16. Cleaning air pollutants for newborns in China: a national risk assessment on low birth weight caused by ambient fine particles during 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, T.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    With the ending of one-child policy since 2015, the number of newborns are expected to increase in China, where people are surviving from pool air quality. Air pollutants, especially PM2.5 have been confirmed as a top risk factor to cause birth defects including low birth weight (LBW). Motivated by the increasing demands of the newborns for cleaner air in China, we conducted the first national risk assessment study on LBW cases caused by PM2.5. We combined county-level PM2.5 concentrations in 2013-2015 and demographic data (including population counts, birth rates and etc.), province-level baseline incidences of LBW and multiple reference safety concentrations (0 μg/m3, WHO air quality guidelines and interim targets) to estimate the number of PM2.5-associated LBW in 31 provinces. The uncertainty was quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. Based on our results, in 2013 among 334,781 (95% CI: 313,024-344,568) cases of LBW, 122,684 (95% CI: 53,153-173,846, account for 37% of the total LBW) were attributed to PM2.5, when assuming the reference safety concentration as 0 μg/m3; while 53,917 (95% CI: 22,851-82,195, account for 16% of the total LBW) cases of LBW could have been protected, if the air quality met WHO WHO interim target-3, 35 μg/m3. Among 31 provinces, PM2.5-associated LBW were mostly distributed in Hebei (12.99%, 95% CI: 12.42%-17.30%), Henan (9.75%, 95% CI: 9.11%-13.50%) and Guangdong (8.60%, 95% CI: 6.98%-9.42%). During 2013 to 2015, air quality in China was reported to be improved by implement of emission-reduction policies. Similarly, we found significantly decreasing trends of infants weighted concentrations of PM2.5 in most heavily polluted areas, which protected 12,201 (95% CI: 4,749-20,503) and 24,637 (95% CI: 9,619-39,821) PM2.5-associated LBW in 2014 and 2015, account for 3.64% (95% CI: 1.46%-6.21%) and 7.36% (95% CI: 2.93%-12.07%) of that in 2013, respectively. The uncertainty of this study was mainly contributed by that in epidemiology

  17. Birth order and health of newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenøe, Anne Ardila; Molitor, Ramona

    2017-01-01

    We examine birth order differences in health of newborns and follow the children throughout childhood using high-quality administrative data on individuals born in Denmark between 1981 and 2010. Family fixed effects models show a positive and robust effect of birth order on health at birth......; firstborn children are less healthy at birth. During earlier pregnancies, women are more likely to smoke, receive more prenatal care, and are more likely to suffer a medical pregnancy complication, suggesting worse maternal health. We further show that the health disadvantage of firstborns persists...

  18. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Ho

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  19. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  20. Modeling birth weight neonates and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonate with abnormal weight is at risk of increased mortality and morbidity. Many factors affect pregnancy outcome. Because of the importance and vital role in birth weight, in this study, some of the factors associated with birth weight in a sample of Iranians neonates were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 245 newborns in a sample of Iranians neonates in the year 2013 were selected, and characteristics of neonate and their mothers were derived. Birth weights were registered by the neonatal scale. To identify the direct and indirect factors affecting birth weight, we used path analysis (PA and IBM AMOS and SPSS software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of weight in girls (3200 ± 421 g less than boys (3310 ± 444 g significantly (P = 0.04. Gestational age (P < 0.001, birth rank (P = 0.012, distance from a previous pregnancy (P = 0.028, and mother weight (P = 0.04 had a statistical significant relationship with birth weight. In the final PA model, gestational age has a highest total effect, type of delivery with gestational age-mediated had the highest indirect effect and type of delivery, and gestational age had the greatest total impact on the birth weight. Conclusion: Gestational age, sex, distance from a previous pregnancy, maternal weight, type of delivery, number of abortion, and birth rank were related with birth weight. Due to the termination of pregnancy and avoid unnecessary deliveries through cesarean section and other related factors should be further consideration by childbirth experts. In addition, factors affecting these variables are carefully identified and prevented as much as possible.

  1. Foot Length, Chest Circumference, and Mid Upper Arm Circumference Are Good Predictors of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity in Ethnic Minority Newborns in Vietnam: A Hospital-Based Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Hai Nguyen; Khanh, Dung Khu Thi; Thu, Ha Le Thi; Thomas, Emma G; Lee, Katherine J; Russell, Fiona M

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW) and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age. An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8) were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared. 485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-0.99), and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.92-0.96). The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ≤ 7.4 cm for foot length; ≤ 30.4 cm for chest circumference; and ≤ 9.0 cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements) but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm). All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure that the application of these measures is reliable

  2. Foot Length, Chest Circumference, and Mid Upper Arm Circumference Are Good Predictors of Low Birth Weight and Prematurity in Ethnic Minority Newborns in Vietnam: A Hospital-Based Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Nguyen Thi

    Full Text Available The evaluation of tools to accurately identify low birth weight (LBW and/or premature newborns in resource-limited countries is a research priority. We explored the use of foot length, chest circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC measured within 24 h as diagnostic tools for identifying newborns who are LBW, premature, or both; and compared measurements taken at birth with those taken at five days of age.An observational study was undertaken in Hoa Binh Province General Hospital, Vietnam, in ethnic minority newborns. Birth weight, foot length, chest circumference, and MUAC were measured within 24 h of birth and in a subset of 200, were repeated on day five of life. Gestational age was estimated using the New Ballard Score. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves and optimal cut-points (the point with the highest sensitivity and specificity where the sensitivity was at least 0.8 were calculated, for predicting prematurity, LBW, and both. Measurements within 24 h and at five days of life were compared.485 newborns were recruited. Chest circumference and MUAC measured within 24 h of birth were found to be highly predictive of LBW (both yielding area under the curve [AUC] of 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96-0.99, and performed marginally better than foot length (AUC 0.94, 95%CI 0.92-0.96. The optimal cut-points for measurements within 24 h of birth were ≤ 7.4 cm for foot length; ≤ 30.4 cm for chest circumference; and ≤ 9.0 cm for MUAC. There was statistical evidence that anthropometric measurements taken within 24 h of birth were higher than measurements on day five (p<0.02 for all anthropometric measurements but the magnitude of these differences was small (at most 2mm.All measurements taken within 24 h of birth were good predictors of LBW, prematurity and both. Differences in measurements taken within 24 h and on day five were not clinically relevant. Further research will ensure that the application of these measures is

  3. Contribution of low BirthWeight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between low and very low birth weight infants and perinatal mortality at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: A retrospective study of the hospital records in the labour ward and the Newborn Special Care Unit (N.B.S.C.U), of the UNTH was carried out for the ...

  4. Improved appetite of pregnant rats and increased birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition and pathogenic colonization of the vagina are two major contributors to preterm labour, newborn survival and low birth weight babies. Hypothetically, the use of probiotics as food supplements might improve the appetite and health of the mother and their newborn babies. Sprague-Dawley albino rats were ...

  5. Effects of Intimate Partner Physical Violence on Newborns' Birth Outcomes Among Jordanian Birthing Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujilban, Sanaa; Mrayan, Lina; Al-Modallal, Hanan; Isaa, Esra'a

    2015-09-07

    Intimate partner physical violence against women (VAW) during pregnancy is a common experience all over the world. In Jordan, the number is double the reported international average. Data on effect of violence on birth outcomes are important for planning, implementing, and evaluating maternal health programs. The research question was, "Does intimate partner physical VAW during pregnancy increase the risk of negative birth outcomes for newborns among birthing women in Jordan?" Natural experiment design was used for this study. A consecutive sampling technique was used for selecting the victims of physical violence (n = 79) and a simple random sampling for selecting non-victims (n = 79). Intimate partner physical violence was measured by using the Arabic version of World Health Organization's (WHO) domestic violence questionnaire, which has an accepted interrater validity. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and chi-square were used to detect the differences in birth outcomes between the victims and non-victims of physical violence. The results showed that there is a significant difference in newborn's birth weight between the victims of violence and non-victims with a small effect size. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in preterm birth and assisted newborn ventilation. The non-significant effect of violence on the incidence of preterm birth contradicts the published literature. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is rooted in Jordanian culture and widely accepted among married Jordanian women. Midwives, doctors, educators, and policy makers should work together to eradicate violence and detect victims of it, to improve birth outcomes and decrease newborn morbidity and mortality rates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Influence of air pollution on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

  7. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.0001), but BMI was not (ρ = 0.025, P = 0.61). On regression analysis, gestational weight gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  8. biostatistical analysis of birth weight and head circumference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    URCHMAN

    maturity of the neonate and health status of the mother. It is also an important determinant of prenatal mortality, it is known to increase with successive birth order up to the fourth or fifth rank in other words, and babies tend to outweigh their immediate elder siblings. The birth weight of a newborn infant is influenced by various ...

  9. Hyponatraemia in very low birth weight infants | Ndwiga | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. Design: Comparative cohort study. Setting: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during ...

  10. Efficacy of a first course of Ibuprofen for patent ductus arteriosus closure in extremely preterm newborns according to their gestational age-specific Z-score for birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Madeleneau

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in very preterm infants remain controversial. To identify infants likely to benefit from treatment, we analysed the efficacy of a first course of ibuprofen in small-for-gestational age (SGA newborns.This single-centre retrospective study included 185 infants born at 24+0-27+6 weeks of gestation with haemodynamically significant PDA, who were treated by intravenous ibuprofen (Pedea: 10 mg/kg on day one and 5 mg/kg on days two and three. Birth weight and gestational age (GA were analysed with reference to the standard deviations from the Olsen growth curve to define GA-specific Z-scores for birth weights. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by echocardiography 48 hours after the last dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome was failure of the first course of ibuprofen associated in a composite criterion with the most severe outcomes.The risk of treatment failure increased according to a continuous gradient in SGA neonates. A higher risk was observed on multiple regression analysis (crude OR: 3.8; 95% CI [1.2-12.3] p = 0.02; adjusted OR: 12.8; 95% CI [2.3-70.5] p=0.003.There is a linear relationship between infant birth weight and PDA treatment: the failure rate of a first course of ibuprofen increases with increasing degree of growth restriction.

  11. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  12. Prevalência de retinopatia da prematuridade em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso The prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Levy Lermann

    2006-02-01

    . METHODS: A cross-sectional study investigating all newborn infants with birth weights > 1,500 g and/or gestational ages > 32 weeks, admitted to the Neonatal ICU at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, from October 2002 to March 2004. Patients underwent indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy of the fundus at six weeks postpartum. Infants who progressed to threshold disease were given laser therapy. RESULTS: One hundred and fourteen newborn infants were studied. Eighty-three patients were not diagnosed with retinopathy of prematurity, 18 had stage I retinopathy of prematurity, seven stage II retinopathy of prematurity and six patients had threshold retinopathy of prematurity. The prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity was 27.2% (95% CI: 19.28-36.32 affecting 31 newborn infants, and the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity progressing to threshold disease was 5.26% (95% CI: 1.96-11.10, affecting six patients. Retinopathy of prematurity was confirmed in 50% of the patients with weights below 1,000 g and 71.5% of newborn infants born at gestational ages of less than 28 weeks. Gestational age and birth weight were significantly lower among patients with retinopathy of prematurity than among those without. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results of this study demonstrate that the observed prevalence was similar to that described in literature, this ROP frequency remains elevated among very low birth weight infants. The development of retinopathy of prematurity was inversely proportional to weight and gestational age at birth.

  13. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMIbirth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  15. Is it good to be too light? Birth weight thresholds in hospital reimbursement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Simon; Wichert, Sebastian; Wuppermann, Amelie

    2018-02-02

    Birth weight manipulation has been documented in per-case hospital reimbursement systems, in which hospitals receive more money for otherwise equal newborns with birth weight just below compared to just above specific birth weight thresholds. As hospitals receive more money for cases with weight below the thresholds, having a (reported) weight below a threshold could benefit the newborn. Also, these reimbursement thresholds overlap with diagnostic thresholds that have been shown to affect the quantity and quality of care that newborns receive. Based on the universe of hospital births in Germany from the years 2005-2011, we investigate whether weight below reimbursement relevant thresholds triggers different quantity and quality of care. We find that this is not the case, suggesting that hospitals' financial incentives with respect to birth weight do not directly impact the care that newborns receive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of gestational age and birth weight in the clinical assesment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns A influência da idade gestacional e do peso ao nascimento na avaliação clínica do tono muscular de recém nascidos a termo e prematuros hígidos

    OpenAIRE

    Edla S. da Silva; Magda Lahorgue Nunes

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) in the clinical assessment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns. METHOD: Cross sectional study. The muscle tone of healthy 42 preterm and 47 term newborns was quantified and measured with a goniometer (an instrument for measuring angles) respectively between 7th-14th day of life and 24-48 hours of life. Newborns were grouped according to GA and BW and evaluated at fixed time intervals by one ...

  17. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  18. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of enteral feeds in the first days of their life in order to prevent NEC. Uhing reported that preterm infants ... where: SS = required sample size; Z = 95% confidence interval. (standard value of 1.96); P ... The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been.

  19. Early radiologic evidence of severe respiratory distress syndrome as a predictor of nasal continuous positive airway pressure failure in extremely low birth weight newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferro, T; Bateman, D; Ruzal-Shapiro, C; Polin, R A

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether early radiologic evidence of severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is predictive of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) failure in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants during the first 72 h of age. Retrospective analysis of 235 consecutively inborn ELBW infants who received initial support with CPAP. CPAP success (n=151) and CPAP failure (n=84) groups were designated according to outcome within the first 72 h of age. We assessed the ability of radiologic evidence of severe RDS in the initial chest radiograph, alone and in combination with other variables available in the first hours of life, to predict CPAP failure. Severe RDS had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64, 0.92) for CPAP failure. The combination of severe RDS and gestational age (GA) ⩽ 26 weeks had a PPV of 0.92 (95% CI 0.68, 0.96). Early radiologic evidence of severe RDS is predictive of CPAP failure, especially in infants with GA ⩽ 26 weeks.

  20. Algunos factores maternos relacionados con el recién nacido bajo peso en el policlínico "Isidro de Armas" Some maternal factors related to the low birth weight newborn in the "Isidro de Armas" Polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Israel López

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: identificar los principales factores de riesgo que pueden ser causa de bajo peso en el recién nacido. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles realizado entre el 1ro. de enero del 2003 al 31 de diciembre del 2008 en el policlínico "Isidro de Armas" del municipio Playa, La Habana. Se analizaron variables socioeconómicas y biológicas como: edad materna, estado civil, escolaridad, ocupación, hábito de fumar, antecedentes patológicos personales, valoración nutricional, ganancia de peso, y peso del recién nacido. Resultados: las mujeres del grupo de estudio con edades entre 30 a 34 años aportaron el mayor número de recién nacidos bajo peso (34, 1 % y en las que no tuvieron bajo peso predominó el grupo de edades de 20 a 24 años. La mayoría de las mujeres en ambos grupos no tenían antecedentes patológicos personales, sin embargo, entre las que sí lo tuvieron, predominó en el grupo estudio la hipertensión arterial en el 17,1%, el asma 14,6 % y el hábito de fumar en el 9,8 %; en el de control, el asma y el hábito de fumar en el 12,2 % y la infección urinaria en el 7,3 %. Conclusiones: las edades maternas extremas, la baja escolaridad y el estado civil, no tienen influencias en el recién nacido bajo peso, mientras sí la tienen, la ocupación (madres trabajadoras y algunas enfermedades como la hipertensión arterial y el asma bronquial.Objectives: to identify the main risk factors influenced on the causes of low birth weight of newborn seen in the "Isidro de Armas" Polyclinic from Playa municipality. Methods: study of case-control conducted from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2008. The socioeconomic and biological variables were analyzed including: mother age, marital status, schooling, occupation, smoking, personal pathological backgrounds, nutritional assessment, weight gain and newborn weight. Results: the women included in study group aged 30-34 supplied the great figure of low birth weight newborns (34.1% and in

  1. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  2. [Preeclampsia: main maternal risk factor for low weight in preterm newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Contreras, Angélica María; Soria Rodríguez, Carmen Gorety; Prince Vélez, Roberto; Clark Ordoñez, Isadora; Medina Ramírez, María Concepción Rosa

    2008-07-01

    In 3 to 8% of pregnancies there are preeclampsia, and it is considered an irreversible disease that affects several organs, and causes injuries in fetus and mother alike. To identify maternal risk factors related to low birth weight in preterm newborns born at Hospital de Ginecología-Pediatría con Medicina Familiar no. 31 from IMSS, at Mexicali, BC, Mexico. Case-control study (1:2 ratio) made in 114 prematures (38 cases and 76 controls) who were evaluated for socioeconomic and biological maternal risk factors influencing low birth weight in preterm newborns. Odds ratio and confidence intervals of 95% were used to calculate epidemiologic correlation, and logistic regression to specific importance of risks. Preeclampsia persists as a risk factor for low birth weight: OR 3.16 (95% CI 3.15-8.40, p = 0.00). In logistic regression meaningful variables were: preeclampsia 5.27 (95% CI 1.45-19.14, p = 0.01), and in premature newborn: thrombocytopenia 6.0 (95% CI 1.2-11.2, p = 0.00), and neonatal sepsis 4.31 (95% CI 1.73-10.70, p = 0.00). Preeclampsia was the major risk factor related to low birth weight and was associated with thrombocytopenia in preterm newborn. Neonatal sepsis is secondary to low birth weight. We need to observe and obey prenatal care of pregnant women in our hospital to reduce negative impact of low birth weight in preterm newborns.

  3. Prediction of low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Frøkjær, Jens B

    2017-01-01

    operating characteristic curves demonstrated a significantly higher performance of T2* (AUC of 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98) than UtA PI (AUC of 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89) in the prediction of low birth weight (p = 0.010). Placental pathological findings were closely related to the T2* values. CONCLUSIONS...... placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 100 singleton pregnancies included at 20-40 weeks......' gestation. Placental T2* was obtained using a gradient recalled multi-echo MRI sequence and UtA PI was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Placental pathological examination was performed in 57 of the pregnancies. Low birth weight was defined by a Z-score ≤ -2.0. RESULTS: The incidence of low birth weight...

  4. Two year neurological outcomes of very low birth weight infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High risk newborns such as the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) require long term follow up to ascertain their subsequent survival and quality of life (based on neurological intactness). Though such data is now standard in the developed world, little is known in published literature about the situation in resource ...

  5. Iatrogenic newborn weight loss: knowledge translation using a study protocol for your maternity setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodend A Kirsten

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our original study of newborn weight loss, we determined there were positive correlations among newborn weight loss, neonatal output, and the IV fluids mothers received before their babies' birth. Basically, an increase in maternal IV fluids is correlated to an increase in neonatal output and newborn weight loss. When assessing newborn weight change, our recommendation is to change baseline from birth weight to a weight measured at 24 hours. The purpose of this paper is to provide a protocol for clinicians to collect and analyze data from their own maternity site to determine if the newborns experience such an iatrogenic weight loss and to make decisions about how to assess newborn weight changes. Methods We recommend a prospective observational study with data collected about maternal fluids, neonatal output, and newborn weight measurements. The methods we suggest include specifics about recruitment, data collection, and data analysis. Discussion Quality assurance and research ethics considerations are described. We also share practical information that we learned from our original study. Ultimately, to encourage knowledge translation and research uptake, we provide a protocol and sound advice to do a research study in your maternity setting.

  6. Birth weight curves tailored to maternal world region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Joel G; Sgro, Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Glazier, Richard H; Bocking, Alan; Hilliard, Robert; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2012-02-01

    Newborns of certain immigrant mothers are smaller at birth than those of domestically born mothers. Contemporary, population-derived percentile curves for these newborns are lacking, as are estimates of their risk of being misclassified as too small or too large using conventional rather than tailored birth weight curves. We completed a population-based study of 766 688 singleton live births in Ontario from 2002 to 2007. Smoothed birth weight percentile curves were generated for males and females, categorized by maternal world region of birth: Canada (63.5%), Europe/Western nations (7.6%), Africa/Caribbean (4.9%), Middle East/North Africa (3.4%), Latin America (3.4%), East Asia/Pacific (8.1%), and South Asia (9.2%). We determined the likelihood of misclassifying an infant as small for gestational age (≤ 10th percentile for weight) or as large for gestational age (≥ 90th percentile for weight) on a Canadian-born maternal curve versus one specific to maternal world region of origin. Significantly lower birth weights were seen at gestation-specific 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles among term infants born to mothers from each world region, with the exception of Europe/Western nations, compared with those for infants of Canadian-born mothers. For example, for South Asian babies born at 40 weeks' gestation, the absolute difference at the 10th percentile was 198 g (95% CI 183 to 212) for males and 170 g (95% CI 161 to 179) for females. Controlling for maternal age and parity, South Asian males had an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.68) of being misclassified as small for gestational age, equivalent to approximately 116 in 1000 newborns; for South Asian females the OR was 2.41 (95% CI 2.34 to 2.48), equivalent to approximately 106 per 1000 newborns. Large for gestational age would be missed in approximately 61 per 1000 male and 57 per 1000 female South Asian newborns if conventional rather than ethnicity-specific birth weight curves were used. Birth weight curves

  7. Weight monitoring system for newborn incubator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, Arif; Nurfitri, Intan; Mahatidana, Pradipta; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih., Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    We proposed weight monitoring system using load cell sensor for newborn incubator application. The weight sensing system consists of a load cell, conditioning signal circuit, and microcontroller Arduino Uno R3. The performance of the sensor was investigated by using the various weight from 0 up to 3000 g. Experiment results showed that this system has a small error of 4.313% and 12.5 g of threshold and resolution value. Compared to the typical baby scale available in local market, the proposed system has a lower error value and hysteresis.

  8. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. Methods: The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on t...

  9. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  10. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Godínez-Martínez, Estela; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Montiel-Ojeda, Diana; Tolentino, Maricruz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads). An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497). Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011). Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722). Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with leptin

  11. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  12. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  13. Influence of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster on the birth weight of newborns in Fukushima Prefecture: Fukushima Health Management Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Shun; Kyozuka, Hyo; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Fujimori, Keiya; Goto, Aya; Yasumura, Seiji; Hata, Kennichi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Abe, Masafumi

    2017-12-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster occurred on 11 March 2011. We investigated the incidence of SGA (small for gestational age) in the Fukushima Prefecture in newborns delivered by women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters and identified any risk factors for SGA. Subjects were women who were pregnant at the time of the disasters. Questionnaires were sent to the women who lived in the Hamadori area (seaside and near to the nuclear power plant) at the time of the disasters as well as to a control group of women who lived outside the Hamadori area. The incidence of SGA was compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for SGA. In total, 325(5.6%) women had infants with SGA. Neither area nor the trimester of pregnancy at the time of the disasters influenced the incidence of SGA. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) was higher in the SGA group. PIH was found to be an independent risk factor for SGA. We found no evidence that the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster increased the incidence of SGA in the Fukushima Prefecture.

  14. Radiological diagnostics of birth trauma in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Анатолійович Коломійченко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work. To analyze indices of the different radiological methods and to compare it.Materials and methods. The newborns with spinal trauma (n=33 were analyzed, the children who have been excluded this diagnosis (n=27 formed the control group. All children underwent the radiography of cervical spine, the part of them – MRT and USG. There was carried out the visual assessment and analysis of metrical indices.Results. Patients were separated into groups of heaviness, 16 patients with slight degree, 10 with middle one and 7 with heavy degree of injury. At all methods the width of the Cruveilhier joint fissure in children with an injury of upper cervical spine reliably (р<0,001 differs from the one in the control group, and was detected the moderate correlation (r>0,4.When using radiology and MRT in children with traumatic injures the width of prevertebral soft tissues was reliably more and the degree of reliability was higher at radiology (р<0,001, than at MRT (р<0,01. The correlations between the width of soft tissues and the degree of heaviness were detected at all levels at radiography and only at the level C1 at MRT.Conclusions. An analysis demonstrated the different degree of importance of some indices for detecting injuries of the upper cervical spine in newborns. There was also proved that the metrical data of the different methods not reliably differ

  15. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Associations between fetal HLA-G genotype and birth weight and placental weight in a large cohort of pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmery, Johanne; Christiansen, Ole B; Nilsson, Line Lynge

    2017-01-01

    HLA/MHC class Ib gene, HLA-G, is strongly expressed on extravillous trophoblast cells. We investigated birth weight and placental weight of the newborns in mothers heterozygous for an HLA-G 14bp insertion (Ins)/deletion (Del) gene polymorphism. Separate analyses for pregnancies without preeclampsia (n...... is also associated with high expression of HLA-G on the trophoblast membrane. In theory, fetuses and newborns with intermediate weights and sizes would be an optimal compromise for both the fetus/father and the mother compared with very high and low weights. If such fetuses/newborns more often...... are heterozygous at the HLA-G gene locus, then newborns with two distinct HLA haplotypes are favored, leading to a higher degree of HLA diversity. The results of the study may indicate that a compromise between an intermediate birth weight and placental weight, induction of maternal tolerance by a fetal...

  17. Low birth weight: risk factors in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Y.S.A.; Bataineh, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights (LBW) in Irbid, Jordan, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in Prince Rashed Hospital (PRH). Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 15-45 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive in PRH during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is also a need to discourage early pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy. (author)

  18. No adverse events after simultaneous administration of 50 000 IU vitamin A and Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination to normal-birth-weight newborns in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nante, J E; Diness, B R; Ravn, H; Roth, A; Aaby, P; Benn, C S

    2008-07-01

    To determine whether the combined intervention of 50 000 IU vitamin A administered together with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination at birth was associated with adverse events, in particular bulging fontanels and adverse reactions to BCG. From an ongoing trial, 2145 infants randomized to 50 000 IU vitamin A or placebo with BCG vaccination were recruited. Adverse events were monitored in two different ways: (A) daily clinical examinations by a medical doctor during the first 3 days post supplementation; (B) weekly interviews by a trained assistant during the first month post supplementation. In part A, 1271 infants were enrolled, in part B 2078. Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) was associated with a relative risk (RR) of bulging fontanels of 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.82-1.65). The rate of health care contacts and various symptoms during the first month were comparable between the groups. VAS was associated with larger peak local reactions to BCG vaccination in boys, but not in girls (P-value for test of interaction between VAS and sex=0.02). 50 000 IU vitamin A with BCG was not associated with adverse events. The observed sex-differential effect of VAS on local reaction to BCG is in line with other observations of sex-differential effects of VAS.

  19. [Is moderate labor stress for newborn infants an advantage? Pilot study of postpartum weight gain of 791 newborn infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderlein, J M; Ritz-Schäfer, R

    1994-01-01

    Neonatal weight development in the first 5 postpartal days is favourably affected by intrapartal stress factors. 1. Pathological CTS during delivery were registered for every 8th infant. Slight postpartal weight loss occurred twice as often in this group, compared with the other newborns. The incidence of distinct weight decrease was the same in both groups. On the 5th postpartal day, almost double the number of infants with pathological CTG had either reached or exceeded their birth weight, compared to the normal CTG group. 2. Green amniotic fluid coincided with slight weight loss in double the number of affected children, compared to the rest of the study group. 3. Slight postpartal weight loss was seen more often in neonates with umbilical cord-pH values of up to 7.20 than in infants with pH values exceeding 7.20. Distinct postpartal weight loss was, however, not more frequent in the former group. 4. The birth mode of the 791 newborn was as follows: 16% Caesarean section, 7% vaginal forceps delivery, and 77% spontaneous birth. On the 5th postpartal day 11% of the forceps-delivery infants, 17% of the spontaneous births and 30% of the neonates delivered by Caesarean section had not regained their birth weight. 5. PDA on vaginal delivery was applied to one-third of the women. Slight postpartal weight loss was seen twice as often in these infants, compared to the others. In conclusion, the study reflected, that intrapartal stress aids transition to extrauterine life via "catecholamine peaks". Our current birth monitoring methods may therefore require revalidation with regard to set pathologic limits, using the adaptation parameter of neonatal weight development.

  20. [The effect of birth weight on the early postnatal vitality of piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Wähner, M; Puppe, B

    1994-10-01

    Investigations with 1248 newborn piglets in 7 farms showed a high significant influence of birth weight on parameters of early postnatal vitality. The duration between birth and first standing up was by two times, the time between birth and first udder contact by 3.5 times and the duration between birth and first colostrum intake was by 4 times longer in piglets with a low birth weight ( 2200 g). The drop in rectal temperature up to 30 minutes after birth reached 4.5 Kelvin in lightweight piglets, whereas their litter mates with a high body weight at birth had a value of 0.85 K (p vitality of newborn piglets and has a high prognostic value in relation to the risk of losses and the live weight development of neonates.

  1. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of corticosteroids in very low birth weight newborns dependent on mechanical ventilation Efeitos de corticosteróides em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso, dependentes de ventilação mecânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta M. G. B. Mataloun

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids have been used in bronchopulmonary dysplasia prevention because of their antiinflammatory effects. Among their effects is a decrease in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. However, short- and long-term side effects have been detected in preterm newborns. PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of corticosteroids on bronchopulmonary dysplasia, length of stay, mortality, growth, as well as the adverse effects in very low birth weight newborns between 10 and 14 days of life and dependent on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Cohort study. All newborns with a birth weight under 1500 g, mechanical ventilation-dependent between 10 and 14 days of life, during the period January 2000 and June 2001 were included (n = 38. They were divided into 2 groups: Group I with corticosteroids (n = 16 and Group II without corticosteroids (n = 22. Dexamethasone administration: from the 10th day of life, d1 - d3, 0.3 mg/kg/d; d4 - d6, 0.2 mg/kg/d; d7 - d9, 0.1 mg/kg/d. Respiratory evolution, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (oxygen dependence at 28 days of life, growth pattern and the presence of adverse effects were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 6.5% (Group I and 30% (Group II, P = .07. A decrease in growth was detected in Group I compared with Group II (change in weight: Group I - 47 g/week, Group II - 85.5 g/week, P = .06; change in head circumference: Group I - 0.75 cm/week, Group II - 1 cm/week, P = .05. CONCLUSION: Use of corticosteroids in very low birth weight infants dependent on mechanical ventilation during the first 10 to 14 days of life did not affect the respiratory evolution and occurrence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, but the velocity of growth was reduced.Devido às suas ações anti-inflamatórias, os corticosteróides têm sido utilizados para prevenção de displasia broncopulmonar, sendo descrita, uma redução da incidência desta patologia. No entanto, efeitos adversos a curto e a longo prazo t

  3. [Influence of work status of mothers on the weight of full-term newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güemez-Sandoval, J C; Bermúdez-Meléndez, I; Camacho-Lozano, T; Coronel-Rodríguez, L A; Echeverría-Silva, M G; García-Navarrete, M E; Moysen-Márquez, F A; Nieto-Tapia, A; Peñafiel-Grijalva, A; Pineda-Molina, J L

    1990-10-01

    Birth weight is considered as the most important indicator of growth and intrauterine development as well as the nutritional status of the newborn. Several reports have demonstrated the influence of both biological and social variables on low birth weight, among which being discussed is the influence of the mothers work activities. Two hundred and thirty-two newborns were studied at the Regional Hospital "20 de Noviembre" of the Institute de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE) and selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria which homogenized the sample and allowed to associate the work status of the mother with the low birth weight of the child. The somatometric data of the newborns was obtained from official registrars from the Perinatology Ward and directly from the mothers who were interviewed. The results did not significant statistical differences in the weight of the newborns of those mothers who do work than in those who don't. It was concluded that for this sample, the favorable socioeconomic fund established by a double family income apparently compensates any disadvantages which the work activity could have on the newborns' weight.

  4. Relationship Among Mothers' Glycemic Level, Periodontitis, and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Eliesita C; Cruz, Simone S; Adan, Luis Fernando F; Vianna, Maria Isabel P; Passos-Soares, Johelle S; Trindade, Soraya C; Oliveira, Ernesto P; Oliveira, Michelle T; Cerqueira, Eneida de M M; Pereira, Antonio Luis; Barreto, Maurício L; Seymour, Gregory John

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of glycemic level on the relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was conducted with 372 females divided into cases (109 mothers of newborns with birth weight periodontal status. Results were analyzed using logistic regression. The likelihood of having children with LBW among the mothers with periodontitis was six times greater than that observed among mothers without periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR adjusted] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47 to 15.17), even after adjustment. There was also a strong, statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and LBW in both the normal glycemic-level group (HbA1c levels Periodontitis and glycemic levels appeared to have opposing influences on birth weight, with periodontitis being associated with LBW and the magnitude of the association being altered depending on maternal blood glucose level.

  5. Weight of preterm newborns during the first twelve weeks of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Anchieta

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal and prospective study was carried out at two state-operated maternity hospitals in Belo Horizonte during 1996 in order to assess the weight of preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age newborns during the first twelve weeks of life. Two hundred and sixty appropriate-for-gestational-age preterm infants with birth weight <2500 g were evaluated weekly. The infants were divided into groups based on birth weight at 250-g intervals. Using weight means, somatic growth curves were constructed and adjusted to Count's model. Absolute (g/day and relative (g kg-1 day-1 velocity curves were obtained from a derivative of this model. The growth curve was characterized by weight loss during the 1st week (4-6 days ranging from 5.9 to 13.3% (the greater the percentage, the lower the birth weight, recovery of birth weight within 17 and 21 days, and increasingly higher rates of weight gain after the 3rd week. These rates were proportional to birth weight when expressed as g/day (the lowest and the highest birth weight neonates gained 15.9 and 30.1 g/day, respectively. However, if expressed as g kg-1 day-1, the rates were inversely proportional to birth weight (during the 3rd week, the lowest and the highest weight newborns gained 18.0 and 11.5 g kg-1 day-1, respectively. During the 12th week the rates were similar for all groups (7.5 to 10.2 g kg-1 day-1. The relative velocity accurately reflects weight gain of preterm infants who are appropriate for gestational age and, in the present study, it was inversely proportional to birth weight, with a peak during the 3rd week of life, and a homogeneous behavior during the 12th week for all weight groups.

  6. Metabolic Networks and Metabolites Underlie Associations Between Maternal Glucose During Pregnancy and Newborn Size at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Scholtens, Denise M.; Bain, James R.; Reisetter, Anna C.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Nodzenski, Michael; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Lowe, Lynn P.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Lowe, William L.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal metabolites and metabolic networks underlying associations between maternal glucose during pregnancy and newborn birth weight and adiposity demand fuller characterization. We performed targeted and nontargeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics on maternal serum collected at fasting and 1 h following glucose beverage consumption during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 400 northern European mothers at ?28 weeks' gestation in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregna...

  7. Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006-2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves.Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants.There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes.

  8. The Behaviour of Protein Carbonyls in Newborns with Birth Respiratory Distress and Asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela ZAHARIE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A prospective study was carried out in premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS and asphyxia at birth in order to identify and analyze the effects of RDS on proteins. Material and Methods: Protein peroxidation was studied using the Reznick spectrophotometric method. The study group included 14 premature newborns with respiratory distress and asphyxia at birth. The control group included 13 newborns that were born on term, eutrophic and healthy. The determinations were carried out using venous blood. Statistical data analyses were performed using Statistica software. The comparisons between groups (study and controls were performed by applying parametric and non-parametric tests according with the type of distribution. Results: Statistically significant correlations were found between the value of protein carbonyls (PC and the weight of premature newborns in the case group (p < 0.05, as well as between the PC value and the presence of respiratory distress due to surfactant deficiency in the study group. The average PC value in the study group was higher in the third day as compared with the first day. The PC value was significantly higher in the control group as compared with study group. Conclusion: The results of our study revealed that the respiratory distress in the premature newborn and oxygen therapy stimulate the peroxidation of proteins.

  9. Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    Boy, Erick; Bruce, Nigel; Delgado, Hernán

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether domestic use of wood fuel is associated with reduced birth weight, independent of key maternal, social, and economic confounding factors. We studied 1,717 women and newborn children in rural and urban communities in rural Guatemala. We identified subjects through home births reported by traditional birth attendants in six rural districts (n = 572) and all public hospital births in Quetzaltenango city during the study period (n = 1,145). All were se...

  10. Metabolic Networks and Metabolites Underlie Associations Between Maternal Glucose During Pregnancy and Newborn Size at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtens, Denise M; Bain, James R; Reisetter, Anna C; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Nodzenski, Michael; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga; Lowe, Lynn P; Metzger, Boyd E; Newgard, Christopher B; Lowe, William L

    2016-07-01

    Maternal metabolites and metabolic networks underlying associations between maternal glucose during pregnancy and newborn birth weight and adiposity demand fuller characterization. We performed targeted and nontargeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics on maternal serum collected at fasting and 1 h following glucose beverage consumption during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for 400 northern European mothers at ∼28 weeks' gestation in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Study. Amino acids, fatty acids, acylcarnitines, and products of lipid metabolism decreased and triglycerides increased during the OGTT. Analyses of individual metabolites indicated limited maternal glucose associations at fasting, but broader associations, including amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, were found at 1 h. Network analyses modeling metabolite correlations provided context for individual metabolite associations and elucidated collective associations of multiple classes of metabolic fuels with newborn size and adiposity, including acylcarnitines, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids. Random forest analyses indicated an improved ability to predict newborn size outcomes by using maternal metabolomics data beyond traditional risk factors, including maternal glucose. Broad-scale association of fuel metabolites with maternal glucose is evident during pregnancy, with unique maternal metabolites potentially contributing specifically to newborn birth weight and adiposity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18......-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as birth weight...... was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams...

  12. [Effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on neonate birth weight in Shaanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J M; Qu, P F; Dang, S N; Li, S S; Bai, R H; Qin, B W; Yan, H

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on the birth weight of newborns in Shaanxi province. A questionnaire survey was conducted among the childbearing aged women selected through multistage stratified random sampling in Shaanxi during 2010-2013, all of these childbearing aged women were in pregnancy or had definite pregnancy outcomes. The birth weight of newborns and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were used as the dependent variables and independent variables respectively in multiple linear regression model and quantile regression model and confounding factors were controlled. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the birth weight of newborns whose mothers had folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were significantly higher than those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, an average increase of 29.56 g(B=29.56, t=4.69 and Pbirth weights of newborns whose mothers supplemented folic acid were higher than those whose mother did not supplement folic acid, the difference was significant, but the increase varied. As the increase of the percentiles of birth weight, the body weight increase declined gradually in those whose mothers had folic acid supplementation compared with those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy can increase the birth weight of newborns, the influence was greater in newborns with lower body weight than in newborns with higher body weight.

  13. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  14. [Neonatal polysomnography in newborn infants with severe birth asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Duarte, A M; Domínguez-Dieppa, F; Roca-Molina, M C

    Neonatal polysomnography studies (electroencephalogram, electrooculography, body movements, cardiorespiratory frequencies) were performed in 101 newborn full-term infants diagnosed with severe birth asphyxia. To analyse results, the sample was divided into two groups, depending on whether hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) had occurred or not. The results of the polysomnography studies were correlated with those from the full-term neurological examination and the sequelae from the neurological development during the first two years of life. Significant correlations were obtained among the variables that were studied. The normality observed in the electrophysiological study in the group of patients with severe asphyxia without HIE was associated with a full-term neurological examination and with a neurological development that has progressed in a satisfactory manner. In the group of patients with grade II HIE there was a predominance of severe alterations in the full-term neonatal polysomnography study, which were significantly correlated with the pathological full-term neurological examinations and serious sequelae from neurological development. It has been proved that neonatal polysomnography studies are a valuable aid in evaluating the neurological status of newborn infants in a critical condition and in predicting the sequelae of neurological development in the first two years of life. Further research should be aimed at determining the effects exerted by the daily administration of medication (sedatives, anaesthetics and antiepileptic agents) in critical newborn infants on electrical activity in the brain and the cyclic structuring of the different phases of sleep.

  15. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  16. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...

  17. The Effect of Second-Hand Smoke Exposure during Pregnancy on the Newborn Weight in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Salinah, Omar

    2014-03-01

    There was strong evidence from studies conducted in developed countries that second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure is detrimental to the birth weight of newborn. This study was conducted to determine the effect of exposure to SHS smoke during pregnancy on the weight of newborns. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The exposed group consists of 209 postnatal women who experienced SHS exposure at home because of a husband or other housemate who smoked inside the house throughout the pregnancy. The non-exposed group included 211 women who did not experience SHS exposure at home or at work during pregnancy. We excluded non-Malay ethnicity, multiple births, and congenital defects. There was a significant difference in the adjusted mean birth weight between exposed infants [2893.0 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 2781.3, 3004.7)] and not exposed infants to SHS [3046.1 g (95% CI 2929.5, 3162.6) (P cigarette (P < 0.001). The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was higher in exposed women, [10% (95% CI: 5.94, 14.06)] compared to non-exposed women [4.7% (95% CI: 1.85, 7.55)]. This study found a significant association between SHS exposure during pregnancy and decreased birth weight.

  18. Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Mahony, Rhona; Malone, Fergal D

    2011-07-01

    To establish the level of birth weight discordance at which perinatal morbidity increases in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancy. This prospective multicenter cohort study included 1,028 unselected twin pairs recruited over a 2-year period. Participants underwent two weekly ultrasonographic surveillance from 24 weeks of gestation with surveillance of monochorionic twins two-weekly from 16 weeks. Analysis using Cox proportional hazards compared a composite measure of perinatal morbidity (including any of the following: mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or sepsis) at different degrees of birth weight discordance with adjustment for chorionicity, gestational age, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, birth order, gender, and growth restriction. Perinatal outcome data were recorded for 977 patients (100%) who continued the study with both fetuses alive beyond 24 weeks, including 14 cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Adjusting for gestation at delivery, twin order, gender, and growth restriction, perinatal mortality, individual morbidity, and composite perinatal morbidity were all seen to increase with birth weight discordance exceeding 18% for dichorionic pairs (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.9, Pbirth weights were appropriate for gestational age. : The threshold for birth weight discordance established by this prospective study is 18% both for dichorionic twin pairs and for monochorionic twins without twin-twin transfusion syndrome. This threshold is considerably lower than that defined by many retrospective series as pathologic. We suggest that an anticipated difference of 18% in birth weight should prompt more intensive fetal monitoring.

  19. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Magnus et al.[12] reported that paternal birth weight has a greater influence on offspring birth weight than maternal birth weight. In contrast, Grifith et al.,[13] in a more recent study, concluded that maternal weight contributed more significantly to offspring's birth weight than paternal weight. Such discrepancies might be a ...

  20. Birth weight centiles by gestational age for twins born in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Mathews, Jiji; Benjamin, Santhosh; Regi, Annie; Jose, Ruby; Kuruvilla, Anil; Mathai, Mathews

    2016-03-24

    Birth weight centile curves are commonly used as a screening tool and to assess the position of a newborn on a given reference distribution. Birth weight of twins are known to be less than those of comparable singletons and twin-specific birth weight centile curves are recommended for use. In this study, we aim to construct gestational age specific birth weight centile curves for twins born in south India. The study was conducted at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, south India. The birth records of all consecutive pregnancies resulting in twin births between 1991 and 2005 were reviewed. Only live twin births between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation were included. Birth weight centiles for gestational age were obtained using the methodology of generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Centiles curves were obtained separately for monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Of 1530 twin pregnancies delivered during the study period (1991-2005), 1304 were included in the analysis. The median gestational age at birth was 36 weeks (1st quartile 34, 3rd quartile 38 weeks). Smoothed percentile curves for birth weight by gestational age increased progressively till 38 weeks and levels off thereafter. Compared with dichorionic twins, monochorionic twins had lower birth weight for gestational age from after 27 weeks. We provide centile values of birth weight at 24 to 42 completed weeks of gestation for twins born in south India. These charts could be used both in routine clinical assessments and epidemiological studies.

  1. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-12-15

    Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on the different socio-economic backgrounds of their clients. The data on birth weight and other factors were derived from hospital records. It was observed that low birth weight is still highly prevalent (29.6%), while macrosomia (10.5%) is also increasingly becoming important. There were marginal differences in low birth weight observed across public hospitals but marked difference in low birth weight was observed in Cienfuegos Suglo Specialist Hospital (Private hospital) as compared to the public hospitals. The private hospital also had the highest prevalence of macrosomia (20.1%). Parity (0-1) (p malnutrition phenomenon, which is currently being experienced by developing and transition counties. Both low birth weight and macrosomia are risk factors, which could contribute considerably to the current and future burden of diseases. This may overstretch the already fragile health system in Ghana. Therefore, it is prudent to recommend that policies aiming at reducing diet related diseases should focus on addressing malnutrition during pregnancy and early life.

  2. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... has not been studied. Aim We aimed to investigate the association between BW, GA, and infantile colic. Methods We studied 62,785 singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information on infantile colic symptoms and possible confounders was collected by computer-assisted telephone......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...

  3. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr. faki

    birth weight data. This study was carried out to determine recall of birth weight and delivery complications among mothers in Unguja West District of Zanzibar. Methods: .... Considering confidence level of 95% and response rate of 90%, the ... delivery, delivery complications, child's birth date, birth's order and birth weight.

  4. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. The maternal periodontal disease as a risk factor of prematurity and low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Dulanto Vargas, Julissa; García Linares, Sixto; Docente del Dpto. Académico Médico Quirúrgico Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Carranza Samanez, Maynor

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the maternal periodontal disease (EP) and the premature delivery (PP) and the low birth weight (BP). The study was a case-control study with 69 mothers, 19 cases (mothers of newborns with premature deliveries and low birth weight (PPBP)), and 50 controls (mothers of babies with gestational age > 37 weeks and birth weight > 2500g) at the “Madre Niño San Bartolomé” Teaching Hospital. The mothers were interrogated and thei...

  6. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paternal weight, parity and maternal weight might improve accuracy of prediction of low birth weight or macrosomic babies and therefore a reduction in perinatal failure. Keywords: Birth weight, anthropometrics, macrosomia, predictability, Nigeria ...

  7. Weight, length and head circumference standards based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks 25 to 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, M; Høst, A; Kamper, J

    1997-01-01

    Growth standards of birth weight, birth length and birth head circumference were constructed based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks twenty-five to forty-three. Study populations were residents of the municipality of Odense for later gestational ages and reside...

  8. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  9. An observational study of associations among maternal fluids during parturition, neonatal output, and breastfed newborn weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Newborn weight measurements are used as a key indicator of breastfeeding adequacy. The purpose of this study was to explore non-feeding factors that might be related to newborn weight loss. The relationship between the intravenous fluids women receive during parturition (the act of giving birth, including time in labour or prior to a caesarean section) and their newborn's weight loss during the first 72 hours postpartum was the primary interest. Methods In this observational cohort study, we collected data about maternal oral and IV fluids during labour or before a caesarean section. Participants (n = 109) weighed their newborns every 12 hours for the first three days then daily to Day 14, and they weighed neonatal output (voids and stools) for three days. Results At 60 hours (nadir), mean newborn weight loss was 6.57% (SD 2.51; n = 96, range 1.83-13.06%). When groups, based on maternal fluids, were compared (≤1200 mls [n = 21] versus > 1200 [n = 53]), newborns lost 5.51% versus 6.93% (p = 0.03), respectively. For the first 24 hours, bivariate analyses show positive relationships between a) neonatal output and percentage of newborn weight lost (r(96) = 0.493, p fluids (final 2 hours) and neonatal output (r(42) = 0.383, p = 0.012). At 72 hours, there was a positive correlation between grams of weight lost and all maternal fluids (r(75) = 0.309, p = 0.007). Conclusions Timing and amounts of maternal IV fluids appear correlated to neonatal output and newborn weight loss. Neonates appear to experience diuresis and correct their fluid status in the first 24 hours. We recommend a measurement at 24 hours, instead of birth weight, for baseline when assessing weight change. Because practices can differ between maternity settings, we further suggest that clinicians should collect and analyze data from dyads in their care to determine an optimal baseline measurement. PMID:21843338

  10. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612......) answered a questionnaire during 12th to 16th gestational week about their exposure to ETS at home and outside the home. RESULTS: Pregnant nonsmokers exposed to ETS both at home and outside the home gave birth to children with a birth weight of 78.9 g (95% CI -143.7 to -14.1) (P=0.02) lower than the weight...... of children born to women unexposed to ETS. There was no significant reduction in birth weight among women exposed to ETS at home only or outside the home only. A nonsignificant dose-response association was seen between increasing daily exposure to ETS and reduction in birth weight. CONCLUSION: Nonsmoking...

  11. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  12. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Birth weight is one of the key predictor for survival, health and future development of a child. In developing countries data on birth weights are limited to obtain due to difficulties in keeping records especially among rural women. Maternal recall of birth weight can therefore become a useful source of birth weight ...

  13. Compromised weight gain, milk intake, and feeding behavior in breastfed newborns of depressive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sybil L; Jackson, Shera C; Boylan, L Mallory

    2011-09-01

    To explore depressed mood in the breastfeeding dyad. N = 50 mothers of 12-day-olds reported depressed mood (EPDS) and anxiety (STAI), then were videotaped while breastfeeding. Infants were weighed before and after breastfeeding. An ANCOVA on weight gain, which controlled for infant age and birth weight, found EPDS inversely related to weight gain. Following a significant MANCOVA on infant biobehavioral measures, ANCOVAs which controlled for birth weight, age, hunger at time of testing, and degree of exclusivity in breastfeeding, found EPDS inversely related to infants' milk intake and latch quality. Following a significant MANOVA on maternal behaviors, ANOVAs revealed EPDS inversely related to mothers' sensitive positioning and touch frequency. Contrastingly, anxiety was associated with increased touch. In the breastfed newborn, mothers' depressed mood is associated with lesser weight gain, lower milk intake, poorer latch to the breast, and receiving less frequent touch and less-sensitive positioning at the breast by mother.

  14. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  15. Standards of Birth Weight According to Gestational Age in the Northwestern Regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodych O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the neonatal registry for 2001-2010 years in Rivne and Volyn regions of Ukraine as well as 2006-2011 years of Khmelnytsky region was carried out. General information was available about body weight of 366 607 newborns, among which 188 687 were boys and 177 920 girls. Based on the analysis we developed local standards of birth body weight in relation to gestational age separately for boys and girls. Procedure for processing local standards met international standards that have been developed by the WHO. Availability of processed local standards depending on gestational age will enable neonatologists, pediatricians and researchers to clearly identify anomalies in the health of newborns in the northwestern regions of Ukraine. Therefore, identification of newborns with low or high birth weight will enable adequate and timely steps to improve their health.

  16. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight: A Within-Family Analysis in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, the high prevalence of unhealthy preconception body weight and inappropriate gestational weight gain among pregnant women is an important public health concern. However, the relationship among pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and newborn birth weight has not been well established. This study uses a very large dataset of sibling births and a within-family design to thoroughly address this issue. The baseline regression controlling for mother fixed effects indic...

  17. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  18. An observational study of associations among maternal fluids during parturition, neonatal output, and breastfed newborn weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibb William

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newborn weight measurements are used as a key indicator of breastfeeding adequacy. The purpose of this study was to explore non-feeding factors that might be related to newborn weight loss. The relationship between the intravenous fluids women receive during parturition (the act of giving birth, including time in labour or prior to a caesarean section and their newborn's weight loss during the first 72 hours postpartum was the primary interest. Methods In this observational cohort study, we collected data about maternal oral and IV fluids during labour or before a caesarean section. Participants (n = 109 weighed their newborns every 12 hours for the first three days then daily to Day 14, and they weighed neonatal output (voids and stools for three days. Results At 60 hours (nadir, mean newborn weight loss was 6.57% (SD 2.51; n = 96, range 1.83-13.06%. When groups, based on maternal fluids, were compared (≤1200 mls [n = 21] versus > 1200 [n = 53], newborns lost 5.51% versus 6.93% (p = 0.03, respectively. For the first 24 hours, bivariate analyses show positive relationships between a neonatal output and percentage of newborn weight lost (r(96 = 0.493, p Conclusions Timing and amounts of maternal IV fluids appear correlated to neonatal output and newborn weight loss. Neonates appear to experience diuresis and correct their fluid status in the first 24 hours. We recommend a measurement at 24 hours, instead of birth weight, for baseline when assessing weight change. Because practices can differ between maternity settings, we further suggest that clinicians should collect and analyze data from dyads in their care to determine an optimal baseline measurement.

  19. A STUDY OF MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel Kumar Kaushal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight is defined as the live births with less than 2.5 kg weight. LBW is one of the serious challenges in maternal and child health in both developed and developing countries. Objective: (1 To study the proportion of low birth weight neonates among hospital based deliveries. (2 To evaluate selected maternal factors associated with low birth weight in institutionally delivered newborn. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in S.N. Hospital, Agra from 1st September, 2007 to 31st August, 2009 from medical record section of Obstetrics & Gynaecology department. Mode of delivery, birth weight and sex of baby, age of mother, parity, gestational period were taken as variables. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was applied to observe the significance of association. Results: Proportion of LBW was found to be 38% and was higher in teenage pregnancy, in Muslim females, in high parity and among newborn females. Conclusion: Relationship of birth weight with sex of new born, birth order of new born, mode of delivery, gestational period and with parity of mother was found to be significant..

  20. Maternal lean body mass may be the major determinant of birth weight: A study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, B; Shatrugna, V; Balakrishna, N

    2006-11-01

    This study explored the relationship of maternal body composition parameters to the birth weight of the offspring. Maternal anthropometric parameters (weight, height) and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured in 76 women from low-income group during 12-21 days postpartum. The mean+/-s.d. height, weight of the mothers and birth weight of the newborns were 151.5+/-5.29 cm, 46.7+/-6.04 and 2.84+/-0.358 kg, respectively. When the relationship of maternal anthropometric and body composition parameters to the infants' birth weight was studied, maternal lean body mass was found to be the most important determinant of birth weight (R2 (%) = 21.3) (P < 0.001). This study highlights the importance of increasing lean body mass in young women for better pregnancy outcome.

  1. Comparação da mortalidade neonatal em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso ao nascimento, em maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Comparison of neonatal mortality in very low birth weight newborns at maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Muniz Bandeira Duarte

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a comparação das taxas de mortalidade neonatal em quatro maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A população estudada foi de recém-nascidos com peso inferior a 1.500g. O instrumento utilizado foi um questionário com dados informados pela mãe e o prontuário médico. Foram calculados, para cada instituição, as Razões Padronizadas de Mortalidade (RPM com o método direto e indireto, tendo como padrão a distribuição por peso do National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research. A amostra final apresentou 487 recém-nascidos. As padronizações pelo método direto e indireto mostraram elevadas taxas de mortalidade em todas as instituições; as que apresentaram a maior quantidade de recém-nascidos nas faixas com os menores pesos, foram aquelas que mostraram os menores valores de RPM. A menor razão de mortalidade por faixa de peso foi encontrada na faixa de peso entre 500 e 749g. Os resultados da RPM estão inversamente associados ao quantitativo populacional de recém-nascidos nas faixas com os menores pesos. Os coeficientes de mortalidade mostraram taxas altas, principalmente nas faixas de peso mais elevados. Os resultados apontam para uma qualidade deficiente na atenção perinatal.This study was a comparison of neonatal mortality rates in four maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study population consisted of newborns with birth weight below 1,500g. The research instrument was a questionnaire with data reported by the mother and collected from the patient record. For each maternity hospital the standardized mortality ratio (SMR was calculated using the direct and indirect method, using the weight distribution of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research as the standard. The final sample consisted of 487 newborns. Standardizations by the direct and indirect method showed high mortality rates in all four institutions

  2. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  3. Ethical issues related to caring for low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mary S; Passmore, Denise; Cline, Genieveve; Maguire, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Currently preterm births are the leading causes of newborn deaths and newborn mortality in developed countries. Infants born prematurely remain vulnerable to many acute complications and long-term disabilities. There is a growing concern surrounding the moral and ethical implications of the complex and technological care being provided to extremely low birth weight infants in neonatal intensive care units in the developed nations. The purpose of this study was to describe the ethical and moral issues that neonatal intensive care nurses experience when caring for low birth weight preterm infants and their families. A phenomenological method design was used to describe the lived experiences of nurses with ethical and moral issues encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions were used to gather data from the participants. The setting for this study was a 97-bed neonatal intensive care. A total of 16 female nurses were interviewed. Approval to conduct the research study was obtained from the institutional review board of the hospital where the study was conducted. Formal signed consent was obtained from each participant. To ensure confidentiality, each participant was asked to choose a confederate name to be used in the interview and the transcriptions. The thematic analysis identified five recurring themes: (a) at the edge of viability, (b) infant pain and discomfort, (c) crucial decisions, (d) communicating with parents, and (e) letting go. Neonatal intensive care unit nurses indicated that they often had challenges to their own sense of morality as they struggled to protect the infant from pain and unnecessary discomfort, provide care to an infant and their family whom they thought was faced with a lifetime of challenges and poor health, accepting decisions made by parents, and feeling as if parents were not adequately informed about outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  5. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kleinman, Ken; Kaakinen, Marika; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators), and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. Results In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74–0.82], 0·75[0·71–0·79] and 0·85[0·80–0·90] respectively (all pchildhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63–0·77] and 0·73[0·67–0·80] respectively) and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69–0·79] and 0·79[0·73–0·84]) (all pchildhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. Conclusion This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction. PMID:23209618

  6. Investigation of H19/RsaI Polymorphism in Children With Low Birth Weight in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Paula; Souza, Paulo; Angelo, Hildson Dornelas; Santos, Igor; Martins, Danyelly; Lima Filho, Jose; Maia, Maria Mascena

    2015-04-01

    H19 is a strong candidate gene for influencing birth weight variation and is exclusively imprinted maternally. In an attempt to understand the relationship of this gene polymorphism with low birth weight children, we investigated association of H19/RsaI polymorphism with low birth weight and normal birth weight in children and their mothers. The aim of our study was to establish the association between H19 gene polymorphism and LW in children born in Pernambuco, state of Brazil. It were selected 89 children, 40 low birth weight (LW) and 49 normal birth weight (NW) and 71 mothers (40 mothers of newborns NW and 31 mothers of newborns LW) attended at Dom Malan Hospital, Petrolina, Pernambuco - Brazil. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients and genomic DNA was extracted and detected by electrophoresis agarose gel, stained by Blue Green Loading Dye. DNA PCR amplification was done using the primers H1 (sense) and H3 (antisense). PCR products were digested with RsaI and electrophoresed on agarose gel stained by ethidium bromide. Statistical analyses were performed using the program BioEstat version 5.0. The RsaI polymorphism in the H19 gene showed that genotype frequencies did not differ statistically between low birth weight (AA = 12.5%, AB = 45%, BB = 42.5%) and control (AA = 8.6% AB = 36.73%, BB= 55.10% groups) and the allele frequencies were not significantly different (P = 0.2897). We also did not observe any association between maternal H19 allele polymorphism and low birth weight newborns (P =0.7799) or normal birth weight children (P = 0.8976). The small size of sample may be the explanation for these results; future studies with more patients are needed to confirm the effect of H19/RsaI polymorphism on birth weight of LW newborns.

  7. Maternal Depression During Pregnancy is Associated with Increased Birth Weight in Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund-Flores, L; Myers, MM; Monk, C; Perez, A; Odendaal, HA; Fifer, WP

    2017-01-01

    Previous research of maternal depression during pregnancy suggests an association with low birth weight in newborns. Review of these studies reveals predominant comorbidity with premature birth. This current study examines antenatal depression and birth weight in term, medically low-risk pregnancies. Maternal physiological and demographic measures were collected as well. In total, 227 pregnant women were recruited to participate in four experimental protocols at Columbia University Medical Center. Results indicate that depressed pregnant women who carry to term had significantly higher heart rates, lower heart rate variability, and gave birth to heavier babies than those of pregnant women who were not depressed. Low income participants had significantly higher levels of depression, as well as significantly higher heart rates and lower heart rate variability, than those in higher income groups. In full-term infants, maternal prenatal depression appears to promote higher birth weight, with elevated maternal heart rate as a likely mediating mechanism. PMID:28323349

  8. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charact...

  9. The Study of Mothers’ Periodontal Status and Newborn’s Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirinzad

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recent studies have presented evidence that periodontal disease in pregnant women may be a determining factor for newborn’s low birth weight. The present investigation was carried out to verify whether there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight of newborns.Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 330 women, containing 110 mothers having live newborns with weight 2500 g (control group. The existence of an association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight was evaluated by means of analytic statistics that considered other risk factors for low weight. The two groups were compared with regard to urinary infection, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membrane, placenta previa, primiparous, smoking, age, height, socioeconomic status and periodontal disease.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups for any of the covariables (P>0.05, but there was significant differences for principal independent variable (periodontal disease P<0.05.Conclusion: Results indicated a positive association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight. Thus periodontal disease is a possible risk factor for low birth weight.

  10. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight.

  11. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  12. Incidência e principais fatores associados à falha de extubação em recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento < 1.250 gramas Incidence and main risk factors associated with extubation failure in newborns with birth weight < 1,250 grams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Hermeto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência de falha de extubação em recém-nascidos prematuros com peso de nascimento OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of extubation failure in preterm newborns with birth weight < 1,250 g extubated to nasal continuous positive airway pressure and to identify the main risk factors associated with the need for reintubation in this population. METHODS: A retrospective review of eligible infants admitted and mechanically ventilated between July 2002 and June 2004 was performed. Extubation failure was defined as the need for reintubation within 7 days after the first extubation attempt. RESULTS: Of the 52 patients included in the study, 13 died before the first extubation attempt. Of the remaining 39 patients, only nine failed extubation (23.1% Comparing the two groups (failure vs. successful, there was a statistically significant difference regarding birth weight, gestational age and 5-minute Apgar score. After logistic regression, only gestational age was significant. Other secondary outcomes showed significant difference between the groups: intracranial hemorrhage grade III and/or IV, patent ductus arteriosus and death. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of extubation failure in our population was similar to the rate reported in the literature. The main risk factor for extubation failure was prematurity (≤ 28 weeks. In this population of extreme preterm infants, implementation of strategies for early extubation, use of methylxanthines, prevention of patent ductus arteriosus, and use of different modes of assisted ventilation after extubation may improve the outcomes.

  13. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  14. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  15. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men...... birth weight and adult height; for subjects with birth weight or = 4,501 g, mean height was 184.1 cm. A positive association was also found between birth length and adult height. For subjects with birth length ... adult height was 175.2 cm, increasing to 184.3 cm at birth length > 56 cm. The associations between birth length and adult height persisted after adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, and other confounders, while the associations between birth weight and adult height almost disappeared when...

  16. The observation of leptin levels in pregnant women newborn and newborn's weight and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Gengbiao; Xiao Jin; Shi Xin; Chen Xuehong

    2002-01-01

    To study the relationship of leptin quantity of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood, maternal blood and newborn's weight, leptin levels of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood of 59 pregnant women were detected by RIA. Results were: (1) leptin was be detected from placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood; (2) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood (P < 0.01); (3) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of placenta, amniotic fluid, umbilical blood and maternal blood for normal pregnant women and pregnancy induced hypertension (P < 0.01); (4) there was an obvious difference between leptin quantities of maternal blood and placenta (P < 0.01). It may be of important significance to detect eh leptin quantity of amniotic fluid and maternal blood in pregnant women for predicting the weight and growth of newborns and treat pregnancy induced hypertension

  17. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... determine the effect of the year and season, age of the lamb, weight of the lamb, birth type and sex on the birth weight ... lambs, while sheep in the middle age (4 to 5 years) gave birth to lambs with the heaviest body weight. However, the ..... extensive lamb production systems in New Zealand. Livest. Prod.

  18. Neural Correlates of Birth: Labor Contractions Induce C-Fos Expression In Newborn Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Daly, M. E.; Baer, L. A.; Hills, E. M.; Conway, G.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At birth, the newborn mammal must make rapid adaptations to the extrauterine environment to survive. We have previously shown that labor contractions augment the appearance of adaptive responses at birth, viz., postpartum breathing and the onset of suckling. Since neuronal activity has been shown to upregulate the activity of immediate early genes (IEGs) in the brain, we analyzed the neural distribution of c-Fos protein expression in newborn rats using immunohistochemistry. Previous studies have reported a burst of c-Fos mRNA expression in mouse and rat brain at birth however relationships to labor and delivery have not been examined. In the present study, we exposed near-term rat fetuses to elements of the vaginal birth process: 1) Simulated labor contractions. 2) Postpartum cooling (22 deg C). 3) Umbilical cord occlusion. and 4) Stroking to mimic postpartum licking by the dam. Cardinally delivered newborns (VG) were compared with those delivered by cesarean section following either prenatal exposure to compressions (C) [simulated labor contractions], or no compressions (NC) [no labor contractions]. Similar patterns of c-fos activation were observed throughout hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei, hippocampus and cerebral cortex in VG and C newborns that were not apparent in NC newborns. Our results indicate that labor contractions play a role in the induction of widespread neural activation in the newborn brain.

  19. [Influence of dietary supplementation on newborn weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Tomasz; Klejewski, Andrzej; Pisarska, Magdalena; Kostecka, Ewelina

    2012-01-01

    The basic source of vitamins and microelements for an expectant mother should be a good arranged diet. The diet should mainly meets the demand for individual nutrient elements, evolves during a pregnancy and supplies with indispensable macro and microelements to mother and a growing up embryo. The usage of multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers ought to always consult with a physician responsible for an expectant mother. Dietary supplements ought to be good chose to individual needs so that it can in an optimal way aid the health of an expectant mother and the progress of baby. The specialist literature and my ones researches show that a supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements and preparations with a folic acid in pregnancy can affect the mass of a neonate and increaser it. One should considers the implementation of multivitamin supplements by women from a risk group of the disorder development of an embryo that means: women from a lower social and economic status, with lower education, young mothers, with an unhealthy diet, exposed to anemia, with too low body mass before conception and with bad habits and a lifestyle. It should be mentioned that not only complications as a result of too low body mass of a neonate but also too high body mass can redound to many irregularities and disorders during a pregnancy. To them we can include a higher rate of caesareans and an increase in a perinatal mortality of neonates. So that is way the decision of including a supplementary diet should be made very carefully and individually for every patient. Special attention should be emphasized on the necessity of a health education to the extent of a healthy diet and a weight gain of mother while a cyophoria. The aim of carried out researches was estimation the influence of supplementary diet on the body mass of a neonate. One hundred respondents were covered by the research - the patients of "Maternity and Gynaecology Ward" with the obstetric, perinatology and

  20. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  1. Birth weight by gestational age and congenital malformations in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Nigatu, Balkachew; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-03-29

    Studies on birth weight and congenital anomalies in sub-Saharan regions are scarce. Data on child variables (gestational age, birth weight, sex, and congenital malformations) and maternal variables (gravidity, parity, antenatal care, previous abortions, maternal illness, age, medication, and malformation history) were collected for all neonates delivered at Ayder referral and Mekelle hospitals (Northern Ehthiopia) in a prospective study between 01-12-2011 and 01-05-2012. The total number of deliveries was 1516. More female (54%) than male neonates were born. Birth weights were 700-1,000 grams between 26 and 36 weeks of pregnancy and then increased linearly to 3,500-4,000 grams at 40 weeks. Thirty-five and 54% of neonates were very-low and low birth weight, respectively, without sex difference. Very-low birth-weight prevalence was not affected by parity. Male and female neonates from parity-2 and parity-2-4 mothers, respectively, were least frequently under weight. Sixty percent of newborns to parity -3 mothers weighed less than 2,500 grams, without sex difference. The percentage male neonates dropped from ~50% in parity-1-3 mothers to ~20% in parity-6 mothers. Diagnosed congenital malformations (~2%) were 2-fold more frequent in boys than girls. The commonest malformations were in the central nervous system (CNS; ~1.5% of newborns). Parity, low birth weight, gestational age less than 35 weeks, male sex, and lack of antenatal care were the most significant risk factors for congenital anomalies. The high prevalence of neonates with low birth weight and CNS anomalies in Northern Ethiopia was very high. The findings may reflect the harsh conditions in the past 2 decades and suggest environmental and/or nutritional causes. Male sex and parity affected the outcome of pregnancy negatively.

  2. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  3. The influence of gestational age and birth weight in the clinical assesment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns A influência da idade gestacional e do peso ao nascimento na avaliação clínica do tono muscular de recém nascidos a termo e prematuros hígidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edla S. da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of gestational age (GA and birth weight (BW in the clinical assessment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns. METHOD: Cross sectional study. The muscle tone of healthy 42 preterm and 47 term newborns was quantified and measured with a goniometer (an instrument for measuring angles respectively between 7th-14th day of life and 24-48 hours of life. Newborns were grouped according to GA and BW and evaluated at fixed time intervals by one examiner. Preterm newborns were matched to term at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA. RESULTS: The evolution of muscle tone in the preterm occurred gradually, following PCA, independent of birth weight. Preterm newborns had lower scores in all muscle tone indicators when compared to term at the first assessment. Differences were observed among preterm small for GA and adequate to GA for the indicator heel to ear (pOBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da idade gestacional (IG e do peso ao nascimento (PN na avaliação do tono muscular de recém nascidos (RN a termo e prematuros hígidos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal. O tono muscular de 42 RN prematuros e 47 termo foi quantificado e mensurado com goniômetro (instrumento para medir ângulos, respectivamente entre 7-14 dias de vida e 24-48 horas de vida. Os RN foram agrupados de acordo com IG e PN, sendo avaliados em intervalos fixos. RN prematuros foram comparados aos a termo na 40ª semana de idade concepcional (IC. RESULTADOS: A evolução do tono muscular nos RN prematuros ocorreu de forma gradual de acordo com IC e independente do PN. RN prematuros, na primeira avaliação apresentaram escores de tono muscular inferiores aos de RN a termo em todos os indicadores. Foram observadas diferenças entre RN prematuros pequenos e adequados para a IG em relação ao indicador calcanhar-orelha (p<0,001. O pareamento dos grupos na 40ª semana de IC mostra, exceto pela postura, diferença significativa entre os grupos (p< 0

  4. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  5. Attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China: A follow-up study based on Maternal and Newborn's Health Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aiqun; Wu, Keye; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Huanqing; Yang, Qi; Chen, Dafang

    2018-02-01

    to evaluate the independent association between attendance at prenatal care and adverse birth outcomes in China, measured either as the occurrence of preterm birth or low birth weight. a follow-up study. the data was collected from maternal and newborn's health monitoring system at 6 provinces in China. all pregnant women registered in the system at their first prenatal care visit. We included 40152 registered pregnant women who had delivered between October 2013 and September 2014. attendance at prenatal care was evaluated using Kessner index. χ 2 tests were used to examine the correlations between demographic characteristics and preterm birth or low birth weight. The associations between attendance at prenatal care and birth outcomes were explored using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models. the prevalence for preterm birth and low birth weight was 3.31% and 2.55%. The null models showed region clustering on birth outcomes. Compared with women who received adequate prenatal care, those with intermediate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.62, 95%CI 1.37-1.92) or inadequate prenatal care (adjusted OR 2.78, 95%CI 2.24-3.44) had significantly increased risks for preterm birth, and women with intermediate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.31, 95%CI 1.10-1.55) or inadequate prenatal care (adjusted OR 1.70, 95%CI 1.32-2.19) had significantly increased risks for low birth weight. We found very significant dose-response patterns for both preterm birth (p-trendprenatal care in China has independent effects on both preterm birth and low birth weight. Appropriate timing and number of prenatal care visits can help to reduce the occurrence of preterm birth or low birth weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal dental radiography during pregnancy is not associated with term low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Center for Radiation Research, Shiraz University, Shiraz; Aminzadeh, F.; Manshouri, A.; Kamali, M.; Rezaiean, M.; Vazirinejad, R.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: In a report published in JAMA in 2004, Hujoel and colleagues indicated that maternal dental radiography during pregnancy may be associated with term low birth weight. Interestingly, they concluded that dental radiographies cause measurable radiation doses to the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and the radiation effects on this axis is the reason for term low birth weight. On the other hand, low birth weight is the second leading cause of infant death. In this paper the results obtained in a 2 year study conducted at a midwifery hospital in Rafsanjan, IR Iran are reported. Methods: Four hundred seventy-five singleton infants with gestational periods of 37-44 wk born between 2006 and 2007 at the Niknafs Teaching Hospital affiliated with Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences and met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Demographic data and clinical findings at birth including gestation age, sex of infant, birth order, season of birth, maternal age, and maternal education were collected from maternal and newborn hospital records and by interviews with parents. Maternal history of exposure to common sources of man-made ionizing and non-ionizing (exposure to radiations emitted by mobile phones, CRTs, cordless phones) radiation before and during pregnancy were carefully recorded. Results: Among the 475 infants who were studied, there were only 15 cases with a history of maternal dental radiography during pregnancy. The average newborn infants' birth weight in non-exposed and exposed (maternal dental radiography during pregnancy) groups were 3166.69±481.31 g and 3118.67±341.42 g respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: In this study, low birth weight was not associated with maternal dental radiography during pregnancy. These results are generally inconsistent with those reported by Hujoel and colleagues.

  7. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, D.J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Vink, J.M.; Haak, M.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on

  8. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Haak, Monique C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background

  9. Hypoglycaemia in fasting low birth weight infants in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) infants are commonly at risk of hypoglycaemia. The prevalence of hypoglycaemia and its neurological features in fasting LBW infants below 24 hours of age was assessed. Methods: Low birth weight (LBW) infants seen within 24 hours of birth who had not fed or received ...

  10. Risk factors for low birth weight in Sana'a City, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makki, Abdulwahab M

    2002-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) represents the third leading cause of death in children in Yemen, and is the most significant predictor of death, health, growth and development. The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights in Sana'a City of Yemen, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in the four main hospitals in Sana'a City during the study period. Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 14-45 years, with a mean age of 29.55 years. The mean age at the time of marriage was 22.38 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive to mothers interviewed in the four hospitals during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The data collected were entered into a computer using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is a need for national prospective research project to study the low birth weight problem at the national level. There is also a need to discourage teenage pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy.

  11. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  12. Estimation of newborn risk for child or adolescent obesity: lessons from longitudinal birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Morandi

    Full Text Available Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic.We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986 (N = 4,032 to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators, and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children.In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74-0.82], 0·75[0·71-0·79] and 0·85[0·80-0·90] respectively (all p<0·001. Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63-0·77] and 0·73[0·67-0·80] respectively and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69-0·79] and 0·79[0·73-0·84] (all p<0·001. The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use.This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction.

  13. [Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro de; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 23(0/7)-31(6/7) weeks, birth weight of 500-1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of birth weight of full term neonates and its′ determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R Kadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is highly prevalent in India and has a multifactorial causation. There is a need to study and identify the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors determining birth weight. This will help in planning ante natal care more effectively. Materials and Methods : Study-type-cross-sectional study-setting: Hospital based. Study-subject: Mothers and their new borns. Sample size: All the births taken place during the study period. Study period: July 2010-June 2011. Study tools : (0 i Questionnaire. (ii pediatric weighing machine. Inclusion criteria : m0 others attending ante natal care (ANC clinic from 1 st trimester with minimum three antenatal visits, non-anemic at the end of 2 nd trimester, had full-term and singleton delivery. Exclusion criteria : H/O pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, diabetes mellieutus (DM, tuberculosis (TB, urinary tract infection (UTI, delivered preterm and tobacco chewers or mishri users. Statistical Analysis : Percentages, mean and SD of birth weight, χ2 test, ANOVA, Z-test, and Binary logistic. Results: By using birth weight as a continuous data it was observed that birth-weight was significantly associated with maternal age (F = 3.360, df = 2, P = 0.035, education (F = 4.401, df = 4, P = 0.002 and breakfast (z = 3.970, P = 0.00. Proportion of LBW was 42.4%. For analysis, groups of newborns on the basis of birth weight showed significant association between LBW and maternal education (χ2 = 12.734, df = 4, P = 0.013, breakfast (χ2 = 13.241, df = 1, P = 0.00 and evening snacks (χ2 = 4.275, df = 1, P = 0.013. According to the binary logistic regression, breakfast and education were significant and best predictors for birth weight. Conclusion: Education and breakfast are strong determinants of birth-weight. Less educated women need more intense health education.

  15. Birth Weight of Infants of Mothers With Aggressive Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A.; Koertge, Thomas E.; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N.; Gunsolley, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Background It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Methods Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers’ periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. Results There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported pregnancy outcomes, we used a compromised approach using prospective data as well as weaker retrospective data assuming that disease onset was likely before the births. Our results, within the limitations of this approach, indicate no evidence that AgP in the mother predisposes low birth weights. AgP has many unique biologic characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic. PMID:21819247

  16. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n=154 Blue-faced Leicester x Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ~147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n=856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n=283), the effect of the ewes' own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes.

  17. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  18. Relationship between gestational age, birth weight and deciduous tooth eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Mohamed Khalifa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Delayed tooth eruption was related to lower birth weight and prematurity. The delayed eruption in preterm babies may be related to premature birth and not to a delay in dental development.

  19. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Low socio-economic status is the underlying cause of low birth weight. Other causes include maternal malnutrition; maternal diseases like antepartum hemorrhage, anaemia, cervical incompetence; adolescent pregnancies; short birth intervals; intrauterine infections; multiple pregnancy; congenital malformations; placental.

  20. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term...... the effect of ambient air pollution. The aim of this commentary is to review the published literature on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW regarding increased vulnerability for the above-mentioned subgroups.  Results: Although more than fifty epidemiological studies have examined...... the associations between ambient air pollution and TLBW to date, we only identified six studies that examined the potential effect modification of the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW by the above listed maternal risk factors. Two studies assessed effect modification caused by smoking...

  1. Influência da fisioterapia respiratória sobre a função cardiopulmonar em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Effects of respiratory physiotherapy on the cardiopulmonary function of very low birth weight newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Marques Nicolau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as repercussões da fisioterapia respiratória sobre a função cardiopulmonar em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT submetidos à ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo de RNPT com peso de nascimento menor que 1500g, sendo verificados os valores de frequência cardíaca (FC, saturação de oxigênio (SatO2, frequência respiratória (FR e pressão arterial sistêmica (PA antes e após a fisioterapia respiratória e a aspiração endotraqueal. Os RNPT incluídos foram avaliados em sessões sequenciais entre o 3º-7º dias de vida por dois fisioterapeutas da unidade neonatal. Os valores de FC, SatO2 e PA foram coletados por monitorização eletrônica e a FR, por cronômetro. Na análise estatística, foi utilizado o teste de ANOVA para medidas repetidas, sendo significante pOBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of respiratory physiotherapy on cardiopulmonary function of ventilated preterm newborns infants (PTNB. METHODS: This prospective study included PTNB with birth weight lower than 1500g. Before and after respiratory physiotherapy and endotracheal suction, the following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR, oxygen saturation (O2Sat, respiratory rate (RR and blood pressure (BP. The newborns were evaluated in consecutive sessions between the 3rd-7th day of life by two therapists in the neonatal unit. HR, O2Sat and BP data were collected by electronic monitoring and RR by a stopwatch. Results were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: We evaluated 42 PTNB, 57% females, with a mean birth weight of 1024g and a mean gestational age of 29.5 weeks. Only three PTNB had a 5th minute Apgar lower than 5. Respiratory Distress Syndrome was the most prevalent disease (88%. In total, 252 physiotherapy sessions were applied to these 42 infants. HR, RR, O2Sat and BP remained within the physiological limits after procedures, including endotracheal suction. CONCLUSIONS: Procedures for physiotherapy

  2. Birth Defects in the Newborn Population: Race and Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C. Egbe

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This is a comprehensive description of racial differences in the risk of birth defects in the United States. Observed racial differences in the risk of birth defects may be related to genetic susceptibilities, to cultural or social differences that could modify exposures, or to the many potential combinations between susceptibilities and exposures.

  3. Newborn length predicts early infant linear growth retardation and disproportionately high weight gain in a low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngard, Samuel Clark; Berngard, Jennifer Bishop; Krebs, Nancy F; Garcés, Ana; Miller, Leland V; Westcott, Jamie; Wright, Linda L; Kindem, Mark; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-12-01

    Stunting is prevalent by the age of 6 months in the indigenous population of the Western Highlands of Guatemala. The objective of this study was to determine the time course and predictors of linear growth failure and weight-for-age in early infancy. One hundred and forty eight term newborns had measurements of length and weight in their homes, repeated at 3 and 6 months. Maternal measurements were also obtained. Mean ± SD length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) declined from newborn -1.0 ± 1.01 to -2.20 ± 1.05 and -2.26 ± 1.01 at 3 and 6 months respectively. Stunting rates for newborn, 3 and 6 months were 47%, 53% and 56% respectively. A multiple regression model (R(2) = 0.64) demonstrated that the major predictor of LAZ at 3 months was newborn LAZ with the other predictors being newborn weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), gender and maternal education∗maternal age interaction. Because WAZ remained essentially constant and LAZ declined during the same period, weight-for-length Z-score (WLZ) increased from -0.44 to +1.28 from birth to 3 months. The more severe the linear growth failure, the greater WAZ was in proportion to the LAZ. The primary conclusion is that impaired fetal linear growth is the major predictor of early infant linear growth failure indicating that prevention needs to start with maternal interventions. © 2013.

  4. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  5. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Shyam V; Kulkarni, Madhav B; Sadavarte, Vaishali S; Ashtekar, Ratna S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg) over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby’s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades. PMID:20922101

  6. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants with birth weight above 1500 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypotension at birth and the non-use of surfactant were the only risk factors to be associated with disease. However, with logistic regression analysis, none of these were independently associated with ROP. Conclusion: ROP may occur in newborn infants of larger birthweight but with good prognosis, and oxygen therapy ...

  7. [Low birth weight and obesity: causal or casual association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adolfo Monteiro; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    To present the conceptual foundations that explain how events occurring during intrauterine life may influence body development, emphasizing the interrelation between low birth weight and risk of obesity throughout life. Google Scholar, Library Scientific Electronic Online (SciELO), EBSCO, Scopus, and PubMed were the databases. "Catch-up growth", "life course health", "disease", "child", "development", "early life", "perinatal programming", "epigenetics", "breastfeeding", "small baby syndrome", "phenotype", "micronutrients", "maternal nutrition", "obesity", and "adolescence" were isolated or associated keywords for locating reviews and epidemiological, intervention and experimental studies published between 1934 and 2014, with complete texts in Portuguese and English. Duplicate articles, editorials and reviews were excluded, as well as approaches of diseases different from obesity. Within 47 selected articles among 538 eligible ones, the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, the epigenetic mechanisms and the development plasticity were identified as fundamental factors to explain the mechanisms involved in health and disease throughout life. They admit the possibility that both cardiometabolic events and obesity originate from intrauterine nutritional deficiency, which, associated with a food supply that is excessive to the metabolic needs of the organism in early life stages, causes endocrine changes. However, there may be phenotypic reprogramming for low birth weight newborns from adequate nutritional supply, thus overcoming a restrictive intrauterine environment. Therefore, catch-up growth may indicate recovery from intrauterine constraint, which is associated with short-term benefits or harms in adulthood. Depending on the nutritional adequacy in the first years of life, developmental plasticity may lead to phenotype reprogramming and reduce the risk of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  8. Effect of maternal periodontitis and low birth weight--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luise Maria; Cruz, Simone Seixas da; Gomes-Filho, Isaac Suzart; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Passos-Soares, Johelle Santana; Trindade, Soraya Castro; Figueiredo, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy; Alves, Claúdia Maria Coêlho; Coelho, Julita Maria Freitas; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, evidence has been raised that there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and undesirable gestational events, for example low birth weight; this issue is controversial. To evaluate whether there is an association between maternal periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was carried out on 951 mothers that had been cared for by the Brazilian Unified Health System in Petrolina-PE and Juazeiro-BA, Brazil. The case group (n = 269) consisted of mothers of newborns with birth weight <2500 g and a control group (n = 682) of mothers of newborns with birth weight ≥2500 g. An interview was realized, using a questionnaire as well as a full mouth examination to diagnose the periodontal condition. Women who had at least four teeth with probing depth ≥4 mm and clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm, with bleeding on probing at the same site, were diagnosed with periodontitis. The birth weight was obtained through the hospital book record. The main association was evaluated using the multivariate regression model, considering confounders. The frequency of periodontitis was 16.4% (case group) and 17.4% (control group). Periodontitis did not show an association with LBW (ORcrude = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.63-1.35), even after adjustment for the following confounders: maternal age, pre-gestational body mass index, number of pre-natal consultations, number of pregnancies, maternal schooling level, smoking habit during pregnancy and hypertension (ORadjusted = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.61-1.68). The findings of this study showed no association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight, even after appropriate adjustments for confounding factors.

  9. Enteral iron supplementation in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan John; Davies, Mark W

    2012-03-14

    Preterm infants are at risk of exhausting their body iron stores much earlier than healthy term newborns. It is widespread practice to give enteral iron supplementation to preterm and low birth weight infants to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. However, it is unclear whether supplementing preterm and low birth weight infants with iron improves growth and neurodevelopment. It is suspected that excess exogenous iron can contribute to oxidative injury in preterm babies, causing or exacerbating conditions such as necrotising enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity. Additionally, the optimal dose and timing of commencement and cessation of iron supplementation are uncertain. To evaluate the effect of prophylactic enteral iron supplementation on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm and low birth weight infants. The secondary objectives were to determine whether iron supplementation results in improved haematological parameters and prevents other causes of morbidity and mortality. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1951 to August 2011), CINAHL (1982 to August 2011) and conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials that compared enteral iron supplementation with no iron supplementation, or different regimens of enteral iron supplementation in preterm or low birth weight infants or both. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Both review authors separately evaluated trial quality and data extraction. We synthesised data using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs). Where data about the methodology and results or both were lacking, we made an attempt to contact the study authors for further information. We included twenty-six studies (2726 infants) in the

  10. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29% died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33% up to 24 hours and 97 (54% up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53, 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88, male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47. A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71. Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred.

  11. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  12. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  13. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2014-01-01

    between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....

  14. Birth weight classification in gestational diabetes: is there an ideal chart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Silveira Mastella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is associated to increased rates of large for gestational age newborns and macrosomia. Several charts are used to classify birth weight. Is there an ideal chart to classify newborns of GDM mothers? Methods: We evaluated adequacy of birth weight of 332 neonates born to GDM mothers at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Newborns were classified according to gestational age as small (SGA, adequate or large (LGA based on four charts: Alexander, Pedreira, INTERGROWTH 21st Project and SINASC-2012. The latter was built using data from a large national registry of 2012, the Born Alive National Surveillance System (Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos – SINASC, which included 2.905,789 birth certificates. Frequencies of SGA and LGA and Kappa agreement were calculated. Results: In non-gender adjusted curves, SGA rates (95% confidence interval varied from 8% (5-11 to 9% (6-13; LGA rates, from 11% (8-15 to 17% (13-21. For males, SGA rates varied from 3% (1-6% to 6% (3-11%, and LGA rates, from 18% (13-24% to 31% (24-38%; for female, SGA rates were from 3% (1-7% to 10% (6-16% and LGA rates, from 11% (6-16% to 19% (13-26%. Kappa results were: ALEXANDER vs. SINASC-2012: 0.80 (0.73-0.88; INTERGROWTH 21st vs. SINASC-2012 (adjusted by sex: 0.62 (0.53-0.71; INTERGROWTH 21st vs. PEDREIRA: 0.71 (0.62-0.79; SINASC-2012 (by sex vs. PEDREIRA: 0.86 (0.79-0.93. Conclusions: Misclassification has to be taken into account when evaluating newborns of GDM mothers, as LGA rates can almost double depending on the chart used to classify birth weight.

  15. Birth outcomes of newborns after folic Acid supplementation in pregnant women with early and late pre-eclampsia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Dakhlaoui, Abdallah; Dudás, István; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the rate of preterm birth and low birth weight in the newborns of pregnant women with early and late onset pre-eclampsia according to folic acid supplementation. Study design. Birth outcomes of newborns were evaluated in 1,017 (2.7%) pregnant women with medically recorded pre-eclampsia and 37,134 pregnant women without pre-eclampsia as reference in the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996, in addition these study groups were differentiated according to the supplementation of high dose of folic acid alone from early pregnancy. Results. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia associated with a higher rate of preterm birth (10.2% versus 9.1%) and low birthweight (7.9% versus 5.6%). There was a lower risk of preterm birth (6.8%) of newborn infants born to pregnant women with early onset pre-eclampsia after folic acid supplementation from early pregnancy though the rate of low birthweight was not reduced significantly. There was no significant reduction in the rate of preterm birth and low birthweight in pregnant women with late onset pre-eclampsia after folic acid supplementation. Conclusion. The rate of preterm birth in pregnant women with early onset pre-eclampsia was reduced moderately by high doses of folic acid supplementation from early pregnancy.

  16. Competence of health care providers on care of newborns at birth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: This is an observational study which was carried out at a level one health facility in Yaoundé from June to July 2009. The aim was to evaluate the competence of health care providers towards newborns' care at birth. Methods: Ten health care providers took care of three hundred and thirty-five pregnant women ...

  17. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  18. Low-birth-weight babies among hospital deliveries in Nepal: a hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koirala AK

    2015-06-01

    proportion of low-birth-weight babies was high in hospital delivery, and ethnicities, Hindu religion, education, nonformal employment, food habit, rest during pregnancy, and type of delivery were found to influence the birth weight. Hence, it is important to strengthen health education services at the basic level of a community to solve this problem. Keywords: low birth weight, hospital, delivery, Nepal, fetal program, LBW, newborn, parity, pregnancy, preterm delivery 

  19. Apnea in the Otherwise Healthy, Term Newborn: National Prevalence and Utilization during the Birth Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jonathan C; Jang, Jisun; Rhein, Lawrence M

    2017-02-01

    To describe the prevalence of apnea in otherwise healthy term newborns, identify attributable length of stay (LOS) and healthcare utilization (cost) of apnea, and measure hospital variation in attributable LOS and cost of apnea in this population. We conducted a secondary analysis of a national administrative dataset, the 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database, which included 3.4 million newborn discharges in the US. The birth hospitalizations of approximately 2.6 million otherwise healthy, full-term newborns were included for analysis. Attributable LOS and cost of apnea were calculated using multivariate analyses. Apnea was diagnosed in 1 in 1000 healthy full-term newborns. Multivariate analyses showed that newborns with apnea had 0.6 days longer LOS (P apnea plus hypoxia and/or bradycardia had 1.4 days longer LOS (P apnea varied between individual hospitals and differed by hospital region. Apnea is associated with higher LOS and cost in the newborn hospitalization, with variation in hospital practice. This suggests the need for better comprehension of the underlying physiology and standardization of practice in its management in the term newborn. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Col-Araz, Nilgun

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine's Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth, and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r = 0.115, p history of disease during pregnancy (p computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p computers during pregnancy (p computers may have an effect on pre-term birth.

  1. Semiparametric Multinomial Ordinal Model to Analyze Spatial Patterns of Child Birth Weight in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed A. Adeyemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth weight is an important health parameter for obstetricians and gynaecologists. It is a good health indicator of a child-bearing mother and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality. Methods: This paper utilizes data on 28,647 children born between 2003–2008 obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS. For a simple epidemiological convenience, the occurrence of a newborn weight can intuitively be considered to be categorical in nature and the thresholds can be put on a continuous scale. In survey reporting, the mothers frequently estimate their infant’s birth weight and make a classification in ordinal category (low, normal, large instead of actual birth weight. The study fits a multinomial regression model to analyze the relationships between the polytomous response and different kind of covariates in a unified manner. We estimate the fixed effects of bio-social covariates parametrically and the non-linear effect modeled using P-spline. The spatial component was modeled using conditional autoregressive error. A penalized maximum likelihood estimation was performed to estimate the model parameters. Results: We found risk factors that are positively associated with low birth weight, which include multiple birth, short birth interval, death of sibling, childhood diarrhea, fever, mother’s smoking, firewood/dung cooking and poor household. Results further showed that iron syrup supplementation, antenatal attendance, mother literacy and household wealth had significant association with low probability of low birth weight. The finding also showed spatial patterns, which are not captured by the underlying determinants, and we produced probability predictive maps of the spatial residual effects. Conclusions: In addition to the statistical relevance of our method, the generated spatial maps identify highly endemic areas of low birth weight that can assist government agency to channel scarce health

  2. No association between periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogacci, Mariana Fampa; Cardoso, Elaine de O C; Barbirato, Davi da S; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Sansone, Carmelo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between periodontitis in pregnant women and adverse pregnancy outcomes by heeding confounding risk factors for preterm low birth weight infants. This study was reported according to The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement. A case-control study was conducted. Medical records of all pregnant women attending a prenatal care clinic were screened. Those between 21 and 34 years and gestational age of 28-32 weeks were initially enrolled in the study. The exclusion criteria were then applied: diabetes mellitus, genitourinary tract infections, or HIV infection; previous multiple gestations; previous preterm birth/low birth weight infants; in vitro fertilization procedures; placental, cervical/uterine abnormalities; history of infertility; history of drug abuse; and any medical conditions that required antibiotics prophylaxis. Patients' anthropometric, demographic, and behavioral characteristics were collected. The periodontal clinical parameters were obtained from six sites per tooth: clinical attachment level, probing pocket depth, dental plaque index, and gingival bleeding index. Women were then allocated into two groups: mothers of preterm and/or low birth weight newborns (cases) and mothers of full-term and normal birth weight newborns (controls). Periodontal clinical parameters were analyzed and reported separately for each group, and no significant differences were observed (p > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that periodontal clinical parameters were not associated with the adverse pregnancy outcomes. After controlling for confounding factors, our results suggest that maternal periodontal disease is not a risk factor associated with preterm low birth weight infants.

  3. Birth weight of infants of mothers with aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A; Koertge, Thomas E; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N; Gunsolley, John C

    2012-03-01

    It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers' periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported periodontal examination. For periodontally healthy controls, 13.2% of babies born to siblings of AgP patients and 12.8% of babies born to unrelated mothers weighed characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic.

  4. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and placental weight determine birth weight in normal Jamaican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, J M; Davidson, S; Hall, J S; Jackson, A A

    1999-12-01

    Birth weight is related to neonatal health and long-term risk of chronic disease. Since animal studies have shown that birth outcome is related to placental function, the present project was designed to explore the relationship between birth weight and placental growth and composition with maternal factors during pregnancy among normal term pregnancies in 51 primiparous and 40 multiparous women delivering at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Both groups were followed from 15 weeks of gestation to term. The primiparous group was generally younger than the multiparous (mean age 22 +/- 4 versus 31 +/- 5 yr). They were significantly lighter (55 +/- 8 versus 61 +/- 9 kg) with a lower body mass index (21 +/- 3 versus 23 +/- 4 kg/m2) during early pregnancy, but gained more weight during pregnancy, 11 kg compared with 8 kg, respectively. The duration of pregnancy was similar for both groups. Although the size of the placenta was not significantly different between the two groups, the mean weight of the multiparous placentae was more than that of the primiparous placentae. Also, for all mothers both placental weight and initial maternal weight related directly to birth weight. Placental non collagen protein (NCP), sodium and potassium contents were significantly higher for multiparous women and were related to birth weight. The primiparous group had babies who were significantly lighter, 3.03 kg compared with 3.36 kg, for the multiparous and this could be attributed to differences in placental function and maternal weight. When account was taken of the difference in maternal weight at the start of pregnancy and the difference in placental weight, parity no longer explained any of the differences in birth weight. It is concluded that maternal body weight at the time of becoming pregnant and the early development of the placenta determine the efficiency with which nutrients might be delivered to the foetus and hence foetal growth. The difference in birth weight

  5. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  6. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  7. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 h vs. 14 h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, A.; Sánchez-Macías, D.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (...

  8. Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a a a print email share Facebook Twitter Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight ... Article Body ​​​​​​​​A study in Pediatrics found giving iron supplements to low birth weight infants reduces the ...

  9. Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight. HE Onah, ACC Ikeme, PO Nkwo. Abstract. In a prospective cross-sectional study, the correlation between symphysiofundal height (SFH) and birth weight was evaluated in 2646 consecutive parturients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, ...

  10. Parental socioeconomic status and birth weight distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Birth weight is one of the most impor- tant determinants of perinatal well. -being and survival. It may be influenced by socioeconomic status among other factors. Objective: To evaluate the influ- ence of parental socioeconomic status on birth weight distribution of term infants. Patients ...

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight in Jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ademu

    The World Health. Organization (WHO) then conducted a study on eighteen different countries at different stages of development. This revealed that babies could be classified into three main groups based on their birth weight and gestational age: small for gestational age, appropriate for age, large for age. Low birth weight ...

  12. Factors predisposing to low birth weight in Jimma Hospital South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight continues to remain a major public health problem in Ethiopia in contrast to what is observed in many developing countries. Objectives: To assess some of the predisposing factors to low birth weight among deliveries in Jimma hospital. Design: Cross-sectional case referent study.

  13. Intrapartum prediction of birth weight using maternal anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This prospective study was conducted at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Nigeria, between April 1st and 31st of July, 2013 to predict birth weight in labour using four clinical methods and ultrasound scan independently and comparatively to determine which is closest to the actual birth weight. The four clinical methods are ...

  14. Factors influencing birth weights in Cameroon | Ngassa | Clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After gestational age has been shown to be significantly correlated with mean birth weights in Cameroon, the aim of this study was to determine other factors which can also influence birth weights. This was a cross sectional study carried out in the obstetrics and gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in Yaoundé during the ...

  15. Birth Weight does not Associate with Gestational Physical Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise during pregnancy has been a subject of debate and whether gestational physical activity profile affects birth weight is an important issue as birth weight is an indicator of fetal, neo-natal and post-natal mortality. This study was carried at three hospitals in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria to determine the difference between ...

  16. Patterns of birth weight at a community level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    fill this gap and issues related to representativeness a community based study that identified a one-year live ... and type of latrine facility showed variation in low birth weight rates. These factors also showed independent and significant effect on birth weight patterns. ... were based on health facility records. According the ...

  17. Elevated airway liquid volumes at birth: a potential cause of transient tachypnea of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillick, Erin V; Lee, Katie; Yamaoka, Shigeo; Te Pas, Arjan B; Crossley, Kelly J; Wallace, Megan J; Kitchen, Marcus J; Lewis, Robert A; Kerr, Lauren T; DeKoninck, Philip; Dekker, Janneke; Thio, Marta; McDougall, Annie R A; Hooper, Stuart B

    2017-11-01

    Excessive liquid in airways and/or distal lung tissue may underpin the respiratory morbidity associated with transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). However, its effects on lung aeration and respiratory function following birth are unknown. We investigated the effect of elevated airway liquid volumes on newborn respiratory function. Near-term rabbit kittens (30 days gestation; term ~32 days) were delivered, had their lung liquid-drained, and either had no liquid replaced (control; n = 7) or 30 ml/kg of liquid re-added to the airways [liquid added (LA); n = 7]. Kittens were mechanically ventilated in a plethysmograph. Measures of chest and lung parameters, uniformity of lung aeration, and airway size were analyzed using phase contrast X-ray imaging. The maximum peak inflation pressure required to recruit a tidal volume of 8 ml/kg was significantly greater in LA compared with control kittens (35.0 ± 0.7 vs. 26.8 ± 0.4 cmH 2 O, P liquid volumes had marked adverse effects on lung structure and function in the immediate neonatal period and reduced the ability of the lung to aerate efficiently. We speculate that elevated airway liquid volumes may underlie the initial morbidity in near-term babies with TTN after birth. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Transient tachypnea of the newborn reduces respiratory function in newborns and is thought to result due to elevated airway liquid volumes following birth. However, the effect of elevated airway liquid volumes on neonatal respiratory function is unknown. Using phase contrast X-ray imaging, we show that elevated airway liquid volumes have adverse effects on lung structure and function in the immediate newborn period, which may underlie the pathology of TTN in near-term babies after birth. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight......, gestational age, TSH, and smoking) did not change the findings of nonsignificant regression coefficients. CONCLUSION: Low birth weight per se has no evident role in the etiology of thyroid autoimmunity....

  19. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  20. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  1. Secular trends in the rate of low birth weight in Brazilian State Capitals in the period 1996 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Helma Jane Ferreira; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Barbieri, Marco Antônio; Goldani, Marcelo Zubarán; Lamy Filho, Fernando; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Alves, Maria Teresa S S Britto e; Bettiol, Heloísa

    2013-01-01

    Secular trends in rates of low birth weight in Brazilian state capital cities were evaluated for the period 1996 to 2010 using joinpoint regression models. The rates were calculated using data from the Live Births Information System. Newborns weighing less than 500 g were excluded. Only data for capital cities was included since under-registration of births in these cities is lower and new trends can be detected earlier. There was a significant increase in the rate of low birth weight in the Brazilian capitals of the North Region, Northeast Region, South Region and Southeast Region up to 2003/2004, stabilizing thereafter. In the capitals of the Center-west Region the rate increased throughout the whole study period. The rate of low birth weight was higher in the capitals of the more developed regions. The rate of multiple births increased significantly in all Brazilian capitals, while the stillbirth rate decreased and showed a negative correlation with the rate of low birth weight. The increase in the rate of low birth weight may be partially explained by the increase in multiple births, an increase in the birth of infants weighing 500 to 999 g and by the reduction in the stillbirth rate.

  2. Epigenetic Consequences of Low Birth-Weight and Preterm Birth in Adult Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua

    2018-01-01

    Adverse birth outcomes including low birth-weight and preterm birth are associated with long-term morbidity and health consequences at adult ages. Molecular mechanisms including epigenetic modification may have been involved in the adaptation to the stressful condition in peridelivery period whic...

  3. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  4. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  5. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been several publications from different countries on the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, such reports from Nigeria are lacking in literature. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight ...

  6. Assessing the Risk of Having Small for Gestational Age Newborns Among Lebanese Underweight and Normal Pre-pregnancy Weight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rym El; Abbas, Hussein A; Alameddine, Hind; Bizri, Ayah Al; Melki, Imad; Yunis, Khalid A

    2018-01-01

    Introduction It has been established that underweight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG) are at a higher risk of having Small for Gestational Age (SGA) newborns. However, the association remains poorly studied in Middle Eastern societies exhibiting different ethnic groups, genetic predisposing factors along with differences in nutritional food intake during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of having a SGA newborn among underweight and normal weight BMI women while studying the role of GWG in this association. Methods This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 62,351 singleton pregnancies from the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network between 2001 and 2009 from 27 hospitals across Lebanon. Women who had underweight and normal pre-pregnancy BMI were included. Results A total of 8.6% newborns were SGA and 6.6% of women were underweight. Among women with normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI, 8.6 and 12.4% had SGA births respectively. Overall, the adjusted OR of having SGA newborns was significantly higher among underweight women (OR = 1.448; 95%CI = 1.287-1.630) compared to normal pre-pregnancy BMI. Below normal weight gain significantly increased the odds of SGA for both normal and underweight pre-pregnancy BMI women, with adjusted ORs of 1.535 (95% CI = 1.418-1.661) and 1.970 (95%CI = 1.515-2.560) respectively. Discussion Higher risks of SGA newborns in underweight and normal BMI women with low GWG were observed. In addition, normal weight gain couldn't protect underweight women of having risk for SGA newborns. Hence, all pregnant women should be encouraged to maintain healthy BMI before pregnancy and attain adequate GWG.

  7. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). METHODS: First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations...... of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age childhood asthma outcomes. RESULTS: Younger gestational...... age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal...

  8. Early nCPAP versus intubation in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neves Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation have been the standard of care for very low birth weight infants but, in the last decade, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been described in many studies as an option for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, recent studies have shown that early nCPAP is not associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and does not imply more days of ventilation support when compared to traditional ventilation techniques. The authors conducted a study to compare the outcomes (in terms of mortality, morbidity and need for medical support of very low birth weight infants treated with nCPAP or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One hundred and four newborns were enrolled in this study, 44 (42.3% were treated with nCPAP and 60 (57.7% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. A subgroup analysis of newborns with gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks was also performed. It included 57 newborns with similar demographic characteristics, 29 (50.9% treated with nCPAP and 28 (49.1% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (p = 0.033 and surfactant administration (p = 0.021 with lower rates in the nCPAP group. No other differences were found in the prevalence of other morbidities or in the need for medical support after birth. These results suggests that nCPAP might be chosen as primary ventilatory support choice in very low birth weight preterm, when there are no contraindications to its use.

  9. Maternal Factors for Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth At Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neebha Ojha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight and preterm birth are the major community health problems in developing countries. They are the major determinants of perinatal survival and infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and the maternal risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth among hospital deliveries in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of TUTH. Maternal risk factors like age, parity, ethnicity, history of previous abortion, history of previous cesarean section, antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were studied. Information on all births that occurred was extracted from maternity case notes and delivery registers.  Results: During the study period, there were 685 singleton live births. Among these 78(11.4% were low birth weight and 47(6.9% were preterm birth. The mean birth weight was 2950±488 gm. The mean weight of female was statistically less compared to male babies (p=0.032. The signi cant risk factors for LBW were primiparity (OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.25-3.58, Indo-Aryan ethnicity (OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.12-3.45 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.08; 95%CI 1.17-8.12. As for PTB antepartum hemorrhage (OR 8.63; 95%CI 1.99-37.30 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.04-.89 were signi cant risk factors.  Conclusions: Parity, ethnicity, and medical disorders were the main risk factors for low birth weight. Antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were signi cant risk factors for preterm birth. Keywords: low birth weight; preterm birth; risk factors.

  10. Correlation between several anthropometric measurements to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nur

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality remains one of the factors leading to child mortality, even for crude death as a whole. Therefore, good perinatal care is considered to be useful for reducing this mortality. Low birth weight is one of neonatal morbidity cause; previous studies reported correlation between birth weight to several anthropometric measurements and their predictive value. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between birth length, head, chest, abdominal, calf and mid arm circumferences as well as to foot length to birth weight. A cross sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital Medan between November 1st 1998 to January 31st 1999. All babies without clear moulage, caput succedaneum or cephal hematoma were studied. Birth weight was measured by TANITA weighing scale within the first 24 hours after delivery. Birth length by somatometer and head, chest, abdominal, calf and mid arm circumferences as well as foot length were measured 3 times by using plastic measuring tape. It was evident a positive correlation of birth weight to all such anthropometric measurements with the highest correlation coefficient for calf circumference (r : 0.92. Calf circumference of 9,8 cm is predictor of low birth weight.

  11. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araz, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)

  12. Binding at birth: the newborn brain detects identity relations and sequential position in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervain, Judit; Berent, Iris; Werker, Janet F

    2012-03-01

    Breaking the linguistic code requires the extraction of at least two types of information from the speech signal: the relations between linguistic units and their sequential position. Furthermore, these different types of information need to be integrated into a coherent representation of language structure. The brain networks responsible for these abilities are well known in adults, but not in young infants. Our results show that the neural architecture underlying these abilities is operational at birth. In three optical imaging studies, we found that the newborn brain detects identity relations, as evidenced by enhanced activation in the bilateral superior temporal and left inferior frontal regions. More importantly, the newborn brain can also determine whether such identity relations hold for the initial or final positions of speech sequences, as indicated by increased activity in the inferior frontal regions, possibly Broca's area. This implies that the neural foundations of language acquisition are in place from birth.

  13. Newborn size and body composition as predictors of insulin resistance and diabetes in the parents: Parthenon Birth Cohort Study, Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Fall, Caroline H

    2012-09-01

    We aimed to examine detailed neonatal measurements as predictors of later diabetes in both parents. Babies (n = 617) born to nondiabetic parents in Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India, were measured at birth for weight; crown-to-heel length (CHL), crown-to-rump length (CRL), and leg length; skinfolds (triceps and subscapular); and circumferences (head, abdomen, and mid-upper-arm circumference [MUAC]). Nine and a half years later, glucose tolerance and fasting insulin were measured in their parents (469 mothers and 398 fathers). Sixty-two (15.6%) fathers and 22 (4.7%) mothers had developed diabetes. There were linear inverse associations of the children's birth weight, CHL, CRL, MUAC, and skinfolds with paternal diabetes and insulin resistance (P < 0.05 for all). Offspring birth weight and adiposity (MUAC, abdominal circumference, and skinfolds) showed U-shaped associations with maternal diabetes (P for quadratic association <0.05 for all). These associations persisted after adjusting for the parents' current adiposity and maternal glucose concentrations and adiposity during pregnancy. Newborn adiposity was positively related to maternal insulin resistance; this association was nonsignificant after adjusting for maternal current adiposity. Newborn size is a window into the future health of the parents. Small newborn size (especially soft-tissue body components) predicts an increased risk of later diabetes in both parents, suggesting a genetic or epigenetic link between parents' diabetes risk and reduced fetal growth in their children. The association of higher birth weight and newborn adiposity with later maternal diabetes suggests effects on fetal adiposity of the intrauterine environment in prediabetic mothers.

  14. Impaired kidney growth in low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Chellakooty, Marla; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is an important risk factor for hypertension and unfavorable prognoses of a number of renal diseases. It is also associated with reduced kidney size and nephron number. A differentiation between the effects of low birth weight versus being born premature or small...... for gestational age has, however, not been addressed. METHODS: The influence of weight for gestational age (percentage deviation from expected mean), gestational age, birth weight, and early diet on kidney growth was studied in 178 children born pre- or postmature and/or small or large for gestational age......, comparing them to 717 mature children, birth weight appropriate for gestational age. Kidney size was determined by bilateral ultrasonography measuring length, width and depth, using the equation of an ellipsoid for volume calculation. The examinations were performed at 0, 3, and 18 months of age together...

  15. Air pollution and low birth weight in an industrialized city in Southeastern Brazil, 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreno dos Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction: Birth weight is an important indicator of several conditions that manifest earlier (as fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibited growth and cognitive development and later in life such as chronic diseases. Air pollution has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: Retrospective cohort study investigated the association between low birth weight (LBW and maternal exposure to air pollutants in Volta Redonda city, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2003 to 2006. Methods: Birth data was obtained from Brazilian Information System. Exposure information (O3, PM10, temperature and humidity was provided by Governmental Air Quality Monitoring System. Linear and Logistic models, adjusted for sex, type of pregnancy, prenatal care, place of birth, maternal age, parity, education, congenital anomalies and weather variables were employed. Results: Low birth weight (LBW represented 9.1% of all newborns (13,660. For an interquartile range increase in PM10 it was found OR2 ndTrimester = 1.06 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.10, OR3 rdTrimester = 1.06 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.10 and, in O3 it was found OR2 ndTrimester = 1.03 (95%CI 1.01 - 1.04, OR3 rdTrimester = 1.03 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.04. The dose-response relationship and a reduction in birth weight of 31.11 g (95%CI -56.64 - -5.58 was observed in the third trimester of pregnancy due to an interquartile increase of O3. Conclusion: This study suggests that exposures to PM10 and O3, even being below the Brazilian air quality standards, contribute to risks of low birth weight.

  16. Birth Weight and Intelligence in Young Adulthood and Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-06-01

    We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow-up assessments, with intelligence scores increasing across 4 birth weight categories and declining for the highest birth weight category. The adjusted differences between those in the 5 IQ points at all 3 follow-up assessments, corresponding to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident across the normal birth weight range and so were not accounted for by low birth weight only. The association between birth weight and intelligence is stable from young adulthood into midlife. These long-term cognitive consequences may imply that even small shifts in the distribution of birth size, in normal-sized infants as well, may have a large impact at the population level. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Frequency of maternal and newborn birth outcomes, Lima, Peru, 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Wynn

    Full Text Available This study describes the pregnancy and birth outcomes at two hospitals in Lima, Peru. The data collection and analysis is intended to inform patients, providers, and policy makers on Peru's progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals and to help set priorities for action and further research.Data were collected retrospectively from a sample of 237 women who delivered between December 2012 and September 2013 at the Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal or the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza. The outcomes were recorded by a trained mid-wife through telephone interviews with patients and by review of hospital records. Associations between participant demographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were tested with Chi-squared, Fisher's exact, or Student's t-test.Over 37% of women experienced at least one maternal or perinatal complication, and the most frequent were hypertension/preeclampsia and macrosomia. The women in our sample had a cesarean section rate of 50.2%.Maternal and perinatal complications are not uncommon among women in the lower socioeconomic strata of Lima. Also, the high cesarean rate underpins the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the indications for cesarean section deliveries, which could help reduce the number of unnecessary procedures and preventable complications.

  18. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2012-12-23

    Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  19. Differences in essential newborn care at birth between private and public health facilities in eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Waiswa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Uganda and elsewhere, the private sector provides an increasing and significant proportion of maternal and child health services. However, little is known whether private care results in better quality services and improved outcomes compared to the public sector, especially regarding care at the time of birth. Objective: To describe the characteristics of care-seekers and assess newborn care practices and services received at public and private facilities in rural eastern Uganda. Design: Within a community-based maternal and newborn care intervention with health systems strengthening, we collected data from mothers with infants at baseline and endline using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate data analysis comparing nine newborn care practices and three composite newborn care indicators among private and public health facilities was conducted. Results: The proportion of women giving birth at private facilities decreased from 25% at baseline to 17% at endline, whereas overall facility births increased. Private health facilities did not perform significantly better than public health facilities in terms of coverage of any essential newborn care interventions, and babies were more likely to receive thermal care practices in public facilities compared to private (68% compared to 60%, p=0.007. Babies born at public health facilities received an average of 7.0 essential newborn care interventions compared to 6.2 at private facilities (p<0.001. Women delivering in private facilities were more likely to have higher parity, lower socio-economic status, less education, to seek antenatal care later in pregnancy, and to have a normal delivery compared to women delivering in public facilities. Conclusions: In this setting, private health facilities serve a vulnerable population and provide access to service for those who might not otherwise have it. However, provision of essential newborn care practices was

  20. Evaluation of within-litter birth weight variation in piglets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VaZindove

    2014-03-23

    Mar 23, 2014 ... Canario, L., Lundgren, H., Haandlykken, M. & Rydhmer, L., 2010. Genetics of growth in piglets and the association with homogeneity of weight within litters. J. Anim. Sci. 88, 1240-1247. Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K. & Bhebhe, E., 2006. Genetic determination of individual birth weight, litter weight and litter size ...

  1. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight. Nondiabetic women were recruited after ultrasonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Maternal body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the strongest predictors of birth weight, with multiple logistic regression analysis performed to assess predictors of birth weight greater than 4 kg. Data were analyzed for 2,618 women, of whom 49.6% (n=1,075) were primigravid and 16.5% (n=432) were obese based on a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. In univariable analysis, maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, smoking, fat mass, and fat-free mass all correlated significantly with birth weight. In multivariable regression analysis, fat-free mass remained a significant predictor of birth weight (model R=0.254, standardized β=0.237; Prelationship was found between maternal fat mass and birth weight. After adjustment for confounding variables, women in the highest fat-free mass quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.64 (95% confidence interval 2.34-5.68) for a birth weight more than 4 kg compared with those in the lowest quartile. Based on direct measurements of body composition, birth weight correlated positively with maternal fat-free mass and not adiposity. These findings suggest that, in nondiabetic women, interventions intended to reduce fat mass during pregnancy may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates and revised guidelines for gestational weight gain in obese women may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates. : III.

  2. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random-effects m...

  3. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  4. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...

  5. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, Stephen; Mens, Pètra F.; Karema, Corine; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Kaligirwa, Nadine; Vyankandondera, Joseph; de Vries, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence

  6. Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second phase LBW women (cases) were compared with a double number of women who gave birth to normal birth weight infants. Results: Among 939 women eligible for the study, the incidence of LBW was 7.8%. Reproductive age lower than 25 years, gestational age lower than 40 weeks, history of previous ...

  7. Nationwide Twin Birth Weight Percentiles by Gestational Age in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jan Hu

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: This is the first nationwide birth weight norm for twins in Taiwan, which is particularly useful for investigation into the predictors and outcomes of altered fetal growth through twin studies in the Taiwanese population.

  8. Sex Specific Genetic and Environmental Trends in Birth Weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant. Estimation of sex specific variance components had no significant influence on the direction and magnitude of genetic trends indicating of homogeneity of variance by sex for birth weight in this population. Keywords: Breeding values ...

  9. Pre-pregnancy iron reserves, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Nuria; Ribot, Blanca; Garcia, Elena; Viteri, Fernando E; Arija, Victoria

    2011-12-01

    Early iron supplementation in women with sufficient reserves could provoke iron excess resulting in haemoconcentration and low infant birth weight (IBW). To clarify the influence of early iron supplementation on maternal iron status and the IBW, taking into account pre-pregnancy iron deposits. Longitudinal, prospective study. Healthy women volunteers (n=82) intending to become pregnant. Women were grouped as a function of their pre-pregnancy (low or present) iron stores (serum ferritin (SF)supplementation during pregnancy; "early" (supplementation with iron was 140.7mg/d and the mean of late supplementation was 99.01mg/d. Early supplementation improves the biochemical status of the mother and does not provoke a significant increase in haemoconcentration relative to late supplementation independently of the pre-pregnancy iron levels. Supplemental iron had a positive effect on birth weight among women with pre-pregnancy low iron stores (β=4.37; SE=1.8; p=0.038) and did not affect birth weight among women with present iron stores (β=-0.008; SE=3.03; p=0.998). Early iron supplementation with doses ~100mg/d improves the biochemical status of the mother independently of her pre-pregnancy iron status. Supplementation with iron improves newborn birth weight in those women who start pregnancy with iron deficiency, and makes no significant difference to those women who are not iron deficient. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of newborn diseases with weight/length ratio and the adequacy of weight for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequencies of newborn diseases in thosenewborns classified according to a weight/length rate and thoseclassified by the adequacy weight for gestational age. Methods: Aretrospective cross-sectional study by record assessment was carriedout enclosing all the live newborns at Hospital Geral do Grajaú, fromSeptember to December, 2009 (n =577 classified according to therate weight/length and also to the adequacy weight for gestationalage. The 10 and 90 percentiles of the weight/length distribution, nowdesignated as “indices” were calculated leading to the followingclassification: low index, for newborns below 54.8 g/cm; high index,for those over 75.8 g/cm; and average index, for the remainingnewborns. According to the adequacy weight for gestational age thenewborns were designated as pre-term for gestational age; term smallfor gestational age; appropriate term and large term. In this samplethere were no small and large pre-term or post-term newborns. Majordiseases were related to the index and adequacy extracts by the χ2test for a contingency table. Results: A significant association wasfound among low index, pre-term for gestational age newborns andterm small for gestational age; between average index and appropriatefor gestational age term newborns; and high index with large termappropriate for gestational age newborns (p< 0.001. Hypoglycemia(3.4% was associated to both low and high indices, to appropriatefor gestational age preterm newborns and to small for gestational ageterm newborns. Sepsis (3.1% was associated to both low index andpre-term appropriate for gestational age newborns. The respiratorydistress syndrome (1.3% was associated to low index and pre-termappropriate for gestational age newborns. Other respiratory distresssyndromes (3.8% were associated to low and high indices but notto the adequacy for gestational age classification. Jaundice (14.9%was not associated to the studied classifications

  11. Perinatal factors and regional brain volume abnormalities at term in a cohort of extremely low birth weight infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal A Parikh

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate diverse clinical antecedents of total and regional brain volume abnormalities and white matter hyperintensity volume on term MRI in extremely low birth weight (birth weight ≤1000 g survivors. A consecutive cohort of extremely low birth weight infants who survived to 38 weeks postmenstrual age (n = 122 and a control group of 16 healthy term newborns underwent brain MRI at term-equivalent age. Brain volumes were measured using semi-automated and manual segmentation methods. Using multivariable linear regression, clinical antecedents were correlated with volumes of total brain tissue, white matter hyperintensities, and regional tissues/structures, adjusted for age at MRI, total cranial volume, and total tissue volume. Regional brain volumes were markedly reduced in extremely low birth weight infants as compared to term newborns (relative difference range: -11.0%, -35.9%. Significant adverse clinical associations for total brain tissue volume included: small for gestational age, seizures, caffeine therapy/apnea of prematurity, duration of parenteral nutrition, pulmonary hemorrhage, and white matter injury (p<0.01 for each; relative difference range: -1.4% to -15.0%. Surgery for retinopathy of prematurity and surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation were significantly associated with increasing volume of white matter hyperintensities. Regional brain volumes are sensitive to multiple perinatal factors and neonatal morbidities or interventions. Brain growth measurements in extremely low birth weight infants can advance our understanding of perinatal brain injury and development.

  12. TLR7/8 adjuvant overcomes newborn hyporesponsiveness to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David J.; van Haren, Simon D.; Scheid, Annette; Bergelson, Ilana; Kim, Dhohyung; Mancuso, Christy J.; Foppen, Willemina; Fresh, Lynn; Theriot, Terese B.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Vasilakos, John P.; Beaurline, Joe M.; Tomai, Mark A.; Midkiff, Cecily C.; Alvarez, Xavier; Blanchard, James L.; Gilbert, Margaret H.; Aye, Pyone Pyone

    2017-01-01

    Infection is the most common cause of mortality in early life, and immunization is the most promising biomedical intervention to reduce this burden. However, newborns fail to respond optimally to most vaccines. Adjuvantation is a key approach to enhancing vaccine immunogenicity, but responses of human newborn leukocytes to most candidate adjuvants, including most TLR agonists, are functionally distinct. Herein, we demonstrate that 3M-052 is a locally acting lipidated imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist adjuvant in mice, which, when properly formulated, can induce robust Th1 cytokine production by human newborn leukocytes in vitro, both alone and in synergy with the alum-adjuvanted pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 (PCV13). When admixed with PCV13 and administered i.m. on the first day of life to rhesus macaques, 3M-052 dramatically enhanced generation of Th1 CRM-197–specific neonatal CD4+ cells, activation of newborn and infant Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide–specific (PnPS-specific) B cells as well as serotype-specific antibody titers, and opsonophagocytic killing. Remarkably, a single dose at birth of PCV13 plus 0.1 mg/kg 3M-052 induced PnPS-specific IgG responses that were approximately 10–100 times greater than a single birth dose of PCV13 alone, rapidly exceeding the serologic correlate of protection, as early as 28 days of life. This potent immunization strategy, potentially effective with one birth dose, could represent a new paradigm in early life vaccine development. PMID:28352660

  13. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  14. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L; De Silva, N Maneka G; Wood, Andrew R; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A; McCarthy, Mark I; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Tim D; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F A; Nohr, Ellen A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T; Scholtens, Denise M; Davey Smith, George; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Frayling, Timothy M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Freathy, Rachel M

    2016-03-15

    Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, vitamin D status, and adiponectin level. Offspring birth weight from 18 studies. Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The maternal genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2-g (95% CI, 0 to 3 g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P = .008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were also associated with birth weight with effect sizes of 8 g (95% CI, 6 to 10 g) per glucose-raising allele (P = 7 × 10(-14)) and -4 g (95% CI, -6 to -2 g) per SBP-raising allele (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. A 1-SD ( ≈ 4 points) genetically higher maternal BMI was associated with a 55-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 17 to 93 g). A 1-SD ( ≈ 7.2 mg/dL) genetically higher maternal fasting glucose concentration was associated with 114-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 80 to 147 g). However, a 1-SD ( ≈ 10 mm Hg) genetically higher maternal SBP was associated with a 208-g

  15. Culture media influenced laboratory outcomes but not neonatal birth weight in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tai-lang; Zhang, Yi; Li, Sai-jiao; Zhao, Meng; Ding, Jin-li; Xu, Wang-ming; Yang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Whether the type of culture media utilized in assisted reproductive technology has impacts on laboratory outcomes and birth weight of newborns in in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was investigated. A total of 673 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI and giving birth to live singletons after fresh embryo transfer on day 3 from Jan. 1, 2010 to Dec. 31, 2012 were included. Three types of culture media were used during this period: Quinn's Advantage (QA), Single Step Medium (SSM), and Continuous Single Culture medium (CSC). Fertilization rate (FR), normal fertilization rate (NFR), cleavage rate (CR), normal cleavage rate (NCR), good-quality embryo rate (GQER) and neonatal birth weight were compared using one-way ANOVA and χ (2) tests. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of culture media on laboratory outcomes and birth weight. In IVF cycles, GQER was significantly decreased in SSM medium group as compared with QA or CSC media groups (63.6% vs. 69.0% in QA; vs. 71.3% in CSC, P=0.011). In ICSI cycles, FR, NFR and CR were significantly lower in CSC medium group than in other two media groups. No significant difference was observed in neonatal birthweight among the three groups (P=0.759). Multiple linear regression analyses confirmed that the type of culture medium was correlated with FR, NFR, CR and GQER, but not with neonatal birth weight. The type of culture media had potential influences on laboratory outcomes but did not exhibit an impact on the birth weight of singletons in ART.

  16. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  17. Does the impact of a plant-based diet during pregnancy on birth weight differ by ethnicity? A dietary pattern analysis from a prospective Canadian birth cohort alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulyniak, Michael A; de Souza, Russell J; Shaikh, Mateen; Desai, Dipika; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piush; Turvey, Stuart E; Beyene, Joseph; Atkinson, Stephanie; Morrison, Katherine M; McDonald, Sarah; Teo, Koon K; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S

    2017-11-14

    Birth weight is an indicator of newborn health and a strong predictor of health outcomes in later life. Significant variation in diet during pregnancy between ethnic groups in high-income countries provides an ideal opportunity to investigate the influence of maternal diet on birth weight. Four multiethnic birth cohorts based in Canada (the NutriGen Alliance). 3997 full-term mother-infant pairs of diverse ethnic groups who had principal component analysis-derived diet pattern scores-plant-based, Western and health-conscious-and birth weight data. No associations were identified between the Western and health-conscious diet patterns and birth weight; however, the plant-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with birth weight (β=-67.6 g per 1-unit increase; P<0.001), and an interaction with non-white ethnicity and birth weight was observed. Ethnically stratified analyses demonstrated that among white Europeans, maternal consumption of a plant-based diet associated with lower birth weight (β=-65.9 g per 1-unit increase; P<0.001), increased risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA; OR=1.46; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.54;P=0.005) and reduced risk of large-for-gestational age (LGA; OR=0.71; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.95;P=0.02). Among South Asians, maternal consumption of a plant-based diet associated with a higher birth weight (β=+40.5 g per 1-unit increase; P=0.01), partially explained by cooked vegetable consumption. Maternal consumption of a plant-based diet during pregnancy is associated with birth weight. Among white Europeans, a plant-based diet is associated with lower birth weight, reduced odds of an infant born LGA and increased odds of SGA, whereas among South Asians living in Canada, a plant-based diet is associated with increased birth weight. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Caput succedaneum and facial petechiae--birth-associated injuries in healthy newborns under forensic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisser, Matthias; Rothschild, Markus A; Schmolling, Jan C; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2012-05-01

    In cases of suspected neonaticide, the results of a forensic autopsy might be important for conviction or acquittal. But autopsy findings in dead newborns are often unspecific and can rarely provide corroborative evidence of inflicted injury, as they are known to occur during normal birth as well. In our study, we examined 59 vaginally delivered, healthy newborns within the first 30 min after birth to know more about the prevalence and possible correlations of a caput succedaneum and facial petechiae. Caput succedaneum occurred in 33.9%, facial petechiae in 20.3%. As for the occurrence of caput succedaneum, statistically significant differences could be shown for the duration of delivery and the mother's parity. These correlations could not be shown for the occurrence of facial petechiae. Within the scope of our study, we could demonstrate that neither caput succedaneum nor facial petechiae are rare findings in healthy newborns. In the forensic investigation of suspected neonaticide, their potential significance can only be ascertained together with further investigations of the circumstances of death and a thorough forensic pathological autopsy.

  19. Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Erick; Bruce, Nigel; Delgado, Hernán

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether domestic use of wood fuel is associated with reduced birth weight, independent of key maternal, social, and economic confounding factors. We studied 1,717 women and newborn children in rural and urban communities in rural Guatemala. We identified subjects through home births reported by traditional birth attendants in six rural districts (n = 572) and all public hospital births in Quetzaltenango city during the study period (n = 1,145). All were seen within 72 hr of delivery, and data were collected on the type of household fuel used, fire type, and socioeconomic and other confounding factors. Smoking among women in the study community was negligible. Children born to mothers habitually cooking on open fires (n = 861) had the lowest mean birth weight of 2,819 g [95% confidence interval (CI), 2,790-2,848]; those using a chimney stove (n = 490) had an intermediate mean of 2,863 g (95% CI, 2,824-2,902); and those using the cleanest fuels (electricity or gas, n = 365) had the highest mean of 2,948 g (95% CI, 2,898-2,998) (psmoking and a feasible mechanism through carbon monoxide exposure suggest this association may be real. Because two-thirds of households in developing countries still rely on biofuels and women of childbearing age perform most cooking tasks, the attributable risk arising from this association, if confirmed, could be substantial.

  20. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large-for-gestation......Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large...

  1. Newborn skin reflection: Proof of concept for a new approach for predicting gestational age at birth. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Zilma Silveira Nogueira; Vitral, Gabriela Luiza Nogueira; de Souza, Ingrid Michelle Fonseca; Rego, Maria Albertina Santiago; Guimaraes, Rodney Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Current methods to assess the gestational age during prenatal care or at birth are a global challenge. Disadvantages, such as low accessibility, high costs, and imprecision of clinical tests and ultrasonography measurements, may compromise health decisions at birth, based on the gestational age. Newborns' organs and tissues can indirectly indicate their physical maturity, and we hypothesized that evolutionary changes in their skin, detected using an optoelectronic device meter, may aid in estimating the gestational age. This study analyzed the feasibility of using newborn skin reflectance to estimate the gestational age at birth noninvasively. A cross-sectional study evaluated the skin reflectance of selected infants, preferably premature, at birth. The first-trimester ultrasound was the reference for gestational age. A prototype of a new noninvasive optoelectronic device measured the backscattering of light from the skin, using a light emitting diode at wavelengths of 470 nm, 575 nm, and 630 nm. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis models were employed to predict gestational age, combining skin reflectance with clinical variables for gestational age estimation. The gestational age at birth of 115 newborns from 24.1 to 41.8 weeks of gestation correlated with the light at 630 nm wavelength reflectance 3.3 mm/6.5 mm ratio distant of the sensor, at the forearm and sole (Pearson's correlation = 0.505, P skin reflectance at wavelengths of 630 nm and 470 nm in combination with birth weight, phototherapy, and adjusted to include incubator stay, and sex (R2 = 0.828, P skin reflectometer device, in combination with clinical variables, was able to predict the gestational age and could be useful when the information is in doubt or is unknown. Multivariable predictive models associated the skin reflectance with easy to obtain clinical parameters, at the birth scenario. External validation needs to be proven in an actual population with the real incidence of

  2. Prevalence of low birth weight, macrosomia and stillbirth and their relationship to associated maternal risk factors in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbozo, Faith; Abubakari, Abdulai; Der, Joyce; Jahn, Albrecht

    2016-09-01

    birth weight is vital to the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal birth weight (such as low birth weight and macrosomia) is an important determinant of child survival, disabilities, stunting, and long-term adverse consequences for the onset of non-communicable diseases in the life course and therefore demands appropriate public health interventions. Stillbirths are also considered one of the most important, but most poorly understood and documented adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related maternal risk factors, as well as pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth. a retrospective study design was used to analyze 4262 delivery records for singleton pregnancies from January 2013 to December 2014 seen at the Hohoe municipal hospital, Volta region in Ghana. The data on birth weight and related factors were derived from the delivery book. Data was analyzed using STATA. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between maternal factors such as parity, age and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria, sex of infant and abnormal birth weight. Association between stillbirth and related factors was assessed using logistic regression. prevalence of low birth weight (macrosomia (≥4.0kg) was 3.03%. There was an increased risk of a first born being of low birth weight than second or third born (RR; 2.04, CI; 1.59-2.64, pmacrosomia and low birth weight co-existed among infants in Hohoe municipality, both of which are associated with adverse pregnancy outcome such as stillbirth. Given the apparent association between maternal age <20 years and increased risk, health promotion strategies aimed at preventing pregnancies among teenagers could be implemented to aid the reduction of stillbirth rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anthropometrics parameters and neonatal outcomes from newborns of deliveries women with low weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Luiz Vieira Garcia Novo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: to assess the anthropometrics assets and outcomes of birthplace newborns from patients classified how low weight through the body weight index. Methods: a retrospective study of patients in labor and newborns from Hospital Santa Lucinda since 03/2009 to 02/2010: 19 of the study group (low weight and 50 of the control group (normal weight. The maternal variables included were: age, parity, puerperium; in the newborns were observed: sex, vitality, anthropometrics values, and outcomes. The statistical analysis involved the use Bioestat 5.0 program. Results: the middle perimeter head of newborns from low weight patients were 33,3 cm, and in the control group were 33,7 cm (p = 0,098; middle left arm perimeter were 10,0 cm and 10,3 cm (p = 0, 097; average weight: 2986,84 and 3165,32 g (p = 0, 0423, average length: 48,37 and 48, 77 cm (p = 0,2165 respectively. The average vitality from newborns after 1 and 5 minutes were: 8,1 - 8,1 (p = 0,9144 and 8,9 - 9,0 (p = 0,911. Conclusion: the weights of newborns from low weight patients in labor denote lower than normal weight patients. Low weight patients signify a risk group during the prenatal care, because there is more probability to be born low weight newborns. Prophylactics educating programs must be realized in order to avoid probable risks in low weight pregnant patients. Support PIBIC - CEPE

  4. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  5. Birth defects in newborns and stillborns: an example of the Brazilian reality

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    Fett-Conte Agnes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study constitutes a clinical and genetic study of all newborn and stillborn infants with birth defects seen in a period of one year in a medical school hospital located in Brazil. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence, causes and consequences of the defects. Methods For all infants we carried out physical assessment, photographic records, analysis of medical records and collection of additional information with the family, besides the karyotypic analysis or molecular tests in indicated cases. Result The incidence of birth defects was 2.8%. Among them, the etiology was identified in 73.6% (ci95%: 64.4-81.6%. Etiology involving the participation of genetic factors single or associated with environmental factors was more frequent 94.5%, ci95%: 88.5-98.0% than those caused exclusively by environmental factors (alcohol in and gestational diabetes mellitus. The conclusive or presumed diagnosis was possible in 85% of the cases. Among them, the isolated congenital heart disease (9.5% and Down syndrome (9.5% were the most common, followed by gastroschisis (8.4%, neural tube defects (7.4% and clubfoot (5.3%. Maternal age, parental consanguinity, exposure to teratogenic agents and family susceptibility were some of the identified risk factors. The most common observed consequences were prolonged hospital stays and death. Conclusions The current incidence of birth defects among newborns and stillbirths of in our population is similar to those obtained by other studies performed in Brazil and in other underdeveloped countries. Birth defects are one of the major causes leading to lost years of potential life. The study of birth defects in underdeveloped countries should continue. The identification of incidence, risk factors and consequences are essential for planning preventive measures and effective treatments.

  6. Updated birth weight centiles for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tom; Seaton, Sarah E; Manktelow, Brad N; Baker, Philip N; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Field, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Smith, Lucy K

    2017-12-07

    Construct updated birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts for use in the UK and compare these to the currently used UK-WHO charts. Secondary analysis of national birth data. Centiles were constructed using 1 269 403 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2013-2014 as part of the MBRRACE-UK national perinatal surveillance programme. These were then validated using 642 737 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2015. Sex-specific birth weight-for-gestational age centiles. Centiles were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method via the GAMLSS package in R. This method transforms the skewed birth weight distribution to approximate a normal distribution, allowing any birth weight centile to be produced. The new centiles performed well in the validation sample, with the observed and expected proportion of births below a given centile in agreement. Overall, driven by the predominance of term births, the UK-WHO charts classify a smaller proportion of infants as below a given centile. For example, the UK-WHO estimates classified only 1.32% (8035/606 430) of term infants born in 2015 as below the second centile, compared with 1.97% (11 975/606 430) using the new MBRRACE-UK centiles. At the earliest gestational ages, however, the opposite is observed, with the UK-WHO classifying a larger proportion of infants as below a given centile, particularly at the lower end of the birthweight distribution. We have constructed and validated updated birth weight-for-gestational age centiles using a contemporary sample of births occurring in England and Wales. The benefits of these updated centiles will be first to assist the national surveillance of perinatal mortality programme by improving the identification of the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by intrauterine growth restriction and, second, to aid clinicians by more accurately identifying babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth.

  7. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

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    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  8. Effect of rotating shift work on childbearing and birth weight: a study of women working in a semiconductor manufacturing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-05-01

    Stable circadian rhythm is important for both maternal and fetal health. This retrospective analysis of women in a semiconductor factory evaluated the effect of shift work exposure on childbearing and birth weight. Records of 440 female employees (initial mean age: 28.4 years) including 111 mothers who had 158 live births during the period of observation (1997-2007) were reviewed. The data analyzed included maternal age, general health condition, highest educational level, life-style and occupational factors, as well as newborn gender, birth weight, birth order and gestational age. The childbearing rates of female workers on three different work schedules (consistent daytime work (CDW), intermittent (i-) or persistent (p-) rotating shift works (RSW)) were 32.1%, 20.0% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.047). After controlling for potential confounding factors, childbearing rates among women with CDW exceeded those of shift workers (odds ratio (OR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-3.0). The birth weights of newborns from mothers on the three work schedules (CDW, i-RSW and p-RSW) were significantly different (3271.7±395.4, 3251.3±460.9, and 2998.5±381.2 g, respectively (Pschedules should be carefully planned for female employees who are pregnant or preparing for pregnancy. Prenatal evaluations for mothers with persistent day-night rotating shift work exposures are especially necessary.

  9. Factors associated with low birth weight in Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Minamisava

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Low birth weight (LBW is public health problem, because they are associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. No previous studies on factors associated with LBW carried out in central Brazil were found in the literature. The main aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with LBW in children born alive in the State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional analysis was performed using data from the Live Births Information System from the Brazilian Health Ministry. All 92.745 singleton births in the State of Goiás during the year of 2000 were examined. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with LBW (< 2500 g. In Goiás, the prevalence of LBW was 5.96% and the most important factors associated with LBW were: prematurity, young and older mothers, unmarried women, mother illiteracy, mothers who had less than seven prenatal care visits, non-hospital delivery, and female infants. Local public health actions are necessary to reduce inequalities in infant and maternal care. KEYWORDS: newborn, birth weight, prenatal care.

  10. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamal, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)

  11. Is Biology Destiny? Birth Weight and Differential Parental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Time diaries of sibling pairs from the PSID-CDS are used to determine whether maternal time investments compensate for or reinforce birth-weight differences among children. The findings demonstrate that the direction and degree of differential treatment vary by mother's education. Less-educated mothers devote more total time and more educationally oriented time to heavier-birth-weight children, whereas better-educated mothers devote more total and more educationally oriented time to lower-birth-weight children. The compensating effects observed among highly educated mothers are substantially larger than the reinforcing effects among the least-educated mothers. The findings show that families redistribute resources in ways that both compensate for and exacerbate early-life disadvantages. PMID:22865101

  12. Birth weight and intelligence in young adulthood and midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident......OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. METHODS: The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members...... of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. RESULTS: Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow...

  13. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Campbell, James; Guerra-Arias, Maria; de Bernis, Luc; Moran, Allisyn; Matthews, Zoë

    2014-01-04

    The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery

  14. Vacuum assisted birth and risk for cerebral complications in term newborn infants: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have focused on cerebral complications among newborn infants delivered by vacuum extraction (VE). The aim of this study was to determine the risk for intracranial haemorrhage and/or cerebral dysfunction in newborn infants delivered by VE and to compare this risk with that after cesarean section in labour (CS) and spontaneous vaginal delivery, respectively. Methods Data was obtained from Swedish national registers. In a population-based cohort from 1999 to 2010 including all singleton newborn infants delivered at term after onset of labour by VE (n = 87,150), CS (75,216) or spontaneous vaginal delivery (n = 851,347), we compared the odds for neonatal intracranial haemorrhage, traumatic or non-traumatic, convulsions or encephalopathy. Logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted (for major risk factors and indication) odds ratios (AOR), using spontaneous vaginal delivery as reference group. Results The rates of traumatic and non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhages were 0.8/10,000 and 3.8/1,000. VE deliveries provided 58% and 31.5% of the traumatic and non-traumatic cases, giving a ten-fold risk [AOR 10.05 (4.67-21.65)] and double risk [AOR 2.23 (1.57-3.16)], respectively. High birth weight and short mother were associated with the highest risks. Infants delivered by CS had no increased risk for intracranial hemorrhages. The risks for convulsions or encephalopathy were similar among infants delivered by VE and CS, exceeding the OR after non-assisted spontaneous vaginal delivery by two-to-three times. Conclusion Vacuum assisted delivery is associated with increased risk for neonatal intracranial hemorrhages. Although causality could not be established in this observational study, it is important to be aware of the increased risk of intracranial hemorrhages in VE deliveries, particularly in short women and large infants. The results warrant further studies in decision making and conduct of assisted vaginal delivery. PMID:24444326

  15. Gay Male Only-Children: Evidence for Low Birth Weight and High Maternal Miscarriage Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Blanchard, Ray; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that there may be a maternal immune response underpinning the etiology of sexual orientation of gay male only-children. This maternal immune response appears to be distinct from that which is purported to explain the classic fraternal birth order effect found in studies of male sexual orientation. We tested two predictions related to the hypothesized maternal immune response in mothers of gay male only-children: (1) elevated fetal loss among mothers who have had gay male only-children and (2) lower birth weight in gay male only-children. Mothers of at least one gay son (n = 54) and mothers of heterosexual son(s) (n = 72) self-reported their pregnancy histories, including the birth weights of newborns and number of fetal losses (e.g., miscarriages). Mothers of gay male only-children (n = 8) reported significantly greater fetal loss compared with mothers of males with four other sibship compositions (gay with no older brothers, gay with older brothers, heterosexual only-children, heterosexual with siblings) (n = 118). Also, firstborn gay male only-children (n = 4) had a significantly lower birth weight than firstborn children in the four other sibship compositions (n = 59). Duration of pregnancy was not significantly different among the groups of firstborn children in the birth weight analyses. Thus, this study found further support for a distinct pattern of maternal immune response implicated in the etiology of male sexual orientation. Mechanisms that may underlie this potential second type of maternal immune response are discussed.

  16. Maternal malaria, birth size and blood pressure in Nigerian newborns: insights into the developmental origins of hypertension from the Ibadan growth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola O Ayoola

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an increasing health issue in sub-Saharan Africa where malaria remains common in pregnancy. We established a birth cohort in Nigeria to evaluate the early impact of maternal malaria on newborn blood pressure (BP.Anthropometric measurements, BP, blood films for malaria parasites and haematocrit were obtained in 436 mother-baby pairs. Women were grouped to distinguish between the timing of malaria parasitaemia as 'No Malaria', 'Malaria during pregnancy only' or 'Malaria at delivery', and parasite density as low (<1000 parasites/µl of blood and high (≥ 1000/µl.Prevalence of maternal malaria parasitaemia was 48%, associated with younger maternal age (p<0.001, being primigravid (p = 0.022, lower haematocrit (p = 0.028. High parasite density through pregnancy had the largest effect on mean birth indices so that weight, length, head and mid-upper arm circumferences were smaller by 300 g, 1.1 cm, 0.7 cm and 0.4 cm respectively compared with 'No malaria' (all p ≤ 0.005. In babies of mothers who had 'malaria at delivery', their SBPs adjusted for other confounders were lower respectively by 4.3 and 5.7 mmHg/kg compared with 'malaria during pregnancy only' or 'none'. In contrast the mean newborn systolic (SBP and diastolic BPs (DBP adjusted for birth weight were higher by 1.7 and 1.4 mmHg/kg respectively in babies whose mothers had high compared with low parasitaemia.As expected, prenatal malarial exposure had a significant impact on fetal growth rates. Malaria at delivery was associated with the lowest newborn BPs while malaria through pregnancy, which may attenuate growth of the vascular network, generated higher newborn BPs adjusted for size. These neonatal findings have potential implications for cardiovascular health in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Depressive Symptoms Prior to Pregnancy and Infant Low Birth Weight in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-10-01

    Despite improvements in service delivery and patient management, low birth weight among infants has been a persistent challenge in South Africa. The study aimed to explore the relationship between depression before pregnancy and the low birth weight (LBW) of infants in post-apartheid South Africa. This study utilized data from Waves 1 and 2 of the South African National Income Dynamics Study, the main outcome being a dichotomous measure of child LBW (<2500 g) drawn from the Wave 2 child questionnaire. Depressive symptoms of non-pregnant women was the main predictor drawn from the Wave 1 adult questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were screened using the 10-item four-point Likert version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) instrument. A total score of 10 or greater on the CES-D indicates a positive screen for depressive symptoms. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between women's depression before pregnancy and infant LBW. A sample size of 651 women in Wave 1 was linked to 672 newborns in Wave 2. The results of the adjusted logistic regression model indicated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) prior to pregnancy were associated with infant LBW (adjusted OR 2.84, 95 % CI 1.08-7.46). Another significant covariate in the model was multiple childbirths. Our finding indicates that women's depressive symptoms prior to pregnancy are associated with the low birth weight of newborns and suggests that this association may not be limited to depression present during the ante-natal phase.

  18. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection Among Pregnant Women and its Complications in Their Newborns During the Birth in the Hospitals of Dezful City, Iran, 2012 - 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Marziyeh; Lavasani, Zohreh; Norouzirad, Reza; Najibpour, Reza; Mohamadpour, Masoomeh; Nikpoor, Amin Reza; Raeisi, Mohammad; Zare Marzouni, Hadi

    2015-08-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common disorder caused by bacterial agents in pregnancy, which can lead to important complications in newborn of such mothers in case of inappropriate diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study was to study the prevalence of UTI among pregnant women and its complications in their newborns during the birth in the hospitals of Dezful City, Iran, during 2012 - 2013. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, 1132 women admitted to Dr. Ganjavian and Ayatollah Nabavi Hospitals in Dezful City, Iran, during 2012 - 2013 were randomly allocated into the case and control groups and were matched based on their age, numbers of pregnancy, sex and diseases of their children. UTI was the only difference between the two groups. Twenty-two thousand six hundred deliveries occurred within the course of this study. Due to UTI, 5% of deliveries led to hospitalization of mothers (1132 patients).Weight and height of newborn infants of mothers afflicted with UTI (P caesarean section) (P < 0.008). The lower incidence of UTI in pregnant women compared to other areas of Iran represents the role of climate and weather in the prevalence of UTI. In addition, the increased number of low-birth-weight infants had a remarkable correlation with UTI, which can influence the health of the next generation.

  19. The Relationship Between Low Birth Weight Neonates And Asphyxia Neonatorum at Arifin Achmad Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    juli selvi yanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT             Asphyxia is breathing difficulty that occurs in newborns. Low birth weight (LBW neonates often suffer from asphyxia, this are due to surfactant deficiency, incomplete lung growth, weak respiratory muscles, and easily bent ribs, therefore it can not supply oxygen enough of the placenta. Data from Arifin Achmad Hospital showed that the number of neonatal asphyxia includes 15 largest disease as the cause of infant mortality. In 2014 from January to September there were 36 cases of asphyxia of 955 newborns (3.76%. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between LBW and asphyxia neonatorum at Arifin Achmad Hospital Riau Province in 2014. This research method used quantitative analytical research and the design was case control. This research was conducted at Arifin Achmad Hospital Riau Province on March 3 until May 3 2015. The population in this study was all newborn babies who born at Arifin Achmad Hospital and samples were 72 respondents which consisted of 36 cases and 36 control. The sampling technique was simple random sampling. Data collection used secondary data by using a checklist sheet, data was processed by computer and data analysis used univariate and bivariate. The results from the chi square test showed that there was a relationship between LBW and asphyxia indicated by p value = 0.002 <0.05. It is expected that health professionals can provide information about the factors related to asphyxia as low birth weight, risk factor of maternal nutritional status to the mother and fetus. In addition, to health workers are also expected to provide information to pregnant women about how to prevent LBW and asphyxia by providing brochures, leaflets and others.

  20. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. NEONATAL SEPTICAEMIA IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... Conclusion: Case fatality rate for low birth weight infants with sepsis is high. Gram negative organisms are the predominant pathogens. No maternal risk factors were identified. Antibiotic sensitivity shows adequate sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins. INTRODUCTION.

  2. Periventricular-intraventricular haetnorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAN 1994. Periventricular-intraventricular haetnorrhage in low-birth-weight infants at Baragwanath Hospital ... dation,IO while many women delivering premature infants have not received proper antenatal care. .... required mechanical ventilation and one-third of those who did not, allocated by random number generation,.

  3. Combating low birth weight due to malaria infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, James G; Scoullar, Michelle J L; Boeuf, Philippe

    2018-03-07

    Decreased l-arginine and nitric oxide bioavailability in pregnant women with malaria contributes to low birth weight, suggesting that l-arginine supplementation could be a potential treatment (McDonald et al ). Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Direct Maternal Genetic Effects and Birth Weight Trends of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correlation between direct and maternal effects was negative implying that selection should be directed at both components, considering the maternal heritability estimate, which was moderate. The environmental parameter records of the study area suggest that birth weight was not depressed by the tropical semi arid ...

  5. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    :: We investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years...

  6. Variation in individual piglet birth weights in a Large White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CVBWT) was 17.6% and ranged from 0.47% to 50.7%. The distribution of CVBWT in the herd was positively skewed. CVBWT increased as NBA increased. Multiparous sows farrowed litters with higher ...

  7. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2 Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa. University ... Conclusion: - The association of low birth weight with substance use was strong, particularly, with maternal khat chewing, cigarette ... the magnitude of alcohol drinking habit among women in reproductive ...

  8. Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We, therefore, investigated effects of exposure to biomass fuels on reduced birth weight in the Malawian population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using secondary data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey with a total of 9124 respondents. Information on exposure to biomass fuels, ...

  9. Successful management of a set of preterm, low birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: We report a case of successful management of preterm, low birth weight quadruplets (QI, QII, QIII, and QIV) delivered at 32 weeks by Caesarean section to a 30 year old primiparous mother. QIII and QIV developed septicaemia with conjugated bilirubinaemia and were managed with intravenous antibiotics, and ...

  10. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (PV-IVH) aInong very-low-birthweight infants at Baragwanath Hospital has not been well docwnented. In this prospective study, a total of 282 live-born infants with birth weights of 1 000 - 1 749 g were studied over a 41/2-month period. Every infant had at least ...

  11. Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish standard ranges and curve of mean gestational birth weights validated by ultrasonography for the Cameroonian population in Yaoundé. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in the metropolis between March 5 and ...

  12. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...

  13. Prediction of low birth weight from other anthropometric parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight is a global problem but presents a major burden on the neonatal services in developing countries such as Nigeria, and brings to bear a greater strain on the meagre resources available for health care delivery and family financing. In a resourceconstrained setting as ours, proper weighing of all ...

  14. Association between maternal gingivitis, low birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between maternal gingivitis and pregnancy outcome, including low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery. This prospective study was conducted among 300 randomly selected pregnant women aged 20-34 years attending the antenatal clinic, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ...

  15. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; P= 0.01). There is need of increasing promotion of reproductive health services in relation to safe motherhood at community level in order to reduce risk fac- tors of LBW. Key words: Low birth weight, pregnancy, risk factors, hospital, Tanzania.

  16. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  17. Early Postnatal Growth Of Preterm Low Birth Weight, Appropriately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postnatal growth monitoring is useful in assessing the health of preterm babies but their growth patterns have not been sufficiently studied in Africans. Aim: To describe the growth achievements of preterm, low birth weight, appropriately-sized, Nigerian infants. Study design: The subjects were prospectively ...

  18. Cytomegalovirus infections among low birth weight infants in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of congenital infections, which can lead to severe foetal anomalies or even foetal loss. In order to determine the incidence of congenital HCMV infection in low birth weight neonates and the most prevalent genotype, cord blood samples were collected from a ...

  19. Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria, Nigeria. B Danborno, A Afegbua. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy Vol. 5(1) 2006: 21-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2 Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa. University; email.negdaysun@yahoo.com, Corresponding author: Negussie Deyessa. Original article. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public hospitals: A case control study. Emebet Dendir1 ...

  1. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  2. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau: A Randomized-controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, K.J.; Larsen, N.; Biering-Sorensen, S.; Andersen, A.; Eriksen, H.B.; Monteiro, I.; Hougaard, D.; Aaby, P.; Netea, M.G.; Flanagan, K.L.; Benn, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS: Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in

  3. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  4. References of Birth Weights for Gestational Age and Sex from a Large Cohort of Singleton Births in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  5. Neurodevelopmental sequelae in premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Fernández Sierra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the neurodevelopmental sequelae in premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins. Materials and methods: A descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study in a population of 190 premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight born from January 2009 to June 2014 who left the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and took part in the follow-up program. The psychomotor development, sensorineural hearing loss, retinopathy of prematurity, presence of cerebral palsy and convulsive syndrome were assessed. Results: The average weight at birth was 1,180.53 ± 212.40 grams with a gestational age of 29.86 ± 2.33 weeks, and 51.58% of the newborns were male. Forty-two point six three percent (42.63% of the premature newborns with very low weight showed retardation of psychomotor development; 25.26%, retinopathy; 13.68%, sensorineural hearing loss; 3.68%, cerebral palsy; and 3.68%, convulsive syndrome. Fifty-two point two seven percent (52.27% of the premature newborns with extremely low weight showed retardation of psychomotor development; 50%, retinopathy; 15.91%, sensorineural hearing loss; and 2.27%, convulsive syndrome. Conclusions: Retardation of psychomotor development and retinopathy were the most important complications shown by premature newborns with extremely low weight and with very low weight at two years of age.

  6. Efficient linking of birth certificate and newborn screening databases for laboratory investigation of congenital cytomegalovirus infection and preterm birth: Florida, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasquale, John M; Freeman, Karen; Amin, Minal M; Park, Sohyun; Rivers, Samantha; Hopkins, Richard; Cannon, Michael J; Dy, Bonifacio; Dollard, Sheila C

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to design an accurate method for linking newborn screening (NBS) and state birth certificate databases to create a de-identified study database; (2) To assess maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroprevalence by measuring CMV IgG in newborn dried blood spots; (3) To assess congenital CMV infection among newborns and possible association with preterm birth. NBS and birth databases were linked and patient records were de-identified. A stratified random sample of records based on gestational age was selected and used to retrieve blood spots from the state NBS laboratory. Serum containing maternal antibodies was eluted from blood spots and tested for the presence of CMV IgG. DNA was extracted from blood spots and tested for the presence of CMV DNA. Analyses were performed with bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Linkage rates and specimen collection exceeded 98% of the total possible yielding a final database with 3,101 newborn blood spots. CMV seroprevalence was 91% among Black mothers, 83% among Hispanic mothers, 59% among White mothers, and decreased with increasing amounts of education. The prevalence of CMV infection in newborns was 0.45% and did not vary significantly by gestational age. Successful methods for database linkage, newborn blood spots collection, and de-identification of records can serve as a model for future congenital exposure surveillance projects. Maternal CMV seroprevalence was strongly associated with race/ethnicity and educational level. Congenital CMV infection rates were lower than those reported by other studies and lacked statistical power to examine associations with preterm birth.

  7. Effect of placental malaria on birth weight of babies in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraneli, Boniface U; Okeke, Ogochukwu C; Ubachukwu, Patience O

    2013-03-01

    In malaria-endemic countries, one adverse consequence of placental malaria on infants is low birth weight (LBW) caused by intra-uterine growth retardation and pre-term delivery. The effect of placental malaria on birth weight of babies was investigated in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. Placental blood was collected from 364 women who gave birth in NAUTH. Thin and thick placental blood smears were made and checked for the presence of malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum antigen rapid kit was used to confirm the presence of P. falciparum. New-borns were weighed and classified as normal birth weight (≥2500 g) or LBW (<2500 g). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's t and Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare means and percentages. Risk factors for LBW were also determined. Placental malaria was found in 55.2% (n = 201) of the women. Placental malaria was associated with gravidity while age was not. In all the age groups, primigravidae and secundigravidae were mostly infected. Women with placental malaria delivered more LBW babies (32.1%) than their uninfected counterparts (5.5%), with primigravidae having more LBW babies. Similarly, weight of babies born by infected women was significantly different from that of uninfected women (p <0.0001). In multivariate analysis, placental malaria was associated with LBW (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.06-0.17, p <0.0001). The result suggests a high prevalence of placental malaria and its close association with LBW in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in NAUTH. It was also found that the percentage of LBW was highest in primigravidae.

  8. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  9. Birth-related retinal hemorrhages in healthy full-term newborns and their relationship to maternal, obstetric, and neonatal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhang, Yanli; Yang, Yu; Li, Zijing; Lin, Yu; Liu, Ran; Wei, Chunyi; Ding, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-01

    The purpose was to explore underlying maternal, obstetric, and neonatal risk factors of retinal hemorrhages (RH) in healthy full-term newborns. A total of 1199 full-term infants, with gestational age more than 37 weeks and Apgar score of 7 or above, were included in this study. Infants with severe systemic diseases or any other eye diseases were excluded. Eye examinations with RetCamIII within 1 week of birth were performed in all infants. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal parameters were analyzed and compared between newborns with RH and those without RH. RH was seen in 294 of the 1199 infants (24.5 %) in this study. Among factors examined in the study, spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (odds ratio [OR] =3.811 [95 % CI2.649-5.483], P history of cesarean delivery correlated negatively with RH occurrence (OR = 0.296 [95 % CI0.139-0.630], P = 0.002). There was no statistical correlation found between RH and the other risk factors examined in this study. These factors included gender, gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, volume, and turbidity of amniotic fluid, duration of the first or second stage of labor, anemia, hypertensive disorders complicating pregnancy (HDCP), fetal distress, intracranial hemorrhage, and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. RH is common in full-term newborns. A lower prevalence of newborn RH was found in infants delivered by mothers with a history of cesarean delivery. In contrast, SVD and cephalhematoma were found to be potential risk factors for the development of newborn RH in full-term infants. Infants with these risk factors may, therefore, require greater attention in regard to RH development.

  10. Newborns' temperature submitted to radiant heat and to the Top Maternal device at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Sartori de Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the axillar temperatures of newborns that are put immediately after birth in skin-to-skin contact under the Top Maternal device, as compared to those in a radiant heat crib. Methods: comparatives observational study of the case-control type about temperature of 60 babies born at the Obstetric Center and Normal Delivery Center of a public hospital of the municipality of Sao Paulo, being them: 29 receiving assistance in heated crib and 31 in skin-to skin contact, shielded by a cotton tissue placed on mother's thorax, called Top Maternal. Results: the temperature of the babies of the skin-to-skin contact group presented higher values in a larger share of the time measures verified, as compared to those that were placed in radiant heat crib, independently from the place of birth. Differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: the study contributes to generate new knowledge, supporting the idea of keeping babies with their mothers immediately after birth protected with the Maternal Top, without harming their wellbeing, as it keeps the axillar temperature in recommendable levels.

  11. [The evolution of maternal and child healthcare and birth weight in the State of Pernambuco in 1997 and 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Gisele Almeida de; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de; Veras, Ana Amélia Corrêa de Araújo; Gonçalves, Fabiana Cristina Lima da Silva Pastich; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2012-10-01

    The scope of this paper was to assess the evolution and influence of maternal and child care on birth weight variation in the state of Pernambuco. The study used data from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys conducted with under-five children in the state of Pernambuco in 1997 (n = 1906) and 2006 (n = 1555). The sample was calculated to ensure the representativeness of two geo-economic strata: urban and rural areas. The variables studied were prenatal, delivery care and birth weight. The x(2) test was used to compare the categorical variables and mean difference in birth weight was calculated between the years studied with the respective 95% confidence interval. A marked improvement was seen in prenatal care and an increase in the frequency of caesarean section. In the rural area there was a significant 112 g decrease in mean birth weight. In 2006, access to at least one prenatal care appointment occurred irrespective of maternal schooling, however, in 1997 and 2006 access to adequate prenatal care was higher among mothers with better schooling. In spite of the improvement in prenatal and delivery care, poor access, excess of medical interventions and the increase in newborn survival may be influencing the variations in mean birth weight in the State of Pernambuco.

  12. Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen

    2006-04-01

    Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.

  13. Secular trends in seasonal variation in birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Jensen, Camilla; Gamborg, Michael; Raymond, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been shown to influence birth weight (BW) and one of these are season of birth. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variation in BW in Denmark during 1936-1989, and to see if the variation could be explained by sunshine...... exposure during pregnancy. METHODS: The study population was selected from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register and included 276 339 children born between 1936 and 1989. Seasonal variation was modeled using a non-stationary sinusoidal model that allowed the underlying trend in BW and the amplitude...

  14. The neglected sociobehavioral risk factors of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the most important health indicators in the world. It has certain known and unknown causes. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of socio-behavioral factors on neonatal birth weight.Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on 300 eligible neonates (150 LBW infants as cases and 150 normal body weight infants as controls in 2015. The national pregnancy care forms of the neonates kept in heath care centers in Kerman were used. The data was analyzed running Independent samples t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher’s Exact test in SPSS. The significance level was set as 0.05.Results: Preterm birth (P<0.001, number of primary care during pregnancy (P=0.001, mother’s age (P=0.049, consumption of supplements during pregnancy (P=0.03, and history of substance abuse in mothers (P=0.03 were found to have significant roles in having LBW neonate.Conclusion: Identifying the sociobehavioral risk factors of Preterm labor and modifying them to prevent preterm birth are essential approaches to prevent LBW. Governments should pay special attention to nutritional status of teenage and young girls to have healthy mothers and babies in the future. Women of childbearing age should be screened and educated about risky behaviors. Pregnancy care and support should be delivered to all pregnant women according to the standard methods.Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Risk Factors; Behavior; Preterm Labor

  15. Birth weight following pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David M; Reid, Colleen E; Jesdale, Bill M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-09-01

    In late October 2003, a series of wildfires exposed urban populations in Southern California to elevated levels of air pollution over several weeks. Previous research suggests that short-term hospital admissions for respiratory outcomes increased specifically as a result of these fires. We assessed the impact of a wildfire event during pregnancy on birth weight among term infants. Using records for singleton term births delivered to mothers residing in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) during 2001-2005 (n = 886,034), we compared birth weights from pregnancies that took place entirely before or after the wildfire event (n = 747,590) with those where wildfires occurred during the first (n = 60,270), second (n = 39,435), or third (n = 38,739) trimester. The trimester-specific effects of wildfire exposure were estimated using a fixed-effects regression model with several maternal characteristics included as covariates. Compared with pregnancies before and after the wildfires, mean birth weight was estimated to be 7.0 g lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.8, -2.2] when the wildfire occurred during the third trimester, 9.7 g lower when it occurred during the second trimester (95% CI: -14.5, -4.8), and 3.3 g lower when it occurred during the first trimester (95% CI: -7.2, 0.6). Pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California wildfires was associated with slightly reduced average birth weight among infants exposed in utero. The extent and increasing frequency of wildfire events may have implications for infant health and development.

  16. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, E M; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, K

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated whether newborn body composition is influenced by prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) and explored any associations between body composition and birthweight standard score (z-score), categorised by size for gestational age. METHODS: We recruited 231...... the offspring of normal weight mothers. The infants' fat mass increased by 11 g (p associations between prepregnancy obesity and fat-free mass. The fat percentage was significantly higher in infants who were large for gestational age (15.3%) than small...... for gestational age (5.2%) and appropriate for gestational age (9.8%) (p associated with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Infants born to obese mothers had higher fat mass at birth, with abdominal fat accumulation. Low birthweight...

  17. Maternal anemia in various trimesters and its effect on newborn weight and maturity: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jagadish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of low birth weight babies was significantly more in mothers who were anemic in their third trimester. Preterm deliveries occurred more frequently in mothers who were anemic in their second and third trimesters. Higher hemoglobin did not show any effect on either birth weight or gestation in our study.

  18. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael

    2007-01-01

    prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...

  19. HEALTH STATUS OF EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN AT AGE 8 YEARS: CHILD AND PARENT PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen; Forrest, Christopher B; Schluchter, Mark; Taylor, H. Gerry; Drotar, Dennis; Holmbeck, Grayson; Andreias, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Context Parental proxy reports have indicated poorer health for preterm children as compared to normal birth weight controls. The perspective of their children may however differ. Objective To compare the self reported health of preterm children to normal birth weight controls and the children’s perspective to that of their parents. Design Study of extremely low birth weight (<1kg) and normal birth weight children and their parents conducted 2006–2009. Setting Children’s hospital. Participants Eight year old extremely low birth weight (n=202) and normal birth weight (n=176) children of similar sociodemographic status. Main Outcome Measures The Child Health and Illness Profile child and parent reports. Results There was poor agreement between the parent and child ratings of health for both the extremely low birth weight and normal birth weight cohorts. Extremely low birth weight children rated their health similar to normal birth weight children. In contrast parents of extremely low birth weight children reported significantly poorer health for their children than parents of normal birth weight controls including poorer Satisfaction with health, Comfort and Achievement and less Risk avoidance. Conclusion There is poor agreement between child and parent reports of health. Eight year old extremely low birth weight children rate their health similar to that of normal birth weight controls. Their parents however report significantly poorer health. Both child and parent perspective needs to be considered when making health care decisions. PMID:21969395

  20. The Effect of Severe Birth Asphyxia on the Hemostasis System in Newborns During the First Hour of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Golub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In newborns with severe intranatal asphyxia, the hemostasis system adaptation is impaired, thus increasing the risk of bleeding during the first day of life.The purpose of the work was to evaluate the effect of severe birth asphyxia and metabolic acidosis on the newborns' hemostasis system, based on the thromboelastography (TEG findings.Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of medical records of 40 severely asphyxiated newborns (group 1 and 20 healthy newborns (group 2 was performed. The study was carried out during the first hour of life of the newborns.Results. Infants in group 1 demonstrated a reduced activity of platelets and enzymatic components of the coagulation. The enzymatic phase of the coagulation hemostasis (P<0.001 and the kinetics of clot strength growth significantly decreased in group 1 newborns, as compared to the second group (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively. The fibrin network growth rate and its structurization in group 1 newborns was lower than that in group 2 newborns (P<0.05. The platelet activity in group 1 infants was reduced as compared to group 2 (P< 0.05.Fibrinolysis in newborns did not differ at the 30th minute of the study. The correlation analysis demonstrated that decreased pH and Be values and hyperlactacidemia correlated; platelet and coagulation hemostasis parameters were altered with a shift to hypocoagulation. Conclusion. Thromboelastographic study of whole blood samples demonstrated a shift of the hemostatic system to hypocoagulation for both platelet and enzymatic components of hemostasis, without any changes in the clot lysis in severely asphyxiated newborns.

  1. Birth weight, sex, and celiac disease: a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuja-Halkola R

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Kuja-Halkola,1 Benjamin Lebwohl,1,2 Jonas Halfvarson,3 Louise Emilsson,4–6 Patrik K Magnusson,1 Jonas F Ludvigsson1,2,7,8 1Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4Department of Health Management and Health Economy, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 6Centre for Clinical Research, Vårdcentralen Värmlands Nysäter, County Council of Värmland, Värmland, 7Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Objective: Earlier research suggests that birth weight may be associated with celiac disease (CD, but the direction of association has been unclear potentially due to confounding effect from genetic and intrafamilial factors. Through within-twin analyses, we aimed to minimize confounding effects such as twins that share genetic and early environmental exposures.Materials and methods: Using the Swedish Twin Registry, we examined the birth weight of 146,830 twins according to the CD status. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to a small intestinal biopsy reports.Results: The prevalence of diagnosed CD was 0.5% (n=669, and we included 407 discordant pairs of CD–non-CD twins. Comparing the 669 CD patients with non-CD twins, the association between birth weight and future CD was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] per 1000 g increase in birth weight: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.97–1.38. In males, the association was positive and statistically significant (OR=1.50; 95% CI

  2. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations...... of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. RESULTS: 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence...... of 16.9 per 10,000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (phypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68...

  3. METABOLIC AND BEHAVIORAL PARAMETERS IN NEWBORN PIGLETS IN RELATION TO BIRTH ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SĂRĂNDAN

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment had 2 phases:During the first phase 19 sows were monitored during farrowing; the piglets were numbered according to birth order, they were weighed and there were recorded the time each piglet was born and when it first suckled. There was calculated the time from the beginning of the farrowing until the time each piglet was born (TNPP and the time from birth until the first suckle (TPS. A statistical correlation was established between these parameters.During the second experimental phase, for 49 piglets from 5 sows were determined: birth weight, TPS, glycemia at birth (G0 and after the first suckle (G1, rectal temperature at birth (T0 and after the first suckles (T1. This data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Respecting the birth order, TPS is shorter for piglets born last (p<0.05. Average TPS was 23.04±2.49 minutes; during this time glycemia rises from 58.35 mg% to 64.35 mg% and rectal temperature drops from 38.58°C to 37.35°C. T0 is positively correlated with G0 (p<0.01 with G1 (p<0.01 and T1 (p<0.01. G0 is highly correlated to G1 (r=0.8855; p=0.

  4. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza K; Jaakkola, Jouni Jk; Quansah, Reginald; Norgbe, Gameli K; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli

    2012-10-17

    Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP) on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243 g (95% CI: 496, 11) and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65) reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23) and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92) increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW) for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429 g (95% CI: 259, 599) reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59) excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results. Maternal use of charcoal as a cooking fuel during

  5. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amegah Adeladza K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. Methods A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Results Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243g (95% CI: 496, 11 and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65 reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23 and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92 increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429g (95% CI: 259, 599 reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59 excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results

  6. Prevalence and determinants of low birth weight in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, T

    2006-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and determinants of low birth weights (LBW). A cross-sectional descriptive study. Four health centers (Jimma, Agaro, Asendabo and Shebe) within 5-50 km radius from Jimma University and Jimma University hospital from September 1, 2002 to March 30, 2003. Mothers with newborns delivered in the above institutions and those delivered at home and received care within the first 24 hours after delivery in the above health care settings. A total of 145 (22.5%) of the newborns were LBW. Mothers residing in the urban setting had higher risk of delivering LBW babies and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.00). Analysis of maternal obstetric history revealed that those mothers who delivered before 37 weeks of gestation, had weight loss, and who did not receive additional diet during pregnancy had higher risk of delivering LBW babies and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.01, 0.00, 0.00) respectively. Similarly, those who had multiple gestations had a higher risk of delivering LBW babies and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.00). Despite the fact that the method of sampling used in this study has its own limitation, the prevalence of LBW in this study was relatively higher than the reported current estimate of LBW in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is recommended that special attention should be given to adequate rest and additional diet during pregnancy and making antenatal services available and accessible to all pregnant women.

  7. A qualitative study exploring newborn care behaviours after home births in rural Ethiopia: implications for adoption of essential interventions for saving newborn lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasibew, Mihretab Melesse; Filteau, Suzanne; Marchant, Tanya

    2014-12-12

    Ethiopia is among seven high-mortality countries which have achieved the fourth millennium development goal with over two-thirds reduction in under-five mortality rate. However, the proportion of neonatal deaths continues to rise and recent studies reported low coverage of the essential interventions saving newborn lives. In the context of low uptake of health facility delivery, it is relevant to explore routine practices during home deliveries and, in this study, we explored the sequence of immediate newborn care practices and associated beliefs following home deliveries in rural communities in Ethiopia. Between April-May 2013, we conducted 26 semi-structured interviews and 2 focus group discussions with eligible mothers, as well as a key informant interview with a local expert in traditional newborn care practices in rural Basona woreda (district) near the urban town of Debrebirhan, 120 km from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The most frequently cited sequence of newborn care practices reported by mothers with home deliveries in the rural Basona woreda was to tie the cord, immediately bath then dry the newborn, practice 'Lanka mansat' (local traditional practice on newborns), give pre-lacteal feeding and then initiate breastfeeding. For 'Lanka mansat', the traditional birth attendant applies mild pressure inside the baby's mouth on the soft palate using her index finger. This is performed believing that the baby will have 'better voice' and 'speak clearly' later in life. Coverage figures fail to tell the whole story as to why some essential interventions are not practiced and, in this study, we identified established norms or routines within the rural communities that determine the sequence of newborn care practices following home births. This might explain why some mothers delay initiation of breastfeeding and implementation of other recommended essential interventions saving newborn lives. An in-depth understanding of established routines is necessary, and community

  8. Placental blood transfusion in newborn babies reaches a plateau after 140 s: Further analysis of longitudinal survey of weight change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham R Law

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: With the introduction of active management of the third stage of labour in the 1960s, it became usual practice to clamp and cut the umbilical cord immediately following birth. The timing of this cord clamping is controversial, as blood may beneficially be transferred to the baby if clamping of the cord is delayed slightly. There is no agreement, however, on how long the delay should be before clamping the cord. This study aimed to establish when blood ceased to flow in the umbilical cord to determine how long to delay clamping of the umbilical cord following delivery of the term newborn to maximise placental transfusion. Methods: This observational study collected longitudinal weight measurements set in a hospital labour ward. A total of 26 mothers at term and their singleton babies participated in the study. In this reanalysis, the velocity of weight change over the first minutes of life determined by functional data analysis was estimated. Results: We found that the flow velocity in the umbilical cord was on average 0 at 125 s after placing the baby on the scales, which was typically 140 s after birth. Conclusions: To maximise placental transfusion, cord clamping should be delayed for at least 140 s following birth of the baby.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  10. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  11. [Very low birth weight neonates. Results of management. Future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriette, G; De Gamarra, E; Cukier-Hemeury, F; Murat, I; Bordarier, C; Relier, J P

    1982-10-01

    70 neonates with birth weights (BW) less than 1 250 g were treated at the intensive care unit for neonates (USINN), hôpital Port-Royal, from April 1st 1976 to July 31st 1977. 16 of them had intra-uterine growth retardation. In 20, BW cas under 1 000 g. Assisted ventilation was necessary in 54 (77%). 43 children (61%) survived, those who were born in the same hospital did so more often (88%) than those who came from other hospitals (53%) (p less than 0.01). These results show the needs and risks of the management of very low birth weight neonates: preventing hypothermia, assisted ventilation of long duration and risk of persisting ductus arteriosus, prolonged parenteral nutrition, risk of intracranial hemorrhage more especially as respiratory distress is more severe. In survivors, the high rate of respiratory sequellae (around 30%) suggests that the duration and intensity of assisted ventilation should be reduced as much as possible.

  12. Prematurity and Low Birth Weight did not Correlate with Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Maternal Serum Profiles--a Brazilian Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Machado Lemos Fochi

    Full Text Available Gestational Toxoplasma gondii infection is considered a major risk factor for miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight in animals. However, studies focusing on this topic in humans are scarce. The objective of this study is to determine whether anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles correlate prematurity and low birth weight in humans. The study examined 213 pregnant women seen at the High-Risk Pregnancy Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. All serological profiles (IgM-/IgG+; IgM-/IgG-; IgM+/IgG+ were determined by ELISA commercial kits. Maternal age, gestational age and weight of the newborn at birth were collected and recorded in the Statement of Live Birth. Prematurity was defined as gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight ≤ 2499 grams. The t-test was used to compare values (p < 0.05. The mean maternal age was 27.6±6.6 years. Overall, 56.3% (120/213 of the women studied were IgM-/IgG+, 36.2% (77/213 were IgM-/IgG- and 7.5% (16/213 were IgM+/IgG+. The average age of the women with serological profile IgM+/IgG+ (22.3±3.9 years was different from women with the profile IgM-/IgG+ (27.9±6.7 years, p = 0.0011 and IgM-/IgG- (27.9±6.4 years, p = 0.0012. There was no statistically significant difference between the different serological profiles in relation to prematurity (p = 0.6742 and low birth weight (p = 0.7186. The results showed that prematurity and low birth weight did not correlate with anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles.

  13. Prematurity and Low Birth Weight did not Correlate with Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Maternal Serum Profiles--a Brazilian Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochi, Mariana Machado Lemos; Baring, Sabrina; Spegiorin, Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós; Galão, Eloisa Aparecida; Oliani, Antonio Hélio; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão

    2015-01-01

    Gestational Toxoplasma gondii infection is considered a major risk factor for miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight in animals. However, studies focusing on this topic in humans are scarce. The objective of this study is to determine whether anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles correlate prematurity and low birth weight in humans. The study examined 213 pregnant women seen at the High-Risk Pregnancy Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. All serological profiles (IgM-/IgG+; IgM-/IgG-; IgM+/IgG+) were determined by ELISA commercial kits. Maternal age, gestational age and weight of the newborn at birth were collected and recorded in the Statement of Live Birth. Prematurity was defined as gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight ≤ 2499 grams. The t-test was used to compare values (p < 0.05). The mean maternal age was 27.6±6.6 years. Overall, 56.3% (120/213) of the women studied were IgM-/IgG+, 36.2% (77/213) were IgM-/IgG- and 7.5% (16/213) were IgM+/IgG+. The average age of the women with serological profile IgM+/IgG+ (22.3±3.9 years) was different from women with the profile IgM-/IgG+ (27.9±6.7 years, p = 0.0011) and IgM-/IgG- (27.9±6.4 years, p = 0.0012). There was no statistically significant difference between the different serological profiles in relation to prematurity (p = 0.6742) and low birth weight (p = 0.7186). The results showed that prematurity and low birth weight did not correlate with anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles.

  14. [Epidemiological and chronological profile of the low birth weight in the region of Monastir (Tunisia) between 1994 and 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhamdi, S; Lifi, B; Bouanène, I; Hadded, A; Sriha, A; Letaief, M; Ben Salem, K; Soltani, M S

    2011-01-01

    In Tunisia, despite the activities of national programs of maternal and child health, low birth weight (LBW) remains common. The aim of this study is to draw up the epidemiological profile of the LBW in the region of Monastir and to study the chronological trends of the associated factors during a period of 14 years (1994-2007). We conducted a population study which interest 97.630 live births (from 26 to 43 weeks) in the public maternities of the region of Monastir. The mean's age of pregnant women was 28.7 +/- 5.5 years. Among them 14.2% were aged 35 and older and 40% were primipara. Newborns were in term in 94.7% of cases. Maternal age, prenatal care, twin pregnancies and fetal complications were the factors independently associated with the occurrence of LBW in term newborns. However, only prenatal care and twin pregnancies were independently associated to LBW in preterm newborns. During the fourteenth years of the study the parturient mean age and the frequency of preterm birth increased significantly (P < 0.001) while the frequency of multiparty decreased significantly (P < 0.001). We found that the risk factors of LBW (advanced age, multiparty, etc.) are still common in our country and require targeted interventions.

  15. Persisting behavior problems in extremely low birth weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Hack, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    To describe behavior problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) adolescents born 1992 through 1995 based on parent ratings and adolescent self-ratings at age 14 years and to examine changes in parent ratings from ages 8-14. Parent ratings of behavior problems and adolescent self-ratings were obtained for 169 ELBW adolescents (mean birth weight 815 g, gestational age 26 wk) and 115 normal birth weight (NBW) controls at 14 years. Parent ratings of behavior at age 8 years were also available. Behavior outcomes were assessed using symptom severity scores and rates of scores above DSM-IV symptom cutoffs for clinical disorder. The ELBW group had higher symptom severity scores on parent ratings at age 14 years than NBW controls for inattentive attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and social problems (all p's < .01). Rates of parent ratings meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for inattentive ADHD were also higher for the ELBW group (12% vs. 1%, p < .01). In contrast, the ELBW group had lower symptom severity scores on self-ratings than controls for several scales. Group differences in parent ratings decreased over time for ADHD, especially among females, but were stable for anxiety and social problems. Extremely low birth weight adolescents continue to have behavior problems similar to those evident at a younger age, but these problems are not evident in behavioral self-ratings. The findings suggest that parent ratings provide contrasting perspectives on behavior problems in ELBW youth and support the need to identify and treat these problems early in childhood.

  16. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....

  17. Association of DNA adducts and genetic polymorphisms with birth weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Chvátalová, Irena; Solanský, I.; Topinka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 608, - (2006), s. 121-128 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : pregnancy outcomes * birth weight * genetic polymorphism Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2006

  18. Renal Calcification in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yang Chang

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of renal calcification in very low birth weight infants in this study was relatively low, and the calcification was transient in one-half of the infants. Extremely premature, sick infants requiring long-term ventilation, and those receiving furosemide or dexamethasone were more likely to have renal calcification. Clinicians should be aware that renal calcification may develop beyond the neonatal stage.

  19. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (BW) has been associated with poor bone health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BW and bone mass and metabolism in adult BW discordant monozygotic twins (MZ). METHODS: 153 BW extremely discordant MZ twin-pairs were...... individuals using regression analyses with or without adjustment for height, weight, age, sex, and intra-pair correlation. Within-pair differences were assessed using Student's T-test and fixed-regression models. RESULTS: BW was not associated with BTMs, LS-, TH-, FN- or WB-BMD, but BW was associated with WB...

  20. Vitamin D supplementation, cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hypovitaminosis D, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L, is frequent in pregnant women and neonates worldwide and has been associated with both low birth weight (BW) and placental weight (PW) as well as reduced placental development. We aimed to assess th......, and PW/BW ratio were associated to higher cord s-25(OH)D levels with a suggested cut-off at 60 nmol/L. More studies are encouraged to elucidate the impact of cord s-25(OH)D levels on offspring health and to establish optimal cut-offs for these outcomes....

  1. Seven Years Cognitive Functioning and Early Assessment in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Ravasi, Maura; Giannì, Maria L; Porro, Matteo; Bonzini, Matteo; Gangi, Silvana; Mosca, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Infants born preterm are at high risk for the onset of cognitive dysfunctions at school age. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early neurodevelopmental assessment and the risk of adverse cognitive outcome in extremely low birth weight children. We enrolled all newborns (January 2002 - April 2007) consecutively admitted to our Institution, with a birthweight age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales Revised. The same children were re-assessed at school age through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Children with impaired Griffiths General Quotient (i.e., age showed a significantly lower Full Scale Intelligence Quotient at 7 years of chronological age when compared to children who scored in the normal range at 1 year ( p Eye and Hand Coordination Sub-quotients were specifically associated with poorer Performance or Verbal Intelligence Quotients, respectively ( p age. Larger confirmation studies are needed.

  2. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...

  4. Central diabetes insipidus: alert for dehydration in very low birth weight infants during the neonatal period. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlin, Maria Lúcia Silveira; Sales, Débora Simone; Celini, Fábia Pereira Martins; Martinelli Junior, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare cause of hypernatremia during the neonatal period. The diagnosis is particularly difficult in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. We report on a preterm newborn who presented CDI soon after birth. On the third day of life, signs of dehydration were present despite normal fluid supply. The diuresis rate was 4.4 ml/kg/h. Although the fluid supply was then increased, the dehydration continued, with hypernatremia, normal glycemia, diuresis of 7.4 ml/kg/h and urine density of 1005 mOsmol/l. Thus, a diagnostic hypothesis of diabetes insipidus was raised. A test with a nasal vasopressin analogue (dDAVP) was performed and CDI was confirmed. Reduction of the fluid supply became possible through appropriate treatment. The diagnosis of CDI is rarely made during the neonatal period, especially in VLBW newborns, because of the difficulty in detecting elevated diuresis. Persistent hypernatremia, usually accompanied by hyperthermia despite abundant fluid supply, weight loss and low urine osmolality are important signs of alert.

  5. [Prevalence and associated factors of low birth weight in the provincial hospital of Mohammedia--Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoune, Samira; Bassel, Said; Nani, Samira; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    2015-07-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) constitutes a major public health problem, both in developed than in developing countries, due to its extent and its strong association with childhood morbidity and mortality. to estimate prevalence of low birth weight and determine its related factors in the Prefectoral Hospital in Mohammedia. We carried out a cross sectional study from May to July 2012 which concerned 713 newborns and theirs mothers. We collected information about socioeconomic and anthropometric factors and characteristics of pregnancy. A multivariate analysis was performed. Among the 713 studied newborns, 38 had LBW; the prevalence of LBW was 5,3% (95% CI: 3,7%-6,9%). Factors significantly associated with LBW in multivariate analysis were: mother age ( OR 9,27; IC95%:2,15-39,85), prematurity (OR 9,34; IC95%:1,29-67,32), twin pregnancy (OR 195,07; IC 95%:30,38-125,39) and gender of new born (OR 5,26; IC 95%:1,61-17,18). Well-balanced diet (OR 0,12; IC 95%:0,04-0,34) and hours of sleep equal or more than 8 per day (OR 0,20; IC 95%:0,07-0,58) were protector factors. Actions of education, screening and treatment of the diseases occurred in the pregnancy are necessary. Facilitating the access of pregnant women to high quality antenatal care, promoting a healthy lifestyle as a balanced diet, fighting against the active and passive smoking and offering a psychological support to the pregnant woman is necessary to reduce the prevalence of LBW and to improve the maternal and child health.

  6. Birth weight and the risk of histological subtypes of ovarian and endometrial cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabert, Britton; Aarestrup, Julie; Ulrich, Lian G

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of birth weight associations with ovarian and endometrial cancer risks are limited with inconsistent results, and none has evaluated associations by histologic subtype. We utilized prospectively collected birth weight information to investigate the association with risk of ova...

  7. Extreme Temperatures May Increase Risk for Low Birth Weight at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may increase risk for low birth weight at term, NIH study suggests Monday, February 27, 2017 Extreme ... may increase the risk that infants born at term will be of low birth weight, according to ...

  8. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  9. Ecological analysis of secular trends in low birth weight births and adult height in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Urayama, Kevin Yuji; Yoshii, Keisuke; Subramanian, S V; Yokoya, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight (LBW) births since the 1970s. We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 115 249 live births included the vital statistics (1969-2014), as well as trends in average height among 3 145 521 adults born between 1969 and 1996, included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan. LBW rates exhibited a U-shaped pattern showing reductions until 1978-1979 (5.5%), after which it increased. Conversely, average adult height peaked for those born during the same period (men, 171.5 cm; women, 158.5 cm), followed by a reduction over the next 20 years. LBW rate and adult height showed a strong inverse correlation (men, r=-0.98; women, r=-0.88). A prediction model based on birth and economical characteristics estimated the national average of adult height would continue to decline, to 170.0cm (95% CI 169.6 to 170.3) for men and 157.9cm (95% CI 157.5 to 158.3) for women among those born in 2014. Adult height in Japan has started to decline for those born after 1980, a trend that may be attributed to increases in LBW births over time. Considering the known association between shorter adult height and adverse health outcomes, evidence of population-level decline in adult health due to long-term consequences of increasing LBW births in Japan is anticipated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. RESULTS: Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty......BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated...... regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log-transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: -87 g (95% CI: -137, -340 per 1.70 ng/mL), -43 g (95% CI: -108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and -135 g (95% CI: -192, -78 per 1...

  11. Tobacco control campaign in Uruguay: Impact on smoking cessation during pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey E; Balsa, Ana Inés; Triunfo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed a nationwide registry of all pregnancies in Uruguay during 2007-2013 to assess the impact of three types of tobacco control policies: (1) provider-level interventions aimed at the treatment of nicotine dependence, (2) national-level increases in cigarette taxes, and (3) national-level non-price regulation of cigarette packaging and marketing. We estimated models of smoking cessation during pregnancy at the individual, provider and national levels. The rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased from 15.4% in 2007 to 42.7% in 2013. National-level non-price policies had the largest estimated impact on cessation. The price response of the tobacco industry attenuated the effects of tax increases. While provider-level interventions had a significant effect, they were adopted by relatively few health centers. Quitting during pregnancy increased birth weight by an estimated 188 g. Tobacco control measures had no effect on the birth weight of newborns of non-smoking women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S.D.; Zhang, M.G.; Der, G.; Mathur, S.; Mina, T.H.; Reynolds, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EM...

  13. Low birth weights and risk of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-12-01

    mortality. This study aims to examine contribution of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in Indonesia. Methods: Data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS conducted in 2012 were used in the analysis. A total of 18021 live births in the last five years preceding the survey were reported from the mothers. Completed information of their children (14837 children were taken for this analysis. The adjusted relative risk with cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to assess the strength of association to neonatal mortality. Results: Children born in low birth weight were 9.89-fold higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children born in normal weight [adjusted relative risk (aRR = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.41 – 13.19; P = < 0.0001]. Children delivered from younger mothers (aged 15 - 19 years had 94% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children delivered from mothers aged 20-35 years. Working mothers had 81% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to unemployed mothers. Conclusion: Children born in a low birth weight and born from younger mothers had higher risk of neonatal mortality. Appropriate care and treatment for children born in low birth weight is needed to prolonged survival rates of the children. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2:113-117 Keywords: Low birth weight, neonatal mortality, Indonesia   

  14. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  15. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-09-01

    Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500-4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother's Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother's job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother's poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother's job style had the most adverse effect (B=-0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother's level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother's job style and household income (B=-0.17). According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother's job situation in order to prevent any adverse effects.

  16. Predictors and impacts of colostrum consumption by 4h after birth in newborn beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homerosky, E R; Timsit, E; Pajor, E A; Kastelic, J P; Windeyer, M C

    2017-10-01

    Newborn beef calf vigor is a vital survival characteristic that promotes timely colostrum consumption. Modified APGAR scores intended to identify compromised calves are not widely adopted due to impracticality, inconsistent associations with blood gas disturbances, and unclear recommendations for intervention. The objectives were to: (1) determine differences in at-birth blood parameters between calves that were successful in colostrum consumption by 4h (CC4) compared to those that failed; (2) develop a Beef Calf Vigor Assessment by determining calving characteristics and clinical examination parameters associated with CC4; and (3) evaluate impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and treatment risk. As a predictor for CC4, suckle reflex had the highest specificity (98%), whereas calving ease had the highest sensitivity (89%). Calves with a weak suckle reflex had 41.6 (95% CI: 7.4-787.5) times greater odds of failed CC4 compared to calves with a strong suckle reflex (P24g/L serum IgG; OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.2-34.4; P=0.02), and higher odds of being treated (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4; P=0.03) than those that succeeded. Measuring suckle reflex in combination with calving ease was a quick and easy method to assess newborn beef calf vigor. The value of this Beef Calf Vigor Assessment was further emphasized by the negative impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and pre-weaning health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proaño, Alvaro; Aragón, Romina Elena; Rivera, Fabiola; Zegarra, Jaime

    2016-03-29

    To determine the actual nutritional intake of very low birth weight infants and their growth outcome during the first month of life. Additionally, we identified factors that account for a negative neonatal outcome in this population. A case-series study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012 and the data was obtained from medical records. No feeding protocol was used during this study. Daily fluids, energy and protein intakes were documented and weekly weight z-scores were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for an adverse outcome, defined as neonatal mortality or extra-uterine growth restriction, during the first 28 days of life. After applying selection criteria, 76 participants were included. The nutritional intakes were similar to standard values seen in the literature, but protein intakes were suboptimal in all of the four weeks. Birth weight z-score was associated with an adverse outcome (p=0.035). It was determined that having a birth weight z-score under -1.09 predicted a negative outcome with an area under the curve of 96.8% [93.5%, 100%] with a 95% confidence interval. Protein intakes are widely deficient in the population of this study. Nevertheless, an adverse outcome during the neonatal period is more associated with a poor birth weight z-score than nutrition-related factors.

  18. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1% by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman.

  19. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  20. Medication error in an extremely low birth weight infant: paracetamol overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Pablo; Ballardo, Mónica; Mariani, Gonzalo; Ceriani Cernadas, José M

    2013-01-01

    Errors are part of human nature and are usually present in our actions. Medical errors occur quite often and can be serious. Medication errors are among the most frequent, especially in newborn infants because of the multiple steps that occur during the process of prescribing and administering drugs and because most drugs are not licensed for being used in newborn infants (off-label). The aim of this report is to describe a medication error in prescribing paracetamol for closing a patent ductus arteriosus in a preterm infant and to analyze its causes. A preterm female infant born at 27 weeks of gestational age with a birth weight of 750 g received paracetamol at 9 days old at a dose 20 times greater than required. The initial plasma level was 480 µg/mL. N-acetylcysteine was administered and her clinical outcome was satisfactory. Parents were notified of the event, which was recorded in the medical record and in the electronic error reporting system of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. We consider this report as an example that we are exposed to making mistakes and should maximize precautions to improve patient safety in neonatal units.

  1. Maternal age modulates the effects of early-pregnancy L-proline supplementation on the birth-weight of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Añover, P; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2017-06-01

    Previous results obtained in gilts maintained under experimental conditions suggest that amino acid supplementation during pregnancy may be a promising strategy for diminishing the incidence of embryo losses and low birth-weight newborn. The current study evaluated the effects of a short-term supplementation with L-proline, around implantational stages, on litter size and birth-weight of piglets in sows of different parities maintained under commercial farm conditions. There were no significant effects in mature sows with three or more parities, but the supplementation improved the reproductive efficiency of the high-prolific first-parity sows and of all the sows at second-parity. There were numerically higher litter size (of around two more live piglets; n.s.) and higher birth-weights (Psupplemented animals. The results of this study indicate that the effects of L-proline supplementation on litter size and birth-weight are strongly modulated by the maternal characteristics; specifically by parity and prolificacy and that supplementation may be cost-efficient for the management of females with compromised energy balance; specifically, sows at second farrowing and highly-prolific primiparous gilts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  3. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  4. Relationship between low birth weight of babies and antenatal care of mothers: A cross sectional study at a tertiary care hospital of Kishanganj, Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvika Dubey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW is important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality thus an important public health concern. Aim To identify the maternal determinants associated with LBW of babies Setting M.G.M Medical college & L.S.K Hospital Kishanganj ,Bihar. Design Hospital based cross sectional study Study period January 2014 to March 2014 Methodology Institution based descriptive cross sectional study from February 2014 to April 2014. All postnatal women (190 with singleton apparently healthy babies during the study period were selected for study. Birth weight of babies was recorded, mothers were interviewed and antenatal cards were reviewed. Result 34% of newborns were found to be low birth weight in our study. Statistically significant association was found between Low birth weight of babies and mother’s age, religion, literacy of mother, consumption of IFA tablets and regular ANC checkup during pregnancy. Conclusion The study suggests various maternal factors influence the birth weight of newborn babies and by improving antenatal care services both in coverage and quality we can reduce infant mortality in country.

  5. Cord Blood Metabolome Is Highly Associated with Birth Weight, but Less Predictive for Later Weight Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellmuth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence. Methods: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA, polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform. Cord blood metabolites were related to growth factors by linear regression models adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Cord blood metabolites were highly associated with birth weight. Lysophosphatidylcholines C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C18:2, C20:4, C14:0, C16:0, C18:3, GPL-FA C20:3n-9, and GPL-FA C22:5n-6 were positively related to birth weight, while higher cord blood concentrations of NEFA C22:6, NEFA C20:5, GPL-FA C18:3n-3, and PCe C38:0 were associated with lower birth weight. Postnatal weight gain and BMI z-scores in adolescents were not significantly associated with cord blood metabolites after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: Potential long-term programming effects of the intrauterine environment and metabolism on later health cannot be predicted with profiling of the cord blood metabolome.

  6. Respiratory symptoms in the first 7 years of life and birth weight at term - The PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, Daan; Wijga, Alet; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hoekstra, Maarten; Gerritsen, Jorrit; de Jongste, Johan C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The relation between birth weight and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children remains unclear. Previous studies focused on a relation at separate ages. A longitudinal analysis may lead to a better understanding. Objectives: To estimate the effect of birth weight on the development and

  7. Validity of Self-Reported Birth Weight: Results from a Norwegian Twin Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Thomas S; Kutschke, Julia; Brandt, Ingunn; Harris, Jennifer R

    2017-10-01

    The association between birth weight and later life outcomes is of considerable interest in life-course epidemiology. Research often relies on self-reported measures of birth weight, and its validity is consequently of importance. We assessed agreement between self-reported birth weight and official birth records for Norwegian twins born 1967-1974. The intraclass correlation between self-reported birth weight and register-based birth weight was 0.91 in our final sample of 363 twins. It could be expected that 95% of self-reported birth-weight values will deviate from official records within a maximum of +446 grams and a minimum of -478 grams - around a mean deviation of 16 grams. Self-reported birth weight had a sensitivity of 0.78-0.89 and a positive predictive value of 0.59-0.85, and an overall weighted kappa of 0.71. We further assessed agreement by conducting two linear regression models where we respectively regressed self-reported birth weight and register-based birth weight on adult body mass index, a known association. The two models were not significantly different; however, there were different levels of significance in parameter estimates that warrant some caution in using self-reported birth weight. Reliability of self-reported birth weight was also assessed, based on self-reports in another sample of twins born 1935-1960 who had reported their birth weight in two questionnaires 34 years apart. The intraclass correlation was 0.86, which indicates a high degree of reliability. In conclusion, self-reported birth weight, depending on context and age when birth weight was reported, can be cautiously used.

  8. Birth weight is associated with placental fat mass- and obesity-associated gene expression and promoter methylation in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Ji-Tai; Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Wu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    To explore the relationship between birth weight and fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene expression and promoter methylation status in the Chinese population. Seventy-five neonates and their mothers were recruited from Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. Subjects were divided into three groups by birth weight: low (weight groups compared to the low-weight group (p = 0.023). Methylation rates of CpG11 sites were significantly decreased in high-birth weight newborns (p = 0.018). Multiple linear regressions showed placental FTO mRNA, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and CpG11 methylation rate were independently associated with increased fetal birth weight. Additionally, FTO mRNA expression was negatively associated with CpG6.7.8.9 methylation in mothers that underwent C-section. High placental FTO expression is associated with increased birth weight in Chinese neonates, and FTO promoter methylation level at a specific CpG site is negatively associated with birth weight. Further work is needed to determine the functionality of this CpG site in placentas.

  9. Is there any role for terlipressin in the extremely low birth weight infant with refractory septic shock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bissolo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocortisone, in whom terlipressin was attempted as a rescue drug. Despite three doses of terlipressin, administered 6-hourly, the patient remained profoundly hypotensive and eventually died. Further studies are required before any recommendation on the use of terlipressin in term or preterm newborns with septic shock can be made.

  10. Selenium Supplementation for Prevention of Late-Onset Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rahul; Gathwala, Geeta; Yadav, Sudesh; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-06-01

    Neonatal mortality continues to be a significant problem in the Indian setting, especially in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Selenium (Se) has been shown to possess antioxidant properties, and some recent studies have shown a reduction in the sepsis-attributable neonatal mortality with its use. India is a Se-deficient country. Blood Se concentrations in newborns are lower than those of their mothers and lower still in preterm infants. To evaluate the efficacy of Se in preventing the first episode of late-onset sepsis in VLBW preterm neonates. Ninety neonates weighing birth and admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) in the first 12 h of birth with no maternal risk factors for sepsis were analyzed in the study. Se or placebo was supplemented orally once daily from 1st to 28th day of life to the test (n = 45) or control (n = 45) groups, respectively, followed by daily clinical assessment for signs or symptoms of sepsis in the hospital and weekly after discharge. Preterm VLBW neonates (mean birth weight 1464.22 ± 50.14 g and mean gestational age 221.75 ± 4 days) are Se deficient at birth, with mean (SD) Se levels 31.1 ± 14.8 µg/l. Se supplementation at 10 µg/day increased serum Se levels significantly (63.9 ± 13.9 µg/l on Day 28 in Se vs. 40.9 ± 17.3 on Day 28 in placebo; p supplementation. [7/45 (15.55%) in Se vs. 22/45 (48.88%) in placebo; p = 0.001]. Preterm VLBW neonates are Se deficient at birth. Se supplementation at 10 µg/day resulted in getting the Se levels into the acceptable normal level and reduced the incidence of the first episode of late-onset sepsis in these neonates. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Is essential newborn care provided by institutions and after home births? Analysis of prospective data from community trials in rural South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pagel, Christina; Prost, Audrey; Hossen, Munir; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Roy, Swati Sarbani; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Sikorski, Catherine; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony; Crowe, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Provision of essential newborn care (ENC) can save many newborn lives in poor resource settings but coverage is far from universal and varies by country and place of delivery. Understanding gaps in current coverage and where coverage is good, in different contexts and places of delivery, could make a valuable contribution to the future design of interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. We sought to describe the coverage of essential newborn care practices for births in institut...

  12. [Early parenteral nutrition with very low and extremely low birth weight infants--practical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakrilova, L; Sluncheva, B; Emilova, Z; Pramatarova, T; Jarukova, N; Radulova, P; Chitrova, S; Petrova, G

    2010-01-01

    Newborn infants with birth weight 1500 g and less (VLBW/ELBW) have higher nutritional needs, but enteral feeding is often insufficient or impossible. Parenteral nutrition (PN) as an important component of intensive care with them minimizes the risk of nutritional deficiency. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of early PN administration in VLBW/ELBW infants. The prospective study includes 23 newborn babies with birthweight below 1500 g who were admitted to the NICU from 01.03. to 20.04. 2009. With all babies a PN was started from the first day of life with dextrose and amino acid solutions, adding lipid solutions in gradually increasing quantity on the second day. During the first 20 days of life for each baby were calculated on a daily basis the exact quantities of energy and the essential nutritional substances as well as the balance among them. All babies were followed up for weight gain, presence or absence of complications, related with parenteral nutrition as well as for: blood sugar, acid-base status, total serum protein, electrolytes, urea, triglycerides, billirubin, alkaline phosphatase, ASAT ALAT RESULTS: We found that due to the small infusion volumes during the first days, the minimal daily needed nutrition levels are reached at day 4-5. Nutritional intake at day 7-10 in most children is enough for growth. A positive mean weight gain for the whole group 6.6 g/kg/d (SD 6.2) is observed. Negative weight gain during the first 20 days is observed only with two critically ill babies with substantial reduction of infusion volume. In 9 babies a transient increase in urea levels was observed during the first week, 5 babies had an increase in triglycerides as a symptom of bad lipid tolerance. In 7 babies on prolonged total PN an increase in alkaline phosphatase is observed. Conclusions. Early and sufficient PN in newborn babies below 1500 g guarantees the daily intake of energy and essential nutritive substances for adequate growth and is a basic component of

  13. Individual heterosis for birth weight of N'dama crossbred calves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical model used for the analysis include sex of calf, calf genotype, year of birth, and season of birth. It also includes interaction between calf sex by year of birth and calf sex by season of birth. The effect of sex of calf, calf genotype and year of birth were highly significant (P<0.001) on birth weight. The interaction of calf ...

  14. Protocol of the Low Birth Weight South Asia Trial (LBWSAT), a cluster-randomised controlled trial testing impact on birth weight and infant nutrition of Participatory Learning and Action through women?s groups, with and without unconditional transfers of fortified food or cash during pregnancy in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Saville, Naomi M.; Shrestha, Bhim P.; Style, Sarah; Harris-Fry, Helen; Beard, B. James; Sengupta, Aman; Jha, Sonali; Rai, Anjana; Paudel, Vikas; Pulkki-Brannstrom, Anni-Maria; Copas, Andrew; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Bhandari, Bishnu; Neupane, Rishi; Morrison, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW, < 2500?g) affects one third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0?16?months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women?s groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women i...

  15. Birth weight--a risk factor for progression in diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P; Rossing, P; Tarnow, L

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth retardation, as seen in individuals with low weight at birth, may give rise to a reduction in nephron number. Oligonephropathy has been linked to hypertension and renal disease in adult life. We tested the concept that low weight at birth acts as a risk factor......): 8 (3-20)] with at least three measurements [9 (3-31)] of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (51Cr-EDTA). Information about birth size was obtained from midwife registrations. SETTINGS: Steno Diabetes Center, a tertiary referral centre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Loss of kidney function according to birth...... weight and weight/length ratio at birth. RESULTS: There was no correlation in univariate analysis between birth weight or weight/length ratio and rate of decline in GFR, neither in men nor in women. Furthermore, the 27 patients with birth weights below the 20th centile had a rate of decline in GFR...

  16. Glycerin Suppositories Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shalinkumar; Dereddy, Narendra; Talati, Ajay J; Gaston, Kan; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To study the characteristics of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glycerin suppositories (GS) and evaluate the association of GS use with outcomes. Study Design  This is a retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Infants with birth weight between 500 and 1,499 g were evaluated. We evaluated the frequency of GS use and compared the characteristics and outcomes of the GS group with the no-GS group. Multivariate analyses controlling for gestational age and small for gestational age status were performed to study the effect of GS on outcomes. Results  A total of 1,073 infants were included in the study. Out of those, 527 (49.1%) infants received GS. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis was not significantly different between the two groups, while days to reach full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were significantly longer in the GS group. Conclusion  Frequent use of GS warrants further prospective studies to evaluate its safety and efficacy in view of our study showing association with longer time to reach full enteral feeds. We speculate that GS use could be a marker for gastrointestinal dysmotility and hence the association with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Bioelectrical impedance analysis during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, F; Franchi, M; Balestreri, D; Lischetti, B; Mele, M C; Alberico, S; Bolis, P

    2001-10-01

    To generate reference ranges for bioelectrical impedance indices throughout pregnancy and to investigate whether a relationship exists between these indices and the neonatal birth weight. Pregnant women with a singleton gestation, gestational age lower than 12 weeks, and absence of medical diseases before pregnancy were enrolled. Patients with pregnancy complications, such as hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and antiphospholipides syndrome were excluded. Antrophometric maternal parameters and bioelectrical impedance measurements were performed during the first, second, third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and 60 days after delivery. Height(2)/resistance (cm(2)/Omega) and height(2)/reactance (cm(2)/Omega) were utilized to estimate the total and extracellular body water amounts, respectively. Spearman rank correlations and cox proportional hazard modelling were used for statistical purposes. 169 patients completed all measurements. Total and extracellular water amounts significantly increase as pregnancy advances and return to the pre-pregnancy values within 60 days after delivery. After adjustment for gestational age at delivery, fetal sex, and smoking habits, height(2)/resistance at 25 weeks (hazard=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.06, Pweight. We have provided reference ranges for bioimpedance analysis during pregnancy, an easy, fast and non invasive method to estimate the body water composition during pregnancy. Bioelectrical impedance indices during the second trimester of pregnancy are independently related to the birth weight.

  18. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  19. Post-discharge body weight and neurodevelopmental outcomes among very low birth weight infants in Taiwan: A nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Ting; Chen, Chao-Huei; Wang, Teh-Ming; Hsu, Ya-Chi

    2018-01-01

    Background Premature infants are at high risk for developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction. Besides medical conditions, growth restriction is regarded as an important risk factor for cognitive and neurodevelopmental dysfunction throughout childhood and adolescence and even into adulthood. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between post-discharge body weight and psychomotor development using a nationwide dataset. Materials and methods This was a nationwide cohort study conducted in Taiwan. Total of 1791 premature infants born between 2007 and 2011 with a birth weight of less than 1500 g were enrolled into this multi-center study. The data were obtained from the Taiwan Premature Infant Developmental Collaborative Study Group. The growth and neurodevelopmental evaluations were performed at corrected ages of 6, 12 and 24 months. Post-discharge failure to thrive was defined as a body weight below the 3rd percentile of the standard growth curve for Taiwanese children by the corrected age. Results The prevalence of failure to thrive was 15.8%, 16.9%, and 12.0% at corrected ages of 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. At corrected ages of 24 months, 12.9% had low Mental Developmental Index (MDI) scores (MDIfailure to thrive was significantly associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. After controlling for potential confounding factors (small for gestational age, extra-uterine growth retardation at discharge, cerebral palsy, gender, mild intraventricular hemorrhage, persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, surfactant use and indomethacin use), post-discharge failure to thrive remained a risk factor. Conclusion This observational study observed the association between lower body weight at corrected age of 6, 12, and 24 months and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes among VLBW premature infants. There are many adverse factors

  20. Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who admitted in our NICU which had inclusion criteria were eligible in this trial. Included neonates were randomly placed in two groups (case and control and before intervention the total serum bilirubin (TSB was measured at second day. The participant received either 20 mg of zinc sulfate or placebo through NG-tube divided in two doses till day seven of age. Then total and indirect bilirubin was measured at 3ed, 5th and 7th day of life. If any of newborns in duration of hospitalization develop clinical jaundice, after assessment of bilirubin, need for phototherapy was evaluated based on phototherapy and exchange schedule as described by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The termination point of phototherapy was defined as a bilirubin level less than 50 percent of starting point. After gathering Data, they were analyzed using SPSS software (version 11.5 and T-test, Chi-square and repeated measurement tests. Results: Seventy eight patients enrolled in this trial that 18 cases were excluded and the remaining cases divided into two equal groups (N=30 in each group. Demographic condition was similar in two groups. There were no different between two groups in decreasing total serum bilirubin and duration of phototherapy. Conclusion: This study showed that zinc sulfate has no preventing effective in hyperbilirubinemia in preterm very low birth weight neonates. It has also no effect on duration of phototherapy.

  1. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppetti, Debora; Pecile, Alessandro; Palestrini, Clara; Marelli, Stefano P.; Boracchi, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Birth weight is a key factor for neonatal mortality and morbidity in most mammalian species. The great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed, as well as in skeletal and cranial conformation makes it challenging to define birth weight standards in dogs. A total of 3293 purebred pups were surveyed to study which maternal aspects can determine birth weight considering head and body shape, size, body weight and breed in bitches, as well as litter size and sex in pups. In our sample, multivariate analysis outcomes suggested that birth weight and litter size were directly proportional to maternal size. The maternal body shape influenced both birth weight and litter size, whereas the maternal head shape had impact only on birth weight. Sex differences in birth weight were found. Birth weight and litter size also varied among breeds. The results of the present study could have practical implications allowing one to identify pups in need of admission to intensive nursing care, as occurs in humans. A deeper knowledge of the factors that significantly influence birth weight could positively affect the canine breeding management helping to prevent and reduce neonatal mortality. Abstract Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001) and litter size (p < 0.05) increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and

  2. Delayed Prenatal Care and the Risk of Low Birth Weight Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, William J.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Davis, Lucy; Sturgill, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    Assessed whether the timing of prenatal care related to low birth weight delivery, adjusting for sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. Data on births to white and African American women showed no benefits for early initiation of prenatal care in reducing the risk of low birth weight.(SM)

  3. Longitudinal Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, E. M.; Northam, E.; Doyle, L. W.; Callanan, C.; Anderson, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk and protective factors for adult psychiatric disorders in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight less than 1,501 g) survivors. 79 of 154 (51%) VLBW subjects recruited at birth were assessed in early adulthood (24-27 years). Participants were screened for a psychiatric disorder; those elevated were…

  4. Growth pattern and final height of very preterm vs. very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dommelen, P. van; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundBoth very preterm (VP; i.e., gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e., birth weight <1,500 g) are used as inclusion criteria by studies on preterm birth. We aimed to quantify the impact of these entities on postnatal growth until final height.MethodsSubjects born VP

  5. Effects of Diagnosis by Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis on Weight and Length in the First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Daniel H; Heltshe, Sonya L; Borowitz, Drucy; Gelfond, Daniel; Kloster, Margaret; Heubi, James E; Stalvey, Michael; Ramsey, Bonnie W

    2017-06-01

    Since the implementation of universal newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF), the timing and magnitude of growth deficiency or its association with correlates of disease among infants with CF who underwent NBS has not been well described. To examine incremental weight gain, linear growth, and clinical features in the first year of life among infants with CF who underwent NBS. The Baby Observational and Nutrition Study (BONUS), a multicenter, longitudinal, observational cohort study, was conducted during regular CF clinic visits in the first 12 months of life at 28 US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation-accredited Care Centers from January 7, 2012, through May 31, 2015. Participants included 231 infants younger than 3.5 months who underwent NBS and had confirmed CF, with a gestational age of at least 35 weeks, birth weight of at least 2.5 kg, and toleration of full oral feeds. Of these, 222 infants (96.1%) had follow-up beyond 6 months of age and 215 (93.1%) completed 12 months of follow-up. Cystic fibrosis. Attained weight and length for age and World Health Organization normative z scores at ages 1 to 6 and 8, 10, and 12 months (defined a priori). Of the 231 infants enrolled, 110 infants (47.6%) were female and 121 (52.4%) were male, with a mean (SD) age of 2.58 (0.69) months. BONUS infants had lower than mean birth weights (mean z score, -0.15; 95% CI, -0.27 to -0.04) and higher birth lengths (mean z score, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.62). They achieved normal weight by 12 months, a significant improvement over a prescreening cohort of newborns with CF from 20 years before the contemporary cohort (mean z score increase, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.77). However, length was lower than the mean at 12 months (mean z score, -0.56; 95% CI, -0.70 to -0.42). Only 30 infants (13.6%) were at less than the 10th percentile of weight for age, whereas 53 (23.9%) were at less than the 10th percentile of length for age at more than half their visits. Male sex, pancreatic insufficiency

  6. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-07-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.

  7. Análise da produção científica acerca da atenção ao recém-nascido de baixo peso em UTI Análisis de la producción científica de advertencia sobre el recién nacido de bajo peso al nacer en UCI Analysis of scientific production of warning about the newborn of low birth weight in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sissy Tronco

    2010-09-01

    low weight children's health. It is an integrative review developed in august of 2009, with the descriptors: "Infant, low birth weight" or "infant, very low birth weight" and "intensive care units, neonatal" published from 1990 to 2008. 608 abstract were submitted to thematic content analysis. Clinic-epidemiological studies results show that the low weight and morbi-mortality neonatal risk factors and the ones with assistential tendency contribute to the care and routine given. It becomes evident that the advances in the newborn health care, the clinical complexity and the implications to his assistance. It stans out that there is a gap in researches that exposes the family subjectivity, support and inclusion in the care process and in coping with this situation.

  8. Outdoor air pollution and term low birth weight in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated on the association between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. However, most of the previous studies were conducted in geographically distinct areas and suffer from lack of important potential covariates. We examined the effect of ambient air pollution on term low birth weight (LBW) using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan that began in 2001. We restricted participants to term singletons (n=44,109). Air pollution concentrations during the 9months before birth were obtained at the municipality level and were assigned to the participants who were born in the corresponding municipality. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. We found that air pollution exposure during pregnancy was positively associated with the risk of term LBW. In the fully adjusted models, odds ratios following one interquartile range increase in each pollutant were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.19) for suspended particulate matter (SPM), 1.11 (0.99, 1.26) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 1.71 (1.18, 2.46) for sulfur dioxide (SO2). Specifically, effect estimates for SPM and NO2 exposure at the first trimester were higher than those at other trimesters, while SO2 was associated with the risk at all trimesters. Nonsmoking mothers were more susceptible to SPM and NO2 exposure compared with smoking mothers. Ambient air pollution increases the risk of term LBW in a nationally representative sample in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Newborn hearing screening: analysis and outcomes after 100,000 births in Upper-Normandy French region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluraud, Sophie; Marcolla-Bouchetemblé, Aurore; de Barros, Angélique; Moreau-Lenoir, Florence; de Sevin, Emmanuel; Rerolle, Stéphane; Charrière, Elisabeth; Lecler-Scarcella, Véronique; Billet, François; Obstoy, Marie-Françoise; Amstutz-Montadert, Isabelle; Marie, Jean-Paul; Lerosey, Yannick

    2015-06-01

    Neonatal hearing impairment is a common disorder with a prevalence of 1 to 2‰ worldwide, with significant consequences on overall development when rehabilitated too late. New-born hearing screening has been implemented in the 1990s in most European countries and the USA. The Upper-Normandy region of France has been conducting a pilot program since 1999. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate and critically analyse it. The Upper-Normandy universal new-born hearing screening program is performed in two steps. Between 1999 and 2004, first, we administered a Transient Evoked Oto Acoustic Emission (TEOAE) test was administered a few days after birth for healthy newborns without risk factors. For newborns admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or presenting risk factors, was administered an automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) test prior to discharge. Second, newborns who failed the initial hearing screening were retested as outpatients using TEOAE. Since 2004, infants who failed the initial screen were tested with AABR 3 to 4 weeks later as outpatients, providing an opportunity to compare the two protocols. Overall screening coverage in the Upper-Normandy region is 99.8%. First step coverage is 99.58% in well-infant nurseries and 97.09% in the NICU. The test-retest procedure during the first step and the use of AABR for the second resulted in higher follow-up rates and lower false positive rates. The Upper-Normandy region universal newborn hearing screening program facilitated diagnosis and rehabilitation of infants before age of 9 months, most notably when severe to profound hearing impairment was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2008-01-01

    It has been speculated whether maternal immune responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens affect pregnancies negatively. This study explores, on a population level, whether previous births of boys compared with girls are associated with a decrease in birth weight...... of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...

  11. Kluyvera ascorbata sepsis in an extremely low birth weight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kluyvera ascorbata belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family and is a gram negative micro-organism. This bacteria is usually considered a commensal, however it can cause significant infections rarely. This organism is usually resistant to most commonly used antibiotics used as first line in neonatal units. Antimicrobial agents active against Kluyvera strains include third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. We report a case of an extremely low birth weight male infant who presented on day 4 of life with clinical features of sepsis, multi-organ dysfunction, shock and pulmonary haemorrhage. Neonatal sepsis was associated with marked elevation of C-reactive protein and a falling platelet count. Infant expired on day 5 of life in spite of aggressive supportive care and treatment with meropenem. with growth of Kluyvera ascorbataon blood culture.

  12. Anaemia and low birth weight in Medani, Hospital Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhassan Elhassan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing the incidence of Low birth weight (LBW neonates by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 is one of the major goals of the United Nations resolution "A World Fit for Children". This was a case-control study conducted between August-October 2009 in Medani Hospital, Sudan to investigate the risk factors for LBW. Cases were mothers who delivered singleton baby Findings Out of 1224 deliveries, 97 (12.6% of the neonates were LBW deliveries. While maternal socio-demographic characteristics (age, parity and mother education and anthropometrics measurements were not associated with LBW, lack of antenatal care (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.4-24.4; P = 0.01 and maternal anaemia (OR = 9.0, 95% CI = 3.4-23.8; P Conclusion Thus, more care on antenatal care and nutrition may prevent LBW.

  13. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  14. Guidelines for feeding very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourabh; Singh, Balpreet; Chessell, Lorraine; Wilson, Jennifer; Janes, Marianne; McDonald, Kimberley; Shahid, Shaneela; Gardner, Victoria A; Hjartarson, Aune; Purcha, Margaret; Watson, Jennifer; de Boer, Chris; Gaal, Barbara; Fusch, Christoph

    2015-01-08

    Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW) neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  15. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, S D; Zhang, M G; Der, G; Mathur, S; Mina, T H; Reynolds, R M

    2017-04-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range -86-129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI -4.0-6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57-103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.

  16. Birth weight distribution of Hospital Geral do Grajaú population compared to São Paulo city population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the growth curves from a population from a large city suburban hospital with those of the city of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. Methods: At Hospital Geral do Grajaú, that serves the high pregnancy risk population lacking health facilities, of low education level and smaller number of prenatal visits and great morbidity, a growth curve was built for the newborns, as the Hospital is provided with updated equipment and personnel. The curve was built from the database available containing information on live births during the 2003 to 2007 period and totaling 9,952 newborns, as their weight at birth and gestational age were taken as parameters. The distribution curves of 3%, 10%, 50% and 90% of the Grajaú were compared to those of the city of São Paulo curve. Results: The curves did not significantly differ from those of the São Paulo curve percentiles, as shown by the mean deviation (Z score calculation, notwithstanding the higher rates for prematurity, low weight, teenager mothers and lack of prenatal visits among the Grajaú population as compared to those of São Paulo. Conclusions: The São Paulo city curve showed to be appropriate for the suburban population despite the existing differences.

  17. The Relationship between CO Ambient and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Majd H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: LBW is the strongest factor related to prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood mortality and morbidity. Air pollution is one of the risk factors that is recently gaining attention. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the CO ambient and low birth weight in women referring to Tehran hospitals in 2007-2008. Methods: In this historical cohort study 225 pregnant women having lived within 5 kilometers of a monitoring station during pregnancy and referring to selected hospitals in Tehran were investigated. An information questionnaire was used for data collection and sampling was done by multistage sampling and convenience method. Women were assigned to low exposure group and high exposure group based on mean exposure to each pollutant during pregnancy. These two groups were matched with respect to confounding factors. SPSS software version 15, T statistics, 2, Man Withnney, and Relative Risk procedures were used for data analysis.Results: The result showed that 31.6% of CO high exposure group and 7.4% of CO low exposure group had Low birth weight baby. The result also showed a significant relationship between exposure to high amount of CO and LBW (p=0.001. Relative Risk calculated with confidence interval (RR=4/67, CI=(1/76-9/43 was found to be 95% and the amount of attributable risk was 66%.Conclusion: Based on these finding, exposure to carbon monoxide pollution can cause LBW. There should be an educational program about the disadvantages of CO pollutant on pregnant women living in densely populated areas of the city. Moreover, practical approaches should be provided to reduce these pollutants.

  18. Nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vamsi Sivarama Raju, Jayashree Purkayastha, Leslie Lewis, Ramesh Bhat Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to find out the incidence and risk factors of nosocomial infections in VLBW neonates and to explore the microbiologic flora, sensitivity pattern and outcome. Methods: A prospective, observational study was performed in a neonatal intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. VLBW infants excluding those diagnosed with early onset sepsis, admitted to the unit between August 2012 and March 2013 were followed up for evidence of nosocomial sepsis. Results: Of 92 VLBW infants, 23 developed nosocomial sepsis, incidence rate being 25%. Decreasing birth weight (1251-1500 g, 10.9%; 1001-1250 g, 28%; 751-1000 g, 50%; P33wks, 0%; 29-32wks, 21.3%; 26-28 wks, 66.7%; p<.001 were found to be associated with statistically significant increase in nosocomial sepsis rate. On multivariate logistic regression, only peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line was independently associated with increased risk of nosocomial sepsis (aOR 13.33, 95% CI 3.58-49.5 in VLBW. A predominance of Gram negative over Gram positive nosocomial sepsis (75% vs. 25% with higher mortality in the Gram negative group (55% vs. 0% was observed. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant microbe (33.4%. All microbes were sensitive to first line antibiotics except Elizabeth kingia meningoseptica and one episode of K. pneumoniae. Seven (30.4% VLBW neonates with nosocomial sepsis died. Conclusions: Among VLBW infants, the incidence of nosocomial sepsis was 25%. Lower birth weight, lesser gestational age and PICC line were important risk factors. Gram negative nosocomial sepsis was associated with higher mortality compared to Gram positive sepsis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(1: 7-12

  19. Factors affecting birth weight and growth rate in Friesian X Bunaji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calving records from 1984 - 1989 were studied to determine the influence of rearing method, sex of calf, season of birth, dam breed and year· of birth on body weight at birth, 3, 6 and 12 montl1s of age in Friesian x Bunaji calves. The mean weights of calves at birth, 3, 6 and 12 months of age were 22.0, 68.2, 96.7 and 137.4 ...

  20. Unlocking community capabilities for improving maternal and newborn health: participatory action research to improve birth preparedness, health facility access, and newborn care in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community capacities and resources must be harnessed to complement supply side initiatives addressing high maternal and neonatal mortality rates in Uganda. This paper reflects on gains, challenges and lessons learnt from working with communities to improve maternal and newborn health in rural Uganda. Methods A participatory action research project was supported from 2012 to 2015 in three eastern districts. This project involved working with households, saving groups, sub county and district leaders, transporters and village health teams in diagnosing causes of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, developing action plans to address these issues, taking action and learning from action in a cyclical manner. This paper draws from project experience and documentation, as well as thematic analysis of 20 interviews with community and district stakeholders and 12 focus group discussions with women who had recently delivered and men whose wives had recently delivered. Results Women and men reported increased awareness about birth preparedness, improved newborn care practices and more male involvement in maternal and newborn health. However, additional direct communication strategies were required to reach more men beyond the minority who attended community dialogues and home visits. Saving groups and other saving modalities were strengthened, with money saved used to meet transport costs, purchase other items needed for birth and other routine household needs. However saving groups required significant support to improve income generation, management and trust among members. Linkages between savings groups and transport providers improved women’s access to health facilities at reduced cost. Although village health teams were a key resource for providing information, their efforts were constrained by low levels of education, inadequate financial compensation and transportation challenges. Ensuring that the village health

  1. Placental expression profile of imprinted genes impacts birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappil, Maya A; Green, Benjamin B; Armstrong, David A; Sharp, Andrew J; Lambertini, Luca; Marsit, Carmen J; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of imprinted genes in regulating feto-placental development has been long established. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of placental imprinted gene expression on fetal growth has yet to be conducted. In this study, we examined the association between the placental expression of 108 established and putative imprinted genes and birth weight in 677 term pregnancies, oversampled for small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants. Using adjusted multinomial regression analyses, a 2-fold increase in the expression of 9 imprinted genes was positively associated with LGA status: BLCAP [odds ratio (OR) = 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 7.82], DLK1 [OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.09], H19 [OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.77, 4.42], IGF2 [OR = 1.43, 95% CI:1.31, 2.40], MEG3 [OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.71], MEST [OR = 4.78, 95% CI: 2.64, 8.65], NNAT [OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.86], NDN [OR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.72, 3.68], and PLAGL1 [OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.44]. For SGA status, a 2-fold increase in MEST expression was associated with decreased risk [OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.58], while a 2-fold increase in NNAT expression was associated with increased risk [OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1]. Following a factor analysis, all genes significantly associated with SGA or LGA status loaded onto 2 of the 8 gene-sets underlying the variability in the dataset. Our comprehensive placental profiling of imprinted genes in a large birth cohort supports the importance of these genes for fetal growth. Given that abnormal birth weight is implicated in numerous diseases and developmental abnormalities, the expression pattern of placental imprinted genes has the potential to be developed as a novel biomarker for postnatal health outcomes.

  2. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...... risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than...... recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement: What is already known on this subject: Previous studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed...

  3. Fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction: a new population-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, H K; Grøttum, P; Økland, I; Eik-Nes, S H

    2017-04-01

    To develop a complete, population-based system for ultrasound-based fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction for use in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Using 31 516 ultrasound examinations from a population-based Norwegian clinical database, we constructed fetal size charts for biparietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference from 24 to 42 weeks' gestation. A reference curve of median birth weight for gestational age was estimated using 45 037 birth weights. We determined how individual deviations from the expected ultrasound measures predicted individual percentage deviations from expected birth weight. The predictive quality was assessed by explained variance of birth weight and receiver-operating characteristics curves for prediction of small-for-gestational age. A curve for intrauterine estimated fetal weight was constructed. Charts were smoothed using the gamlss non-linear regression method. The population-based approach, using bias-free ultrasound gestational age, produces stable estimates of size-for-age and weight-for-age curves in the range 24-42 weeks' gestation. There is a close correspondence between percentage deviations and percentiles of birth weight by gestational age, making it easy to convert between the two. The variance of birth weight that can be 'explained' by ultrasound increases from 8% at 20 weeks up to 67% around term. Intrauterine estimated fetal weight is 0-106 g higher than median birth weight in the preterm period. The new population-based birth-weight prediction model provides a simple summary measure, the 'percentage birth-weight deviation', to be used for fetal size monitoring throughout the third trimester. Predictive quality of the model can be measured directly from the population data. The model computes both median observed birth weight and intrauterine estimated fetal weight. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John

  4. High birth weight babies: Incedence and foetal outcome in a Mission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with a history of delivery of a previous baby with birth weight of 4000g, a gestational weight gain of 13-15 kg and a height >1.63m had an increased tendency towards delivery of a HBW infant. High birth weight babies were at a higher risk of foetal death and delivery by Caesarean Section. Conclusion: Incidence of ...

  5. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention with mandat......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... the initiation and termination of vitamin D fortification programmes. In total, four sets of analyses were performed. Information on birth weight was available in the Copenhagen School Health Record Register for all school children in Copenhagen. The mean birth weight was lower among the exposed than non...

  6. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Groppetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001 and litter size (p < 0.05 increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and the lightest pups, respectively (p < 0.001. Birth weight decreased with litter size (p < 0.001, and male pups were heavier than females (p < 0.001. These results suggest that canine morphotype, not only maternal size and body weight, can affect birth weight and litter size with possible practical implications in neonatal assistance.

  7. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...

  8. Influence of birth weight on differences in infant mortality by social class and legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, D A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social class. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality was 4.2/1000 and 2.3/1000 respectively for social class I and 6.8/1000 and 5.6/1000 respectively for social class V. Mortality was lower among births registered within marriage (postneonatal 3.5/1000; neonatal 5.2/1000) than among those jointly registered outside marriage (5.1/1000; 6.4/1000); mortality was highest in those solely registered outside marriage (7.2/1000; 7.0/1000). For neonatal mortality the effect of social class varied with birth weight. Social class had little effect on neonatal mortality in low birthweight babies and increasing effect in heavier babies. For postneonatal mortality the effect of social class was similar for all birth weights and was almost as steep as for all birth weights combined. CONCLUSION--Birth weight mediates little of the effect of social class on postneonatal mortality. PMID:1954421

  9. [Trendency analysis of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight in China from 1996 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hao; He, Chunhua; Miao, Lei; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Qi; Li, Xiaohong; Shen, Liqin

    2015-02-01

    To study the secular trend and characteristics of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight (IMRPL) in China from 1996 to 2013. Data used in this study was collected from the population-based Child's Health Surveillance Network of China. The Cochran-Armitage Trend test and Poisson regression were used to test the trend of IMRPL and explore the differences of the trend among different regions or areas. The nationwide IMRPL was 629.9 per 100 000 live births in 1996 and it decreased to 214.6 per 100 000 live births in 2013. The average annual decline rate was 6.14%, while the proportion of infant mortality due to premature birth or low birth weight in all infant deaths was on the rise with the average annual growth rate of 1.52%. And the proportion increased to 22.6% in 2013. IMRPLin rural and urban areas fell 28.1% and 66.6% respectively during 1996 and 2013. But the differences between urban and rural areas was obvious. During the same period, the average IMRPLin the central region was 1.40 times (95%CI:1.31-1.49) of that in the eastern region. And the average IMRPL in the western region was 2.25 times (95%CI:2.12-2.40) of that in the eastern region. The differences among different regions was obvious. Male infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight was 1.09 times (95%CI:1.05-1.14) of that in female infant from 1996 to 2013. The risk of IMRPL decreased substantially in China from 1996 to 2013. And the risk of IMRPL decreased more in rural areas than that in urban areas. The differences among different regions and areas were obvious. Premature birth or low birth weight as one of main factors has become a serious threat for health of Chinese children.

  10. Shyness and timidity in young adults who were born at extremely low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies have noted personality differences among adult survivors of very preterm birth, including higher neuroticism and cautiousness and lower extraversion. We attempted to replicate and extend these recent studies by examining personality characteristics across multiple components of personality that traditionally define personality structure in a birth cohort of young adults born at extremely low birth weight (501-1000 g), the smallest and most at-risk infants. We assessed 71 (76% of the original birth cohort) extremely low birth weight and 83 (74% of the original cohort) term normal birth weight young adults by using well-validated personality measures, indexing 4 traditional components of personality: temperament (Cheek and Buss shyness and sociability and Eysenck neuroticism and extraversion), motivation (Carver and White behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation), cognitive and affective (Coopersmith self-esteem and University of California, Los Angeles, loneliness), and socialization (Eysenck psychoticism and lie). All of the participants were right-handed and free of neurosensory and psychiatric impairments. Extremely low birth weight adults reported significantly higher shyness, behavioral inhibition, and socialization (a measure of prosocial behavior defined by risk aversion and adherence to societal mores) and lower sociability and emotional well-being than their normal birth weight counterparts, replicating and extending the findings of previous studies. Young adults who were born at extremely low birth weight and without major impairments are more cautious, shy, and risk aversive and less extraverted than their normal birth weight counterparts, possibly placing them at risk for future psychiatric and emotional problems.

  11. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  12. The Relationship between CO Ambient and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kariman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: LBW is the strongest factor related to prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood mortality and morbidity. Air pollution is one of the risk factors that is recently gaining attention. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the CO ambient and low birth weight in women referring to Tehran hospitals in 2007-2008.

     

    Methods: In this historical cohort study 225 pregnant women having lived within 5 kilometers of a monitoring station during pregnancy and referring to selected hospitals in Tehran were investigated. An information questionnaire was used for data collection and sampling was done by multistage sampling and convenience method. Women were assigned to low exposure group and high exposure group based on mean exposure to each pollutant during pregnancy. These two groups were matched with respect to confounding factors. SPSS software version 15, T statistics, c2, Man Withnney, and Relative Risk procedures were used for data analysis.

     

    Results: The result showed that 31.6% of CO high exposure group and 7.4% of CO low exposure group had Low birth weight baby. The result also showed a significant relationship between exposure to high amount of CO and LBW (p=0.001. Relative Risk calculated with confidence interval (RR=4/67, CI=(1/76-9/43 was found to be 95% and the amount of attributable risk was 66%.

     

    Conclusion: Based on these finding, exposure to carbon monoxide pollution can cause LBW. There should be an educational program about the disadvantages of CO pollutant on pregnant women living in densely populated areas of the city. Moreover, practical approaches should be provided to reduce these pollutants.

  13. A two year retrospective study of birth weight in Sidamo Regional Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madebo, T

    1994-10-01

    This is a two year retrospective analysis of 1,260 live single births at Sidamo Regional Hospital during 1989-1990. The mean birth weight was 3,243 g (SD +/- 625). There were 678(53.8%) boys and 582(46.2%) girls. The mean birth weight for boys and girls were 3,324 g (SD +/- 622) and 3147 g (SD +/- 611), respectively (t = 5.05; p < 0.001). There were significant correlations between birth weight and the age of the mother (r = 0.20; p < 0.001) as well as with parity (r = 0.15; p < 0.001). Eight per cent of the babies had birth weight less than 2,500 g. Five per cent of boys and 11% of girls had low birth weights (chi 2 = 8.8; p < 0.002). Higher proportion of low birth weight was also found among the young and primiparous mothers. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant and independent effect of maternal age and sex of the baby on birth weight. The findings are in general agreement with previous studies from Ethiopia and other developing countries. However, as this study is based on hospital data, community-based studies are needed to examine the true pattern of birth weights as hospital data may be biased.

  14. Excess weight loss in first-born breastfed newborns relates to maternal intrapartum fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantry, Caroline J; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Peerson, Janet M; Cohen, Roberta J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to describe weight loss in a multiethnic population of first-born, predominantly breastfed, term infants and to identify potentially modifiable risk factors for excess weight loss (EWL). Data on prenatal breastfeeding intentions, demographic characteristics, labor and delivery interventions and outcomes, breastfeeding behaviors, formula and pacifier use, onset of lactogenesis, and nipple type and pain were collected prospectively. Logistic regression analyses identified independent predictors of EWL (≥10% of birth weight) by using a preplanned theoretical model. EWL occurred for 18% of infants who received no or minimal (≤60 mL total since birth) formula (n = 229), including 19% of exclusively breastfed infants (n = 134) and 16% of infants who received minimal formula (n = 95). In bivariate analyses, EWL was associated (P lactogenesis (>72 hours), fewer infant stools, and infant birth weight. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only 2 variables predicted EWL significantly, namely, intrapartum fluid balance (adjusted relative risk for EWL of 3.18 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-13.29] and 2.80 [95% CI: 1.17-11.68] with net intrapartum fluid balance of >200 and 100-200 mL/hour, respectively, compared with lactogenesis (adjusted relative risk: 3.35 [95% CI: 1.74-8.10]). EWL was more common in this population than reported previously and was independently related to intrapartum fluid balance. This suggests that intrapartum fluid administration can cause fetal volume expansion and greater fluid loss after birth, although other mechanisms are possible.

  15. Prevalence and determinants of low birth weight: the situation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional birth attendant delivers majority of pregnant women in Nigeria. Objective: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for delivery of low birth weight (LBW) neonates in a Traditional Birth Home (TBH)in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 780 pregnant women ...

  16. Early neonatal deaths with perinatal asphyxia in very low birth weight Brazilian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M F B; Moreira, L M O; Vaz dos Santos, R M; Kawakami, M D; Anchieta, L M; Guinsburg, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of early deaths associated with birth asphyxia of very low birth weight infants between 2005 and 2010, in Brazil. This population study enrolled all live births with birth weight from 400 to 1499 g, gestational age ⩾ 22 weeks, without malformations that died up to 6 days after birth with perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was defined if intrauterine hypoxia, asphyxia at birth or meconium aspiration syndrome were written in any line of the death certificate. Active search was carried out in 27 Brazilian federative units. For every 1000 live births of very low birth weight infants without congenital malformations, 40.25 and 32.38 died with birth asphyxia in the first week after birth, respectively, in 2005 and 2010 (Pasphyxia to early neonatal death of these infants was approximately 10 to 12% all study years. Reduction of birth asphyxia in very low birth weight infants is essential to reducing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

  17. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  18. SECULAR CHANGES IN BIRTH WEIGHTS AND WOMEN'S BODY SIZE IN KRAKÓW AND POZNAŃ (POLAND) DURING THE LAST CENTURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryst, Łukasz; Bilińska, Inez

    2017-05-01

    Changing socioeconomic conditions over the last century have left their mark on neonatal size and final body size of individuals born in those days. The main aim of this study was to investigate how the historical, political and economic changes occurring from the late 19th century to the 2000s have affected the birth weight of newborns. Additionally, changes in weight and body height in the case of young women (potential mothers) were analysed. Data were from two cities in Poland (Kraków and Poznań) covering 15,884 newborns and 3612 women aged 18 years, derived from 1900 to 2010. Despite short-term fluctuations, the results showed significant increasing trends in all studied features. Changes in birth weight were similar in both cities: in Kraków it increased by 184 g (males) and 206 g (females), and in Poznań by 216 g (males) and 120 g (females). Changes in women's body size were also significant, but the level was different depending on place of residence. In the last century, women's body height increased by 8.2 cm in Kraków and by 10.2 cm in Poznań, and their body weight increased by 1 kg and 5 kg respectively. The considered period covered the years of socioeconomic change that occurred as a result of the political system transformation. Crises, periods of prosperity and other factors that determine standard of living and health care have influenced the development of the Polish population's physical features.

  19. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  20. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses...

  1. Arrhythmia associated with tetracaine in an extremely low birth weight premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidi, Halima; McNair, Carol; Seller, Neil; Kirsh, Joel; Bradley, Timothy J; Greenway, Steven C; Tomlinson, Chris

    2012-12-01

    Infants in NICUs undergo a variety of painful procedures. The management of pain has become an integral part of newborn infant care with the use of both systemic and topical agents to provide analgesia and anesthesia for procedural pain. Tetracaine and prilocaine-lidocaine are the 2 topical anesthetics most frequently used. Tetracaine belongs to an ester group of local anesthetics available as a topical 4% gel (Ametop, Smith and Nephew, Canada). The major side effects reported when using topical anesthetics are cutaneous reactions. There are no definite reports of systemic toxicity in the published literature. We present a recent case of an extremely low birth weight premature infant who developed a clinically significant arrhythmia after topical tetracaine was applied before the insertion of a peripherally inserted central catheter. The infant had no other identifiable cause for the resulting bradycardia that occurred only after Ametop was applied. The cardiac symptoms resolved with treatment. This case highlights a significant potential adverse event when using topical tetracaine.

  2. Survival and morbidity of very low birth weight infant in a South American neonatal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rocío; D'Apremont, Ivonne; Domínguez, Angélica; Tapia, José L

    2014-10-01

    To analyze survival and relevant morbidity by gestational age (GA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (Neonatal Network (Red Neonatal Neocosur) between January 2001 and December 2011. Data on 8234 VLBW with a GA between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks were analyzed. Overall mortality was 26% (95% CI: 25.0-26.9), including 2.6% of deaths in the delivery room. Fact sheets for survival and morbidity for each week of gestation were developed based on collected data. Survival at discharge increased from 29% at 24 weeks of GA to 91% at 31 weeks of GA (p neonatal morbidity was inversely related to GA (p hemorrhage, and 4.6% periventricular leukomalacia. Among survivors, 47.3% had none of these five conditions. A tool for use in a clinical setting was developed based on updated regional data for establishing week-to-week survival and morbidity of newborn infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks of GA. This information could be used to make decisions related to perinatal care and for counseling parents.

  3. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  4. Birth weight and risk of adiposity among adult Inuit in Greenland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Falberg Rønn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Inuit population in Greenland has undergone rapid socioeconomic and nutritional changes simultaneously with an increasing prevalence of obesity. Therefore, the objective was to examine fetal programming as part of the aetiology of obesity among Inuit in Greenland by investigating the association between birth weight and measures of body composition and fat distribution in adulthood. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from a total of 1,473 adults aged 18-61 years in two population-based surveys conducted in Greenland between 1999-2001 and 2005-2010. Information on birth weight was collected from birth records. Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI, and visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT estimated by ultrasound. The associations to birth weight were analyzed using linear regression models and quadratic splines. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, birthplace, ancestry and family history of obesity. RESULTS: Spline analyses showed linear relations between birth weight and adult adiposity. In multiple regression analyses, birth weight was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, FMI, FFMI and SAT with generally weaker associations among women compared to men. Birth weight was only associated with VAT after additional adjustment for waist circumference and appeared to be specific and inverse for men only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher birth weight among Inuit was associated with adiposity in adulthood. More studies are needed to explore a potential inverse association between birth size and VAT.

  5. Birth Weight, School Sports Ability, and Adulthood Leisure-Time Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of birth weight with ability in school sports in adolescence and participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) across adulthood and to investigate whether associations between birth weight and LTPA change with age. Study participants were British singletons born in 1946 and followed up to age 68 yr (the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development). Birth weights were extracted from birth records. Teacher reports of ability in school sports were collected at age 13 yr. LTPA was self-reported at ages 36, 43, 53, 60-64, and 68 yr and categorized at each age as participating in sports, exercise, and other vigorous LTPA at least once per month versus no participation. Associations were examined using standard and mixed-effects logistic regression models. Relevant data were available for 2739 study participants (50.1% female). When compared with the low birth weight group (≤2.50 kg), those with heavier birth weights were more likely to be rated as above average or average at school sports (vs below average); fully adjusted odds ratio = 1.78 (95% confidence interval = 1.14-2.77). Across adulthood, those with heavier birth weights were more likely to participate in LTPA than those with low birth weight; fully adjusted odds ratio of LTPA across adulthood = 1.52 (95% confidence interval = 1.09-2.14). This association did not vary by age (P = 0.5 for birth weight by age interaction). Low birth weight was associated with lower ability in school sports and with nonparticipation in LTPA across adulthood. Identifying the underlying developmental and social processes operating across life for low birth weight infants may inform the design of appropriate interventions to support participation in LTPA across life.

  6. Birth Weight, School Sports Ability, and Adulthood Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine the associations of birth weight with ability in school sports in adolescence and participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) across adulthood and to investigate whether associations between birth weight and LTPA change with age. Methods Study participants were British singletons born in 1946 and followed up to age 68 yr (the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development). Birth weights were extracted from birth records. Teacher reports of ability in school sports were collected at age 13 yr. LTPA was self-reported at ages 36, 43, 53, 60–64, and 68 yr and categorized at each age as participating in sports, exercise, and other vigorous LTPA at least once per month versus no participation. Associations were examined using standard and mixed-effects logistic regression models. Results Relevant data were available for 2739 study participants (50.1% female). When compared with the low birth weight group (≤2.50 kg), those with heavier birth weights were more likely to be rated as above average or average at school sports (vs below average); fully adjusted odds ratio = 1.78 (95% confidence interval = 1.14–2.77). Across adulthood, those with heavier birth weights were more likely to participate in LTPA than those with low birth weight; fully adjusted odds ratio of LTPA across adulthood = 1.52 (95% confidence interval = 1.09–2.14). This association did not vary by age (P = 0.5 for birth weight by age interaction). Conclusions Low birth weight was associated with lower ability in school sports and with nonparticipation in LTPA across adulthood. Identifying the underlying developmental and social processes operating across life for low birth weight infants may inform the design of appropriate interventions to support participation in LTPA across life. PMID:27580148

  7. Post-discharge body weight and neurodevelopmental outcomes among very low birth weight infants in Taiwan: A nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ting Hsu

    Full Text Available Premature infants are at high risk for developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction. Besides medical conditions, growth restriction is regarded as an important risk factor for cognitive and neurodevelopmental dysfunction throughout childhood and adolescence and even into adulthood. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between post-discharge body weight and psychomotor development using a nationwide dataset.This was a nationwide cohort study conducted in Taiwan. Total of 1791 premature infants born between 2007 and 2011 with a birth weight of less than 1500 g were enrolled into this multi-center study. The data were obtained from the Taiwan Premature Infant Developmental Collaborative Study Group. The growth and neurodevelopmental evaluations were performed at corrected ages of 6, 12 and 24 months. Post-discharge failure to thrive was defined as a body weight below the 3rd percentile of the standard growth curve for Taiwanese children by the corrected age.The prevalence of failure to thrive was 15.8%, 16.9%, and 12.0% at corrected ages of 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. At corrected ages of 24 months, 12.9% had low Mental Developmental Index (MDI scores (MDI<70, 17.8% had low Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI scores (PDI<70, 12.7% had cerebral palsy, and 29.5% had neurodevelopmental impairment. Post-discharge failure to thrive was significantly associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. After controlling for potential confounding factors (small for gestational age, extra-uterine growth retardation at discharge, cerebral palsy, gender, mild intraventricular hemorrhage, persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, surfactant use and indomethacin use, post-discharge failure to thrive remained a risk factor.This observational study observed the association between lower body weight at corrected age

  8. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  9. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Velusamy Saravana; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Sebastian, Tunny; Regi, Annie; Mathew, Jiji; Jose, Ruby

    2013-02-14

    The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20-39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box-Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively.In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116 grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams

  10. Famine, third-trimester pregnancy weight gain, and intrauterine growth: the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A. D.; Ravelli, A. C.; Lumey, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study were analyzed to assess the influence of acute famine on the relation of maternal weight gain to birth weight, length, and ponderal index. Records were examined for 734 women receiving at least one month of prenatal care and delivering live-born

  11. Birth weight relates to blood pressure and microvascular function in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Objective The relationship between low birth weight and elevated blood pressure in adult life is well established but presently unexplained. Both microvascular dysfunction and insulin resistance have been proposed as a possible explanation. We have examined the relation between birth weight and

  12. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The model for all evaluated traits included litter size, birth weight and litter size x birth weight interaction as a fixed effects and order parity of sows in which the litters were standardized as random effect. The significance of difference. (P) between means was determined using Duncan's multiple range test.

  13. Rickets in very-Iow-birth-weight infants born at Baragwanath Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract Disturbed mineral and bone metabolism has been reported to occur frequently in very-10w-birth- weight infants fed breast-milk during the first 3 months of life. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of disturbed mineral homeostasis in a breast-milk-fed very-Iow-birth-weight popu- lation at Baragwanath ...

  14. Evidence for a Causal Association of Low Birth Weight and Attention Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with attention problems (AP) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The etiology of this association is unclear. We investigate whether there is a causal influence of birth weight (BW) on AP and whether the BW effect is mediated by catch-up growth (CUG) in low-BW children. Method:…

  15. Is low back pain in youth associated with weight at birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low back pain has been associated with an increased risk of several diseases and with poor general health. Also low birth weight has been associated with an increased susceptibility to various diseases as well as with poor general health. Thus, low birth weight could be a common fac...

  16. Birth weight in relation to leisure time physical activity in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific...

  17. Regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in adulthood is not related to birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Petersen, Inge; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults....

  18. Correlation between Umbilical Cord Length, Birth Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The umbilical cord and placenta have been considered to significantly contribute to the perinatal outcome. However, in our environment attempt at exploring its use has been limited due to sociocultural believes. This study aimed to identify the relationship between the umbilical cord length, newborn length and ...

  19. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  20. EFFECTIVENESS OF EARLY USE OF SPONTANEOUS RESPIRATION UNDER CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE IN PREMATURE INFANTS WITH VERY LOW BODY WEIGHT AT BIRTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Khasanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of various methods of respiratory therapy for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants with very low body weight at birth. The studies were conducted in the Republican perinatal center of the Ministry of health of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The study included newborns with very low body weight (1000-1500 g and with a gestation age of 29-31 weeks, with respiratory distress syndrome at birth. Two groups of newborns were compared. Children of the 1st group have been treated by early, stage delivery room use of CPAP technique; premature infants of the 2nd group were born prior to the application of this technique. In a compative study of the cohorts of newborns treated in the department for two time periods, characterized by different approaches to respiratory therapy, results have been obtained indicating that the majority of premature infants with very low body weight and respiratory distress can be successfully treated with nasal CPAP, without the use of mechanical ventilation, especially in its early use.

  1. A newborn infant chimpanzee snatched and cannibalized immediately after birth: Implications for "maternity leave" in wild chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishie, Hitonaru; Nakamura, Michio

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the first observed case of a wild chimpanzee infant being snatched immediately after delivery and consequently cannibalized by an adult male in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. We demonstrate "maternity leave" from long-term data from the Mahale M group and suggest that it functions as a possible counterstrategy of mother chimpanzees against the risk of infanticide soon after delivery. The subjects of this study were the M group chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. The case of cannibalism was observed on December 2, 2014. We used the long-term daily attendance record of the M group chimpanzees between 1990 and 2010 to calculate the lengths of "maternity leave," a perinatal period during which a mother chimpanzee tends to hide herself and gives birth alone. We observed a very rare case of delivery in a wild chimpanzee group. A female chimpanzee gave birth in front of other members, and an adult male snatched and cannibalized the newborn infant immediately after birth. Using the long-term data, we demonstrate that the length of "maternity leave" is longer than that of nonmaternity leave among adult and adolescent female chimpanzees. We argue that this cannibalism event immediately after birth occurred due to the complete lack of "maternity leave" of the mother chimpanzee of the victim, who might lack enough experience of delivery. We suggest that "maternity leave" taken by expecting mothers may function as a possible counterstrategy against infanticide soon after delivery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124...... by birth weight was calculated separately for each age, sex, and time period. RESULTS: The birth weight distribution remained relatively stable over time. Compared with children with a birth weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg, the risk of overweight increased consistently with each increase in birth weight category...... in the distribution of birth weight or by changes in the association between birth weight and the later risk of overweight over time. This implies that, unless the prenatal environment influences the later risk of overweight without increasing birth weight, the environmental influences contributing to the obesity...

  3. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W

    2005-01-01

    in the distribution of birth weight or by changes in the association between birth weight and the later risk of overweight over time. This implies that, unless the prenatal environment influences the later risk of overweight without increasing birth weight, the environmental influences contributing to the obesity......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124...... by birth weight was calculated separately for each age, sex, and time period. RESULTS: The birth weight distribution remained relatively stable over time. Compared with children with a birth weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg, the risk of overweight increased consistently with each increase in birth weight category...

  4. Newborns' temperature submitted to radiant heat and to the Top Maternal device at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Rosemeire Sartori de; Mariani, Corintio; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Dias, Vanessa Macedo; Silva, Maria Izabel Mota da

    2016-08-08

    to compare the axillar temperatures of newborns that are put immediately after birth in skin-to-skin contact under the Top Maternal device, as compared to those in a radiant heat crib. comparatives observational study of the case-control type about temperature of 60 babies born at the Obstetric Center and Normal Delivery Center of a public hospital of the municipality of Sao Paulo, being them: 29 receiving assistance in heated crib and 31 in skin-to skin contact, shielded by a cotton tissue placed on mother's thorax, called Top Maternal. the temperature of the babies of the skin-to-skin contact group presented higher values in a larger share of the time measures verified, as compared to those that were placed in radiant heat crib, independently from the place of birth. Differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. the study contributes to generate new knowledge, supporting the idea of keeping babies with their mothers immediately after birth protected with the Maternal Top, without harming their wellbeing, as it keeps the axillar temperature in recommendable levels. comparar a temperatura axilar dos recém-nascidos acomodados - imediatamente após o nascimento - em contato pele a pele, sob o Top Maternal, em berço de calor radiante. estudo comparativo observacional do tipo Caso-Controle sobre a temperatura de 60 bebês nascidos no Centro Obstétrico e Centro de Parto Normal de um hospital público do município de São Paulo, sendo: 29 assistidos em berço aquecido e 31 em contato pele a pele, protegidos por uma malha de algodão colocada sobre o tórax da mãe, denominada Top Maternal. a temperatura dos bebês do grupo de contato pele a pele teve maior valor na maioria dos tempos verificados comparada à dos que foram colocados em berço de calor radiante, independentemente do local de nascimento. A diferença entre os grupos não foi estatisticamente significante. o estudo contribui com a geração de um novo conhecimento que sustenta a

  5. Correlation of periodontitis during pregnancy and incidence of low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Reddy

    2012-01-01

    After delivery, gestational age (in weeks and birth weight of baby (in kg were collected from hospital records. Infants were placed into following categories by gestational age (WHO and by birth weight preterm-3,900 gm. Results: Based on the findings of the study, a significant correlation was observed between periodontitis and low birth weight and preterm low birth weight (p<_0.001 and a significant relation was observed between periodontitis and gestational age (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Periodontitis was considered a risk indicator for reduced gestational age and birth weight. Multicentric trials will greatly help to establish the independent role of periodontal disease and their relationship in terms of pregnancy outcomes.

  6. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 children......, born from 1936 to 1972, from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register were followed prospectively in Danish health registers. Colon and rectal cancer cases were defined using the International Classification of Disease version 10 (colon: C18.0-18.9, rectal: 19.9 and 20.9). Only cancers classified....... No significant sex differences were observed; therefore combined results are presented. Birth weight was positively associated with colon cancers with a HR of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26) per kilogram of birth weight. For rectal cancer a significant association was not observed for birth weights below 3.5kg. Above 3...

  7. Birth weight predicts the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and pregravid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, Jarosław; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Engel, Karina; Celewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that birth weight may determine metabolic abnormalities later in life. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between birth weight and future risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregravid obesity in a homogenous sample of Caucasian Polish women. In this retrospective study, we collected the medical reports of 787 women with GDM and 801 healthy pregnant women. We analyzed the following data: birth weight, age, pregravid weight, prior GDM, prior macrosomia, parity, and family history of diabetes. Birth weight was inversely associated with the risk of GDM; for each decrease in birth weight of 500 g, the risk increased by 11% (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.21). Birth weight was a strong predictor of GDM independent of other risk factors (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31), and it was positively correlated with pregravid weight (R = 0.21; P obesity (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34 and OR, 1.35; 95% CI 1.11-1.64, respectively). Each of the traditional risk factors for GDM were also strong predictors of pregravid obesity: age (P diabetes (P obesity is associated with high birth weight. Traditional risk factors for GDM, including maternal (but not paternal) history of diabetes, are also risk factors for pregravid obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L

    2017-06-12

    Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (prematurity (RRR: 15.4, CI: 9.18-25.9); no antenatal follow-up (RRR: 6.78, CI: 2.39-19.25); and female sex (RRR: 1.77, CI: 1.13-2.77). Predictors for macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post

  9. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimarães, Armênio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW

  10. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA.Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana.Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05.This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  11. Infusoabdomen with abdominal compartment in extremely low birth weight neonates

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    Armin-Johannes Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheters (CVCs are frequently used in neonatal care. The rate of complications upon CVC use is high and the spectrum ranges from catheter tip dislocation to cardiac tamponade and death. Here we present an explanation model to the phenomenon of paravasate into human anatomical cavities based on two illustrative cases: Extremely low birth weight twins suffering from abdominal compartment syndromes due to different pathologies – one with a trans-peritoneal and one with intra-abdominal effusion. In both siblings the peripherally introduced central catheter (PICC perforated the vessel without clinical signs of bleeding and contributed to abdominal and thoracal complications. Case I (23 + 5 gestational week; 770 g; female showed clinical signs of an abdominal compartment syndrome without respective intestinal pathology upon open surgical procedure with ileostomy. Radiographic contrast examination showed retroperitoneal leakage when administered through the catheter. Replacement into the subclavian vein led to cardio-respiratory misbalance due to severe pleural effusion. Re-replacement finally led to clinical restitution after 60 days of intensive care. Case II (23 + 5 gestational week; 690 g; female showed clinical signs of an abdominal compartment syndrome, too. Radiographic contrast examination showed leakage from the PICC into the abdomen. Replacement of the PICC and invasive care led to improvement after 3 days. The 2 cases reveal that the displacement of a PICC can occur without direct clinical signs of hemodynamic imbalance i.e. bleeding or hematoma. Displacement of the catheter tip from intra-vascular, retro-peritoneal position can cause abdominal compartment syndromes either via trans-peritoneal migration of fluids or after perforation of the peritoneum via intra-abdominal administration of given infusion. Both options caused life threatening complications. Watchfulness and intensive surgical and non-surgical care are

  12. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  13. KIR and HLA-C: Immunogenetic regulation of human birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia E. Farrell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancies resulting in very small or very large babies are at higher risk of obstetric complications with increased morbidity for both mother and baby. Using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we have shown how human birth weight is still subject to stabilizing selection. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune genes have been implicated in pregnancies resulting in a low birth weight baby (<5th birth weight centile. More specifically, an inhibitory maternal KIRAA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. At the other end of the birth weight spectrum the presence of an activating maternal KIR2DS1 gene is associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p=0.005, OR=2.65. Thus, inhibitory maternal KIR combined with fetal HLA-C2 is more frequently associated with low birth weight, whereas activating maternal KIR with fetal HLA-C2 ligand is associated with increasing birth weight. Our findings using the MoBa cohort have replicated the association of KIR and HLA-C seen in poor placentation, and confirm the importance of maternal/fetal immune gene interactions in determining the outcome of pregnancy.

  14. Is obesity a risk factor for impaired cognition in young adults with low birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, M; Morgården, E; Gustafsson, J

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There is also an association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability. Since low birth weight is associated with adult metabolic disease, particularly in obese subjects, the question emerges whether obesity has an additional negative effect on cognitive function in subjects with low birth weight. The aim was to analyse whether overweight or obesity influence intellectual performance in young adults with particular focus on those with a low birth weight. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 620,834 males born between 1973 and 1988 and matched to results on intellectual performance and BMI at conscription. The risk for low intellectual performance was higher for those with high BMI compared to those with normal. The highest risk was found among subjects with low birth weight and overweight or obesity in young adulthood (odds ratios, 1.98 [1.73-2.22] and 2.59 [2.00-3.34], respectively). However, subjects with further high birth weight and a high BMI at conscription had no further increased risk. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of subnormal intellectual performance in young adult males. Subjects with low birth weight and adolescent overweight/obesity are at particular risk of subnormal performance. A high birth weight increases the risk for obesity, but a high adult BMI does not further increase the risk for subnormal performance. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Cerebral tissue oxygenation index and superior vena cava blood flow in the very low birth weight infant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Superior vena cava (SVC) flow assesses blood flow from the upper body, including the brain. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides information on brain perfusion and oxygenation. AIM: To assess the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) and cardiac output measures in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant in the first day of life. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight less than 1500 g (VLBW) were eligible for enrollment. Newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital malformations and greater than Papile grade1 Intraventricular Haemorrhage on day 1 of life were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Low SVC flow states were defined as a flow less than 40 mL\\/kg\\/min. cTOI was measured using NIRO 200 Hamamatsu. RESULTS: Twenty-seven VLBW neonates had both echocardiography and NIRS performed. The median (range) gestation was 29\\/40 (25 + 3 to 31 + 5 weeks) and median birth weight was 1.2 kg (0.57-1.48 kg). The mean (SD) TOI was 68.1 (7.9)%. The mean (SD) SVC flow was 70.36(39.5) mLs\\/kg\\/min. The correlation coefficient of cerebral tissue oxygenation and SVC flow was r = 0.53, p-value 0.005. There was a poor correlation between right and left ventricular output and cTOI which is not surprising considering the influence of intra- and extracardiac shunts. CONCLUSION: There is a positive relationship between cerebral TOI values and SVC flow in the very low birth infant on day one of life.

  16. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  17. Is essential newborn care provided by institutions and after home births? Analysis of prospective data from community trials in rural South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Christina; Prost, Audrey; Hossen, Munir; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Roy, Swati Sarbani; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Sikorski, Catherine; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony; Crowe, Sonya

    2014-03-07

    Provision of essential newborn care (ENC) can save many newborn lives in poor resource settings but coverage is far from universal and varies by country and place of delivery. Understanding gaps in current coverage and where coverage is good, in different contexts and places of delivery, could make a valuable contribution to the future design of interventions to reduce neonatal mortality. We sought to describe the coverage of essential newborn care practices for births in institutions, at home with a skilled birth attendant, and at home without a skilled birth attendant (SBA) in rural areas of Bangladesh, Nepal, and India. We used data from the control arms of four cluster randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh, Eastern India and from Makwanpur and Dhanusha districts in Nepal, covering periods from 2001 to 2011. We used these data to identify essential newborn care practices as defined by the World Health Organization. Each birth was allocated to one of three delivery types: home birth without an SBA, home birth with an SBA, or institutional delivery. For each study, we calculated the observed proportion of births that received each care practice by delivery type with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for clustering and, where appropriate, stratification. After exclusions, we analysed data for 8939 births from Eastern India, 27 553 births from Bangladesh, 6765 births from Makwanpur and 15 344 births from Dhanusha. Across all study areas, coverage of essential newborn care practices was highest in institutional deliveries, and lowest in home non-SBA deliveries. However, institutional deliveries did not provide universal coverage of the recommended practices, with relatively low coverage (20%-70%) across all study areas for immediate breastfeeding and thermal care. Institutions in Bangladesh had the highest coverage for almost all care practices except thermal care. Across all areas, fewer than 20% of home non-SBA deliveries used a clean delivery kit, the use of

  18. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

  20. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-02-01

    We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4-7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4-7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4-7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4-7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child's IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06-0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4-7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or

  1. Different Risk Factors for Very Low Birth Weight, Term-Small-for-Gestational-Age, or Preterm Birth in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available From 1985 to 2013, the mean birth weight of infants in Japan decreased from 3120 g to 3000 g, and the low-birth-weight rate among live births increased from 6.3% to 9.6%. No prospective study has elucidated the risk factors for poor fetal growth and preterm birth in recent Japanese parents, such as increased parental age, maternal body figure, assisted reproductive technology (ART, and socioeconomic status. Participants were mother–infant pairs (n = 18,059 enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan from 2002 to 2013. Parental characteristics were obtained via self-reported questionnaires during pregnancy. Medical records helped identify very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <1500g, term-small-for-gestational-age (term-SGA, and preterm-birth (PTB; <37 weeks infants. We calculated relative risks (RRs for PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA birth based on parental characteristics. The prevalence of PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA was 4.5%, 0.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. Aged parents and ART were risk factors for PTB and VLBW. Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy increased the risk; a parental educational level of ≥16 years reduced risk of term-SGA. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI of <18.5 kg/m2 increased the risk of PTB and term-SGA. The RR for low BMI was highest among mothers who have low educational level. Among various factors, appropriate nutritional education to maintain normal BMI is important to prevent PTB and term-SGA in Japan.

  2. Assessing the impact of adolescent pregnancy and the premarital conception stress complex on birth weight among young mothers in Gibraltar's civilian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, L A; Burke, S D; Benady, S

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of young maternal age and the timing of conception on birth weight among primiparous women living in Gibraltar. The data for this study were derived from a population of 295 primiparous women who gave birth under 25 years of age. Only married women who had no previous maternal history and delivered live singleton newborns between 1980 and 1984 were included. The confounding effects of gestation length, sex, and socio-economic status on birth weight were taken into account using the multivariate technique of multiple classification analysis. A conception timing variable was constructed and partitioned into four groups which represented the separate and joint effects of maternal age and prenuptial stress on birth weight. The overall mean birth weight was 3344.15 g. After controlling for the specified factors and covariate, the infants of older mother (> 19) who conceived after marriage weighed 57.78 g above the referent group mean. Older mothers who conceived a child before marriage delivered infants weighing 75.67 below the grand mean. Young mother (marriage had infants who weighed 37.32 g less than the grand mean. Infants delivered by young mothers who conceived before marriage weighed 133.66 g less than the overall mean birth weight. The only significant group difference detected within the conception timing variable was between young mothers who conceived before marriage versus older mothers who conceived after marriage. Premarital conception is identified as a risk factor for lower infant birth weights among mothers under 20 years of age. This study emphasizes the need to take into account the effects of culturally mediated behavior on the pregnancy experience of young women.

  3. Low birth weight is associated with NIDDM in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, P; Vaag, Allan; Kyvik, K O

    1997-01-01

    between the putative "NIDDM susceptibility genotype" and a genetically determined low weight at birth. It is also unclear whether differences in gestational age, maternal height, birth order and/or sex could explain the association. Twins are born of the same mother and have similar gestational ages......Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low weight at birth and risk of later development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is not known whether this association is due to an impact of intrauterine malnutrition per se, or whether it is due to a coincidence....... Furthermore, monozygotic (MZ) twins have identical genotypes. Original midwife birth weight record determinations were traced in MZ and dizygotic (DZ) twins discordant for NIDDM. Birth weights were lower in the NIDDM twins (n = 2 x 14) compared with both their identical (MZ; n = 14) and non-identical (DZ; n...

  4. Determinants of Survival in Low Birth Weight Infants at a Tertiary Healthcare Facility in the South Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwochi U

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW babies account for a large number of neonatal deaths globally, with over 90% of these occurring in developing countries with low resources. Identifying factors that determine survival in these sub-groups of babies in such a low-resource setting will help clinicians prioritize care and improve outcomes. This study aims to bridge some knowledge gaps in this regard. This was a 45-month prospective study carried out at the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTH, Enugu, Nigeria. All eligible newborns weighing between 500g and and lt;2500g that were seen in this period were enrolled and monitored. Data collected were analysed with SPSS Version 24, and significant associations identified using logistic regression models. A total of 166 LBW neonates were enrolled, and 68.2% of them survived. Asphyxia and episodes recurrent apnoea were recorded at least once in 78.8% and 68.4% of the babies respectively, with about two-thirds requiring respiratory support at one time or the other. Survival in these LBW newborns was negatively associated with gestational age at birth of less than 32 weeks (OR 0.17; CI 0.03-0.50; P and lt;0.01 as well as with episodes of recurrent apnoea (OR 0.07; CI 0.02-0.34; P and lt;0.01. However, intra-uterine exposure to malaria was associated with a 15 times higher likelihood of survival (OR 15.41; CI 2.22-106.91; P=0.01. No significant associations was found between survival and attendances to antenatal care, mode of delivery, birth weight and a number of neonatal morbidities like necrotizing enterocolitis, hypothermia, hypoglycaemia, septicaemia, anaemia and neonatal jaundice. Survival rate among low birth weight neonates in a low resource setting is decreased with delivery at less than 32 weeks completed gestation as well as recurrent episodes of apnoea, but is increased with in-utero exposure to malaria.

  5. Factors associated with low birth weight in Nepal using multiple imputation

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    Usha Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survey data from low income countries on birth weight usually pose a persistent problem. The studies conducted on birth weight have acknowledged missing data on birth weight, but they are not included in the analysis. Furthermore, other missing data presented on determinants of birth weight are not addressed. Thus, this study tries to identify determinants that are associated with low birth weight (LBW using multiple imputation to handle missing data on birth weight and its determinants. Methods The child dataset from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011 was utilized in this study. A total of 5,240 children were born between 2006 and 2011, out of which 87% had at least one measured variable missing and 21% had no recorded birth weight. All the analyses were carried out in R version 3.1.3. Transform-then impute method was applied to check for interaction between explanatory variables and imputed missing data. Survey package was applied to each imputed dataset to account for survey design and sampling method. Survey logistic regression was applied to identify the determinants associated with LBW. Results The prevalence of LBW was 15.4% after imputation. Women with the highest autonomy on their own health compared to those with health decisions involving husband or others (adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.87, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 1.31, 2.67, and husband and women together (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.35 were less likely to give birth to LBW infants. Mothers using highly polluting cooking fuels (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.22 were more likely to give birth to LBW infants than mothers using non-polluting cooking fuels. Conclusion The findings of this study suggested that obtaining the prevalence of LBW from only the sample of measured birth weight and ignoring missing data results in underestimation.

  6. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention with mandat...... margarine and milk altered birth weight, but the effect was small and inconsistent, reaching the conclusion that vitamin D fortification seems to be clinically irrelevant in relation to fetal growth.......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... with mandatory fortification of margarine during 1961-1985 and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk between 1972 and 1976. The influence of prenatal vitamin D exposure on birth weight was investigated among 51 883 Danish children, by comparing birth weight among individuals born during 2 years before or after...

  7. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

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    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  8. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

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    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  9. Does cardiorespiratory fitness modify the association between birth weight and insulin resistance in adult life?

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    Tomoko Aoyama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. METHODS: The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females aged 20-64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject's or his/her mother's memory. RESULTS: The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.141, p = 0.003, even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = -0.148, p = 0.001, although VO2max (β = -0.376, p<0.001 was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual's low birth weight.

  10. Improved fluid management utilizing humidified incubators in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, M S; Wright, K; Lorch, K; Lorch, V; Walker, E

    2001-01-01

    To compare fluid and electrolyte management in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants nursed in humidified versus nonhumidified incubators. Setting--tertiary intensive care nursery. Subjects--all infants with birth weight incubators and survived for > 96 hours (N = 155). Intervention--retrospective comparison of daily weights, fluid intakes, urine outputs, and serum electrolytes between group 1 (n = 70, nonhumidified incubators, born 1/95 to 1/97) and group 2 (n = 85, humidified incubators, born 1/97 to 1/99) over the first 4 days after birth. Despite similar daily weight losses between groups, group 1 infants received higher fluid intakes, had lower urine outputs, and had a higher incidence of hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and azotemia (p incubators. ELBW weight infants nursed in humidified incubators have lower fluid requirements, improved electrolyte balance, and higher urine outputs during the first 4 days after birth compared to those nursed in nonhumidified incubators.

  11. Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran

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    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight and NBW (Normal Birth Weight was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015. Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  12. What has high fertility got to do with the low birth weight problem in Africa?

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    Ivy Kodzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There has been much concern about adverse individual and societal consequences of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. One concern is that children of high birth orders may have low birth weight. However, the evidence for such an effect is not strong. OBJECTIVE Our objective is to investigate whether a woman's high parity status might increase her risks of having a baby with low birth weight. METHODS Pooling 60 Demographic and Health Surveys data-sets from 32 sub-Saharan countries, we selected children of mothers who had at least two births of order two or higher within the five years preceding the surveys. We modeled the probability of having a child with low birth weight and controlled for all mother-specific, household, or community characteristics that are constant over the period of analysis, by including fixed-effects for the mother. We also controlled for salient factors including sex, maternal age, preceding birth interval, and whether prenatal care was received. RESULTS We found no adverse effect of increasing parity on the odds of having a child with low birth weight at normative ranges; such effects only manifest at extremely high parities - nine or more children. At moderately high parities, the chance of low birth weight is actually lower than at very low parities. CONCLUSIONS While high fertility may lead to various adverse outcomes for African families, low birth weight appears not to be among these outcomes. Other factors, such as adolescent childbearing, poverty, and inadequate prenatal care may be more important determinants of low birth weight in Africa.

  13. Clinical Outcome of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Ali Usman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a DNA virus and a marker of the herpes virus groups. This virus was found only in human and the infection occurs for a long time. The transmission of CMV infection to fetus/neonates is via congenital infections or perinatal infections. Clinical manifestation of symptomatic CMV infection of the fetus has two presentations, early and second early manifestations. Diagnosis of neonatal CMV infection may be done by serologic test based on detection of IgM of CMV infection. The objective of this study is to asses clinical outcome of CMV infection of low birth weight infants delivery with long term sequelae. An observational study was conducted since March 2010 until December 2011 in Advent and Hermina Pasteur Hospital, all subjects were low birth weight infants (LBWI. The inclusion criterias are all LBWI who were delivered in those hospital or were a referred neonates. The exclusion criterias are major congenital defect, which is not related to congenital CMV infection and neonates’ death before one week of life. Every neonate was examine both their physical and peripher blood count, glucose, Ca. Liver function test done for neonates with acute hepatitis and titre IgG and IgM CMV serial, head ultrasound serial and head CT scan/MRI used for babies with intracranial bleeding and hydrocephaly.  During the period of this study there were 50 cases of LBWI, consisted of 41 preterm babies, and 30 small for gestational age babies. Clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis were found in 20% subjects, all of them with the  elevation of liver function test. Microcephaly which occured in the first untill three weeks of life were 8%. Ventricular dilatation were 10% in the first week of life and increased up to 48% after three weeks. Cases with intracranial haemorrhage were found in 6% and 10% with cerebral calcification on head while sensorineural hearing loss were 8%. All of LBWI have 100% serorespon immune IgG. IgM CMV

  14. Does Extremely Low Birth Weight Predispose to Low-Renin Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Claessens, Jolien; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte; Levtchenko, Elena; Pauwels, Steven; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Allegaert, Karel; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-03-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are risk factors for hypertension in adulthood. Few studies in preterm or full-term born children reported on plasma renin activity (PRA). We tested the hypothesis that renin might modulate the incidence of hypertension associated with prematurity. We enrolled 93 prematurely born children with birth weight hypertension associated with extreme low birth weight were 6.43 (2.52-16.4; P hypertension, but does not affect the inverse association between PRA and BP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02147457. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Low Birth Weight as The Risk factor of Coronary Heart Diseases

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    Joko Wahyu Wibowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight, a nutritional deficiency is related to the increased in the coronary heart disease insidence. Low birth weight is correlated with the hipotalamus-pituitary-adrenal responsible for the the concentration of cortisol in sirculation, increased in homosistein, insuline resistence and increased C reactive protein playing role on the aterosclerosis process predispose the corronary disease. This paper will discuss the relationship between the low