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Sample records for birth weight neonate

  1. Modeling birth weight neonates and associated factors

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    Mansour Rezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonate with abnormal weight is at risk of increased mortality and morbidity. Many factors affect pregnancy outcome. Because of the importance and vital role in birth weight, in this study, some of the factors associated with birth weight in a sample of Iranians neonates were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 245 newborns in a sample of Iranians neonates in the year 2013 were selected, and characteristics of neonate and their mothers were derived. Birth weights were registered by the neonatal scale. To identify the direct and indirect factors affecting birth weight, we used path analysis (PA and IBM AMOS and SPSS software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of weight in girls (3200 ± 421 g less than boys (3310 ± 444 g significantly (P = 0.04. Gestational age (P < 0.001, birth rank (P = 0.012, distance from a previous pregnancy (P = 0.028, and mother weight (P = 0.04 had a statistical significant relationship with birth weight. In the final PA model, gestational age has a highest total effect, type of delivery with gestational age-mediated had the highest indirect effect and type of delivery, and gestational age had the greatest total impact on the birth weight. Conclusion: Gestational age, sex, distance from a previous pregnancy, maternal weight, type of delivery, number of abortion, and birth rank were related with birth weight. Due to the termination of pregnancy and avoid unnecessary deliveries through cesarean section and other related factors should be further consideration by childbirth experts. In addition, factors affecting these variables are carefully identified and prevented as much as possible.

  2. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  3. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  4. Low birth weights and risk of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

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    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-12-01

    mortality. This study aims to examine contribution of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in Indonesia. Methods: Data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS conducted in 2012 were used in the analysis. A total of 18021 live births in the last five years preceding the survey were reported from the mothers. Completed information of their children (14837 children were taken for this analysis. The adjusted relative risk with cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to assess the strength of association to neonatal mortality. Results: Children born in low birth weight were 9.89-fold higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children born in normal weight [adjusted relative risk (aRR = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.41 – 13.19; P = < 0.0001]. Children delivered from younger mothers (aged 15 - 19 years had 94% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children delivered from mothers aged 20-35 years. Working mothers had 81% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to unemployed mothers. Conclusion: Children born in a low birth weight and born from younger mothers had higher risk of neonatal mortality. Appropriate care and treatment for children born in low birth weight is needed to prolonged survival rates of the children. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2:113-117 Keywords: Low birth weight, neonatal mortality, Indonesia   

  5. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

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    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  6. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  7. [Very low birth weight neonates. Results of management. Future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriette, G; De Gamarra, E; Cukier-Hemeury, F; Murat, I; Bordarier, C; Relier, J P

    1982-10-01

    70 neonates with birth weights (BW) less than 1 250 g were treated at the intensive care unit for neonates (USINN), hôpital Port-Royal, from April 1st 1976 to July 31st 1977. 16 of them had intra-uterine growth retardation. In 20, BW cas under 1 000 g. Assisted ventilation was necessary in 54 (77%). 43 children (61%) survived, those who were born in the same hospital did so more often (88%) than those who came from other hospitals (53%) (p less than 0.01). These results show the needs and risks of the management of very low birth weight neonates: preventing hypothermia, assisted ventilation of long duration and risk of persisting ductus arteriosus, prolonged parenteral nutrition, risk of intracranial hemorrhage more especially as respiratory distress is more severe. In survivors, the high rate of respiratory sequellae (around 30%) suggests that the duration and intensity of assisted ventilation should be reduced as much as possible.

  8. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality Among Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004 were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02, low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001, Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001, resuscitation at birth (P=0.001, respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001 need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001, neurological complications (P=0.001 and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  9. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

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    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  10. Bioelectrical impedance analysis during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight.

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    Ghezzi, F; Franchi, M; Balestreri, D; Lischetti, B; Mele, M C; Alberico, S; Bolis, P

    2001-10-01

    To generate reference ranges for bioelectrical impedance indices throughout pregnancy and to investigate whether a relationship exists between these indices and the neonatal birth weight. Pregnant women with a singleton gestation, gestational age lower than 12 weeks, and absence of medical diseases before pregnancy were enrolled. Patients with pregnancy complications, such as hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and antiphospholipides syndrome were excluded. Antrophometric maternal parameters and bioelectrical impedance measurements were performed during the first, second, third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and 60 days after delivery. Height(2)/resistance (cm(2)/Omega) and height(2)/reactance (cm(2)/Omega) were utilized to estimate the total and extracellular body water amounts, respectively. Spearman rank correlations and cox proportional hazard modelling were used for statistical purposes. 169 patients completed all measurements. Total and extracellular water amounts significantly increase as pregnancy advances and return to the pre-pregnancy values within 60 days after delivery. After adjustment for gestational age at delivery, fetal sex, and smoking habits, height(2)/resistance at 25 weeks (hazard=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.06, Pweight. We have provided reference ranges for bioimpedance analysis during pregnancy, an easy, fast and non invasive method to estimate the body water composition during pregnancy. Bioelectrical impedance indices during the second trimester of pregnancy are independently related to the birth weight.

  11. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2012-12-23

    Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  12. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to determine factors associated with LBW and their contribution to the problem. Out of 648 pregnant women who were tested for HIV infection 59 (9.1%) were positive for the infection. Twelve (20.3%) of HIV positive women gave birth to LBW neonates. HIV positive women were twice more likely to give ...

  13. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

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    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  14. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

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    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birt...

  15. Infusoabdomen with abdominal compartment in extremely low birth weight neonates

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    Armin-Johannes Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheters (CVCs are frequently used in neonatal care. The rate of complications upon CVC use is high and the spectrum ranges from catheter tip dislocation to cardiac tamponade and death. Here we present an explanation model to the phenomenon of paravasate into human anatomical cavities based on two illustrative cases: Extremely low birth weight twins suffering from abdominal compartment syndromes due to different pathologies – one with a trans-peritoneal and one with intra-abdominal effusion. In both siblings the peripherally introduced central catheter (PICC perforated the vessel without clinical signs of bleeding and contributed to abdominal and thoracal complications. Case I (23 + 5 gestational week; 770 g; female showed clinical signs of an abdominal compartment syndrome without respective intestinal pathology upon open surgical procedure with ileostomy. Radiographic contrast examination showed retroperitoneal leakage when administered through the catheter. Replacement into the subclavian vein led to cardio-respiratory misbalance due to severe pleural effusion. Re-replacement finally led to clinical restitution after 60 days of intensive care. Case II (23 + 5 gestational week; 690 g; female showed clinical signs of an abdominal compartment syndrome, too. Radiographic contrast examination showed leakage from the PICC into the abdomen. Replacement of the PICC and invasive care led to improvement after 3 days. The 2 cases reveal that the displacement of a PICC can occur without direct clinical signs of hemodynamic imbalance i.e. bleeding or hematoma. Displacement of the catheter tip from intra-vascular, retro-peritoneal position can cause abdominal compartment syndromes either via trans-peritoneal migration of fluids or after perforation of the peritoneum via intra-abdominal administration of given infusion. Both options caused life threatening complications. Watchfulness and intensive surgical and non-surgical care are

  16. Relationships among intrapartum maternal fluid intake, birth type, neonatal output, and neonatal weight loss during the first 48 hours after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Jane M; Macke, Judi K

    2010-01-01

    To examine predictive relationships among intrapartum maternal fluid intake, birth type, neonatal output, and neonatal weight loss during the first 48 hours after birth. Prospective descriptive design. Women's center of a 900-bed regional acute care facility with 6,700 births per year. A convenience sample of 200 mother/neonate dyads. The Optimality Index of Murphy and Fullerton guided the inclusion and exclusion criteria to ensure healthy dyads. Data collection began in the intrapartum period and concluded with maternal/neonatal discharge. Measures included maternal intrapartum fluid intake from admission to birth, daily neonatal weight, output, and feedings. Data were analyzed via descriptive statistics, tests of significance and multiple regression. Neonatal weight loss was not significantly related to intrapartum maternal fluid intake. Strong predictors of neonatal weight loss and significant weight loss within the first 48 hours were type of feeding (p=.000) and average number of wet diapers (p=.003). Variables predictive of neonatal weight loss can facilitate identification of at-risk neonates to prevent significant weight loss. Close monitoring of the number of wet diapers in the first 48 hours and accurate daily weights at birth time can lead to early detection and preventive interventions.

  17. NEONATAL SEPTICAEMIA IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... Conclusion: Case fatality rate for low birth weight infants with sepsis is high. Gram negative organisms are the predominant pathogens. No maternal risk factors were identified. Antibiotic sensitivity shows adequate sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins. INTRODUCTION.

  18. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; P= 0.01). There is need of increasing promotion of reproductive health services in relation to safe motherhood at community level in order to reduce risk fac- tors of LBW. Key words: Low birth weight, pregnancy, risk factors, hospital, Tanzania.

  19. Nationwide Birth Weight and Gestational Age-specific Neonatal Mortality Rate in Taiwan

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    Shuo-Tse Hsu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: We have provided an easy-to-use birth weight/gestational age-specific neonatal mortality rate chart as a reference document that physicians and parents can use to make decisions based on ethical considerations relating to whether to give palliative care or further invasive management. The normative data are crucial for public health policies on neonatal care in Taiwan.

  20. Early neonatal deaths with perinatal asphyxia in very low birth weight Brazilian infants.

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    de Almeida, M F B; Moreira, L M O; Vaz dos Santos, R M; Kawakami, M D; Anchieta, L M; Guinsburg, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of early deaths associated with birth asphyxia of very low birth weight infants between 2005 and 2010, in Brazil. This population study enrolled all live births with birth weight from 400 to 1499 g, gestational age ⩾ 22 weeks, without malformations that died up to 6 days after birth with perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was defined if intrauterine hypoxia, asphyxia at birth or meconium aspiration syndrome were written in any line of the death certificate. Active search was carried out in 27 Brazilian federative units. For every 1000 live births of very low birth weight infants without congenital malformations, 40.25 and 32.38 died with birth asphyxia in the first week after birth, respectively, in 2005 and 2010 (Pasphyxia to early neonatal death of these infants was approximately 10 to 12% all study years. Reduction of birth asphyxia in very low birth weight infants is essential to reducing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

  1. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

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    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  2. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Marta Lucia; Souza, Antonio Soares

    2010-01-01

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  3. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

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    Gabriel, Marta Lucia [Fundacao Faculdade Regional de Medicina (FUNFARME), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base; Piatto, Vania Belintani [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Soares, E-mail: depimagem@famerp.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2010-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  4. Early Zinc Supplementation and Enhanced Growth of the Low-Birth Weight Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farghali, Ola; El-Wahed, Mohamed Abd; Hassan, Nayera E; Imam, Safaa; Alian, Khadija

    2015-03-15

    Nutritional deficits are almost universal in Low-Birth Weight babies. Zinc is essential for normal infant growth and its supplementation assists growth probably through insulin-like growth factor-1. This double-blind randomized-controlled trial aimed at evaluating the role of zinc in catch-up growth of low-birth-weight infants and investigating its proposed mediator. The study was conducted in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. Two hundred low-birth-weight neonates were simply randomized to either oral zinc therapy or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth, 3, 6, and 12 months; including weight, recumbent length, head, waist, chest, and mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps and sub-scapular skin fold thickness. We found that initial and 3-months measurements, except weight, were comparable in the 2 groups. All measurements at 6- and 12-months, except sub-scapular skin-fold-thickness, were significantly higher in zinc group than placebo. Catch-up growth, at 12-months, was significant in zinc group and was significantly higher in appropriate-for-gestational-age vs. small-for-gestational-age, in preterm vs. term, and in male vs. female infants. The median 6-months insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly higher in zinc group. We conclude that early start of oral zinc supplementation in low-birth-weight neonates assists catch-up growth, probably through rise of insulin-like growth factor-1.

  5. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: a cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital.LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g.We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 ...

  6. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation on Motor Development of Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Reihaneh Askary Kachoosangy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low Birth Weight neonates need complementary interventions (e.g. tactile kinesthetic stimulation to promote their development. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Tactile- Kinesthetic Stimulation (TKS on motor development of Low Birth Weight neonates. Methods: In this clinical trial study, sample was made out of 40 inborn LBW neonates who were divided into two groups randomly. TKS was provided for three 15-minute periods per day for 10 consecutive days to the test group, with the massages consisting of moderate of pressure strokes in prone position and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of limbs in supine position. All measurements were taken before and after completion of the study with the same equipment and by the same person. Results: Results indicated that motor behavior in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control group after the 10 days TKS (P-Value≤0.0001. Discussion: TKS could be an effective intervention in development of motor behavior of LBW neonates. Because very little is known about neonate's behavior, it seems to need more studies in other aspects of behavior in LBW neonates.

  7. Oral L-arginine supplementation and faecal calprotectin levels in very low birth weight neonates.

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    Polycarpou, E; Zachaki, S; Papaevangelou, V; Tsolia, M; Kyriacou, A; Kostalos, C; Kafetzis, D

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the potential effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on intestinal inflammation in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates, as estimated by faecal calprotectin levels. The study enrolled 83 VLBW neonates with birth weight ≤1500 g and gestational age ≤34 weeks. In this double-blind study, 40 neonates received daily oral L-arginine supplementation of 1.5 mmol kg(-1) per day between the 3rd and 28th day of life, and 43 neonates placebo. Stool samples were collected on days 3, 14 and 28, and calprotectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Calprotectin values significantly decreased over time in both groups (P=0.032). No difference in faecal calprotectin values was recorded between neonates receiving arginine supplementation and neonates receiving placebo at days 3, 14 and 28. Faecal calprotectin values decrease with increasing postnatal age in VLBW infants, but this is not related to arginine supplementation.

  8. Selenium Supplementation for Prevention of Late-Onset Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rahul; Gathwala, Geeta; Yadav, Sudesh; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-06-01

    Neonatal mortality continues to be a significant problem in the Indian setting, especially in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Selenium (Se) has been shown to possess antioxidant properties, and some recent studies have shown a reduction in the sepsis-attributable neonatal mortality with its use. India is a Se-deficient country. Blood Se concentrations in newborns are lower than those of their mothers and lower still in preterm infants. To evaluate the efficacy of Se in preventing the first episode of late-onset sepsis in VLBW preterm neonates. Ninety neonates weighing birth and admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) in the first 12 h of birth with no maternal risk factors for sepsis were analyzed in the study. Se or placebo was supplemented orally once daily from 1st to 28th day of life to the test (n = 45) or control (n = 45) groups, respectively, followed by daily clinical assessment for signs or symptoms of sepsis in the hospital and weekly after discharge. Preterm VLBW neonates (mean birth weight 1464.22 ± 50.14 g and mean gestational age 221.75 ± 4 days) are Se deficient at birth, with mean (SD) Se levels 31.1 ± 14.8 µg/l. Se supplementation at 10 µg/day increased serum Se levels significantly (63.9 ± 13.9 µg/l on Day 28 in Se vs. 40.9 ± 17.3 on Day 28 in placebo; p supplementation. [7/45 (15.55%) in Se vs. 22/45 (48.88%) in placebo; p = 0.001]. Preterm VLBW neonates are Se deficient at birth. Se supplementation at 10 µg/day resulted in getting the Se levels into the acceptable normal level and reduced the incidence of the first episode of late-onset sepsis in these neonates. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Culture media influenced laboratory outcomes but not neonatal birth weight in assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tai-lang; Zhang, Yi; Li, Sai-jiao; Zhao, Meng; Ding, Jin-li; Xu, Wang-ming; Yang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Whether the type of culture media utilized in assisted reproductive technology has impacts on laboratory outcomes and birth weight of newborns in in-vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was investigated. A total of 673 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI and giving birth to live singletons after fresh embryo transfer on day 3 from Jan. 1, 2010 to Dec. 31, 2012 were included. Three types of culture media were used during this period: Quinn's Advantage (QA), Single Step Medium (SSM), and Continuous Single Culture medium (CSC). Fertilization rate (FR), normal fertilization rate (NFR), cleavage rate (CR), normal cleavage rate (NCR), good-quality embryo rate (GQER) and neonatal birth weight were compared using one-way ANOVA and χ (2) tests. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of culture media on laboratory outcomes and birth weight. In IVF cycles, GQER was significantly decreased in SSM medium group as compared with QA or CSC media groups (63.6% vs. 69.0% in QA; vs. 71.3% in CSC, P=0.011). In ICSI cycles, FR, NFR and CR were significantly lower in CSC medium group than in other two media groups. No significant difference was observed in neonatal birthweight among the three groups (P=0.759). Multiple linear regression analyses confirmed that the type of culture medium was correlated with FR, NFR, CR and GQER, but not with neonatal birth weight. The type of culture media had potential influences on laboratory outcomes but did not exhibit an impact on the birth weight of singletons in ART.

  10. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-10-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birth, chest compression was performed on only 104 infants (5.4%) and epinephrine was administered to 80 infants (4.1%). Infants who received cardiac compression and/or epinephrine administration at birth (DR-CPR) were significantly more acidotic (P CPR resulted in greater early mortality of less than 7 days (OR, 5.64; 95% CI 3.25-9.77) increased intraventricular hemorrhage ≥ grade 3 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI 1.57-4.68), periventricular leukomalacia (OR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.72-5.01), and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.91) compared with those infants who needed only PPV. Meticulous and aggressive management of infants who needed DR-CPR at birth and quality improvement of the delivery room management will result in reduced morbidities and early death for the vulnerable VLBWI.

  11. Impact of maternal risk factors on the incidence of low birth weight neonates in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : U.N.Reddy, VamshiPriya, SwathiChacham, SanaSalimKhan, J Narsing Rao, Mohd Nasir mohiuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is recommended as one of the twelve global indicators for monitoring the health of the community and is an important determinant of adverse perinatal and neonatal events. LBW infant carries five times higher risk of dying in the neonatal period and three times more in infancy. Aims and Objectives: To estimate the incidence of LBW and impact of various maternal and biosocial factors on the incidence of LBW neonates in the study population. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in Princess Esra hospital, a tertiary care hospital in south India, over a period of six months. All consecutive LBW (single ton neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were enrolled, while those born of multiple gestation and those with major congenital malformations were excluded. Results: A total of 300 neonates were included in the present study out of which 150 were LBW and 150 weighed ≥2500 gm. Higher maternal weight (>60kgs had low incidence of LBW neonates (p value-0.03. Illiterate women had a remarkably higher incidence of LBW babies (p value-0.001. In primigravida incidence of LBW was 61.2%. Higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with oligo hydramnio’s. Conclusions: This study showed that maternal age, weight, literacy level and parity have a significant influence on the incidence of LBW. Incidence of LBW neonate in the study was 50%. Risk of having LBW neonates was higher in primigravida. There was a significant association between LBW with oligo hydramnio’s and female gender.

  12. Comparison of volume and frequency advancement feeding protocols in very low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Afaq; Rehman, Abdur; Fatima, Nazia

    2018-01-01

    To determine the outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates receiving volume advancement versus frequency advancement feeding protocols. This controlled clinical trial was conducted in Children Hospital Multan within duration of 6 months from February 2017 to August 2017. VLBW neonates having weight group was to give 1 ml/kg human or pre-formula milk after every 8 hours and in volume advancement (VA) group after every 3 hours initially. After three days, in FA group duration of feeds was decreased gradually from 8 to 2 hours and feed volume of 10 ml.kg -1 .day -1 until full-recommended dose of feeding i.e. 150 ml.kg -1 .day -1 reached. While in VA group, volume of 20 ml.kg -1 .day -1 was given until full-recommended dose of feeding reached. Days to achieve full feed, weight gain, and length of hospital stay were primary study outcomes. Baseline weight of neonates was 1148 (111) grams in VA 1179 (106) grams in FA groups (p-value 0.18). In VA group, full feed was achieved in 11.04 (2.38) days versus 15.76 (2.48) days in FA group (P-value group versus 9.4 (7.6) in VA group (p-value feeding protocol was significantly higher in VA group 1440 (78) grams versus 1284 (99) grams in FA group (P-value group. Volume advancement (VA) feeding is better as compared to frequency advancement (FA) feeding in very low birth weight neonates.

  13. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children: beneficial nonspecific effects in the neonatal period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam; Ravn, Henrik; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Stensballe, Lone; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2011-07-15

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG. In the period 2004-2008 we recruited 2320 LBW children in Bissau. The children were visited at home at 2, 6, and 12 months of age. With a pretrial infant mortality of 250 per 1000, we hypothesized a 25% reduction in infant mortality for LBW children. Infant mortality was only 101 per 1000 during the trial. In the primary analysis, infant mortality was reduced insignificantly by 17% (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = .83 [.63-1.08]). In secondary analyses, early BCG vaccine was safe with an MRR of .49 (.21-1.15) after 3 days and .55 (.34-.89) after 4 weeks. The reduction in neonatal mortality was mainly due to fewer cases of neonatal sepsis, respiratory infection, and fever. The impact of early BCG on infant mortality was marked for children weighing <1.5 kg (MRR = .43 [.21-.85]) who had lower coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccinations. Though early BCG did not reduce infant mortality significantly, it may have a beneficial effect in the neonatal period. This could be important for public health because BCG is often delayed in low-income countries.

  14. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Low Birth Weight Neonates at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Lun; Lee, Wei-Te; Chen, Hsiu-Lin

    2017-02-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections among ventilated patients. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and risk factors for the development of VAP in intubated low birth weight (LBW) neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit. LBW infants (neonatal intensive care unit of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2009 were enrolled. We retrospectively analyzed perinatal and neonatal data of the enrolled intubated LBW infants by chart review. Six hundred and five LBW infants were analyzed. One hundred and fourteen of the infants were intubated for >48 hours, 15 (13.2%) of whom had VAP. Of these 15 patients, the average age at onset of VAP was 24.0 ± 11.2 days, the average postmenstrual age was 30.6 ± 1.8 weeks, and the mean gestational age was 27.1 ± 2.3 weeks, which was significantly lower than the mean gestational age in the group without VAP (30.2 ± 3.5 weeks). The mean birth body weight was 944.4 ± 268.4 g in the VAP group and 1340.1 ± 455.4 g in the group without VAP (p 48 hours in our neonatal intensive care unit. VAP most frequently occurred at a postmenstrual age of 30-32 weeks in this study. Longer duration of tube placement and parenteral nutrition were found in the VAP group. Early removal of the endotracheal tube and adequate enteral nutrition may decrease the occurrence of VAP in LBW infants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Serious congenital heart disease and necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jeremy G; Bairdain, Sigrid; Sparks, Eric A; Khan, Faraz A; Archer, Jeremy M; Kenny, Michael; Edwards, Erika M; Soll, Roger F; Modi, Biren P; Yeager, Scott; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Jaksic, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Infants with serious congenital heart disease (CHD) appear to be at increased risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This study aimed to quantify the incidence and mortality of NEC among very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates with serious CHD, and identify specific CHD diagnoses at the highest risk for developing NEC. Data were prospectively collected on 257,794 VLBW (401 to 1,500 g) neonates born from 2006 to 2011 and admitted to 674 Vermont Oxford Network US centers. Entries were coded for specific CHD diagnoses and reviewed for completeness and consistency. Survival was defined as alive in-hospital at 1 year or discharge. Of eligible neonates, 1,931 had serious CHD. Of these, 253 (13%) developed NEC (vs 9% in infants without CHD, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.80, p<0.0001). Mortality for neonates with CHD and no NEC was 34%, vs 55% for those with CHD and NEC (p<0.0001). Both groups of CHD patients had higher mortality than infants with NEC without CHD (28%, p<0.0001). Although NEC mortality overall decreases with higher birth weight, mortality for NEC and CHD together does not. The incidence of NEC is significantly higher in VLBW neonates when CHD is present. The mortality of CHD and NEC together is substantially higher than that with each disease alone. Infants with atrioventricular canal appear to have higher risk for developing NEC than other CHD diagnoses. In addition to providing benchmark incidence and mortality data, these findings may have utility in the further study of the pathophysiology of NEC. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in Survival and Neonatal Morbidity in Infants with a Birth Weight of 750 g or Less

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, M. J.; Bruinse, H. W.; van der Heide-Jalving, M.; Termote, J. U. M.; de Vries, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Improvement in perinatal and neonatal care has resulted in increased survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Objectives: To describe survival and neonatal morbidity in a cohort of ELBW infants, to compare two consecutive 5-year periods, and compare appropriate (AGA) with

  17. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  18. Birth body length, birth body weight and birth head circumference in neonates born in a single centre between 2011 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlus, Beata; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Kubik, Paweł; Milde, Katarzyna; Gmyrek, Leszek; Pęsko, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Access to updated and accurate standards for local populations is important for the interpretation of body measurements in neonates and may have an impact on the doctor's recommendations for monitoring early childhood development. to present individual mean values for the most prevalent body measurements (i.e. birth body length (BBL), birth body weight (BBW) and birth head circumference (BHC)) in neonates and compare them to the duration of pregnancy. The measurements (BBL, BBW and BHC) were collected and analyzed from over 27,000 neonates born in a single center. All women with single pregnancies with gestation ranging from 33 to 42 weeks were included in the study. Mean values and statistically significant standard deviation values from population standards of BBL, BBW, and BHC were evaluated for neonates that were born between the 33rd and 42nd week of gestation. Analysis was conducted for the lower limit (10th percentile), average (50th percentile) and upper limit (90th percentile). This was the first time in Polish literature when population standards were presented for three body meas-urements of neonates. With the size of the cohort, these standards can be successfully implemented into routine clinical practice, especially for screening children with body size deficits.

  19. Risk factors and clinical analysis of candidemia in very-low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinjian; Wang, Xingmin; Wei, Ba; Jiang, Yongjiang; Chen, Jichang

    2016-11-01

    Candidemia is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm or very-low-birth-weight infants. The incidence and risk factors of candidemia in this population are poorly known in western China. A case-control retrospective study of candidemia was conducted from January 2012-November 2015 in the Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Forty-eight confirmed cases of candidemia were identified during the study period, indicating an incidence of 106.9 per 1,000 admissions of very-low-birth-weight infants. Candida albicans was the most common pathogen and was isolated in 39.6% of infants with candidemia. The mortality rate of the case group was 10.4% versus 2.1% in the control group (P = .128). The multivariable logistic regression model identified that carbapenem use (odds ratio [OR], 11.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.28-39.54), total parenteral nutrition (OR, 10.16; 95% CI, 2.25-45.94), and prolonged hospitalization (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07) were all associated with the risk of developing neonatal candidemia. Very-low-birth-weight infants are at a significantly high risk of developing candidemia. The local neonatal intensive care unit management teams should effectively focus on decreasing the overall use of carbapenems, improving catheter care, removing catheters early, and shortening hospitalizations to reduce the incidence of candidemia. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  1. Frequency of x-ray examinations of neonates classified according to their birth weight in NICU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Hada, M.; Mitarai, T.; Kato, Y. [Oita Prefectural Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Akahane, K.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T. [Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    For neonates, red bone marrow is distributed in the whole body, and it is reported that cancer susceptibility to radiation may be higher than fetuses. However, there are few reports about the frequency of X-ray examination for neonates. To clarify the X-ray examination of neonates in intensive care unit, we investigated the actual frequency of mobile X-ray, CT and fluoroscopy. We followed the 306 infants who were admitted in and discharged from neonatal intensive care unit of Oita Prefecture Hospital between October 1 in 1998 and June 30 in 1999. The investigated items were types of radiograph, the number of mobile X-ray, and CT and fluoroscopy examination, the body weight at birth (BWAB), and the body weight at the day when X-ray examination was performed (BWXE). These were classified according to the BWAB. The relation between the frequency of X-ray examination and the high-risk-infant classification was examined. For mobile X-ray, the 1053 radiographs were performed, including 258 chest radiographs, 685 combined abdominal and chest radiographs, 52 abdominal radiographs, 37 wrist radiographs, 21 others radiographs. For CT, the 118 examinations was performed, including 116 head, 2 abdominal. For fluoroscopy, the 24 examinations were performed, including 13-air contrast enema, 5 gastroduodenal, 2 cystoradiogram, 1 urethrography, 1 intestine, 2 cavitas nasi and 152 abdominal radiographs. These showed that for less BWAB, more X-ray examinations were carried out. In the high-risk-infant classification, a lot of X-ray frequencies were observed for infants with extremely low BWAB. The infant with extremely low BWAB was accompanied with complication such as respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, and meconium disease. The histogram of the BWXE had two peaks; one at 600g-800g, another at 2100g-2500g. This study revealed the current frequency of X-rays examination in neonatal intensive care unit. We evaluated the dose to neonates in another paper of IRPA-10

  2. Prevalence and pathogen distribution of neonatal sepsis among very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Ho; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Chu, Shih-Ming; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Yang, Peng-Hong

    2012-08-01

    Neonatal sepsis contributes to great mortality and morbidity among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Prevalence and pathogen distribution of sepsis in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) vary with time and geographic location. Such information serves as a guide for selection of empirical antibiotics coverage. This is a case series study performed by retrospective chart review of VLBW infants (birth body weight, BBW, <1500 g) in a medical center during a 5-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. Episodes of positive blood cultures, pathogen distribution and related clinical manifestations were described. A total of 158 episodes of sepsis were identified from 1042 VLBW infants. Sepsis rate was 152 per 1000 live births. The vast majority of infections (60.7%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms [G(+)], and overall Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (52.5%) were the most common pathogen identified. Prevalence for early-onset sepsis (EOS) was 1% and for late-onset sepsis (LOS) was 14.2%. Infants with EOS had a much higher case fatality rate than LOS (40% vs. 4.7%). Escherichia coli (40%) were the leading pathogen of EOS while CoNS (54.7%) was the leading pathogens of LOS. Overall, apnea and/or bradycardia and/or cyanosis (65.8%), poor activity (48.7%), and increased respiratory effort (43.0%) were the most common presenting features of sepsis. Unlike term infants, Gram-negative organism and E coli were the leading pathogen of EOS among VLBW infants. Judicious and timely use of antibiotic therapy is crucial in the care of VLBW infants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Rehospitalization Through Childhood and Adolescence: Association with Neonatal Morbidities in Infants of Very Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuint, Jacob; Lerner-Geva, Liat; Chodick, Gabriel; Boyko, Valentina; Shalev, Varda; Reichman, Brian

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of major neonatal morbidities on the risks for rehospitalization in children and adolescents born of very low birth weight. An observational study was performed on data of the Israel Neonatal Network linked together with the Maccabi Healthcare Services medical records. After discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit, 6385 infants of very low birth weight born from 1995 to 2012 were registered with Maccabi Healthcare Services and formed the study cohort. Multivariable negative binomial regression models were calculated to estimate the adjusted relative risk (aRR) and 95% CI for hospitalization. Up to 18 years following discharge, 3956 infants were hospitalized at least once. The median age of follow-up was 10.7 years with total of follow-up of 67 454 patient years and 10 895 hospitalizations. The risks for rehospitalization were increased significantly for each of the neonatal morbidities: surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), aRR 2.71 (95% CI 2.08-3.53), intraventricular hemorrhage grades 3-4, 2.13 (1.85-2.46), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), 1.83 (1.58-2.13), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 1.94 (1.72-2.17), and retinopathy of prematurity stages 3-4, 1.59 (1.36-1.85). During the first 4 years, children with surgically treated NEC, intraventricular hemorrhage, PVL, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia had 1.5- to 2.5-fold greater risks for hospitalization compared with those without the specific morbidity. In the 11th-14th and 15th-18th years, respectively, surgically treated NEC was associated with a 3.05 (1.32-7.04) and 3.26 (0.99-10.7) aRR for hospitalization, and PVL was associated with a 2.67 (1.79-3.97) and 3.47 (2.03-5.92) aRR for hospitalization. Specific major neonatal morbidities as well as the number of morbidities were associated with excess risks of rehospitalization through childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Caffeine Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants and Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hye Won; Lim, Gina; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Sochung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung

    2015-01-01

    The use of caffeine citrate for treatment of apnea in very low birth weight infants showed short-term and long-term benefits. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to document the effect providing caffeine early (0-2 days of life) compared to providing caffeine late (?3 days of life) in very low birth weight infants on several neonatal outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We searched MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, the Cochrane Library, and Kore...

  5. Survival and morbidity of very low birth weight infant in a South American neonatal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rocío; D'Apremont, Ivonne; Domínguez, Angélica; Tapia, José L

    2014-10-01

    To analyze survival and relevant morbidity by gestational age (GA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (Neonatal Network (Red Neonatal Neocosur) between January 2001 and December 2011. Data on 8234 VLBW with a GA between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks were analyzed. Overall mortality was 26% (95% CI: 25.0-26.9), including 2.6% of deaths in the delivery room. Fact sheets for survival and morbidity for each week of gestation were developed based on collected data. Survival at discharge increased from 29% at 24 weeks of GA to 91% at 31 weeks of GA (p neonatal morbidity was inversely related to GA (p hemorrhage, and 4.6% periventricular leukomalacia. Among survivors, 47.3% had none of these five conditions. A tool for use in a clinical setting was developed based on updated regional data for establishing week-to-week survival and morbidity of newborn infants born between 24+0 and 31+6 weeks of GA. This information could be used to make decisions related to perinatal care and for counseling parents.

  6. Effect of Maternal Diet Diversity and Physical Activity on Neonatal Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Slums of Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Manerkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India has the highest prevalence of low birth weight babies. Geographical variation and level of physical activity can influence diet diversity and maternal nutritional status which in turn influences the birth weight of the neonate. Mumbai is a large city comprising of slums in suburbs depicting diet diversity amongst populations. Aim: To study the maternal diet diversity, physical activity and its effect on birth weight of the neonates in urban slums of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A six month follow-up study was carried out in three maternity homes representing different geographical areas of Western, Central and Southern Mumbai. A total number of 131 pregnant women were selected using simple random sampling. Final sample size was n=121 after follow-up loss of 9 and 1 miscarriage. Maternal anthropometric, socio-demographic, physical activity and diet diversity data was collected using structured questionnaires through personal interview after taking written informed consent. Birth weight of the neonate was recorded. Chi-Square, Correlation, ANOVA was used to test the significance. A p-value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Nineteen (15.7% were low birth weight (LBW infants, 102 (84.3% had normal weight. There was a significant association between place of Antenatal Clinic (ANC visit and diet diversity score and its subsequent effect on birth weight (p<0.05. Geographic variation had an impact on diet diversity scores which in turn affected the birth weight of neonates. Women who delivered low birth weight babies were more involved in household domestic activities (p<0.05 compared to those women who delivered normal weight babies. Conclusion: Diet diversity and physical activity influence the birth weight of neonates across different geographic locations. Despite of ample interventions available to prevent maternal malnutrition, the incidence of LBW was not decreased. Thus, this issue needs to be addressed at

  7. Bordetella bronchiseptica Pneumonia in an Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Joseph Ting

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is a common veterinary pathogen. In both domestic and wild animals, this bacterium causes respiratory infections including infectious tracheobronchitis in dogs and atrophic rhinitis in swine. Human infections are rare and have been documented in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we describe an extremely-low-birth-weight infant with B. bronchiseptica pneumonia. This is the first report that describes the microorganism's responsibility in causing nosocomial infection in a preterm neonate. He recovered uneventfully after a course of meropenem. It is possible that the bacteria colonize the respiratory tracts of our health care workers or parents who may have had contact with pets and then transmitted the bacterium to our patient. Follow-up until 21 months of age showed normal growth and development. He did not suffer from any significant residual respiratory disease.

  8. The Relationship Between Low Birth Weight Neonates And Asphyxia Neonatorum at Arifin Achmad Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    juli selvi yanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT             Asphyxia is breathing difficulty that occurs in newborns. Low birth weight (LBW neonates often suffer from asphyxia, this are due to surfactant deficiency, incomplete lung growth, weak respiratory muscles, and easily bent ribs, therefore it can not supply oxygen enough of the placenta. Data from Arifin Achmad Hospital showed that the number of neonatal asphyxia includes 15 largest disease as the cause of infant mortality. In 2014 from January to September there were 36 cases of asphyxia of 955 newborns (3.76%. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between LBW and asphyxia neonatorum at Arifin Achmad Hospital Riau Province in 2014. This research method used quantitative analytical research and the design was case control. This research was conducted at Arifin Achmad Hospital Riau Province on March 3 until May 3 2015. The population in this study was all newborn babies who born at Arifin Achmad Hospital and samples were 72 respondents which consisted of 36 cases and 36 control. The sampling technique was simple random sampling. Data collection used secondary data by using a checklist sheet, data was processed by computer and data analysis used univariate and bivariate. The results from the chi square test showed that there was a relationship between LBW and asphyxia indicated by p value = 0.002 <0.05. It is expected that health professionals can provide information about the factors related to asphyxia as low birth weight, risk factor of maternal nutritional status to the mother and fetus. In addition, to health workers are also expected to provide information to pregnant women about how to prevent LBW and asphyxia by providing brochures, leaflets and others.

  9. VitaminA, E, and D deficiencies in tunisian very low birth weight neonates: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Samira; Sethom, Mohamed Marouane; Khouaja-Mokrani, Chahnez; Jabnoun, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2014-06-01

    Preterm neonates are at high risk of vitamin deficiencies, which may expose them to increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies in Tunisian very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. A total of 607 VLBW and 300 term neonates were included in the study. Plasma vitamins A and E were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography and vitamin D was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Prevalence of vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies were dramatically elevated in VLBW neonates and were significantly higher than term neonates (75.9% vs. 63.3%; 71.3% vs. 55.5%; and 65.2% vs. 40.4%, respectively). In VLBW neonates, the prevalence of vitamin deficiencies was significantly higher in lower classes of gestational age and birth weight. Vitamin E deficiency was associated with pre-eclampsia [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, 95% CI), 1.56 (1.01-2.44); p E, and D deficiencies are very common in Tunisian VLBW neonates and are associated with pre-eclampsia. Improved nutritional and health support for pregnant women and high dose vitamins A, E, and D supplementation in VLBW neonates are strongly required in Tunisia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, J.F.; Oosterlaan, J.; van Zwol, A.; Boehm, G.; Lafeber, H.N.; van Elburg, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    In very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g birth weight) children, serious neonatal infections are among the main causes of poor developmental outcomes later in childhood. The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the incidence of serious neonatal

  11. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Zwol, Annelies; Boehm, Guenther; Lafeber, Harrie N.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2012-01-01

    In very preterm ( < 32 weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g birth weight) children, serious neonatal infections are among the main causes of poor developmental outcomes later in childhood. The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the incidence of serious neonatal

  12. Long-term effects of neonatal glutamine-enriched nutrition in very-low-birth-weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, Annelies; Neu, Josef; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants have investigated the effect of parenteral or enteral glutamine supplementation on morbidity, mortality, and outcome in the neonatal period. No evidence of toxicity of glutamine supplementation was found in these clinical trials, but the

  13. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rachel C; Mello, Rosane R; Silva, Kátia S

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition) at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. mean birth weight was 1,119g (SD: 247) and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2). Approximately 44.3%(n=86) of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n=79) had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Hearing loss by week of gestation and birth weight in very preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Straaten, H.L. van

    2015-01-01

    Objective To gain insight into health and related costs associated with very preterm births, one needs accurate information about the prevalence of the disabling conditions, including neonatal hearing loss (NHL). Study design We assessed the prevalence of NHL by week of gestation and categories of

  15. Mortality and management of surgical necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Melissa A; Fisher, Jeremy G; Gutierrez, Ivan M; Jones, Brian A; Kang, Kuang Horng; Kenny, Michael; Zurakowski, David; Modi, Biren P; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Jaksic, Tom

    2014-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a leading cause of death in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. The overall mortality of NEC is well documented. However, those requiring surgery appear to have increased mortality compared with those managed medically. The objective of this study was to establish national birth-weight-based benchmarks for the mortality of surgical NEC and describe the use and mortality of laparotomy vs peritoneal drainage. There were 655 US centers that prospectively evaluated 188,703 VLBW neonates (401 to 1,500 g) between 2006 and 2010. Survival was defined as living in-hospital at 1-year or hospital discharge. There were 17,159 (9%) patients who had NEC, with mortality of 28%; 8,224 patients did not receive operations (medical NEC, mortality 21%) and 8,935 were operated on (mortality 35%). On multivariable regression, lower birth weight, laparotomy, and peritoneal drainage were independent predictors of mortality (p 750 g; medical NEC mortality fell consistently with increasing birth weight. For example, in neonates weighing 1,251 to 1,500 g, mortality was 27% in surgical vs 6% in medical NEC (odds ratio [OR] 6.10, 95% CI 4.58 to 8.12). Of those treated surgically, 6,131 (69%) underwent laparotomy only (mortality 31%), 1,283 received peritoneal drainage and a laparotomy (mortality 34%), and 1,521 had peritoneal drainage alone (mortality 50%). Fifty-two percent of VLBW neonates with NEC underwent surgery, which was accompanied by a substantial increase in mortality. Regardless of birth weight, surgical NEC showed a plateau in mortality at approximately 30%. Laparotomy was the more frequent method of treatment (69%) and of those managed by drainage, 46% also had a laparotomy. The laparotomy alone and drainage with laparotomy groups had similar mortalities, while the drainage alone treatment cohort was associated with the highest mortality. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations of maternal weight status prior and during pregnancy with neonatal cardiometabolic markers at birth: the Healthy Start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemas, D J; Brinton, J T; Shapiro, A L B; Glueck, D H; Friedman, J E; Dabelea, D

    2015-10-01

    Maternal obesity increases adult offspring risk for cardiovascular disease; however, the role of offspring adiposity in mediating this association remains poorly characterized. To investigate the associations of maternal pre-pregnant body mass index (maternal BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with neonatal cardiometabolic markers independent of fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. A total of 753 maternal-infant pairs from the Healthy Start study, a large multiethnic pre-birth observational cohort were used. Neonatal cardiometabolic markers included cord blood glucose, insulin, glucose-to-insulin ratio (Glu/Ins), total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides, free fatty acids and leptin. Maternal BMI was abstracted from medical records or self-reported. GWG was calculated as the difference between the first pre-pregnant weight and the last weight measurement before delivery. Neonatal adiposity (percent fat mass) was measured within 72 h of delivery using whole-body air-displacement plethysmography. In covariate adjusted models, maternal BMI was positively associated with cord blood insulin (P=0.01) and leptin (Pneonatal adiposity attenuated the effect of maternal BMI on neonatal insulin, rendering the association nonsignificant. However, maternal BMI remained associated with higher leptin (Pneonatal adiposity. GWG was positively associated with neonatal insulin (P=0.02), glucose (P=0.03) and leptin levels (Pneonatal adiposity, GWG remained associated with higher neonatal glucose (P=0.02) and leptin levels (P=0.02) and lower Glu/Ins (P=0.048). Maternal weight prior and/or during pregnancy is associated with neonatal cardiometabolic makers including leptin, glucose and HDL-c at delivery, independent of neonatal adiposity. Our results suggest that intrauterine exposure to maternal obesity influences metabolic processes beyond fetal growth and fat accretion.

  17. Disparities in Perinatal Quality Outcomes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Eileen T; Staiger, Douglas; Horbar, Jeffrey; Kenny, Michael J; Patrick, Thelma; Rogowski, Jeannette A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if hospital-level disparities in very low birth weight (VLBW) infant outcomes are explained by poorer hospital nursing characteristics. Data Sources Nurse survey and VLBW infant registry data. Study Design Retrospective study of 8,252 VLBW infants in 98 Vermont Oxford Network hospital neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) nationally. NICUs were classified into three groups based on their percent of infants of black race. Two nurse-sensitive perinatal quality standards were studied: nosocomial infection and breast milk. Data Collection Primary nurse survey (N = 5,773, 77 percent response rate). Principal Findings VLBW infants born in high-black concentration hospitals had higher rates of infection and discharge without breast milk than VLBW infants born in low-black concentration hospitals. Nurse understaffing was higher and practice environments were worse in high-black as compared to low-black hospitals. NICU nursing features accounted for one-third to one-half of the hospital-level health disparities. Conclusions Poorer nursing characteristics contribute to disparities in VLBW infant outcomes in two nurse-sensitive perinatal quality standards. Improvements in nursing have potential to improve the quality of care for seven out of ten black VLBW infants who are born in high-black hospitals in this country. PMID:25250882

  18. A study of birth weight of full term neonates and its′ determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara R Kadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is highly prevalent in India and has a multifactorial causation. There is a need to study and identify the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors determining birth weight. This will help in planning ante natal care more effectively. Materials and Methods : Study-type-cross-sectional study-setting: Hospital based. Study-subject: Mothers and their new borns. Sample size: All the births taken place during the study period. Study period: July 2010-June 2011. Study tools : (0 i Questionnaire. (ii pediatric weighing machine. Inclusion criteria : m0 others attending ante natal care (ANC clinic from 1 st trimester with minimum three antenatal visits, non-anemic at the end of 2 nd trimester, had full-term and singleton delivery. Exclusion criteria : H/O pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, diabetes mellieutus (DM, tuberculosis (TB, urinary tract infection (UTI, delivered preterm and tobacco chewers or mishri users. Statistical Analysis : Percentages, mean and SD of birth weight, χ2 test, ANOVA, Z-test, and Binary logistic. Results: By using birth weight as a continuous data it was observed that birth-weight was significantly associated with maternal age (F = 3.360, df = 2, P = 0.035, education (F = 4.401, df = 4, P = 0.002 and breakfast (z = 3.970, P = 0.00. Proportion of LBW was 42.4%. For analysis, groups of newborns on the basis of birth weight showed significant association between LBW and maternal education (χ2 = 12.734, df = 4, P = 0.013, breakfast (χ2 = 13.241, df = 1, P = 0.00 and evening snacks (χ2 = 4.275, df = 1, P = 0.013. According to the binary logistic regression, breakfast and education were significant and best predictors for birth weight. Conclusion: Education and breakfast are strong determinants of birth-weight. Less educated women need more intense health education.

  19. Assessment of Adequacy of Supplementation of Vitamin D in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Neonates: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, N B; Saini, Ashish; Mishra, T K

    2016-12-01

    To compare the effect of 400 IU and 1000 IU vitamin D for 6 weeks in very low birth weight preterm neonates. Randomized, double-blinded controlled trial in a teaching hospital. Fifty very low birth weight preterm neonates. Vitamin D 400 IU/day (Group 1) or 1000 IU/day (Group 2). Change in serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD), parathormone, incidence of skeletal hypomineralization and growth. After 6 weeks of supplementation, the mean serum calcium and 25-OHD levels were significantly higher (p  supplementation in a dose of 1000 IU/day is more effective in maintaining serum calcium, phosphate, ALP, 25-OHD and parathormone levels with lower incidence of skeletal hypomineralization and better growth. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Household fuels, low birth weight, and neonatal death in India: the separate impacts of biomass, kerosene, and coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M B; Bates, M N; Arora, N K; Balakrishnan, K; Jack, D W; Smith, K R

    2013-08-01

    We examined the impact of maternal use of different household cooking fuels in India on low birth weight (LBWfuels for cooking - biomass, coal, and kerosene - using low-pollution fuels (gas and biogas) as the comparison "control" group. Taking socioeconomic and child-specific factors into account, we employed logistic regression to examine the impact of fuel use on fetal and infant health. The results indicate that household use of high-pollution fuels is significantly associated with increased odds of LBW and neonatal death. Compared to households using cleaner fuels (in which the mean birth weight is 2901g), the primary use of coal, kerosene, and biomass fuels is associated with significant decreases in mean birth weight (of -110g for coal, -107g for kerosene, and -78g for biomass). Kerosene and biomass fuel use are also associated with increased risk of LBW (pfuels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the common problems in neonatal period is jaundice that occurs in the first week of birth in 60% of term and 80% of preterm neonates. In preterm newborn hyperbilirubinaemia is higher, persistent, longer, and more likely to be associated with neurological injury than term neonates. The purpose of this study was to determine Prophylactic effect of zinc sulphate on hyperbilirubinemia in premature very low birth weight neonates. Method and Material: Sixty Newborns who admitted in our NICU which had inclusion criteria were eligible in this trial. Included neonates were randomly placed in two groups (case and control and before intervention the total serum bilirubin (TSB was measured at second day. The participant received either 20 mg of zinc sulfate or placebo through NG-tube divided in two doses till day seven of age. Then total and indirect bilirubin was measured at 3ed, 5th and 7th day of life. If any of newborns in duration of hospitalization develop clinical jaundice, after assessment of bilirubin, need for phototherapy was evaluated based on phototherapy and exchange schedule as described by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. The termination point of phototherapy was defined as a bilirubin level less than 50 percent of starting point. After gathering Data, they were analyzed using SPSS software (version 11.5 and T-test, Chi-square and repeated measurement tests. Results: Seventy eight patients enrolled in this trial that 18 cases were excluded and the remaining cases divided into two equal groups (N=30 in each group. Demographic condition was similar in two groups. There were no different between two groups in decreasing total serum bilirubin and duration of phototherapy. Conclusion: This study showed that zinc sulfate has no preventing effective in hyperbilirubinemia in preterm very low birth weight neonates. It has also no effect on duration of phototherapy.

  2. Replication of a Genome-Wide Association Study of Birth Weight in Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Feenstra, Bjarke; Shaffer, John R.; Bream, Elise NA; Geller, Frank; Feingold, Eleanor; Weeks, Daniel E; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Saleme, Cesar; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Merrill, David; Fong, Chin-To; Busch, Tamara; Berends, Susan K; Comas, Belen; Camelo, Jorge L; Boyd, Heather; Laurie, Cathy; Crosslin, David; Zhang, Qi; Doheny, Kim F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Melbye, Mads; Marazita, Mary L; Dagle, John M; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine associations in a preterm population between rs9883204 in ADCY5 and rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 with birth weight. Both markers were associated with birth weight in a term population in a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study by Freathy et al. Study design A meta-analysis of mother and infant samples was performed for associations of rs900400 and rs9883204 with birth weight in 393 families from the U.S., 265 families from Argentina and 735 mother-infant pairs from Denmark. Z scores adjusted for infant sex and gestational age were generated for each population separately and regressed on allele counts. Association evidence was combined across sites by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Results Each additional C allele of rs900400 (LEKR1/CCNL1) in infants was marginally associated with a 0.069 standard deviation (SD) lower birth weight (95% CI = −0.159 – 0.022, P = 0.068). This result was slightly more pronounced after adjusting for smoking (P = 0.036). There were no significant associations identified with rs9883204 or in maternal samples. Conclusions These results indicate the potential importance of this marker on birth weight irrespective of gestational age. PMID:21885063

  3. Perinatal, neonatal, and family social factors predicting poor school outcome of low-birth-weight survivors: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Holditch-Davis, Diane L; Darcy-Mahoney, Ashley

    2015-02-01

    To examine the relationship of perinatal factors, neonatal factors, and family characteristics with school outcomes of low-birth-weight (LBW) children. An integrative review of the literature was performed using electronic databases focusing on key words, including school outcome, school performance, educational outcome, academic outcome/academic achievement, and LBW. The in utero or neonatal risk factors for poor school outcome included in this review were perinatal brain injury, brain structural abnormality, motor deficits, and neonatal conditions. Social risk factors found to contribute to poorer school outcomes were family structure, family stability, parental education, poverty, male sex, nonwhite race, and acculturation level. Long-term school outcomes of LBW children are influenced by a number of factors related to the characteristics of both children and their families. These factors need to be considered when designing preventive interventions.

  4. Factors Affecting the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Stay Duration in Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Niknajad, Akram; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Sattarzadeh, Niloufar; Bashar Hashemi, Fazileh; Dezham Khoy Shahgholi, Farid

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Improved survival of very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants requires urgent intensive care, professional nursing and medical care. On the other hand, long hospital stay period imposes emotional and economic burdens on the family and society. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the most important factors affecting their hospitalization duration to lessen unwanted outcomes of premature birth and to eliminate or relieve the problems. Methods: In a descri...

  5. Customized versus population-based birth weight charts for the detection of neonatal growth and perinatal morbidity in a cross-sectional study of term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Angela E; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Turner, Robin M; Jeffery, Heather E

    2013-10-15

    Customized birth weight charts that incorporate maternal characteristics are now being adopted into clinical practice. However, there is controversy surrounding the value of these charts in the prediction of growth and perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the use of customized charts in predicting growth, defined by body fat percentage, and perinatal morbidity. A total of 581 term (≥37 weeks' gestation) neonates born in Sydney, Australia, in 2010 were included. Body fat percentage measurements were taken by using air displacement plethysmography. Objective composite measurements of perinatal morbidity were used to identify neonates who had poor outcomes; these data were extracted from medical records. The value of customized charts was assessed by calculating positive predictive values, negative predictive values, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Customized versus population-based charts did not improve the prediction of either low body fat percentage (59% vs. 66% positive predictive value and 87% vs. 89% negative predictive value, respectively) or high body fat percentage (48% vs. 53% positive predictive value and 90% vs. 89% negative predictive value, respectively). Customized charts were not better than population-based charts at predicting perinatal morbidity (for customized charts, odds ratio = 1.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.04; for population-based charts, odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.05) per percentile decrease in birth weight. Customized birth weight charts do not provide significant improvements over population-based charts in predicting neonatal growth and morbidity.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial of Slow Versus Rapid Enteral Feeding Advancements on the Clinical Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F; Mannan, M A; Dey, A C; Nahar, N; Hasan, Z; Jahan, I; Dey, S K; Shahidullah, M

    2017-04-01

    Starting and advancement of feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are big challenges for the neonatal practitioners. Wide variations in volume of feed advancement have observed in earlier trials both in slow and rapid advancement groups. Volume advancement in slow advancement groups have ranged from 10ml/kg/day to 23ml/kg/day and in rapid advancement groups have ranged from 15ml/kg/day to 45ml/kg/day in earlier different studies. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from April 2013 to July 2014 to evaluate the effects of slow versus rapid rates of feeding advancements on the clinical outcomes in very low birth weight infants. A total 95 infants were enrolled into two strata according to their birth weight. Infants of each stratum were randomly allocated to either slow or rapid advancement group during initiation of feeding. After gut priming over five days, feeding was advanced daily 10ml/kg in slow and 15ml/kg in rapid advancement group for 1000 - rapid advancement group. The primary outcome variable was time taken to achieve full enteral feed. Total 82 infants completed the trial. Demographically both groups were same. Infants in the rapid feeding advancement group achieved full enteral feedings before the slow advancement group, had significantly fewer days of parenteral nutrition and regained birth weight earlier. There were no statistical differences in episodes of feed interruption, number of infants with apnea, feed intolerance or diagnosis of sepsis. Rapid enteral feeding advancements were well tolerated by very low birth weight infants.

  7. Advantages of kangaroo Mother care in Less Than 2000 Grams Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Jafarzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:The aim of study was to compare the effect of Kangaroo mother care (KMC and conventional methods of care (CMC in low birth weight babies less than 2000 grams.Method: One hundred babies with birth weight less than 2000 grams and without clinical problem were randomized in two groups; the tervention group (N=50 who received Kangaroo mother care and the control group (N=50 with conventional care. Two groups were compared in daily weight gaining, self confidence of mother, duration of hospitalization, clinical cyanosis and nosocomial infection. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software . Irct ID: IRCT201101091162N16.Results: The KMC babies had better daily weight gaining average [18.31±7.57gm vs. 4.8±16.57gm (P0.05.Conclusions: In this study Kangaroo mother care had better effect on daily weight gaining, mother confidence and shorter duration of hospitalization.

  8. Maternal and pregnancy-related factors affecting human milk cytokines among Peruvian mothers bearing low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambruni, Mara; Villalobos, Alex; Somasunderam, Anoma; Westergaard, Sarah; Nigalye, Maitreyee; Turin, Christie G; Zegarra, Jaime; Bellomo, Sicilia; Mercado, Erik; Ochoa, Theresa J; Utay, Netanya S

    2017-04-01

    Several cytokines have been detected in human milk but their relative concentrations differ among women and vary over time in the same person. The drivers of such differences have been only partially identified, while the effect of luminal cytokines in the fine-regulation of the intestinal immune system is increasingly appreciated. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between obstetrical complications and human milk cytokine profiles in a cohort of Peruvian women giving birth to Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants. Colostrum and mature human milk samples were collected from 301 Peruvian women bearing LBW infants. The concentration of twenty-three cytokines was measured using the Luminex platform. Ninety-nine percent of women had at least one identified obstetrical complication leading to intra-uterine growth restriction and/or preterm birth. Median weight at birth was 1,420g; median gestational age 31 weeks. A core of 12 cytokines, mainly involved in innate immunity and epithelial cell integrity, was detectable in most samples. Maternal age, maternal infection, hypertensive disorders, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membranes were associated with specific cytokine profiles both in colostrum and mature human milk. Mothers of Very LBW (VLBW) neonates had significantly higher concentrations of chemokines and growth factor cytokines both in their colostrum and mature milk compared with mothers of larger neonates. Thus, maternal conditions affecting pregnancy duration and in utero growth are also associated with specific human milk cytokine signatures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Scrotal enteric fistula in an extremely low birth weight premature neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A. Smith

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital inguinal hernia is a common condition in the pediatric population. Incarceration of inguinal hernias is known to result in significant morbidity such as necrotic bowel, and if not recognized promptly, has the potential to present as a scrotal fecal fistula. We present an extremely low birth weight premature male infant who developed spontaneous fecal drainage from his right scrotum.

  10. High oestradiol concentration after ovarian stimulation is associated with lower maternal serum beta-HCG concentration and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suying; Kuang, Yanping; Wu, Yu; Feng, Yun; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Li; Sun, Yijuan; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2017-08-01

    In this retrospective study, the relationship between maternal serum oestradiol and progesterone levels after fresh embryo transfer or frozen embryo transfer (FET), and serum beta-HCG levels in early pregnancy and neonatal birth weight was examined. Included for analysis were 5643 conceived singletons: 2610 after FET and 3033 after fresh embryo transfer. Outcome measures included maternal serum oestradiol, progesterone, beta-HCG levels during the peri-implantation period, birth weight and small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Results at 4, 5 and 6 weeks' gestation were as follows: serum oestradiol and progesterone levels were significantly higher in women who underwent fresh embryo transfer compared with FET (all P HCG levels were significantly lower than in women who underwent FET (P HCG levels were negatively correlated with serum oestradiol; and birth weight was negatively correlated with serum oestradiol. Incidence of SGA in fresh embryo transfer was increased significantly compared with FET (P HCG in early pregnancy, lower birth weight and higher incidence of SGA. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Delivery mode and intraventricular hemorrhage risk in very-low-birth-weight infants: Observational data of the German Neonatal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberg, Alexander; Härtel, Christoph; Paul, Pia; Hanke, Kathrin; Bossung, Verena; Hartz, Annika; Fasel, Laura; Rausch, Tanja K; Rody, Achim; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) are frequently delivered by cesarean section (CS). However, it is unclear at what gestational age the benefits of spontaneous delivery outweigh the perinatal risks, i.e. intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or death. To assess the short-term outcome of VLBWI on IVH according to mode of delivery in a population-based cohort of the German Neonatal Network (GNN). A total cohort of 2203 singleton VLBWI with a birth weight 30 weeks of gestation prevalence for IVH was not significantly different in VD and planned CS (5.3% vs. 4.4%). Our observational data demonstrate that elective cesarean section is associated with a reduced risk of IVH in preterm infants <30 weeks gestational age when presenting with preterm labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid protective effects of early BCG on neonatal mortality among low birth weight boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Monterio, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    .85 (0.46-1.54)), but a significant reduction in weeks 2-4 (MRR=0.56 (0.31-1.00)). This pattern was consistent in all three trials. The verbal autopsies linked the early benefit to fewer sepsis-related deaths among BCG-vaccinated boys. Discussion: The marked reduction in mortality in the first few days......Background: Three randomised trials (RCTs) in low-weight (LW, vaccine non-specifically reduces all-cause mortality in the neonatal period. Methods: Using data from three RCTs of early BCG (N=6,583) we examined potential sex......-differences in the timing of the mortality reduction in the neonatal period, presenting meta-estimates of the main outcome mortality rate ratios (MRR) for BCG-vaccinated and controls. Results: Among controls, boys had a particularly high mortality during the first week after randomisation, the male-female MRR being 2...

  13. Comparison of 2- and 3-Dimensional Sonography for Estimation of Birth Weight and Neonatal Adiposity in the Setting of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kelly S; Stetzer, Bradley; Catalano, Patrick M; Myers, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) fetal measurements for prediction of birth weight Z score and neonatal adiposity (percent body fat) in the setting of suspected fetal macrosomia. We conducted a prospective observational study of term singleton pregnancies with suspected macrosomia. Patients were enrolled on admission to labor and delivery and underwent sonographic examinations. Within 48 hours of delivery, neonatal anthropometric measurements were obtained. Thirty-four neonates were included in the analysis. Mothers were very obese (mean body mass index ± SD, 39.1 ± 7.8 kg/m(2)); 56.5% were white; and 39.1% had diabetes. Neonates were 38% female and had a mean birth weight of 3940.0 ± 496.8 g, percent body fat of 18.5% ± 4.0%, and Ponderal index of 2.8 ± 0.3 g/cm(3). Mean 2D estimated fetal weight was 3973 ± 443 g; mean 3D estimated fetal weight was 3803 ± 528 g; and mean thigh volume was 102.5 ± 19.6 cm(3). Both 2D and 3D measurements accounted for about half the variance in predicted birth weight (R(2) for 2D = 0.53, 71% within 10% of birth weight; R(2) for 3D = 0.47, 65% within 10% of birth weight). Thigh volume Z score was the prenatal parameter most highly correlated with both birth weight Z score (R(2) = 0.52; r = 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.84; P macrosomia, fractional thigh volume was the best sonographic estimate of neonatal percent body fat and birth weight Z score. Future research on prediction of neonatal weight and adiposity in macrosomic fetuses should include an estimate of fetal soft tissue given the generalized increase in body fat of these fetuses. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. RISK FACTORS FOR THE EARLY NEONATAL MORTALITY IN NEWBORNS WITH VERY LOW AND EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Lebedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim was to assess the association of perinatal factors with the early neonatal mortality in newborns with very low (VLBW and extremely low birth weight (ELBW.Methods: The statistical data was carried out, that is analysis of 17 perinatal factors of 28 newborns with an ELBW with gestation of 23–27 weeks and 18 newborns with a VLBW with gestation of 28–32 weeks, who died in the first 7 days of life. The comparison group consisted of 25 newborns with an ELBW and 56 children with a VLBW with gestation of 25–27 and 28–32 weeks, respectively, who survived the early neonatal period. The association of risk factors with the early neonatal mortality was assessed by means of a multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. A critical p error level was set equal to 0.05. Results: In newborns with a VLBW the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality depended on a gestation term (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.56–11.71; р = 0.002 and emergency Caesarean section (OR 7.48, 95% CI 1.28–43.74; р = 0.008. A vaginal birth increased the survival chance (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01–0.86; р = 0.032. Newborns with an ELBW had the following factors of the increased risk of the early neonatal mortality: gestational age (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.06–7.73; р = 0.038, Apgar score at the 5th minute (OR 1.91, 95% CI 0.99–3.69; р = 0.050 and presence of chorioamnionitis (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.0–29.53; p = 0.048. An elective Caesarean section increased the survival chance (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.001–0.44; p = 0.048. Conclusion: Summarizing the obtained data, we can conclude that besides a gestational age the risk of early neonatal mortality in newborns with a VLBW may be increased due to the emergency Caesarean section, with an ELBW — due to a low Apgar score at the 5th minute and the presence of mother's chorioamnionitis. A vaginal birth in newborns with a VLBW and an elective Caesarean section in children with an ELBW increase survival chances.

  15. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    western Johannesburg and also at the. Donald Gordon Medical Centre. Neonatal skin, like the respiratory system, bears the brunt of the extreme change in external environment that characterises birth. NEONATES. 488 CME September 2004 Vol.22 No.9. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH). Fig. 1. Café-au-lait macule. Fig. 2.

  16. Central diabetes insipidus: alert for dehydration in very low birth weight infants during the neonatal period. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlin, Maria Lúcia Silveira; Sales, Débora Simone; Celini, Fábia Pereira Martins; Martinelli Junior, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare cause of hypernatremia during the neonatal period. The diagnosis is particularly difficult in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. We report on a preterm newborn who presented CDI soon after birth. On the third day of life, signs of dehydration were present despite normal fluid supply. The diuresis rate was 4.4 ml/kg/h. Although the fluid supply was then increased, the dehydration continued, with hypernatremia, normal glycemia, diuresis of 7.4 ml/kg/h and urine density of 1005 mOsmol/l. Thus, a diagnostic hypothesis of diabetes insipidus was raised. A test with a nasal vasopressin analogue (dDAVP) was performed and CDI was confirmed. Reduction of the fluid supply became possible through appropriate treatment. The diagnosis of CDI is rarely made during the neonatal period, especially in VLBW newborns, because of the difficulty in detecting elevated diuresis. Persistent hypernatremia, usually accompanied by hyperthermia despite abundant fluid supply, weight loss and low urine osmolality are important signs of alert.

  17. Prenatal and neonatal variables associated with enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth in low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Dmytraczenko Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible prenatal and neonatal variables that may influence the prevalence of tooth enamel hypoplasia in preterm and low birth weight children (LBW and a matched control group of term children with normal birth weight (NBW. The study sample consisted of 61 children born preterm and with LBW examined at 18-34 months of age. The control group was formed by 61 infants born full term and with NBW examined at 31-35 months of age. All children were born at the Center of Integrated Attention of Women's Health (CAISM-UNICAMP. FDI criteria were followed for dental examination. Medical data was collected retrospectively from hospital records. Among preterms, 57.4% had some type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE, 52.5 % had opacities and 21.3 % presented hypoplasia. Among full-term children, 24.6% presented DDE, 24.6% had opacities and 3.3% had hypoplasia. LBW preterm infants presented a higher prevalence of hypoplasia than NBW controls. The deciduous teeth most affected by hypoplasia were maxillary incisors. There was no significant association with prenatal variables; among neonatal variables there was a significant association with respiratory distress syndrome and neurological examination at discharge with an altered result.

  18. Very low birth weight infants at 8 and 11 years of age: role of neonatal illness and family status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J V; Cooper, B A; Tooley, W H

    1988-10-01

    The intellectual and educational status of 108 children with very low birth weight (less than or equal to 1,500 g), born from 1965 to 1978, was evaluated and tested on standard tests (eight children with severe handicaps were excluded) at 8 years of age. Fifty-seven were further evaluated at 11 years of age. Six categorical outcomes were defined a priori, based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised IQ and discrepancies between Verbal and Performance scores and Bender Gestalt Test score. Proportions at 8 years of age were: 4.6% very low IQ (below 70), 13.9% low IQ (70 to 84), and, for those with IQ greater than 84, 12.0% language disability, 12.0% performance disability, 21.4% visual-motor disability, and 36.1% normal. Learning disabilities, determined by discrepancies between IQ and Wide Range Achievement Test scores, included 16.7% of all children. Outcome proportions at 11 years of age were essentially comparable to those at 8 years of age; outcome constancy was present in 52.6%. Ratings of neonatal illness and parent education level strongly influenced the likelihood of outcome at 8 years of age. When ratings were dichotomized (ie, low v high neonatal illness and low v high parent education), the level of neonatal illness primarily influenced the likelihood of normal outcome, whereas the level of parent education influenced the degree of severity of the disability.

  19. Device-associated pneumonia of very low birth weight infants in Polish Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Merritt, T Allen; Borszewska-Kornacka, Maria; Domańska, Joanna; Gulczyńska, Ewa; Nowiczewski, Marek; Helwich, Ewa; Kordek, Agnieszka; Pawlik, Dorota; Adamski, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Late-Onset Pneumonia (LO-PNEU) is still the most important complication associated with the hospitalization of infants with very low birth weight (PNEU as associated or not associated with respiratory support in the NICU and distribution of causative pathogens from the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network (PNSN). Surveillance of infections was conducted in the years 2009-2011 at six Polish NICUs. The incidence was 3.1/1000 NICU patient days (pds). The mean gestational age and birth weight among infants with LO-PNEU were significantly lower. The VAP incidence was of 18.2/1000 NICU pds for mechanically ventilated (MV) infants, while the rates for those receiving only CPAP were as low as 7.7/1000 NICU pds. MV significantly increased the risk of PNEU, but MV or CPAP for PNEU. Significantly associated with LO-PNEU was the use of central or peripheral venous catheters and total parenteral nutrition for longer periods. Microorganisms isolated in cases of LO-PNEU were Gram-positive cocci (53.5%) and Gram-negative rods, with predominating E. coli. Non fermentative bacilli were significantly more frequent in cases of VAP than in other cases. Observed incidence rates associated with VAP and CPAP-PNEU, were higher than in other national surveillance systems and expressing the feasibility of lowering the risk of LO-PNEU and increasing patient safety. The incidence of pneumonia was found to be lower when using CPAP as compared to using MV. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Early Caffeine Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants and Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Won; Lim, Gina; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Sochung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung

    2015-12-01

    The use of caffeine citrate for treatment of apnea in very low birth weight infants showed short-term and long-term benefits. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to document the effect providing caffeine early (0-2 days of life) compared to providing caffeine late (≥3 days of life) in very low birth weight infants on several neonatal outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We searched MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed for this meta-analysis. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Jadad's scale. Studies were included if they examined the effect of the early use of caffeine compared with the late use of caffeine. Two reviewers screened the candidate articles and extracted the data from the full-text of all of the included studies. We included a total of 59,136 participants (range 58,997-59,136; variable in one study) from a total of 5 studies. The risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 0.902; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.828 to 0.983; P=0.019), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (OR, 0.507; 95% CI, 0.396 to 0.648; Pcaffeine group. Early caffeine use was not associated with a risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and NEC requiring surgery. This meta-analysis suggests that early caffeine use has beneficial effects on neonatal outcomes, including mortality and BPD, without increasing the risk of NEC.

  1. Rapid Protective Effects of Early BCG on Neonatal Mortality Among Low Birth Weight Boys: Observations From Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Monterio, Ivan; Ravn, Henrik; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2018-02-14

    Three randomized trials (RCTs) in low-weight (BCG) vaccine nonspecifically reduces all-cause mortality in the neonatal period. Using data from 3 RCTs of early BCG (n = 6583) we examined potential sex differences in the timing of the mortality reduction in the neonatal period, presenting metaestimates of the main outcome mortality rate ratios (MRR) for BCG-vaccinated and controls. Among controls, boys had a particularly high mortality during the first week after randomization: male-female MRR 2.71 (95% CI, 1.70-4.50). During the first week, BCG had a marked beneficial effect for boys, reducing mortality 3-fold (MRR [BCG/no BCG] = 0.36 [0.20-0.67]). In weeks 2-4 the effect waned for boys (MRR = 0.91 [0.51-1.69]). In girls, the pattern was opposite with a limited effect in the first week (MRR = 0.85 [0.46-1.54]), but a significant reduction in weeks 2-4 (MRR = 0.56 [0.31-1.00]). This was consistent in all 3 trials. Verbal autopsies linked early benefit to fewer sepsis-related deaths among BCG-vaccinated boys. The marked reduction in mortality in the days after BCG vaccination in boys emphasizes the importance of providing BCG soon after birth. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00146302) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00625482).

  2. The relationship of newborn adiposity to fetal growth outcome based on birth weight or the modified neonatal growth assessment score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Riggs, T; Koo, W; Deter, RL; Yeo, L; Romero, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives (1) Develop reference ranges of neonatal adiposity using air displacement plethysmography. (2) Use new reference ranges for neonatal adiposity to compare two different methods of evaluating neonatal nutritional status. Methods Three hundred and twenty-four normal neonates (35–41 weeks post-menstrual age) had body fat (%BF) and total fat mass (FM, g) measured using air displacement plethysmography shortly after delivery. Results were stratified for 92 of these neonates with corresponding fetal biometry using two methods for classifying nutritional status: (1) population-based weight percentiles; and (2) a modified neonatal growth assessment score (m3NGAS51). Results At the 50th percentile, &BF varied from 7.7% (35 weeks) to 11.8% (41 weeks), while the corresponding 50th percentiles for total FM were 186–436g. Among the subset of 92 neonates, no significant differences in adiposity were found between small for gestational age (SGA), appropriate for gestational age (AGA), and large for gestational age (LGA) groups using population-based weight standards. Classification of the same neonates using m3NGAS51 showed significant differences in mean %BF between corresponding groups. Conclusions Population-based weight criteria for neonatal nutritional status can lead to misclassification on the basis of adiposity. A neonatal growth assessment score, that considers the growth potential of several anatomic parameters, appears to more effectively classify under-and over-nourished newborns. PMID:22494346

  3. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Neonatal Patients with Birth Weight Greater than 1500 g in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsing Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To understand the characteristics, ophthalmic outcomes, and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in patients with birth weight (BW greater than 1500 g. The applicability of the ROP screening criteria to the Taiwanese population was also examined. Methods: The study included 104 eyes from 54 ROP patients who had BW greater than 1500 g from 1981 to 2008. Demographic information, disease courses, ophthalmic outcomes, and possible systemic risk factors were recorded. The infants were divided into groups of mild and severe ROP for a risk factor analysis. Results: The mean gestational age (GA of the infants was 31 ± 1.3 weeks, and the mean BW was 1675 ± 249 g. Mild ROP regressed in 94 eyes (90%, and 10 eyes (10% developed severe ROP. After various treatments, the regression rates for prethreshold or threshold ROP (n = 8 and stage 4 ROP (n = 2 were 100% and 50%, respectively. Forty-eight patients (85% had at least three associated systemic risk factors. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with an intraventricular hemorrhage were found to have an increased chance of developing severe ROP, especially those with BW greater than 1500 g (p = 0.015. There was also a significant association between patients who had severe ROP and an increased risk of having cerebral palsy (CP at 1.5 years of age (p = 0.013. Conclusion: The majority of patients with BW greater than 1500 g developed mild ROP. However, advanced ROP with poor visual outcome was also encountered in some patients.

  4. Neonatal nutrition and later outcomes of very low birth weight infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is, however, little information from poor countries on the long-term effects of these deficiencies in such infants. ... With neonatal feeding regimes as the exposure variable, post-discharge re-hospitalization, mortality and Saigal and Rosenbaum's functional disability assessment scores were compared as the outcome ...

  5. Neonatal Acute Kidney Injury and the Risk of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Very Low Birth Weight Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Christine; Sims, Brian; Griffin, Russell; Askenazi, D J

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in survival of premature infants, many have comorbid conditions. The role of the kidney in multiorgan dysfunction is unclear, particularly in regard to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). We hypothesized that infants diagnosed with acute kidney injury (AKI) have an increased risk of IVH independent of gestational age (GA) and other variables associated with both comorbidities. This prospective cohort study consisted of 125 infants with a birth weight ≤1,200 g and/or GA ≤31 weeks. A definition of AKI was used from KDIGO, not including urine output as nonoliguria is common in this population. IVH was based on serial head ultrasounds. Neonates with AKI had a higher trend towards having IVH compared to those without [14/35 (40%) vs. 22/83 (26.5%), p = 0.1]. Infants with AKI were more likely to have stage 2 IVH or higher than those without AKI [12/36 (33.3%) vs. 6/82 (7.3%); p < 0.01]. AKI was associated with a 3.6-fold increased risk of a grade 2 or higher IVH [hazard ratio (HR) 3.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-9.07] and over 4-fold increase in risk of a grade 3 or higher IVH (HR 4.34, 95% CI 1.43-13.21). While there was no association between AKI and IVH overall, those with AKI had a higher hazard ratio to develop a grade 2 or higher IVH even when controlling for birth weight, antenatal steroid use, and 5-min Apgar score. Future studies are indicated to expand sample size and to control for other clinical variables that could be associated with both AKI and IVH. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effects of therapeutic approach on the neonatal evolution of very low birth weight infants with patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian S.R. Sadeck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of treatment approach on the outcomes of newborns (birth weight [BW] < 1,000 g with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, from the Brazilian Neonatal Research Network (BNRN on: death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH III/IV, retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgical (ROPsur, necrotizing enterocolitis requiring surgery (NECsur, and death/BPD. METHODS: This was a multicentric cohort study, retrospective data collection, including newborns (BW < 1000 g with gestational age (GA < 33 weeks and echocardiographic diagnosis of PDA, from 16 neonatal units of the BNRN from January 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2011. Newborns who died or were transferred until the third day of life, and those with presence of congenital malformation or infection were excluded. Groups: G1 - conservative approach (without treatment, G2 - pharmacologic (indomethacin or ibuprofen, G3 - surgical ligation (independent of previous treatment. Factors analyzed: antenatal corticosteroid, cesarean section, BW, GA, 5 min. Apgar score < 4, male gender, Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension (SNAPPE II, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, late sepsis (LS, mechanical ventilation (MV, surfactant (< 2 h of life, and time of MV. Outcomes: death, O2 dependence at 36 weeks (BPD36wks, IVH III/IV, ROPsur, NECsur, and death/BPD36wks. Statistics: Student's t-test, chi-squared test, or Fisher's exact test; Odds ratio (95% CI; logistic binary regression and backward stepwise multiple regression. Software: MedCalc (Medical Calculator software, version 12.1.4.0. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: 1,097 newborns were selected and 494 newborns were included: G1 - 187 (37.8%, G2 - 205 (41.5%, and G3 - 102 (20.6%. The highest mortality was observed in G1 (51.3% and the lowest in G3 (14.7%. The highest frequencies of BPD36wks (70.6% and ROPsur were observed in G3 (23.5%. The lowest occurrence of

  7. Effects of therapeutic approach on the neonatal evolution of very low birth weight infants with patent ductus arteriosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeck, Lilian S R; Leone, Cléa R; Procianoy, Renato S; Guinsburg, Ruth; Marba, Sergio T M; Martinez, Francisco E; Rugolo, Ligia M S S; Moreira, M Elisabeth L; Fiori, Renato M; Ferrari, Ligia L; Menezes, Jucille A; Venzon, Paulyne S; Abdallah, Vânia Q S; Duarte, José Luiz M B; Nunes, Marynea V; Anchieta, Leni M; Alves Filho, Navantino

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effects of treatment approach on the outcomes of newborns (birth weight [BW] Neonatal Research Network (BNRN) on: death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH III/IV), retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgical (ROPsur), necrotizing enterocolitis requiring surgery (NECsur), and death/BPD. This was a multicentric, cohort study, retrospective data collection, including newborns (BW neonatal units of the BNRN from January 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2011. Newborns who died or were transferred until the third day of life, and those with presence of congenital malformation or infection were excluded. Groups: G1 - conservative approach (without treatment), G2 - pharmacologic (indomethacin or ibuprofen), G3 - surgical ligation (independent of previous treatment). Factors analyzed: antenatal corticosteroid, cesarean section, BW, GA, 5 min. Apgar score Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension (SNAPPE II), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), late sepsis (LS), mechanical ventilation (MV), surfactant (< 2 h of life), and time of MV. death, O2 dependence at 36 weeks (BPD36wks), IVH III/IV, ROPsur, NECsur, and death/BPD36wks. Student's t-test, chi-squared test, or Fisher's exact test; Odds ratio (95% CI); logistic binary regression and backward stepwise multiple regression. Software: MedCalc (Medical Calculator) software, version 12.1.4.0. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. 1,097 newborns were selected and 494 newborns were included: G1 - 187 (37.8%), G2 - 205 (41.5%), and G3 - 102 (20.6%). The highest mortality was observed in G1 (51.3%) and the lowest in G3 (14.7%). The highest frequencies of BPD36wks (70.6%) and ROPsur were observed in G3 (23.5%). The lowest occurrence of death/BPD36wks occurred in G2 (58.0%). Pharmacological (OR 0.29; 95% CI: 0.14-0.62) and conservative (OR 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14-0.79) treatments were protective for the outcome death/BPD36wks. The conservative approach of PDA was

  8. Effects of a Birth Hospital's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Level and Annual Volume of Very Low-Birth-Weight Infant Deliveries on Morbidity and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erik A; Lorch, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    The annual volume of deliveries of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants has a greater effect on mortality risk than does neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) level. The differential effect of these hospital factors on morbidity among VLBW infants is uncertain. To assess the independent effects of a birth hospital's annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries and NICU level on the risk of several neonatal morbidities and morbidity-mortality composite outcomes that are predictive of future neurocognitive development. Retrospective, population-based cohort study (performed in 2014) of all VLBW infants without severe congenital anomalies delivered in all hospitals in California, Missouri, and Pennsylvania between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2009 (N = 72,431). Risk-adjusted odds ratios and risk-adjusted probabilities were determined by logistic regression. The primary study outcomes were the individual composites of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Among the 72,431 VLBW infants in the present study, birth at a hospital with 10 or less deliveries of VLBW infants per year was associated with the highest risk-adjusted probability of death (15.3% [95% CI, 14.4%-16.3%]), death or severe intraventricular hemorrhage (17.5% [95% CI, 16.5%-18.6%]), and death or necrotizing enterocolitis (19.3% [95% CI, 18.1%-20.4%]). These complications were also more common among infants born at hospitals with a level I or II NICU compared with infants delivered at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU. The risk-adjusted probability of death or retinopathy of prematurity was highest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU and lowest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIA NICU. When the effects of NICU level and annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries were evaluated simultaneously, the annual volume of deliveries was the stronger contributor to the risk of death, death or

  9. Effect of Dedicated Lactation Support Services on Breastfeeding Outcomes in Extremely-Low-Birth-Weight Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Sharareh; Fletcher, Molly; Tucker, Richard; Vohr, Betty; Lechner, Beatrice E

    2017-11-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with major benefits for high-risk infants born prematurely, yet this population faces significant challenges to breastfeeding. Lactation services provide successful interventions, yet the impact of lactation services on breastfeeding outcomes in preterm infants is understudied. Research aim: The provision of full-time lactation support in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) will improve quantitative breastfeeding measures in premature infants. A longitudinal retrospective nonexperimental design was used. Data were collected from medical records of breastfeeding outcomes in patients 30 weeks' gestational age and under admitted to a level IV regional NICU over three epochs of varying levels of lactation services, from none to full time. Demographic, medical, and breastfeeding data were collected. Data analysis was performed using standard statistical tests and hierarchical regression analysis. A significant increase in the number of lactation consults was observed across epochs, and the number of infants who received human milk via feeding at the breast, as the first oral feeding, increased across epochs. After controlling for covariates, the odds of infants receiving any human milk compared with exclusive formula feeding increased across epochs. The provision of full-time dedicated NICU lactation support is associated with an increase in breastfeeding outcome measures for high-risk preterm infants.

  10. Efficacy of Bovine Lactoferrin Supplementation in Preventing Late-onset Sepsis in low Birth Weight Neonates: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Gathwala, Geeta

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) in preventing first episode of late-onset sepsis (LOS) in low birth weight (LBW) neonates. In this study conducted from May 2012 to July 2013 in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary care hospital, inborn asymptomatic neonates, birth with no maternal risk factors for sepsis were randomized to receive BLF or placebo from 1st to 28th day of life. The incidence of culture-proven sepsis and sepsis-attributable mortality after 72 h of life was recorded. Increasing doses of BLF were used with higher birth weights. Incidence of first episode of culture-proven LOS was significantly lower in the BLF group vs. placebo [2/63 (3.2%) vs. 9/67(13.4%); risk ratio, 0.211; 95% CI, 0.044-1.019; p = 0.036]. Statistically significant reduction in the sepsis-attributable mortality was also seen after use of prophylactic BLF [0/63 (0%) vs. 5/67 (7.5%); p = 0.027]. BLF supplementation in LBW neonates reduced the incidence of first episode of LOS. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [Effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on neonate birth weight in Shaanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J M; Qu, P F; Dang, S N; Li, S S; Bai, R H; Qin, B W; Yan, H

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on the birth weight of newborns in Shaanxi province. A questionnaire survey was conducted among the childbearing aged women selected through multistage stratified random sampling in Shaanxi during 2010-2013, all of these childbearing aged women were in pregnancy or had definite pregnancy outcomes. The birth weight of newborns and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were used as the dependent variables and independent variables respectively in multiple linear regression model and quantile regression model and confounding factors were controlled. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the birth weight of newborns whose mothers had folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were significantly higher than those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, an average increase of 29.56 g(B=29.56, t=4.69 and Pbirth weights of newborns whose mothers supplemented folic acid were higher than those whose mother did not supplement folic acid, the difference was significant, but the increase varied. As the increase of the percentiles of birth weight, the body weight increase declined gradually in those whose mothers had folic acid supplementation compared with those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy can increase the birth weight of newborns, the influence was greater in newborns with lower body weight than in newborns with higher body weight.

  12. Trends in Infant mortality rate and mortality for neonates born at less than 32 weeks and with very low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Barría-Pailaquilén, René Mauricio; Mendoza-Maldonado, Yessy; Urrutia-Toro, Yohana; Castro-Mora, Cristian; Santander-Manríquez, Gema

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the trend of the infant mortality rate between 1990-2004 and the neonatal mortality between 2000-2005 in infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age or with very low birth-weight. Based on secondary data, infant mortality rate and by its component for Valdivia city were compared with national indicators. Mortality at

  13. Neonatal Citrulline Supplementation and Later Exposure to a High Fructose Diet in Rats Born with a Low Birth Weight: A Preliminary Report

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie Cécile; Pagniez, Anthony; Ouguerram, Khadija; Boquien, Clair; WINER, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    A low birth weight (LBW) leads to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Literature suggests that citrulline supplementation in adulthood prevents the effect of a high fructose diet on energy metabolism. Whether neonatal citrulline supplementation would alter early growth or energy metabolism in the long-term in rats with LBW is unknown. LBW pups born from dams fed a low (4%) protein diet, were nursed by normally-fed dams and received isonitrogenous supplements of either l-citrulli...

  14. Enteral L-arginine supplementation for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates: a double-blind randomized pilot study of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycarpou, Elena; Zachaki, Sophia; Tsolia, Maria; Papaevangelou, Vasiliki; Polycarpou, Nicodemos; Briana, Despina D; Gavrili, Stavroula; Kostalos, Christos; Kafetzis, Dimitrios

    2013-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired gastrointestinal disease in premature infants and has high mortality and morbidity. Endothelial nitric oxide is an important regulator of vascular perfusion and is synthetized from the amino acid L-arginine. Hypoargininemia is frequently observed in preterm neonates and may predispose them to NEC. Our objective was to determine the effect of enteral L-arginine supplementation on the incidence and severity of NEC in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. We conducted a parallel blind randomized pilot study, comprising VLBW neonates with birth weight ≤1500 g and gestational age ≤34 weeks. VLBW neonates were randomly assigned to receive enteral L-arginine supplementation (1.5 mmol/kg/d bid) between the 3rd and 28th day of life or placebo. Diagnosis and classification of NEC were done according to modified Bell's criteria. Eighty-three neonates were randomized to the arginine (n = 40) or placebo (n = 43) group. No adverse effects were observed in neonates receiving L-arginine supplementation. The incidence of NEC stage III was significantly lower in the arginine-supplemented group (2.5% vs 18.6%, P = .030). Enteral L-arginine supplementation of 1.5 mmol/kg/d bid can be safely administered in VLBW neonates from the 3rd to the 28th day of life. Enteral L-arginine supplementation appears to reduce the incidence of stage III NEC in VLBW infants. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the effect of L-arginine supplementation in preventing NEC in VLBW infants.

  15. The effect of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on growth in the first year of life among low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    , and 12 months after inclusion. RESULTS: Overall there was no effect of neonatal VAS on growth in the first year of life. By 2 months, VAS tended to have a beneficial effect on weight and head circumference when given with BCG but not when given without BCG (interaction: weight-for-age p = 0.07 and head......BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may amplify the effect of vaccines. We therefore investigated if neonatal VAS given with and without Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine to low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates had an effect on growth in the first year of life. We hypothesised that VAS would...... circumference-for-age: p = 0.06). By 6 months, there was a beneficial effect of VAS on head circumference and weight among children who had not received DTP vaccine 2 months after inclusion (weight: 0.18 (0.00; 0.36) and head circumference 0.27 (0.06; 0.48)), but no beneficial effect among those who had...

  16. Intestinal microbiota in allergic and nonallergic 1-year-old very low birth weight infants after neonatal glutamine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, A.; van den Berg, A.; Knol, J.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Fetter, W. P. F.; van Elburg, R. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Previously, glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants (VLBW) decreased the incidence of atopic dermatitis at age 1 year. The aim of this study was to determine whether this effect is related to changes in intestinal bacterial species that are associated with allergy,

  17. Peso de nascimento como preditor para a gravidade da lesão da substância branca cerebral neonatal Birth weight as predictor for the severity of neonatal brain white matter lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Argollo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Para analisar a associação entre fatores natais com a gravidade da lesão da substância branca (LSB cerebral neonatal, controlando o peso de nascimento, identificaram os neonatos pela ultra-sonografia craniana, que foram divididos em: aqueles com evolução da LSC para resolução da imagem ao ultra-som (menor gravidade e, aqueles que evoluiram com formação de cistos e/ou ventriculomegalia e/ou hemorragia (maior gravidade. Doze variáveis (hiponatremia, anemia, infecção, retinopatia, displasia broncopulmonar, hipoalbuminemia, persistência do canal arterial, audiometria alterada, desconforto respiratório precoce, peso de nascimento To analyze the association of natal factors with the severity of neonatal brain white matter lesion (WML by controlling the birth weight, we identified newborns with WML who were divided into: those with WML evolution towards resolution of the ultrasound image (less severe, and those who evolved with cist formation and/or ventriculomegalia and/or hemorrhage (greater severity. There were differences among the twelve variables (hyponatremia, anemia, infection, retinopathy, broncopulmonary dysplasia, hypoalbuminemia, persistence of the arterial canal, altered audiometry, early respiratory distress, birth weigh below 2,500 g, weight per category, and prematurity between the two groups (p<0.05, being that nine variables (hyponatremia, infection, retinopathy, hypoalbuminemia, persistence of the arterial canal, early respiratory distress, low weight, prematurity, and weight per category remained statistically different (p<0.01 after the logistic regression analysis. When the variables were analyzed by birth weight category none of them presented statistical significance. This study suggests that birth weight is the major factor - likely the only one - associated to the severity of neonatal brain white matter lesion.

  18. Zinc supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality in very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates: a hospital-based randomized, placebo-controlled trial in an industrialized country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrin, Gianluca; Berni Canani, Roberto; Passariello, Annalisa; Messina, Francesco; Conti, Maria Giulia; Caoci, Stefano; Smaldore, Antonella; Bertino, Enrico; De Curtis, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Zinc plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of many diseases and in body growth. Preterm neonates have high zinc requirements. The objective of the study was to investigate the efficacy of zinc supplementation in reducing morbidity and mortality in preterm neonates and to promote growth. This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study of very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates randomly allocated on the seventh day of life to receive (zinc group) or not receive (control group) oral zinc supplementation. Total prescribed zinc intake ranged from 9.7 to 10.7 mg/d in the zinc group and from 1.3 to 1.4 mg/d in the placebo control group. The main endpoint was the rate of neonates with ≥ 1 of the following morbidities: late-onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leucomalacia, and retinopathy of prematurity. Secondary outcomes were mortality and body growth. We enrolled 97 neonates in the zinc group and 96 in the control group. Morbidities were significantly lower in the zinc group (26.8% compared with 41.7%; P = 0.030). The occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis was significantly higher in the control group (6.3% compared with 0%; P = 0.014). Mortality risk was higher in the placebo control group (RR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.08, 5.18; P = 0.006). Daily weight gain was similar in the zinc (18.2 ± 5.6 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) and control (17.0 ± 8.7 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) groups (P = 0.478). Oral zinc supplementation given at high doses reduces morbidities and mortality in preterm neonates. This trial was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Register as ACTRN12612000823875.

  19. 2-Hour Postload Serum Glucose Levels and Maternal Blood Pressure as Independent Predictors of Birth Weight in “Appropriate for Gestational Age” Neonates in Healthy Nondiabetic Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumana Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased neonatal birth weight (NBW, often associated with diabetic pregnancies, is a recognized indicator of childhood obesity and future metabolic risk. Predictors of NBW in healthy non-diabetic pregnancies are not yet established. Here, we investigated the association of maternal parameters of healthy non-diabetic mothers with NBW of their “appropriate-for-gestational age” neonates. Methods. The study involved 36 healthy mother/infant pairs. Examined parameters included NBW, maternal age, first and last trimester (BMI, weight gain, fasting serum lipids and glucose, 2-hour postload glucose levels and blood pressure. Results. Postload-glucose levels were significantly higher in mothers of heavier neonates. ANOVA results indicated that 15% increase in postload-glucose levels corresponded to more than 0.5 Kg increase in NBW in the third tertile. NBW correlated positively with postload glucose levels, and negatively with systolic blood pressure. Regression analysis showed that the main predictors of NBW were postload-glucose levels (B=0.455, P=0.003, followed by systolic blood pressure (B=−0.447, P=0.004, together predicting 31.7% NBW variation. Conclusion. This study highlights that increased maternal postload sugar levels and blood pressure, within the normal range, highly predicts NBW of healthy mothers. These findings may provide focus for early dietary intervention measures to avoid future risks to the mother and baby.

  20. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charact...

  1. Association of late-onset neonatal sepsis with late neurodevelopment in the first two years of life of preterm infants with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Hentges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the influence of late-onset sepsis on neurodevelopment of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, according to the etiologic agent METHOD: This was a cohort of newborns with birth weight < 1,500 g and gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to the institutional intensive care unit (ICU with up to 48 hours of life, and followed-up at the outpatient follow-up clinic for preterm infants with VLBW until 2 years of corrected age. Exclusion criteria: death within the first 72 hours of life, congenital malformations and genetic syndromes, children with congenital infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, congenital infection (STORCH, presence of early-onset spesis and cases with more than one pathogen growth in blood cultures. Septic and non-septic infants were compared regarding neonatal outcomes and mortality. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale (BSDI-II at 18 to 24 months of corrected age. RESULTS: 411 preterm infants with VLBW were eligible; the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,041 ± 281grams. Late-onset sepsis occurred in 94 preterm infants with VLBW (22.8%. VLBW infants with Gram-positive infection showed motor deficit when compared to the non-septic group, 68.8% vs. 29.3%, respectively (OR 6; 1.6-21.8, p = 0.006; the cognitive development was similar between the groups. The overall mortality rate from infection was 26.7%; considering the pathogens, the rates were 18.7% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 21.8% for Gram-positive bacteria, and 50% for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. CONCLUSION: Neonatal sepsis has a significant influence on late neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants with VLBW, and Gram-positive infections are associated with motor deficit.

  2. Association of late-onset neonatal sepsis with late neurodevelopment in the first two years of life of preterm infants with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentges, Cláudia Regina; Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann; Carvalho, Clarissa Gutierrez; Filipouski, Gabriela Ribeiro; Fuentefria, Rubia Nascimento; Marquezotti, Fernanda; Terrazan, Ana Carolina

    2014-01-01

    To establish the influence of late-onset sepsis on neurodevelopment of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW), according to the etiologic agent. This was a cohort of newborns with birth weight<1,500 g and gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to the institutional intensive care unit (ICU) with up to 48 hours of life, and followed-up at the outpatient follow-up clinic for preterm infants with VLBW until 2 years of corrected age. death within the first 72 hours of life, congenital malformations and genetic syndromes, children with congenital infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), congenital infection (STORCH), presence of early-onset sepsis and cases with more than one pathogen growth in blood cultures. Septic and non-septic infants were compared regarding neonatal outcomes and mortality. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale (BSDI-II) at 18 to 24 months of corrected age. 411 preterm infants with VLBW were eligible; the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,041 ± 281 grams. Late-onset sepsis occurred in 94 preterm infants with VLBW (22.8%). VLBW infants with Gram-positive infection showed motor deficit when compared to the non-septic group, 68.8% vs. 29.3%, respectively (OR 6; 1.6-21.8, p=0.006); the cognitive development was similar between the groups. The overall mortality rate from infection was 26.7%; considering the pathogens, the rates were 18.7% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 21.8% for Gram-positive bacteria, and 50% for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Neonatal sepsis has a significant influence on late neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants with VLBW, and Gram-positive infections are associated with motor deficit. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid Protective Effects of Early BCG on Neonatal Mortality Among Low Birth Weight Boys: Observations From Randomized Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sorensen, Sofie; Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Monterio, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    Background. Three randomized trials (RCTs) in low-weight (....46–1.54]), but a significant reduction in weeks 2–4 (MRR = 0.56 [0.31–1.00]). This was consistent in all 3 trials. Verbal autopsies linked early benefit to fewer sepsis-related deaths among BCG-vaccinated boys. Discussion. The marked reduction in mortality in the days after BCG vaccination in boys emphasizes the importance...... of providing BCG soon after birth. Trial registration numbers: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00146302) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00625482)....

  4. Sound reduction management in the neonatal intensive care unit for preterm or very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadhoob, Abdulraoof; Ohlsson, Arne

    2015-01-30

    dysplasia, intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, retinopathy of prematurity).2. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction on sleep patterns at three months of age.3. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction on staff performance.4. To evaluate the effects of sound reduction in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) on parents' satisfaction with the care. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, abstracts from scientific meetings, clinical trials registries (clinicaltrials.gov; controlled-trials.com; and who.int/ictrp), Pediatric Academic Societies Annual meetings 2000 to 2014 (Abstracts2View(TM)), reference lists of identified trials, and reviews to November 2014. Preterm infants (sound reduction. We made a deviation from our protocol and included this study in which some infants would have been > 48 hours old. There was no significant difference in weight at 34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA): mean difference (MD) 111 g (95% confidence interval (CI) -151 to 374 g) (n = 23). There was no significant difference in weight at 18 to 22 months corrected age between the groups: MD 0.31 kg, 95% CI -1.53 to 2.16 kg (n = 14). There was a significant difference in Mental Developmental Index (Bayley II) favouring the silicone earplugs group at 18 to 22 months corrected age: MD 14.00, 95% CI 3.13 to 24.87 (n = 12), but not for Psychomotor Development Index (Bayley II) at 18 to 22 months corrected age: MD -2.16, 95% CI -18.44 to 14.12 (n =12). To date, only 34 infants have been enrolled in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) testing the effectiveness of reducing sound levels that reach the infants' ears in the NICU. Based on the small sample size of this single trial, we cannot make any recommendations for clinical practice. Larger, well designed, conducted and reported trials are needed.

  5. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  6. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  7. Sepse neonatal como fator de risco para leucomalácia periventricular em pré-termos de muito baixo peso Periventricular leukomalacia in very low birth weight preterm neonates with high risk for neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Silveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação de leucomalácia periventricular (LPV e sepse neonatal em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso (RNMBP. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos RNMBP com suspeita clínica de infecção nascidos na instituição de 01/08/2005 a 31/07/2007. Foram excluídos óbitos antes dos 14 dias, malformações do sistema nervoso central e infecções congênitas. Foi realizado ultra-som cerebral no terceiro dia e semanalmente até a sexta semana de vida ou alta. LPV foi diagnosticada por hiperecogenicidade difusa periventricular persistente por mais de 7 dias, ou por cistos periventriculares. RNMBP foram divididos em grupos com e sem LPV. Sepse foi definida por manifestação clínica com cultura positiva. Os testes t, Mann-Whitney, qui-quadrado e regressão logística foram usados. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 88 RNMBP, sendo que 62 (70,5% sobreviveram e 51 (57,8% tiveram LPV. Os grupos foram semelhantes no peso de nascimento, idade gestacional, escore de Apgar, tipo de parto, SNAPPE-II, presenças de enterocolite necrosante, persistência de canal arterial e óbitos. Sepse e ventilação mecânica foram mais freqüentes no grupo com LPV (23,5 e 2,7%, p = 0,005; 86 e 59%, p = 0,004, respectivamente. Na regressão logística, ambos foram fatores de risco independentes para LPV (p = 0,027 e 0,015, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Corioamnionite é fator de risco definido para LPV. Demonstramos que sepse neonatal também é fator de risco importante. Acreditamos que a resposta inflamatória sistêmica seja o principal fator envolvido na etiopatogenia da LPV em RNMBP.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between periventricular leukomalacia (PVL and neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI. METHODS: We studied VLBWI with a clinical suspicion of infection who had been born at our institution between the 1st of August, 2005 and the 31st of July, 2007. Children were excluded if they died before reaching 14 days, had malformations

  8. Evaluation of the relationship between opioid exposure in extremely low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocek, Melissa; Wilcox, Roger; Crank, Christopher; Patra, Kousiki

    2016-01-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants are exposed to many painful procedures while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), such as catheter insertion and endotracheal intubation. Exposure of ELBW infants to repetitive pain and stress in the NICU can lead to cardiovascular instability and may alter neuronal and synaptic organization. Opioid analgesics are administered to reduce pain, stress and to potentially reduce poor neurologic outcomes. They may also be utilized as sedation for mechanically ventilated ELBW infants. There is limited data in regards to neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants exposed to opioids, and available studies have conflicting results. To examine the relationship between cumulative opioid dose in ELBW infants in the NICU and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 20 months corrected age (CA). 100 ELBW infants who had complete neurodevelopmental assessments at 20 months CA were categorized by cumulative opioid exposure during the NICU stay (high vs. low/no opioid). Outcome measures included cognitive, motor and language scores from the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (BSITD-III). Multiple regression analyses adjusted for the impact of social and neonatal risk factors on outcome. There were 60 patients with high and 40 with low/no opioid exposure. Infants in the high dose group had a higher number of median ventilator days (53.5 vs. 45.6 days, p=0.046) and a higher incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (5% vs. 21.7%, p=0.022). There were no significant differences in BSITD-III scores between the two opiate groups. In multivariate analysis cumulative opioid dose was associated with lower cognitive scores on the BSITD-III even after adjusting for social and neonatal risk factors (β=-0.247, p=0.012). Cumulative opioid dose is associated with worse cognitive scores at 20 months CA even after adjusting for social and neonatal risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neonatal antibody titers against varicella-zoster virus in relation to gestational age, birth weight, and maternal titer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwet, Wil C.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Cranendonk, Anneke; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) can cause severe disease in premature neonates. The fetus receives protective maternal VZV-immunoglobulin G (IgG) mainly in the third trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, premature neonates are considered at risk for VZV infection. Administration of

  10. Role of vitamin A supplementation in prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight neonates: a systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Bhawan Deep; Bansal, Anju; Kabra, Nandkishor S

    2018-02-22

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common consequence of extreme prematurity (birth weight (ELBW) neonates. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of vitamin A supplementation in prevention of BPD in ELBW neonates. The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, and ongoing clinical trials. This review included two RCTs that fulfilled inclusion criteria. There were statistically significant reduction in the incidence of BPD (oxygen requirement at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA)) (relative risk (RR) 0.88; 95%CI 0.77-0.99; p = .04; NNTB 14) and borderline significant reduction in combined outcomes of mortality/BPD (oxygen requirement at 36 weeks of PMA) (RR 0.90; 95%CI 0.82-1.00; p = .05). However, oxygen requirement at 28 days of life and combined outcome of mortality/BPD (oxygen requirement at 28 days of life) were not statistically significant. The role of vitamin A supplementation in the prevention of BPD is supported by the current evidences. However, due to limited number of studies, current evidences are not sufficient which can translate into routine clinical practice. We need large high-quality trials, with sufficient power to reliably assess clinically relevant differences in outcomes.

  11. Development of left ventricular longitudinal speckle tracking echocardiography in very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia during the neonatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czernik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In preterm infants, postnatal myocardial adaptation may be complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We aimed to describe the development of left ventricular function by serial 2D, Doppler, and speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE in infants with and without BPD during the neonatal period and compare these to anthropometric and conventional hemodynamic parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective echocardiography on day of life (DOL 1, 7, 14, and 28 in 119 preterm infants 10% were seen for the apical segment. While anthropometric parameters show rapid development during the first 4 weeks of life, the speckle tracking parameters did not differ statistically significantly during the neonatal period. Infants with and without BPD differed significantly (p<0.001 in the development of anthropometric parameters, conventional hemodynamic parameters except for heart rate, and 2D-STE parameters: global longitudinal systolic strain rate (GLSSR and longitudinal systolic strain for the mid left wall (LSSR. The largest differences were seen at DOL 1 and 7 in GLSSR (p<0.001 and in LSSR (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Reproducible 2D-STE measurements are possible in preterm infants <1500 g. Cardiac deformation reveals early (DOL 1 and 7 ventricular changes (GLSSR and LSSR in very low birth weight infants who develop BPD.

  12. Late-Onset Enterobacter cloacae Sepsis in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Neonates: Experience in a Medical Center

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    Hsiao-Neng Chen

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: E. cloacae infection in VLBW neonates usually presents with non-specific symptoms and signs. Early recognition of sepsis and empirical combination of piperacillin (or piperacillin and tazobactam and gentamicin (or amikacin may be useful for treatment of sepsis caused by this highly virulent pathogen.

  13. Neonatal sepsis and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants in Matanzas, Cuba 2006-2010: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rogelio Robaina Castellanos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN La sepsis neonatal se ha asociado a peor resultado del neurodesarrollo en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso. En Cuba se desconoce el impacto de la sepsis neonatal en el neurodesarrollo de los recién nacidos de muy bajo peso, egresados de sus unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. OBJETIVO Determinar el impacto de la sepsis neonatal como factor de riesgo de alteraciones del neurodesarrollo en una población de recién nacidos cubanos de muy bajo peso. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio de cohorte con 89 neonatos con peso al nacer 15 mg/dl (odds ratio 4,0; IC 95%: 1,1-14,3; p=0,03. CONCLUSIONES La sepsis neonatal debe considerarse como una causa importante, dentro de los múltiples eventos causales, de daño cerebral en el recién nacido pretérmino.

  14. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been several publications from different countries on the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, such reports from Nigeria are lacking in literature. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight ...

  15. Analysis of the parameters of postnatal growth in infants with very low body weight at birth in neonatal intensive care and special care units

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    Shunko Ye.Ye.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the rates of increase in body weight (BW, body length (BL and head circumference (HC in infants with VLBW; define significant factors affecting the rates of postnatal growth (PG for each parameter; identify correlations between the factors and PG parameters. Patients and methods. The assessment of PG of infants with VLBW (n=92 and ELBW (n=34 was carried out during three time intervals: in the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU, in the special care nursery and from birth until the hospital discharge. Results. Average PG rates in infants with VLBW and ELBW (the growth of BW, BL and HC in NICU amounted to 8.63 g/day, 0.89 cm/week and 0.4 cm/week respectively; in the special care nursery: 24.2 g/day, 0.94 cm/week, 0.7 cm/week respectively; during the entire treatment period: 18.23 g/day, 0.92 cm/week and 0.6 cm/week respectively. The growth of BW and HC in infants with VLBW and ELBW during the entire treatment period was directly proportional to the growth of BW, BL and HC in NICU; the growth of BW, BL and HC in the special care nursery, as well as the BL growth during the entire treatment period. The growth of PG parameters was inversely proportional to the BW, BL and HC at birth. Conclusion. The PG rates are directly proportional to the growth of all PG parameters and inversely proportional to the PG parameters at birth.

  16. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied...... to determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function...

  17. Birth Weight does not Associate with Gestational Physical Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise during pregnancy has been a subject of debate and whether gestational physical activity profile affects birth weight is an important issue as birth weight is an indicator of fetal, neo-natal and post-natal mortality. This study was carried at three hospitals in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria to determine the difference between ...

  18. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation associated with a cluster of deaths and poor early growth in a randomised trial among low-birth-weight boys of vitamin A versus oral polio vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of oral polio vaccine administered already at birth (OPV0) on child survival was not examined before being recommended in 1985. Observational data suggested that OPV0 was harmful for boys, and trials have shown that neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) at birth may...

  19. Clinical outcome of neonatal bacterial meningitis according to birth weight Evolução clínica da meningite bacteriana neonatal de acordo com o peso de nascimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Jornada Krebs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical outcome and the complications of bacterial meningitis according to birth weight of out born neonates admitted in intensive care unit during an 11 year-period. METHOD: Eighty-seven newborns were studied. Thirty-four infants were low birth weight newborn and 53 presented birth weight > " 2500 g. The clinical data were obtained through the analysis of patients’ files. Fisher’s exact test, the c² and the Mann-Whitney test were applied. RESULTS: Neurological symptoms were more common in infants weighed > " 2500 g (pOBJETIVO: Descrever a evolução clínica e as complicações da meningite bacteriana de acordo com o peso de nascimento em recém-nascidos admitidos em unidade de terapia intensiva externa durante o período de 11 anos. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 87 neonatos, dos quais 34 foram recém-nascidos de baixo peso e 53 apresentaram peso > " 2500 g. Os dados clínicos foram obtidos por análise dos prontuários médicos. Foram realizados teste exato de Fisher, teste do c² e teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Os sintomas neurológicos foram mais comuns em neonatos com peso > " 2500 g (p<0,05 . As complicações ocorreram na metade dos casos em ambos os grupos, com mortalidade global de 11.5%. CONCLUSÃO: A freqüência de complicações foi alta em ambos os grupos, independentemente do peso de nascimento. Não houve associação entre óbito e peso de nascimento. Os neonatos com cultura de líquor positiva apresentaram pior prognóstico.

  20. Neonatal Citrulline Supplementation and Later Exposure to a High Fructose Diet in Rats Born with a Low Birth Weight: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhat-Thang; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Pagniez, Anthony; Ouguerram, Khadija; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Winer, Norbert; Darmaun, Dominique

    2017-04-11

    A low birth weight (LBW) leads to a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood. Literature suggests that citrulline supplementation in adulthood prevents the effect of a high fructose diet on energy metabolism. Whether neonatal citrulline supplementation would alter early growth or energy metabolism in the long-term in rats with LBW is unknown. LBW pups born from dams fed a low (4%) protein diet, were nursed by normally-fed dams and received isonitrogenous supplements of either l-citrulline or l-alanine by gavage from the sixth day of life until weaning, and were subsequently exposed to 10%-fructose in drinking water from weaning to 90 days of age. The oral glucose tolerance was tested (OGTT) at 70 days of age, and rats were sacrificed at 90 days of age. Pre-weaning citrulline supplementation failed to alter the growth trajectory, OGTT, plasma triglycerides, or fat mass accretion in adulthood; yet, it was associated with increased liver triglycerides, decreased liver total cholesterol, and a distinct liver lipidomic profile that may result in a predisposition to liver disease. We conclude that pre-weaning supplementation with citrulline does not impact early growth, but might impact liver fat metabolism in adulthood upon exposure to a high fructose diet.

  1. A Randomized Trial Comparing Efficacy of Bubble and Ventilator Derived Nasal CPAP in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates with Respiratory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sheetal; Maria, Arti; Roy, Mahesh K; Verma, Ankit

    2016-09-01

    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) has an established role in the care of Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) babies with respiratory distress. Bubble CPAP (BCPAP) is a cheap alternative for countries where resources are limited. However, data comparing efficacy of BCPAP with conventional ventilator derived (VCPAP) is limited. To compare CPAP failure rates between BCPAP and VCPAP among VLBW, with moderate respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to compare the rates of Intraventricular Haemorrhage (IVH), pulmonary air leaks and deaths between the two groups and determine the predictors of CPAP failure. VLBW babies with moderate respiratory distress (Silverman Anderson score 4-7), born or admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) within 28 days of life were randomized to receive either BCPAP (n=34) or VCPAP (n=34). CPAP failure rate in both the groups was compared. The baseline characteristics were similar in both the groups. Five out of 34 (14.70%) babies in BCPAP group and 11 out of 34 (32.35%) in VCPAP failed CPAP (p=0.08). IVH (BCPAP group 24% and VCPAP group 9%, p= 0.10) and mortality (BCPAP group 6% and VCPAP group 9%, p=0.642) were comparable in both the groups. Factors such as gestational age CPAP failure in our study. The CPAP failure rates in VLBW babies with moderate respiratory distress were found to be similar whether bubble CPAP or ventilator CPAP was used. There was no difference in complication rates of IVH or mortality with either method of CPAP.

  2. Influence of air pollution on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

  3. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  4. Associations of maternal weight status prior and during pregnancy with neonatal cardio-metabolic markers at birth: The Healthy Start Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lemas, Dominick J.; Brinton, John T.; Shapiro, Allison L. B.; Glueck, Deborah H.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Dabelea, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity increases adult offspring risk for cardiovascular disease; however the role of offspring adiposity in mediating this association remains poorly characterized. Objective To investigate the associations of maternal pre-pregnant body mass index (maternal BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with neonatal cardio-metabolic markers independent of fetal growth and neonatal adiposity. Methods A total of 753 maternal-infant pairs from the Healthy Start study, a large mult...

  5. Intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants: associated risk factors and outcome in the neonatal period Hemorragia intracranianana: evolução dos recém-nascidos de baixo peso no período neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Catache Mancini

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is a severe complication in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns (NB. With the purpose of studying the incidence of IVH, the associated risk factors, and the outcomes for these neonates, we studied all the VLBW infants born in our neonatal unit. Birth weight, gestational age, presence of perinatal asphyxia, mechanical ventilation, length of hospitalization, apnea crisis, hydrocephalus, and periventricular leukomalacia were analyzed. The diagnosis of IVH was based on ultrasound scan studies (Papile's classification performed until the tenth day of life and repeated weekly in the presence of abnormalities. Sixty-seven/101 neonates were studied. The mortality rate was 30.6% (31/101 and the incidence of IVH was 29.8% (20/67 : 70% grade I, 20% grade III and 10% grade IV. The incidence of IVH in NB A hemorragia intracraniana constituí uma grave complicação na evolução dos recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso (RN-MBP no período neonatal. Realizou-se este estudo, incluindo os recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso admitidos no Berçário Anexo à Maternidade do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, com o objetivo de determinar a incidência de hemorragia intracraniana (HIC, os fatores de risco associados e sua evolução no período neonatal. Foram analisados o peso de nascimento, idade gestacional, presença de asfixia neonatal, uso de ventilação mecânica, tempo de internação, presença de episódios de apnéia, hidrocefalia e leucoencefalomalácia. O diagnóstico de HIC baseou-se no exame ultra-sonográfico realizado até o décimo dia de vida, de acordo com a classificação de Papille. Foram admitidos no período 101 RN-MBP, dos quais 67 preencheram aos critérios de inclusão. A taxa de mortalidade do período foi de 30,6% (31/101 e a incidência de HIC foi de 29,8% (20/67, sendo 70% grau I, 20 grau II e 10% grau IV. A incidência de HIC em recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento menos do que 1000g foi de 53,8% (p

  6. ROLE OF EXTRA CALORIES ON THE BIRTH WEIGHT OF NEONATES – THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF DATES IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahida Baqai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Date fruits (khajoor are exclusive source of high nutrition to every individual and have been cultivated in Arab world for centuries. In addition to the dietary benefits of date fruits, they also possess important pharmacological properties. A community based study was carried out to assess the effect of date fruits intake on the selected group of pregnant and lactating women who belong specifically to the rural population of Karachi. The aim was to evaluate the weight gain of pregnant and lactating women as well as their infants after taking dates for a set period of time. The results indicated a significant weight gain of newborns and increase levels of hemoglobin in mothers. Hence, the study concluded the importance of dates as a good nutritional supplement particularly in the under developed areas.

  7. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Birth Asphyxia in Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Vikram

    2017-03-01

    India contributes to the highest neonatal mortality globally. Birth asphyxia is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality in India. A large number of neonates who suffer from birth asphyxia progress to Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE). The risk of a neonate progressing to severe form of HIE is many times higher in the low and middle income countries (LMICs) with ill developed health infrastructure. Till date LMICs have had a low institutional delivery rate, poor regionalization of care, lack of adequate transport facilities and ill equipped neonatal intensive care facilities. This has lead to a tremendous burden on the health care systems with a cohort of developmentally challenged neonates surviving into adulthood. Recently, Therapeutic Hypothermia (TH) has emerged as an evidence based intervention to reduce mortality and neurodevelopmental disability associated with asphyxia induced encephalopathy. TH has become the gold standard in the management of such cases in the western world. Extension of this knowledge to the LMICs and countries like India require a better understanding of the unique sociocultural issues associated with asphyxial brain injury in neonates. The high incidence of sepsis and presence of economic constraints make this problem more complex in such countries. The current review has tried to address these issues and looked at the basics of this complex topic from the perspective of a general pediatrician.

  8. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  9. biostatistical analysis of birth weight and head circumference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    URCHMAN

    maturity of the neonate and health status of the mother. It is also an important determinant of prenatal mortality, it is known to increase with successive birth order up to the fourth or fifth rank in other words, and babies tend to outweigh their immediate elder siblings. The birth weight of a newborn infant is influenced by various ...

  10. Hyponatraemia in very low birth weight infants | Ndwiga | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. Design: Comparative cohort study. Setting: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during ...

  11. Sobrevida e fatores de risco para mortalidade neonatal em uma coorte de nascidos vivos de muito baixo peso ao nascer, na Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Survival and risk factors for neonatal mortality in a cohort of very low birth weight infants in the southern region of São Paulo city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Furquim de Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos populacionais sobre mortalidade neonatal de nascimentos de muito baixo peso ao nascer contribuem para identificar sua complexa rede de fatores de risco. Foi estudada uma coorte de 213 recém-nascidos com peso inferior a 1.500g (112 óbitos neonatais e 101 sobreviventes na Região Sul do Município de São Paulo, Brasil, em 2000/2001. Foram realizadas entrevistas domiciliares e obtidos dados de prontuários hospitalares. Foi realizada análise de sobrevida e empregada regressão múltipla de Cox. A elevada mortalidade na sala de parto, no primeiro dia de vida e ausência de sobreviventes Population studies can help identify the complex set of risk factors for neonatal mortality among very low birth weight infants. A cohort (2000-2001 of 213 live newborns with birth weight < 1,500g in the southern region of São Paulo city, Brazil, was studied (112 neonatal deaths and 101 survivors. Data were obtained from home interviews and hospital records. Survival analysis and multiple Cox regression were performed. The high mortality in the delivery room and in the first day of life among neonates < 1,000g and < 28 weeks gestational age and the absence of survival in neonates < 700g suggest that care was actively oriented towards newborns with better prognosis. Increased risk of neonatal mortality was associated with maternal residence in slum areas, history of previous cesarean(s, history of induced abortion(s, adolescent motherhood, vaginal bleeding, and lack of prenatal care. Cesarean section and referral of the newborn to the hospital nursery showed protective effects. Birth weight less than 1,000g and Apgar index < 7 were associated with increased risk. The high mortality was due to poor living conditions and to maternal and neonatal characteristics. Improvement in prenatal and neonatal care could reduce neonatal mortality in these infants.

  12. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  13. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of enteral feeds in the first days of their life in order to prevent NEC. Uhing reported that preterm infants ... where: SS = required sample size; Z = 95% confidence interval. (standard value of 1.96); P ... The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been.

  14. Epidemic microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis in very-low-birth weight infants: experience of the German Neonatal Network.

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    Christoph Härtel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We evaluated blood culture-proven sepsis episodes occurring in microclusters in very-low-birth-weight infants born in the German Neonatal Network (GNN during 2009-2010. METHODS: Thirty-seven centers participated in GNN; 23 centers enrolled ≥50 VLBW infants in the study period. Data quality was approved by on-site monitoring. Microclusters of sepsis were defined as occurrence of at least two blood-culture proven sepsis events in different patients of one center within 3 months with the same bacterial species. For microcluster analysis, we selected sepsis episodes with typically cross-transmitted bacteria of high clinical significance including gram-negative rods and Enterococcus spp. RESULTS: In our cohort, 12/2110 (0.6% infants were documented with an early-onset sepsis and 235 late-onset sepsis episodes (≥72 h of age occurred in 203/2110 (9.6% VLBW infants. In 182/235 (77.4% late-onset sepsis episodes gram-positive bacteria were documented, while coagulase negative staphylococci were found to be the most predominant pathogens (48.5%, 95%CI: 42.01-55.01. Candida spp. and gram-negative bacilli caused 10/235 (4.3%, 95%CI: 1.68% -6.83% and 43/235 (18.5% late-onset sepsis episodes, respectively. Eleven microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis were detected in 7 hospitals involving a total 26 infants. 16/26 cluster patients suffered from Klebsiella spp. sepsis. The median time interval between the first patient's Klebsiella spp. sepsis and cluster cases was 14.1 days (interquartile range: 1-27 days. First patients in the cluster, their linked cases and sporadic sepsis events did not show significant differences in short term outcome parameters. DISCUSSION: Microclusters of infection are an important phenomenon for late-onset sepsis. Most gram-negative cluster infections occur within 30 days after the first patient was diagnosed and Klebsiella spp. play a major role. It is essential to monitor epidemic microclusters of sepsis in

  15. Prediction of Late Death or Disability at Age 5 Years Using a Count of 3 Neonatal Morbidities in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S.; Davis, Peter G.; Doyle, Lex W.; Asztalos, Elizabeth V.; Opie, Gillian; Bairam, Aida; Solimano, Alfonso; Arnon, Shmuel; Sauve, Reginald S.; D'Ilario, Judy; Cairnie, Janice; Dix, Joanne; Adams, Beth Anne; Warriner, Erin; Marie Kim, Mee-Hai; Anderson, Peter; Davis, Peter; Doyle, Lex; Argus, Brenda; Callanan, Catherine; Davis, Noni; Duff, Julianne; McDonald, Marion; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Hohn, Denise; Lacy, Maralyn; Haslam, Ross; Barnett, Christopher; Goodchild, Louise; Lontis, Rosslyn Marie; Fraser, Simon; Keng, Julie; Saunders, Kerryn; Kelly, Elaine; Woods, Heather; Marchant, Emma; Turner, Anne-Marie; Magrath, Emma; Williamson, Amanda; Bélanger, Sylvie; Fraser, Annie; Blayney, Marc; Lemyre, Brigitte; Frank, Jane; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E.; Hubber-Richard, Philippa; Rogers, Marilyn; Mackay, Margot; Petrie-Thomas, Julianne; Butt, Arsalan; van Wassenaer, Aleid; Nuytemans, Debbie; Houtzager, Bregje; van Sonderen, Loekie; Regev, Rivka; Itzchack, Netter; Chalaf, Adiba; Ohlsson, Arne; O'Brien, Karel; Hamilton, Anne-Marie; Chan, May Lee; Sankaran, Koravangattu; Proctor, Pat; Golan, Agneta; Goldsch-Lerman, Esther; Reynolds, Graham; Dromgool, Barbara; Meskell, Sandra; Parr, Vanessa; Maher, Catherine; Broom, Margaret; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Ringland, Cathy; McMillan, Douglas; Spellen, Elizabeth; Christianson, Heather; Anseeuw-Deeks, Deborah; Creighton, Dianne; Heath, Jennifer; Alvaro, Ruben; Chiu, Aaron; Porter, Ceceile; Turner, Gloria; Moddemann, Diane; Granke, Naomi; Penner, Karen; Bow, Jane; Mulder, Antonius; Wassenberg, Renske; van der Hoeven, Markus; Clarke, Maxine; Parfitt, Judy; Parker, Kevin; Nwaesei, Chukwuma; Ryan, Heather; Saunders, Cory; Schulze, Andreas; Wermuth, Inga; Hilgendorff, Anne; Flemmer, Andreas W.; Herlenius, Eric; Legnevall, Lena; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Matthew, Derek; Amos, Wendy; Tulsiani, Suresh; Tan-Dy, Cherrie; Turner, Marilyn; Phelan, Constance; Shinwell, Eric S.; Levine, Michael; Juster-Reicher, Ada; Khairy, May; Grier, Patricia; Vachon, Julie; Perepolkin, Larissa; Barrington, Keith J.; Sinha, Sunil Kumar; Tin, Win; Fritz, Susan; Walti, Herve; Royer, Diane; Halliday, Henry; Millar, David; Mayes, Clifford; McCusker, Christopher; McLaughlin, Olivia; Fahnenstich, Hubert; Tillmann, Bettina; Weber, Peter; Wariyar, Unni; Embleton, Nicholas; Swamy, Ravi; Bucher, Hans U.; Fauchere, Jean-Claude; Dietz, Vera; Harikumar, Chidambara; Anderson, Peter J.; Dewey, Deborah; Gent, Michael; Fraser, William; Hey, Edmund; Perlman, Max; Thorpe, Kevin; Gray, Shari; Chambers, Carole; Costantini, Lorrie; Yacura, Wendy; McGean, Erin; Scapinello, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), serious brain injury, and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) as predictors of poor long-term outcome in very low birth weight infants. Study design We examined the associations between counts of the 3 morbidities and long-term outcomes in

  16. Prediction of low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Frøkjær, Jens B

    2017-01-01

    operating characteristic curves demonstrated a significantly higher performance of T2* (AUC of 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98) than UtA PI (AUC of 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89) in the prediction of low birth weight (p = 0.010). Placental pathological findings were closely related to the T2* values. CONCLUSIONS...... placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 100 singleton pregnancies included at 20-40 weeks......' gestation. Placental T2* was obtained using a gradient recalled multi-echo MRI sequence and UtA PI was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Placental pathological examination was performed in 57 of the pregnancies. Low birth weight was defined by a Z-score ≤ -2.0. RESULTS: The incidence of low birth weight...

  17. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n=154 Blue-faced Leicester x Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ~147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n=856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n=283), the effect of the ewes' own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes.

  18. Neonatal skull depression unassociated with birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, D.; Kirchner, S.G.; Perrin, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    With few exceptions, a depression of the calvaria in a neonate is caused by birth trauma and often is associated with fracture. Localized depression of the skull without trauma is rare, and such a case is reported here. The cause, complications, and treatment of this condition are briefly discussed. Computed tomography (CT) was useful in clinical management. Although sizable, the depression was not associated with neurologic features and disappeared spontaneously

  19. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  20. A randomised controlled trial of early insulin therapy in very low birth weight infants, "NIRTURE" (neonatal insulin replacement therapy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornette Luc

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in adult intensive care have highlighted the importance of insulin and improved glucose control on survival, with 32% reduction in mortality, 22% reduction in intensive care stay and halving of the incidence of bacteraemia. Very low birth weight infants requiring intensive care also have relative insulin deficiency often leading to hyperglycaemia during the first week of life. The physiological influences on insulin secretion and sensitivity, and the potential importance of glucose control at this time are not well established. However there is increasing evidence that the early postnatal period is critical for pancreatic development. At this time a complex set of signals appears to influence pancreatic development and β cell survival. This has implications both in terms of acute glucose control but also relative insulin deficiency is likely to play a role in poor postnatal growth, which has been associated with later motor and cognitive impairment, and fewer β cells are linked to risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. Methods A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of early insulin replacement in very low birth weight babies (VLBW, birth weight Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78428828. EUDRACT Number 2004-002170-34

  1. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  2. Prediction of low birth weight from other anthropometric parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight is a global problem but presents a major burden on the neonatal services in developing countries such as Nigeria, and brings to bear a greater strain on the meagre resources available for health care delivery and family financing. In a resourceconstrained setting as ours, proper weighing of all ...

  3. Cytomegalovirus infections among low birth weight infants in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of congenital infections, which can lead to severe foetal anomalies or even foetal loss. In order to determine the incidence of congenital HCMV infection in low birth weight neonates and the most prevalent genotype, cord blood samples were collected from a ...

  4. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  5. Prediction of Late Death or Disability at Age 5 Years Using a Count of 3 Neonatal Morbidities in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Davis, Peter G; Doyle, Lex W; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Opie, Gillian; Bairam, Aida; Solimano, Alfonso; Arnon, Shmuel; Sauve, Reginald S

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), serious brain injury, and severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) as predictors of poor long-term outcome in very low birth weight infants. We examined the associations between counts of the 3 morbidities and long-term outcomes in 1514 of 1791 (85%) infants with birth weights of 500-1250 g who were enrolled in the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial from October 1999, to October 2004, had complete morbidity data, and were alive at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). BPD was defined as use of supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks PMA. Serious brain injury on cranial ultrasound included grade 3 and 4 hemorrhage, cystic periventricular leucomalacia, porencephalic cysts, or ventriculomegaly of any cause. Poor long-term outcome was death after 36 weeks PMA or survival to 5 years with 1 or more of the following disabilities: motor impairment, cognitive impairment, behavior problems, poor general health, deafness, and blindness. BPD, serious brain injury, and severe ROP occurred in 43%, 13%, and 6% of the infants, respectively. Each of the 3 morbidities was similarly and independently correlated with poor 5-year outcome. Rates of death or disability (95% CI) in children with none, any 1, any 2, and all 3 morbidities were 11.2% (9.0%-13.7%), 22.9% (19.6%-26.5%), 43.9% (35.5%-52.6%), and 61.5% (40.6%-79.8%), respectively. In very low birth weight infants who survive to 36 weeks PMA, a count of BPD, serious brain injury, and severe ROP predicts the risk of a late death or survival with disability at 5 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight. Nondiabetic women were recruited after ultrasonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Maternal body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the strongest predictors of birth weight, with multiple logistic regression analysis performed to assess predictors of birth weight greater than 4 kg. Data were analyzed for 2,618 women, of whom 49.6% (n=1,075) were primigravid and 16.5% (n=432) were obese based on a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. In univariable analysis, maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, smoking, fat mass, and fat-free mass all correlated significantly with birth weight. In multivariable regression analysis, fat-free mass remained a significant predictor of birth weight (model R=0.254, standardized β=0.237; Prelationship was found between maternal fat mass and birth weight. After adjustment for confounding variables, women in the highest fat-free mass quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.64 (95% confidence interval 2.34-5.68) for a birth weight more than 4 kg compared with those in the lowest quartile. Based on direct measurements of body composition, birth weight correlated positively with maternal fat-free mass and not adiposity. These findings suggest that, in nondiabetic women, interventions intended to reduce fat mass during pregnancy may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates and revised guidelines for gestational weight gain in obese women may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates. : III.

  7. Influence of birth weight on differences in infant mortality by social class and legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, D A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social class. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality was 4.2/1000 and 2.3/1000 respectively for social class I and 6.8/1000 and 5.6/1000 respectively for social class V. Mortality was lower among births registered within marriage (postneonatal 3.5/1000; neonatal 5.2/1000) than among those jointly registered outside marriage (5.1/1000; 6.4/1000); mortality was highest in those solely registered outside marriage (7.2/1000; 7.0/1000). For neonatal mortality the effect of social class varied with birth weight. Social class had little effect on neonatal mortality in low birthweight babies and increasing effect in heavier babies. For postneonatal mortality the effect of social class was similar for all birth weights and was almost as steep as for all birth weights combined. CONCLUSION--Birth weight mediates little of the effect of social class on postneonatal mortality. PMID:1954421

  8. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2009-06-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  9. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2012-02-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  10. Surgical insertion of central venous catheters in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Neonatal central vascular access (CVA) represents a daily practice in neonatal intensive care unit. Low birth weight (LBW) neonates pose a challenge to anesthetists who try the landmark technique to cannulate central veins. We reported our experience of open surgical cutdown (OSC) to insert catheters through right ...

  11. Correlation between several anthropometric measurements to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nur

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality remains one of the factors leading to child mortality, even for crude death as a whole. Therefore, good perinatal care is considered to be useful for reducing this mortality. Low birth weight is one of neonatal morbidity cause; previous studies reported correlation between birth weight to several anthropometric measurements and their predictive value. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between birth length, head, chest, abdominal, calf and mid arm circumferences as well as to foot length to birth weight. A cross sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital Medan between November 1st 1998 to January 31st 1999. All babies without clear moulage, caput succedaneum or cephal hematoma were studied. Birth weight was measured by TANITA weighing scale within the first 24 hours after delivery. Birth length by somatometer and head, chest, abdominal, calf and mid arm circumferences as well as foot length were measured 3 times by using plastic measuring tape. It was evident a positive correlation of birth weight to all such anthropometric measurements with the highest correlation coefficient for calf circumference (r : 0.92. Calf circumference of 9,8 cm is predictor of low birth weight.

  12. Fatores de risco para mortalidade neonatal em crianças com baixo peso ao nascer Factores de riesgo para mortalidad neonatal en niños con bajo peso al nacer Risk factors for neonatal mortality among children with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Monteiro Ribeiro

    2009-04-01

    Informaciones sobre Mortalidad, fueron integrados por la técnica de linkage. En modelo jerarquizado, las variables de los niveles distal (factores socioeconómicos, intermedio (factores de atención a la salud y proximal (factores biológicos fueron sometidas al análisis univariado y regresión logística multivariada. RESULTADOS: Con el ajuste de las variables en la regresión logística multivariada, las variables del nivel distal que permanecieron significativamente asociadas con el óbito neonatal fueron: la cohabitación de los padres, número de hijos vivos y tipo de hospital de nacimiento; en el nivel intermedio: número de consultas en el pre-natal, complejidad del hospital de nacimiento y tipo de parto; y en el nivel proximal: sexo, edad gestacional, peso al nacer, índice de Apgar y presencia de malformación congénita. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados a la mortalidad neonatal en los nacidos vivos con bajo peso están relacionados con la atención a la gestante y al recién nacido, reductibles por la actuación del sector salud.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors associated with neonatal deaths among children with low birth weight. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out on live births weighing between 500 g and 2,499 g from single pregnancies without anencephaly in Recife (Northeastern Brazil between 2001 and 2003. Data on 5,687 live births and 499 neonatal deaths obtained from the Live Birth Information System and the Mortality Information System were integrated through the linkage technique. Using a hierarchical model, variables from the distal level (socioeconomic factors, intermediate level (healthcare factors and proximal level (biological factors were subjected to univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: After adjusting the variables through multivariate logistic regression, the factors from the distal level that remained significantly associated with neonatal death were: cohabitation by the parents, number of

  13. Delivery practices, hygiene, birth attendance and neonatal infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Drawing attention to home birth conditions and subsequent neonatal infections is a key starting point to reducing neonatal morbidity which are a main cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To determine the proportion of respiratory, ophthalmic, and diarrhoeal infections in neonates; the proportion ...

  14. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  16. Neonatal delivery weight and risk of future maternal diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Andrea E; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Källen, Karin B M

    2018-01-01

    To investigate associations between neonatal delivery weight and future risk of maternal type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Data included in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry and Swedish National Diabetes Registry were merged to include all women born during 1930-1989; patients with pre-existing diabetes or gestational diabetes were excluded. Cox regression analyses were performed to identify associations between the neonatal delivery weight from the most recent pregnancy and later occurrence of diabetes. There were 1 873 440 patients included in the analyses. An increased risk of type 1 (hazard ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.23-4.01) or type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 2.77, 95% CI 2.68-2.87) was observed among patients who had a large for gestational age neonate compared with patients who had neonates within one standard definition of the mean weight for gestational age; the odds of developing type 1 (odds ratio 10.27, 95% CI 7.37-14.31) or type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 8.50, 95% CI 6.01-12.02) within 1 year of delivery was also increased compared with patients who had a neonate within one standard deviation of the mean weight for gestational age. Delivering a large for gestational age neonate was a potent risk factor for the later development of maternal type 1 or type 2 diabetes. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and placental weight determine birth weight in normal Jamaican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, J M; Davidson, S; Hall, J S; Jackson, A A

    1999-12-01

    Birth weight is related to neonatal health and long-term risk of chronic disease. Since animal studies have shown that birth outcome is related to placental function, the present project was designed to explore the relationship between birth weight and placental growth and composition with maternal factors during pregnancy among normal term pregnancies in 51 primiparous and 40 multiparous women delivering at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Both groups were followed from 15 weeks of gestation to term. The primiparous group was generally younger than the multiparous (mean age 22 +/- 4 versus 31 +/- 5 yr). They were significantly lighter (55 +/- 8 versus 61 +/- 9 kg) with a lower body mass index (21 +/- 3 versus 23 +/- 4 kg/m2) during early pregnancy, but gained more weight during pregnancy, 11 kg compared with 8 kg, respectively. The duration of pregnancy was similar for both groups. Although the size of the placenta was not significantly different between the two groups, the mean weight of the multiparous placentae was more than that of the primiparous placentae. Also, for all mothers both placental weight and initial maternal weight related directly to birth weight. Placental non collagen protein (NCP), sodium and potassium contents were significantly higher for multiparous women and were related to birth weight. The primiparous group had babies who were significantly lighter, 3.03 kg compared with 3.36 kg, for the multiparous and this could be attributed to differences in placental function and maternal weight. When account was taken of the difference in maternal weight at the start of pregnancy and the difference in placental weight, parity no longer explained any of the differences in birth weight. It is concluded that maternal body weight at the time of becoming pregnant and the early development of the placenta determine the efficiency with which nutrients might be delivered to the foetus and hence foetal growth. The difference in birth weight

  18. Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006-2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves.Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants.There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes.

  19. The neglected sociobehavioral risk factors of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the most important health indicators in the world. It has certain known and unknown causes. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of socio-behavioral factors on neonatal birth weight.Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on 300 eligible neonates (150 LBW infants as cases and 150 normal body weight infants as controls in 2015. The national pregnancy care forms of the neonates kept in heath care centers in Kerman were used. The data was analyzed running Independent samples t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher’s Exact test in SPSS. The significance level was set as 0.05.Results: Preterm birth (P<0.001, number of primary care during pregnancy (P=0.001, mother’s age (P=0.049, consumption of supplements during pregnancy (P=0.03, and history of substance abuse in mothers (P=0.03 were found to have significant roles in having LBW neonate.Conclusion: Identifying the sociobehavioral risk factors of Preterm labor and modifying them to prevent preterm birth are essential approaches to prevent LBW. Governments should pay special attention to nutritional status of teenage and young girls to have healthy mothers and babies in the future. Women of childbearing age should be screened and educated about risky behaviors. Pregnancy care and support should be delivered to all pregnant women according to the standard methods.Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Risk Factors; Behavior; Preterm Labor

  20. Aplicação clínica da ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lúcia Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o valor do diagnóstico precoce de alterações hemodinâmicas em hemorragias e eventos hipóxico-isquêmicos pela avaliação de imagens e mensuração do índice de resistência por meio da ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Cinquenta neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso foram submetidos a ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler com a técnica transfontanela anterior e transtemporal sequenciais. RESULTADOS: Foram detectadas alterações cerebrais em 32% dos prematuros, sendo 22% com hemorragia intracraniana, 8% com leucomalácia periventricular e 2% com toxoplasmose. Dentre os 34 casos (68%, do total de neonatos, nos quais não foram detectadas lesões cerebrais pela ultrassonografia craniana, 18 (53% apresentaram alterações no índice de resistência. O índice de resistência variou conforme a época do exame. CONCLUSÃO: Existe correlação entre a presença de alterações na hemodinâmica cerebral e subsequente desenvolvimento de hemorragias e lesões hipóxico-isquêmicas, pela mensuração do índice de resistência. Alterações do índice de resistência, embora não preditoras de morte, estão relacionadas com a gravidade do quadro clínico em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. RESULTS: Cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis

  1. [Labor stress and postpartum neonatal weight development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderlein, J M; Ritz-Schäfer, R

    1994-01-01

    55 years ago the term "stress" was defined as a general reaction pattern which, in moderation, is not only unharmful but even has a vital function. Does this also apply to intrapartal fetal stress? The results from a retrospective pilot study including 791 mature newborns without major disorders are presented to stimulate discussion and possibly give rise to prospective studies. 1. Newborns from primigravidas with labour spanning more than 12 hours incurred postpartal weight loss in excess of 5% of their birthweight only half as often as infants with shorter delivery periods. In other words, a longer expulsion phase tended to be correlated with lower postpartal weight loss in neonates. 2. As expected, the 1-minute-Apgar score was no statistically valid predictive parameter for the adaptation phase in the first 5 postpartal days of newborns. Infants with 1-minute Apgar scores of up to 6 had reached their birth-weight on the 5th postpartal day rather more often than those with better 1-minute Apgar scores. 3. In the group of mature newborns involving premature rupture of the membranes a marked gain on birthweight up to the 5th postpartal day was seen only half as often as in the group with rupture of membranes at term. 4. Weight loss of only slight proportions was seen in newborns admitted to the pediatric hospital because of suspected intra-amniotic infection half as often, compared to the other infants who also reached their birthweight faster than those with suspected intra-amniotic infection. 5. Oxytocin administered to aid labour had a positive effect on postpartal weight development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Prevalence and determinants of low birth weight: the situation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional birth attendant delivers majority of pregnant women in Nigeria. Objective: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for delivery of low birth weight (LBW) neonates in a Traditional Birth Home (TBH)in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 780 pregnant women ...

  3. Human Milk Provision Experiences, Goals, and Outcomes for Teen Mothers with Low-Birth-Weight Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Beverly; Meier, Paula P; Janes, Judy E; Lawrence, Christie; Patel, Aloka L

    Breastfeeding rates are virtually unknown for teen mothers whose low-birth-weight (LBW; goals, and outcomes of teen mothers of LBW infants. We conducted a multimethod study using a qualitative research design, survey, and infant medical records. The primary data source was individual interviews conducted with teen mothers of LBW infants hospitalized in a tertiary NICU. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. All 15 teen mothers (12 black, 3 Hispanic) wanted what was best for their infants and initiated lactation by breast pump. However, maintaining lactation was challenging and the following barriers were identified: fear of being judged; body image issues; influence of the maternal grandmother; and disorganized thought processes about combining pumping with returning to school or work. Despite these barriers, 50% of the teen mothers met their goals for human milk provision at NICU discharge. Most of the teen mothers' lactation barriers reflected their adolescent developmental stage. Potential interventions are identified and include focus groups with teen mothers and maternal grandmothers and lactation support by NICU-based teen breastfeeding peer counselors.

  4. Birth Tourism and Neonatal Intensive Care: A Children's Hospital Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhael, Michel; Cleary, John P; Dhar, Vijay; Chen, Yanjun; Nguyen, Danh V; Chang, Anthony C

    2016-12-01

    Objective  The aim of this article is to examine characteristics of birth tourism (BT) neonates admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods  This was a retrospective review over 3 years; BT cases were identified, and relevant perinatal, medical, social, and financial data were collected and compared with 100 randomly selected non-birth tourism neonates. Results  A total of 46 BT neonates were identified. They were more likely to be born to older women (34 vs. 29 years; p  impacts on families, health care system, and society. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppetti, Debora; Pecile, Alessandro; Palestrini, Clara; Marelli, Stefano P.; Boracchi, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Birth weight is a key factor for neonatal mortality and morbidity in most mammalian species. The great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed, as well as in skeletal and cranial conformation makes it challenging to define birth weight standards in dogs. A total of 3293 purebred pups were surveyed to study which maternal aspects can determine birth weight considering head and body shape, size, body weight and breed in bitches, as well as litter size and sex in pups. In our sample, multivariate analysis outcomes suggested that birth weight and litter size were directly proportional to maternal size. The maternal body shape influenced both birth weight and litter size, whereas the maternal head shape had impact only on birth weight. Sex differences in birth weight were found. Birth weight and litter size also varied among breeds. The results of the present study could have practical implications allowing one to identify pups in need of admission to intensive nursing care, as occurs in humans. A deeper knowledge of the factors that significantly influence birth weight could positively affect the canine breeding management helping to prevent and reduce neonatal mortality. Abstract Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001) and litter size (p < 0.05) increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and

  6. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18......-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as birth weight...... was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams...

  7. Neonatal morbidity in term neonates is related to gestational age at birth and level of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, A.S.; van Elburg, R.M.; Kostense, P.J.; van Geijn, H.P.; Bolte, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to assess whether the incidence of neonatal morbidity of neonates born at term and admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs by gestational age and level of care. Methods: This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study of singleton term births

  8. Neonatal morbidity in term neonates is related to gestational age at birth and level of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Kostense, Pieter J.; van Geijn, Herman P.; Bolte, Antoinette C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the incidence of neonatal morbidity of neonates born at term and admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs by gestational age and level of care. This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study of singleton term births admitted to the NICU

  9. Renal Calcification in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yang Chang

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of renal calcification in very low birth weight infants in this study was relatively low, and the calcification was transient in one-half of the infants. Extremely premature, sick infants requiring long-term ventilation, and those receiving furosemide or dexamethasone were more likely to have renal calcification. Clinicians should be aware that renal calcification may develop beyond the neonatal stage.

  10. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proaño, Alvaro; Aragón, Romina Elena; Rivera, Fabiola; Zegarra, Jaime

    2016-03-29

    To determine the actual nutritional intake of very low birth weight infants and their growth outcome during the first month of life. Additionally, we identified factors that account for a negative neonatal outcome in this population. A case-series study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012 and the data was obtained from medical records. No feeding protocol was used during this study. Daily fluids, energy and protein intakes were documented and weekly weight z-scores were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for an adverse outcome, defined as neonatal mortality or extra-uterine growth restriction, during the first 28 days of life. After applying selection criteria, 76 participants were included. The nutritional intakes were similar to standard values seen in the literature, but protein intakes were suboptimal in all of the four weeks. Birth weight z-score was associated with an adverse outcome (p=0.035). It was determined that having a birth weight z-score under -1.09 predicted a negative outcome with an area under the curve of 96.8% [93.5%, 100%] with a 95% confidence interval. Protein intakes are widely deficient in the population of this study. Nevertheless, an adverse outcome during the neonatal period is more associated with a poor birth weight z-score than nutrition-related factors.

  11. Increased Birth Weight Associated with Regular Pre-Pregnancy Deworming and Weekly Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation for Vietnamese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Passerini, Luca; Casey, Gerard J.; Biggs, Beverley A.; Cong, Dai T.; Phu, Luong B.; Phuc, Tran Q.; Carone, Marco; Montresor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid suppleme...

  12. Birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity in discordant twins in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Hua Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To assess the relative effect of birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using preterm twin pairs discordant for birth weigh in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in China.METHODS: Fifty-six discordant twin pairs of 112 preterm infants were retrospectively analyzed. The twin pairs were divided into two subgroups based on birth weight in each pair. The occurrence of ROP and severe ROP requiring treatment were compared between the lower birth weight infants and their co-twins with the higher birth weight. Some neonatal morbidities related to prematurity and neonatal characteristics were also compared between the twin pairs.RESULTS: Based on the univariate analysis, gestational age and birth weight were significantly associated with the occurrence and progression of ROP. But no significant differences in ROP between larger and smaller infants were observed in the twin-paired analysis. The incidence of neonatal morbidities regarding respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, sepsis and neonatal characteristics regarding gender distribution, one- and five-minute Apgar score, postnatal steroid treatment, blood transfusion, supplemental oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were not different between the twins. However, gestational age of ≤28wk was significantly associated with significantly higher rates of ROP and severe ROP.CONCLUSION: Gestational age is a better predictor of ROP than birth weight in the twin-paired study.

  13. Representación gráfica del riesgo de mortalidad neonatal en un centro perinatal regional en Mérida, Yucatán, México The graphical display of neonatal mortality risk at a regional perinatal center in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico: The joint effect of birth weight and gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Osorno-Covarrubias

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el riesgo de mortalidad neonatal por edad gestacional y el peso al nacer. Material y métodos. Se estudió una cohorte de 19 668 neonatos que egresaron entre el 1 de enero de 1995 y el 31 de octubre de 1999 del Centro Médico Nacional Ignacio García Téllez, del tercer nivel de atención perinatal del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de la Península de Yucatán. Se registraron el peso al nacer, edad gestacional y condición de egreso. Se calculó el riesgo absoluto (RA de mortalidad para cada semana de edad gestacional y grupo de peso. Resultados. El RA de mortalidad observado en neonatos de entre 34 a 44 semanas y peso mayor o igual a 2 250 g fue de 0.4%, de 15% para aquellos de entre 26 a 32 semanas con peso mayor o igual a 1000 g, y de 73% para los de entre las 26 a las 34 semanas, con peso al nacimiento de entre 750 y 1 000 g. Conclusione. El RA de mortalidad neonatal aumentó a menor. edad gestacional y peso. Los datos pueden ser utilizados como valores de referencia para nuestro hospital y para comparación con otros hospitales.Objective. To determine the neonatal mortality risk according to gestational age and birth weight. Material and Methods. The cohort consisted of 19 668 newborns of Centro Médico Nacional (National Medical Center Ignacio García Téllez, a tertiary level healthcare institution of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexican Institute of Social Security, IMSS of the Yucatan Peninsula. All new-borns discharged from the hospital between January 1 st , 1995 and October 31 st , 1999 were included in the study. Birth weight, gestational age, and conditions upon discharge were recorded. Absolute risk (AR of mortality was calculated for each week-of-gestation- and birth group. Results. Observed AR in newborns 34 to 44 weeks of gestational age and weighing at least 2 250 g was 0.4, while that for those 26 to 32 weeks of gestational age and weighing between 1000 g was 15%. Conclusions. AR of

  14. Relationship Between Perinatal and Neonatal Indices and Intelligence Quotient in Very Low Birth Weight Infants at the Age of 6 or 8 Years

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    Shu-Chi Mu

    2008-04-01

    Conclusion: Conclusion: In our study, the children with lower gestational age had lower FSIQ. There was no significant association between small for gestational age and IQ performance. The neonatal outcomes of VLBW infants did have less impact on IQ performance later in life.

  15. Weight loss percentage prediction of subsequent neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in exclusively breastfed neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rui-Jane; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Mei-Huei; Chen, Chien-Yi; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Tsao, Po-Nien

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in our hospital has increased since the implementation of breastfeeding promotion. Inadequate breastfeeding results in reduced calorie intake, weight loss and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Supplementary feeding is required if breastfeeding proves inadequate. However, the optimal weight loss cut-off value for supplementary feeding is unknown. We collected records for all healthy neonates with a gestational age ≥35 weeks and birth body weight (BBW) above 2500 g, born between March 2002 and July 2005, from our nursery. A total of 1979 neonates were reviewed, 874 of whom were exclusively breastfed and subsequently enrolled in this study. Only infants who were breastfed exclusively were enrolled; 219 of these infants (25.1%) presented significant hyperbilirubinemia after 72 hours of age. Infants with early-onset (BBW after 48 hours and weight loss ≥11% of BBW after 72 hours as the cut-off values for the prediction of subsequent hyperbilirubinemia, negative predictive values were 77.7% and 76.8%, respectively. This study documented the relationship between weight loss percentage and subsequent hyperbilirubinemia incidence. Our data provide a basis for determination of an optimal weight loss percentage cut-off value that indicates supplementary feeding. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight infants in the New Born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Morbidity and mortality of low birth weight (LBW) infants at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) has previously been found to be high. Other centres have shown that even with lack of neonatal intensive care facilities, selective interventions can be implemented that improve neonatal survival rates. It is important to ...

  17. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  18. Ethical issues related to caring for low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mary S; Passmore, Denise; Cline, Genieveve; Maguire, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Currently preterm births are the leading causes of newborn deaths and newborn mortality in developed countries. Infants born prematurely remain vulnerable to many acute complications and long-term disabilities. There is a growing concern surrounding the moral and ethical implications of the complex and technological care being provided to extremely low birth weight infants in neonatal intensive care units in the developed nations. The purpose of this study was to describe the ethical and moral issues that neonatal intensive care nurses experience when caring for low birth weight preterm infants and their families. A phenomenological method design was used to describe the lived experiences of nurses with ethical and moral issues encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions were used to gather data from the participants. The setting for this study was a 97-bed neonatal intensive care. A total of 16 female nurses were interviewed. Approval to conduct the research study was obtained from the institutional review board of the hospital where the study was conducted. Formal signed consent was obtained from each participant. To ensure confidentiality, each participant was asked to choose a confederate name to be used in the interview and the transcriptions. The thematic analysis identified five recurring themes: (a) at the edge of viability, (b) infant pain and discomfort, (c) crucial decisions, (d) communicating with parents, and (e) letting go. Neonatal intensive care unit nurses indicated that they often had challenges to their own sense of morality as they struggled to protect the infant from pain and unnecessary discomfort, provide care to an infant and their family whom they thought was faced with a lifetime of challenges and poor health, accepting decisions made by parents, and feeling as if parents were not adequately informed about outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight.We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data.Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds.Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth

  20. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...

  1. Performance of a Quantitative PCR-Based Assay and Beta-d-Glucan Detection for Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Neonatal Patients (CANDINEO Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jose Tomas; Villar, Sonia; Bouza, Emilio; Bergon-Sendin, Elena; Perez Rivilla, Alfredo; Collados, Caridad Tapia; Andreu, Mariano; Reyes, Candelaria Santana; Campos-Herrero, María Isolina; de Heredia, Jon López; Herrera, María Cruz López; Alonso, Paloma Anguita; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    An epidemiological, multicenter, noninterventional, observational case-control study was conducted to describe the performance of serum beta-d-glucan (BDG) and Candida PCR in blood, serum, and sterile samples for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC) in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm neonates and to compare these techniques with culture of samples from blood and other sterile sites. Seventeen centers participated in the study, and the number of episodes analyzed was 159. A total of 9 episodes of IC from 9 patients (7 confirmed and 2 probable) and 150 episodes of suspected sepsis from 117 controls were identified. The prevalence of IC was 5.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.1 to 9.3). The mortality was significantly higher in episodes of IC (44.4%) than in the non-IC episodes (11.1%, P PCR performed on blood/serum samples were 87.5% and 81.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BDG results were lower (75.0% and 64.6%). For cases with negative culture results, the PCR and the BDG results were positive in 27 (17.4%) and 52 (33.5%) episodes, respectively. The presence of multiorgan failure, improvement with empirical antifungal therapy, thrombocytopenia, and Candida colonization were significantly associated ( P PCR or BDG positivity regardless of the results of the cultures. Serum BDG analysis and Candida PCR could be used as complementary diagnostic techniques to detect IC in VLBW neonates. Copyright © 2017 Ramos et al.

  2. Vitamin D supplementation, cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hypovitaminosis D, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L, is frequent in pregnant women and neonates worldwide and has been associated with both low birth weight (BW) and placental weight (PW) as well as reduced placental development. We aimed to assess th......, and PW/BW ratio were associated to higher cord s-25(OH)D levels with a suggested cut-off at 60 nmol/L. More studies are encouraged to elucidate the impact of cord s-25(OH)D levels on offspring health and to establish optimal cut-offs for these outcomes....

  3. Central-peripheral temperature gradient: an early diagnostic sign of late-onset neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leante-Castellanos, José Luis; Lloreda-García, José M; García-González, Ana; Llopis-Baño, Caridad; Fuentes-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Alonso-Gallego, José Ángel; Martínez-Gimeno, Antonio

    2012-04-22

    We assessed central-peripheral temperature gradient alteration for the diagnosis of late-onset neonatal sepsis and compared earliness detection of this sign with altered blood cell count and C-reactive protein. Thirty-one preterm babies (peripheral) temperatures were continuously monitored with a thermal probe (ThermoTracer; Dräger Medical AGF & Co. KgaA, Lübeck, Germany) adjusting incubator air temperature for a thermal gradient peripheral temperature alteration was defined as a thermal gradient >2°C that could not be corrected with protocolized air temperature modifications. Proven (positive blood culture) sepsis and probable late-onset sepsis were recorded. Late-onset sepsis was diagnosed in 11 neonates (proven, 9; probable, 2). Thermal gradient alteration was present in 12 cases, in association with the onset of sepsis in 10 and concomitantly with a ductus arteriosus and stage 1 necrotizing enterocolitis in 2. Thermal gradient alteration had a sensitivity of 90.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 62.3-98.4] and specificity of 90% (95% CI, 69.9-97.2%), and in 80% of cases, it occurred before abnormal laboratory findings. Central-peripheral temperature gradient monitoring is a feasible, non-invasive, and simple tool easily applicable in daily practice. An increase of >2°C showed a high-sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of late-onset sepsis.

  4. Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Mahony, Rhona; Malone, Fergal D

    2011-07-01

    To establish the level of birth weight discordance at which perinatal morbidity increases in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancy. This prospective multicenter cohort study included 1,028 unselected twin pairs recruited over a 2-year period. Participants underwent two weekly ultrasonographic surveillance from 24 weeks of gestation with surveillance of monochorionic twins two-weekly from 16 weeks. Analysis using Cox proportional hazards compared a composite measure of perinatal morbidity (including any of the following: mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or sepsis) at different degrees of birth weight discordance with adjustment for chorionicity, gestational age, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, birth order, gender, and growth restriction. Perinatal outcome data were recorded for 977 patients (100%) who continued the study with both fetuses alive beyond 24 weeks, including 14 cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Adjusting for gestation at delivery, twin order, gender, and growth restriction, perinatal mortality, individual morbidity, and composite perinatal morbidity were all seen to increase with birth weight discordance exceeding 18% for dichorionic pairs (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.9, Pbirth weights were appropriate for gestational age. : The threshold for birth weight discordance established by this prospective study is 18% both for dichorionic twin pairs and for monochorionic twins without twin-twin transfusion syndrome. This threshold is considerably lower than that defined by many retrospective series as pathologic. We suggest that an anticipated difference of 18% in birth weight should prompt more intensive fetal monitoring.

  5. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Magnus et al.[12] reported that paternal birth weight has a greater influence on offspring birth weight than maternal birth weight. In contrast, Grifith et al.,[13] in a more recent study, concluded that maternal weight contributed more significantly to offspring's birth weight than paternal weight. Such discrepancies might be a ...

  6. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Groppetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001 and litter size (p < 0.05 increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and the lightest pups, respectively (p < 0.001. Birth weight decreased with litter size (p < 0.001, and male pups were heavier than females (p < 0.001. These results suggest that canine morphotype, not only maternal size and body weight, can affect birth weight and litter size with possible practical implications in neonatal assistance.

  7. A comparative effectiveness study of continuous positive airway pressure-related skin breakdown when using different nasal interfaces in the extremely low birth weight neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnam, Katherine M; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Salyer, Jeanne; Estes, Tracy; Jallo, Nancy; Bass, W Thomas

    2015-02-01

    A three group prospective randomized experimental design was conducted to identify differences in frequency and severity of nasal injuries when comparing various interfaces used during continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and identified risk factors associated with injury. Seventy-eight neonates nasal prongs; continuous nasal mask; or alternating mask/prongs. Repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction demonstrated that significantly less skin injury was detected in the rotation interface group when compared to both mask and prong groups. In the final stepwise regression model (F = 11.51; R(2) = 0.221; p = 0.006) significant predictors of skin injury included number of days on nasal CPAP (p nasal injury was demonstrated using rotating mask/prong nasal interfaces. Future best practices must include precise selection of device size, developmental and CPAP device positioning with focused skin assessment including rapid intervention for skin injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Updated birth weight centiles for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tom; Seaton, Sarah E; Manktelow, Brad N; Baker, Philip N; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Field, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Smith, Lucy K

    2017-12-07

    Construct updated birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts for use in the UK and compare these to the currently used UK-WHO charts. Secondary analysis of national birth data. Centiles were constructed using 1 269 403 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2013-2014 as part of the MBRRACE-UK national perinatal surveillance programme. These were then validated using 642 737 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2015. Sex-specific birth weight-for-gestational age centiles. Centiles were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method via the GAMLSS package in R. This method transforms the skewed birth weight distribution to approximate a normal distribution, allowing any birth weight centile to be produced. The new centiles performed well in the validation sample, with the observed and expected proportion of births below a given centile in agreement. Overall, driven by the predominance of term births, the UK-WHO charts classify a smaller proportion of infants as below a given centile. For example, the UK-WHO estimates classified only 1.32% (8035/606 430) of term infants born in 2015 as below the second centile, compared with 1.97% (11 975/606 430) using the new MBRRACE-UK centiles. At the earliest gestational ages, however, the opposite is observed, with the UK-WHO classifying a larger proportion of infants as below a given centile, particularly at the lower end of the birthweight distribution. We have constructed and validated updated birth weight-for-gestational age centiles using a contemporary sample of births occurring in England and Wales. The benefits of these updated centiles will be first to assist the national surveillance of perinatal mortality programme by improving the identification of the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by intrauterine growth restriction and, second, to aid clinicians by more accurately identifying babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth.

  9. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence of ...

  10. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  11. Changes in Gestational Weight Gain and Birth Weight in Women who Delivered at Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital in Tamba, Japan during 27 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Houu; Tanimura, Kenji; Nakashima, Yuki; Maruo, Motoyoshi; Sakai, Keiichiro; Ueda, Yasuo; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-12-03

    Two independent guidelines on appropriate weight gain for Japanese pregnant women have been established in 1997 and 2006. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the amount of gestational weight gain in pregnant women, the birth weight of their neonates, and the incidence of complications of pregnancy and neonatal outcome in women who delivered at Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital. Between 1988 and 2014, 6367 women delivered live singleton neonates at full term. The study period was divided into period I (1988-1996), period II (1997-2005), and period III (2006-2014). Changes in weight gain and birth weight were assessed. Complications of pregnancy and neonatal outcome were compared among the periods. Weight gain had been decreased in periods I and II, and weight gain was increased in period III. There was no difference in birth weights between the periods. The incidences of pregnancy-induced hypertension in periods II and III were higher than that in period I (pwomen.

  12. A study of neonatal outcome associated with preterm birth in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.; Azhar, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most significant problem in current obstetric practice and according to WHO is the direct cause accounting for 24% of neonatal deaths. Objective: To assess frequency and neonatal outcome in patients with preterm birth. Methodology: A prospective descriptive study was conducted at Gynae Unit III Jinnah Hospital Lahore over a period of one year (from 1st July 2011 to 30th June included in the study. For data collection two groups were made depending upon duration of pregnancy. Group l was allotted to women who were pregnant 2012) in collaboration with Paediatrics department. All labouring women who presented after 28 weeks and before 37 completed weeks of gestation were less ( ) than 32 weeks of gestation. Data was collected and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: During the study period total 5171 deliveries took place. Out of 5171 neonates born, 460 were preterm making the frequency of 8.86%. Majority 62.82% were > 32 weeks of gestation, 67.39% were male, 57.60% were > 1.5 kg by weight, 57.17% delivered vaginally and 80.86% were born alive. Neonatal morbidity was more common in neonates less than 32 weeks of gestation. Perinatal mortality was 10.48% in this study. Conclusion: Neonatal morbidity and mortality is more common in neonates less than 32 weeks of gestation, this can be improved by improving prenatal health services and advanced neonatal care. (author)

  13. Birth weight by gestational age and congenital malformations in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Nigatu, Balkachew; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-03-29

    Studies on birth weight and congenital anomalies in sub-Saharan regions are scarce. Data on child variables (gestational age, birth weight, sex, and congenital malformations) and maternal variables (gravidity, parity, antenatal care, previous abortions, maternal illness, age, medication, and malformation history) were collected for all neonates delivered at Ayder referral and Mekelle hospitals (Northern Ehthiopia) in a prospective study between 01-12-2011 and 01-05-2012. The total number of deliveries was 1516. More female (54%) than male neonates were born. Birth weights were 700-1,000 grams between 26 and 36 weeks of pregnancy and then increased linearly to 3,500-4,000 grams at 40 weeks. Thirty-five and 54% of neonates were very-low and low birth weight, respectively, without sex difference. Very-low birth-weight prevalence was not affected by parity. Male and female neonates from parity-2 and parity-2-4 mothers, respectively, were least frequently under weight. Sixty percent of newborns to parity -3 mothers weighed less than 2,500 grams, without sex difference. The percentage male neonates dropped from ~50% in parity-1-3 mothers to ~20% in parity-6 mothers. Diagnosed congenital malformations (~2%) were 2-fold more frequent in boys than girls. The commonest malformations were in the central nervous system (CNS; ~1.5% of newborns). Parity, low birth weight, gestational age less than 35 weeks, male sex, and lack of antenatal care were the most significant risk factors for congenital anomalies. The high prevalence of neonates with low birth weight and CNS anomalies in Northern Ethiopia was very high. The findings may reflect the harsh conditions in the past 2 decades and suggest environmental and/or nutritional causes. Male sex and parity affected the outcome of pregnancy negatively.

  14. Comparação da mortalidade neonatal em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso ao nascimento, em maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Comparison of neonatal mortality in very low birth weight newborns at maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Muniz Bandeira Duarte

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a comparação das taxas de mortalidade neonatal em quatro maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A população estudada foi de recém-nascidos com peso inferior a 1.500g. O instrumento utilizado foi um questionário com dados informados pela mãe e o prontuário médico. Foram calculados, para cada instituição, as Razões Padronizadas de Mortalidade (RPM com o método direto e indireto, tendo como padrão a distribuição por peso do National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research. A amostra final apresentou 487 recém-nascidos. As padronizações pelo método direto e indireto mostraram elevadas taxas de mortalidade em todas as instituições; as que apresentaram a maior quantidade de recém-nascidos nas faixas com os menores pesos, foram aquelas que mostraram os menores valores de RPM. A menor razão de mortalidade por faixa de peso foi encontrada na faixa de peso entre 500 e 749g. Os resultados da RPM estão inversamente associados ao quantitativo populacional de recém-nascidos nas faixas com os menores pesos. Os coeficientes de mortalidade mostraram taxas altas, principalmente nas faixas de peso mais elevados. Os resultados apontam para uma qualidade deficiente na atenção perinatal.This study was a comparison of neonatal mortality rates in four maternity hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study population consisted of newborns with birth weight below 1,500g. The research instrument was a questionnaire with data reported by the mother and collected from the patient record. For each maternity hospital the standardized mortality ratio (SMR was calculated using the direct and indirect method, using the weight distribution of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research as the standard. The final sample consisted of 487 newborns. Standardizations by the direct and indirect method showed high mortality rates in all four institutions

  15. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.0001), but BMI was not (ρ = 0.025, P = 0.61). On regression analysis, gestational weight gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  16. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... has not been studied. Aim We aimed to investigate the association between BW, GA, and infantile colic. Methods We studied 62,785 singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information on infantile colic symptoms and possible confounders was collected by computer-assisted telephone......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...

  17. [The effect of birth weight on the early postnatal vitality of piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Wähner, M; Puppe, B

    1994-10-01

    Investigations with 1248 newborn piglets in 7 farms showed a high significant influence of birth weight on parameters of early postnatal vitality. The duration between birth and first standing up was by two times, the time between birth and first udder contact by 3.5 times and the duration between birth and first colostrum intake was by 4 times longer in piglets with a low birth weight ( 2200 g). The drop in rectal temperature up to 30 minutes after birth reached 4.5 Kelvin in lightweight piglets, whereas their litter mates with a high body weight at birth had a value of 0.85 K (p vitality of newborn piglets and has a high prognostic value in relation to the risk of losses and the live weight development of neonates.

  18. Birth and Neonatal Outcomes following Opioid Use in Pregnancy: A Danish Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Few population-based data exist on birth outcomes in women who received opioid maintenance treatment during pregnancy. We therefore examined adverse birth outcomes in women exposed to methadone or buprenorphine during pregnancy and the risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS among neonates exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and/or heroin in utero. Patients and Methods This study included all female Danish residents with a live birth or a stillbirth from 1997 to 211. We identified the study population, use of opioids and opioid substitution treatment, birth outcomes, and NAS through medical registers. Birth outcomes included preterm birth (born before 38th gestational week, low-birth weight (LBW (<2,500 g, restricted to term births, small for gestational age (SGA (weight <2 standard deviations from the sex- and gestational-week-specific mean, congenital malformations, and stillbirths. We used log-binomial regression to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR for birth outcomes. Results Among 95,172 pregnancies in a total of 571,823 women, we identified 557 pregnancies exposed to buprenorphine, methadone, and/or heroin (167 to buprenorphine, 197 to methadone, 28 to self-reported heroin, and 165 to combinations. Compared with nonexposed pregnancies, prenatal opioid use was associated with greater prevalence of preterm birth (PR of 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI, 2.3–3.4, LBW among infants born at term (PR of 4.3 (95% CI, 3.0–6.1, and being SGA (PR of 2.7 (95% CI, 1.9–4.3. Restricting the analyses to women who smoked slightly lowered these estimates. The prevalence of congenital malformations was 8.3% in opioid-exposed women compared with 4.2% in nonexposed women (PR of 2.0 (95% CI, 1.5–2.6. The risk of NAS ranged from 7% in neonates exposed to buprenorphine only to 55% in neonates exposed to methadone only or to opioid combinations. Conclusion The maternal use of buprenorphine and methadone during pregnancy was associated with

  19. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr. faki

    birth weight data. This study was carried out to determine recall of birth weight and delivery complications among mothers in Unguja West District of Zanzibar. Methods: .... Considering confidence level of 95% and response rate of 90%, the ... delivery, delivery complications, child's birth date, birth's order and birth weight.

  20. Trends in Infant mortality rate and mortality for neonates born at less than 32 weeks and with very low birth weight Tendencia de la mortalidad infantil y de neonatos menores de 32 semanas y de muy bajo peso Tendência da mortalidade infantil e dos neonatos menores de 32 semanas e de muito baixo peso

    OpenAIRE

    René Mauricio Barría-Pailaquilén; Yessy Mendoza-Maldonado; Yohana Urrutia-Toro; Cristian Castro-Mora; Gema Santander-Manríquez

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the trend of the infant mortality rate between 1990-2004 and the neonatal mortality between 2000-2005 in infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age or with very low birth-weight. Based on secondary data, infant mortality rate and by its component for Valdivia city were compared with national indicators. Mortality at

  1. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paternal weight, parity and maternal weight might improve accuracy of prediction of low birth weight or macrosomic babies and therefore a reduction in perinatal failure. Keywords: Birth weight, anthropometrics, macrosomia, predictability, Nigeria ...

  2. Prenatal Care in Combination with Maternal Educational Level Has a Synergetic Effect on the Risk of Neonatal Low Birth Weight: New Findings in a Retrospective Cohort Study in Kunshan City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Ming; Shen, Yue-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the dose-response relationship and synergetic effect of the maternal educational level and two measures of prenatal care on neonatal low birth weight (LBW) risk. Methods Data were derived from the Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System (PHCSS) from January 2001 to September 2009 in Kunshan City, Jiangsu province, eastern China, which included data on 31412 women with a normal birth weight delivery and 640 women with a LBW delivery. Logistic modelling was performed to estimate the association including the joint effects with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between the prenatal care measures and LBW risk after adjusting for the potential confounders. The dose-response relationship between the number of prenatal care visits and the risk of LBW was investigated by modeling the quantitative exposure with restricted cubic splines (RCS). Results There was a significant synergetic effect on the LBW risk between maternal educational attainment and the number of prenatal care visits (χ2 = 4.98, P = 0.0257), whereas no significant maternal educational attainment interaction was found with the week of initiation of prenatal care after adjusting for relevant confounding factors (χ2 = 2.04, P = 0.1530), and the LBW risk displayed a ‘U-shape’ curve tendency among the different number of prenatal care visits (P for nonlinearity = 0.0002) using RCS. In particular, the ORs were approaching the curve’s bottom when the women had 9 or 10 prenatal care visits. Comparing with 5 prenatal care visits, the ORs and 95%CI of LBW risk for 7, 9, 11 and ≥13 visits were 0.92 (0.82–1.03), 0.50 (0.38–0.66), 0.62 (0.47–0.82), and 0.99 (0.61–1.60), respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that appropriate prenatal care, in combination with a higher maternal educational level, can produce a protective interaction effect on LBW risk. Reasonable health resource assignment for different social statuses should be

  3. Prenatal care in combination with maternal educational level has a synergetic effect on the risk of neonatal low birth weight: new findings in a retrospective cohort study in Kunshan City, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Dai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dose-response relationship and synergetic effect of the maternal educational level and two measures of prenatal care on neonatal low birth weight (LBW risk. METHODS: Data were derived from the Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System (PHCSS from January 2001 to September 2009 in Kunshan City, Jiangsu province, eastern China, which included data on 31412 women with a normal birth weight delivery and 640 women with a LBW delivery. Logistic modelling was performed to estimate the association including the joint effects with odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI between the prenatal care measures and LBW risk after adjusting for the potential confounders. The dose-response relationship between the number of prenatal care visits and the risk of LBW was investigated by modeling the quantitative exposure with restricted cubic splines (RCS. RESULTS: There was a significant synergetic effect on the LBW risk between maternal educational attainment and the number of prenatal care visits (χ(2 = 4.98, P = 0.0257, whereas no significant maternal educational attainment interaction was found with the week of initiation of prenatal care after adjusting for relevant confounding factors (χ(2 = 2.04, P = 0.1530, and the LBW risk displayed a 'U-shape' curve tendency among the different number of prenatal care visits (P for nonlinearity = 0.0002 using RCS. In particular, the ORs were approaching the curve's bottom when the women had 9 or 10 prenatal care visits. Comparing with 5 prenatal care visits, the ORs and 95%CI of LBW risk for 7, 9, 11 and ≥ 13 visits were 0.92 (0.82-1.03, 0.50 (0.38-0.66, 0.62 (0.47-0.82, and 0.99 (0.61-1.60, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that appropriate prenatal care, in combination with a higher maternal educational level, can produce a protective interaction effect on LBW risk. Reasonable health resource assignment for different social statuses should be taken into account by

  4. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  5. Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L

    2017-06-12

    Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (prematurity (RRR: 15.4, CI: 9.18-25.9); no antenatal follow-up (RRR: 6.78, CI: 2.39-19.25); and female sex (RRR: 1.77, CI: 1.13-2.77). Predictors for macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post

  6. Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen

    2006-04-01

    Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.

  7. Suplementação enteral e parenteral com glutamina em neonatos pré-termo e com baixo peso ao nascer Enteral and parenteral supplementation with glutamine in preterm and low-birth-weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Borges

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A glutamina é o aminoácido livre mais abundante no sangue e no músculo esquelético, bem como é o principal substrato energético para células de elevado turnover, como enterócitos e leucócitos. Adicionalmente, a glutamina representa o principal aminoácido transferido para o feto pela placenta e, juntamente com o glutamato, constituem os aminoácidos mais abundantes no leite materno. Todavia, bebês nascidos prematuramente sofrem interrupção abrupta do fornecimento placentário de glutamina, o que acarreta em dependência exclusiva da síntese endógena ou do fornecimento exógeno deste aminoácido. Aliado a isso, neonatos pré-termo (PT e com baixo peso ao nascer (BPN, freqüentemente, recebem apenas nutrição parenteral total nas primeiras semanas de vida, a qual não contém glutamina. Cabe ainda destacar que esses bebês possuem pouca massa muscular e, portanto, seus estoques de glutamina são limitados. Uma vez que neonatos PT e com BPN estão sujeitos a intenso crescimento e a inúmeros estresses fisiológicos, é possível que a glutamina seja um nutriente condicionalmente essencial nessa fase da vida, fato que estimulou a realização de estudos com a finalidade de avaliar os possíveis benefícios clínicos da suplementação enteral e parenteral com glutamina em neonatos PT e com BPN.Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in the blood and skeletal muscle, and is the principal energetic substrate for cells with a high turnover, such as enterocytes and leucocytes. Furthermore, glutamine is the most important amino acid that is passed to the foetus via the placenta, and together with glutamate, is the most abundant amino acid in maternal milk. Preterm infants suffer an abrupt interruption in the supply of glutamine via the placenta, which leads to an exclusive dependence on the endogenous synthesis or the exogenous supply of this amino acid. Preterm neonates (PT as well as low-birth-weight neonates (LBW frequently

  8. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Birth weight is one of the key predictor for survival, health and future development of a child. In developing countries data on birth weights are limited to obtain due to difficulties in keeping records especially among rural women. Maternal recall of birth weight can therefore become a useful source of birth weight ...

  9. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  10. Kangaroo position in low birth weight preterm newborns: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samilly Rodrigues Farias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To describe the number of periods that very low birth weight preterm newborns were in kangaroo position during admission in the neonatal unit and to look for relations between maternal and neonatal variables with kangaroo position. A retrospective and descriptive study with all preterm newborns admitted in 2012, weighing 1500g or less and, gestational age lower than 31 weeks, classified as high clinical risk patients according to the Clinical Risk Index for Babies. We identified 38 babies whose admittance time ranged from 18 to 136 days. The beginning of kangaroo position occurred on average at 30.8 days of post-natal life (SD=18.5 and the number of periods in kangaroo position was on average 10.7 times. The occurrence of kangaroo position was less frequent than opportunities from the maternal presence, and the position was related to a higher offering of free milk demand.

  11. Kluyvera ascorbata sepsis in an extremely low birth weight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kluyvera ascorbata belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family and is a gram negative micro-organism. This bacteria is usually considered a commensal, however it can cause significant infections rarely. This organism is usually resistant to most commonly used antibiotics used as first line in neonatal units. Antimicrobial agents active against Kluyvera strains include third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. We report a case of an extremely low birth weight male infant who presented on day 4 of life with clinical features of sepsis, multi-organ dysfunction, shock and pulmonary haemorrhage. Neonatal sepsis was associated with marked elevation of C-reactive protein and a falling platelet count. Infant expired on day 5 of life in spite of aggressive supportive care and treatment with meropenem. with growth of Kluyvera ascorbataon blood culture.

  12. Anaemia and low birth weight in Medani, Hospital Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhassan Elhassan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing the incidence of Low birth weight (LBW neonates by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 is one of the major goals of the United Nations resolution "A World Fit for Children". This was a case-control study conducted between August-October 2009 in Medani Hospital, Sudan to investigate the risk factors for LBW. Cases were mothers who delivered singleton baby Findings Out of 1224 deliveries, 97 (12.6% of the neonates were LBW deliveries. While maternal socio-demographic characteristics (age, parity and mother education and anthropometrics measurements were not associated with LBW, lack of antenatal care (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.4-24.4; P = 0.01 and maternal anaemia (OR = 9.0, 95% CI = 3.4-23.8; P Conclusion Thus, more care on antenatal care and nutrition may prevent LBW.

  13. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  14. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting On Neonatal Weight In Different Trimesters Of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nahid sarafraz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: several investigations have been done to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on fetal and maternal health, which have all led to controversial results. The role of Ramadan fasting time in birth weight is still unclear. This study evaluated the effect of fasting at different periods of pregnancy on birth weight. Methods: 250 pregnant women fasting at least one day during Ramadan participated in this retrospective cohort study. Subjects were categorized into 3 groups, namely first trimester (n=112, second trimester (n=68 and third trimester (n=70 of pregnancy. Demographic and anthropometric data, obstetric history and history of Ramadan fasting were recorded. After delivery, neonatal birth weight was measured. The mean of weight and frequency of low birth weight in each group were calculated. Probable related factors of low birth weight of neonates with fasting mothers were evaluated. Results: The mean of birth weight in different groups of Ramadan fasting time in first, second and third trimester of pregnancy were 3411.52±529.88, 3214.57±463.56 and 3336.86±444.89 gr respectively, which had a statistically significant difference (p=0.03. Frequencies of low birth weight in different groups of Ramadan fasting time in first trimester was 8.9%, in second trimester 8.8% and in third trimester it was 7.1%, which had no statistically significant difference (p=0.9. Among all evaluated factors, only neonatal sex was related to low birth weight. Conclusion: Time of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy does not affect birth weight.

  15. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation.

  16. Neonatal jaundice and birth asphyxia as major causes of cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cerebral Palsy is permanent sequela of severe nonprogressive insult to the immature brain of children. In Nigeria, kernicterus from neonatal jaundice and hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy form severe birth asphyxia have been identified as among the leading causes of this scourge. Poor management of ...

  17. Neonatal jaundice and birth asphyxia as major causes of cerebral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Cerebral Palsy is permanent sequela of severe non- progressive insult to the immature brain of children. In Nigeria, kernicterus from neonatal jaundice and hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy form severe birth asphyxia have been identified as among the leading causes of this scourge. Poor management of ...

  18. Epidemiology of external birth defects in neonates in Southwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is paucity of information on the prevalence of birth defects in Nigeria, particularly in our setting. This study determined the epidemiology of external congenital anomalies in Southwest Nigerian children. Patients and Methods: This was a stratifi ed, randomized study of neonates presenting with external ...

  19. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  20. Vertical and horizontal transmission of Candida albicans in very low birth weight infants using DNA fingerprinting techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Joseph M; Basavegowda, Kumar P; Watson, Wendy J; Sheikh, Asad U; Ryan, Rita M

    2008-03-01

    Very low birth weight infants (VLBW, point, only 41% (11/27) became colonized by vertical transmission. Both vertical and horizontal transmission contribute to Candida colonization of VLBW infants in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  1. Oral Ibuprofen versus Intravenous Indomethacin for Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Han Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: In infants with VLBW, oral ibuprofen is as effective as intravenous indomethacin for closure of PDA and is associated with significantly fewer cases of necrotizing enterocolitis among infants with birth body weights <1250 g and significantly lower rates of elevated creatinine levels among neonates with birth body weights ranging from 1000 to 1500 g.

  2. Use of mouth rinse during pregnancy to improve birth and neonatal outcomes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Su, Yi; Qian, Xu

    2015-11-25

    Poor oral health, such as periodontal (gum) disease, has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality, especially in low-and middle-income countries. However, there is little or no access to preventive dental care in most low-and middle-income countries. We propose to develop and test a "Mouth Rinse Intervention" among pregnant women to prevent the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy and reduce adverse birth and neonatal outcomes in a rural county of China. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. A sample of 468 (234 in each arm of the study) women in early pregnancy with periodontal disease will be recruited for the study. Periodontal disease will be diagnosed through the methods of Periodontal Screening and Recording. All women diagnosed with periodontal disease will be randomly allocated into the intervention or control group. Women assigned in the intervention group will be provided with non-alcohol antimicrobial mouth rinse containing cetylpyridinium chloride throughout the pregnancy and oral health education. Women in the control group will receive a package of tooth brush and paste, plus oral hygiene education. Women will be followed-up to childbirth until the 42nd day postpartum. The main outcomes include mean birthweight (gram) and mean gestational age (week). Compared with conventional mechanical 'scaling and root planning' periodontal treatment during pregnancy, our proposed mouth rinse intervention could be a simple, cost-effective, and sustainable solution to improve both mother's oral health and neonate outcomes. If the mouth rinse is confirmed to be effective, it would demonstrate great potential for the application in other low- or middle-income countries to prevent adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth and low birth weight and to reduce neonatal and infant mortality. This trial was registered with Chinese

  3. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  4. Association between air pollution and preterm birth among neonates born in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janghorbani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although several studies have investigated the association between maternal exposure to air pollution and preterm birth, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to further investigate the relation between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight (LBW in an Iranian pregnant population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we identified 4758 consecutive singleton birth records from one large referral hospital (2010-2012 in Isfahan, Iran. We identified cases of preterm birth and LBW, which were combined with meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. We estimated the effect of air pollution exposure during the entire pregnancy, each trimester, and last month, and preterm birth (gestational age <37 weeks and LBW (<2500 g by Pollutant Standard Index (PSI using logistic regression adjusted for gestational age, neonate gender, birth order, and mother′s age. Results: The PSI for entire pregnancy was significantly associated with preterm birth [Odds Ratio (95% CI = 1.26 (1.20, 1.33]. There was no association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and each trimester and the last month of pregnancy, and preterm birth or LBW. Conclusion: Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during the entire pregnancy was associated with preterm birth in Isfahani women.

  5. Neonatal Mortality of Inborns in the Neonatal Unit of a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neonatal deaths comprised of 120 early neonatal deaths and 39 late neonatal deaths. The yearly neonatal mortality rate showed a steady decline except for 1999 during which there was a slight rise. The incidence of neonatal deaths decreased with age, weight at birth and maturity. Low birth weight and birth asphyxia ...

  6. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

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    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  7. Nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vamsi Sivarama Raju, Jayashree Purkayastha, Leslie Lewis, Ramesh Bhat Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to find out the incidence and risk factors of nosocomial infections in VLBW neonates and to explore the microbiologic flora, sensitivity pattern and outcome. Methods: A prospective, observational study was performed in a neonatal intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. VLBW infants excluding those diagnosed with early onset sepsis, admitted to the unit between August 2012 and March 2013 were followed up for evidence of nosocomial sepsis. Results: Of 92 VLBW infants, 23 developed nosocomial sepsis, incidence rate being 25%. Decreasing birth weight (1251-1500 g, 10.9%; 1001-1250 g, 28%; 751-1000 g, 50%; P33wks, 0%; 29-32wks, 21.3%; 26-28 wks, 66.7%; p<.001 were found to be associated with statistically significant increase in nosocomial sepsis rate. On multivariate logistic regression, only peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line was independently associated with increased risk of nosocomial sepsis (aOR 13.33, 95% CI 3.58-49.5 in VLBW. A predominance of Gram negative over Gram positive nosocomial sepsis (75% vs. 25% with higher mortality in the Gram negative group (55% vs. 0% was observed. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant microbe (33.4%. All microbes were sensitive to first line antibiotics except Elizabeth kingia meningoseptica and one episode of K. pneumoniae. Seven (30.4% VLBW neonates with nosocomial sepsis died. Conclusions: Among VLBW infants, the incidence of nosocomial sepsis was 25%. Lower birth weight, lesser gestational age and PICC line were important risk factors. Gram negative nosocomial sepsis was associated with higher mortality compared to Gram positive sepsis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(1: 7-12

  8. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight.

  9. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  10. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

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    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  11. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

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    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  12. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men...... birth weight and adult height; for subjects with birth weight or = 4,501 g, mean height was 184.1 cm. A positive association was also found between birth length and adult height. For subjects with birth length ... adult height was 175.2 cm, increasing to 184.3 cm at birth length > 56 cm. The associations between birth length and adult height persisted after adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, and other confounders, while the associations between birth weight and adult height almost disappeared when...

  13. A Retrospective Cohort Study of Birth Outcomes in Neonates Exposed to Naltrexone in Utero: A Comparison with Methadone-, Buprenorphine- and Non-opioid-Exposed Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Erin; Hulse, Gary

    2017-07-01

    Naltrexone may provide a suitable alternative to methadone and buprenorphine in the treatment of pregnant opioid-dependent women; however, little is known about its effects on neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to evaluate the health of neonates exposed to naltrexone in utero, and compare it with outcomes in neonates exposed to methadone or buprenorphine and a non-exposed control group. Sequential cohorts of Western Australian (WA) opioid-dependent women treated with implant naltrexone, oral methadone or sublingual buprenorphine were identified via records from a drug and alcohol clinic (Subiaco, WA) for naltrexone and state prescribing records for methadone and buprenorphine. A control cohort of non-opioid-dependent women was obtained from the WA electoral roll. Identifying information and treatment records for these women were linked against the Midwife Notification System records to identify exposed offspring born between 2001 and 2011. Birth characteristics, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality for all neonates were extracted from state records. The birth characteristics of naltrexone-exposed neonates (n = 68) were superior to methadone-exposed neonates (n = 199) in terms of birth size (birth weight, head circumference and length), hospital length of stay (5.5 vs. 11.3 days), and rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) (7.5 vs. 51.5%). Naltrexone-exposed neonates were generally not significantly different to buprenorphine-exposed neonates (n = 124), with the exception of significantly lower rates of NAS (7.5 vs. 41.8%) and shorter hospital length of stay (5.5 vs. 8.0 days) in naltrexone-exposed neonates. Compared with the control group of neonates (n = 569), naltrexone-exposed neonates were not significantly different in terms of overall rates of congenital anomalies, stillbirths and neonatal mortality; however, they were significantly smaller (3137.1 vs. 3378.0 g), spent more time in hospital following birth (5.5 vs. 4.3

  14. Correlates of antenatal body mass index (bmi as a determinant of birth weight – a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Rambiharilal Shrivastava

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI in antenatal period and birth weight of child, along with the socio-demographic determinants of birth weight. Methods: A longitudinal study of one-year duration, from June 2010 to May 2011, was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai, India. Universal sampling method was employed, including as subjects all pregnant women with minimum two Antenatal Care (ANC visits - and at least one in the third trimester - registered at an urban health centre from June to August 2010. Subjects with any pre-existing co-morbid illness or with past history of giving birth to twins or to any congenitally malformed child, or else, with outcome of still births or home delivery, were excluded. These women were followed up for the next months until delivery. Maternal weight was recorded at each visit and BMI was calculated, or the average BMI, in case of more than one visit in any trimester. Birth weight was recorded using hospital or maternity home records. Results: Prevalence of low birth weight was 26.7%. Correlation between maternal BMI of third trimester and neonatal birth weight was moderately positive. 60.8% of variability in birth weight can be predicted by maternal BMI in third trimester. Conclusions: Third trimester BMI can be used as a predictor of neonatal birth weight. Information, Education and Counseling (IEC activities regarding utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC services can help reducing the incidence of Low Birth Weight (LBW.

  15. Absorption of high-dose enteral vitamin A in lowbirth- weight neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial was designed to detennine whether high-dose (25 000 IU) enteral vitamin A. to correct deficiency, would be absorbed and well tolerated in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Thirty-five LBW infants (950 - 1 700 g; gestational age 27 - 36 weeks) were allocated to receive ...

  16. Chlorhexidine-Induced Chemical Burns in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Iria; Ravaioli, Giulia Maria; Faldella, Giacomo; Capretti, Maria Grazia; Arcuri, Santo; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2017-12-01

    Skin disinfection with chlorhexidine gluconate has not been standardized in preterm infants. We present 5 cases of chemical burns that occurred within the first 2 days of life in very low birth weight neonates after skin disinfection with aqueous and alcohol-based chlorhexidine solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.

  18. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... determine the effect of the year and season, age of the lamb, weight of the lamb, birth type and sex on the birth weight ... lambs, while sheep in the middle age (4 to 5 years) gave birth to lambs with the heaviest body weight. However, the ..... extensive lamb production systems in New Zealand. Livest. Prod.

  19. The impact of prenatal vitamin A and zinc supplementation on birth size and neonatal survival - a double-blind, randomized controlled trial in a rural area of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawirohartono, Endy P; Nyström, Lennarth; Nurdiati, Detty S; Hakimi, Mohammad; Lind, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal supplementation with micronutrients may increase birth weight and thus improve infant health and survival in settings where infants and children are at risk of micronutrient deficiencies. To assess whether vitamin A and/or zinc supplementation given during pregnancy can improve birth weight, birth length, neonatal morbidity, or infant mortality. A double-blind, randomized controlled trial supplementing women (n = 2173) in Central Java, Indonesia throughout pregnancy with vitamin A, zinc, combined vitamin A+zinc, or placebo. Out of 2173 supplemented pregnant women, 1956 neonates could be evaluated. Overall, zinc supplementation improved birth length compared to placebo or combined vitamin A+zinc (48.8 vs. 48.5 cm, p = 0.04); vitamin A supplementation improved birth length compared to placebo or combined vitamin A+zinc (48.7 vs. 48.2 cm, p = 0.04). These effects remained after adjusting for maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight, and parity. There was no effect of supplementation on birth weight, the proportion of low birth weight, neonatal morbidity, or mortality. Prenatal zinc or vitamin A supplementation demonstrates a small but significant effect on birth length, but supplementation with zinc, vitamin A or a combination of zinc and vitamin A, have no effect on birth weight, neonatal morbidity, or mortality.

  20. 'Kangaroo mother care' to prevent neonatal deaths due to preterm birth complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Mwansa-Kambafwile, Judith; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C; Cousens, Simon

    2010-04-01

    'Kangaroo mother care' (KMC) includes thermal care through continuous skin-to-skin contact, support for exclusive breastfeeding or other appropriate feeding, and early recognition/response to illness. Whilst increasingly accepted in both high- and low-income countries, a Cochrane review (2003) did not find evidence of KMC's mortality benefit, and did not report neonatal-specific data. The objectives of this study were to review the evidence, and estimate the effect of KMC on neonatal mortality due to complications of preterm birth. We conducted systematic reviews. Standardized abstraction tables were used and study quality assessed by adapted GRADE methodology. Meta-analyses were undertaken. We identified 15 studies reporting mortality and/or morbidity outcomes including nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and six observational studies all from low- or middle-income settings. Except one, all were hospital-based and included only babies of birth-weight community-based trial had missing birthweight data, as well as other limitations and was excluded. Neonatal-specific data were supplied by two authors. Meta-analysis of three RCTs commencing KMC in the first week of life showed a significant reduction in neonatal mortality [relative risk (RR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.82] compared with standard care. A meta-analysis of three observational studies also suggested significant mortality benefit (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.58-0.79). Five RCTs suggested significant reductions in serious morbidity for babies <2000 g (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.65). This is the first published meta-analysis showing that KMC substantially reduces neonatal mortality amongst preterm babies (birth weight <2000 g) in hospital, and is highly effective in reducing severe morbidity, particularly from infection. However, KMC remains unavailable at-scale in most low-income countries.

  1. ‘Kangaroo mother care’ to prevent neonatal deaths due to preterm birth complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Mwansa-Kambafwile, Judith; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C; Cousens, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background ‘Kangaroo mother care’ (KMC) includes thermal care through continuous skin-to-skin contact, support for exclusive breastfeeding or other appropriate feeding, and early recognition/response to illness. Whilst increasingly accepted in both high- and low-income countries, a Cochrane review (2003) did not find evidence of KMC’s mortality benefit, and did not report neonatal-specific data. Objectives The objectives of this study were to review the evidence, and estimate the effect of KMC on neonatal mortality due to complications of preterm birth. Methods We conducted systematic reviews. Standardized abstraction tables were used and study quality assessed by adapted GRADE methodology. Meta-analyses were undertaken. Results We identified 15 studies reporting mortality and/or morbidity outcomes including nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and six observational studies all from low- or middle-income settings. Except one, all were hospital-based and included only babies of birth-weight community-based trial had missing birthweight data, as well as other limitations and was excluded. Neonatal-specific data were supplied by two authors. Meta-analysis of three RCTs commencing KMC in the first week of life showed a significant reduction in neonatal mortality [relative risk (RR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29–0.82] compared with standard care. A meta-analysis of three observational studies also suggested significant mortality benefit (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.58–0.79). Five RCTs suggested significant reductions in serious morbidity for babies <2000 g (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17–0.65). Conclusion This is the first published meta-analysis showing that KMC substantially reduces neonatal mortality amongst preterm babies (birth weight <2000 g) in hospital, and is highly effective in reducing severe morbidity, particularly from infection. However, KMC remains unavailable at-scale in most low-income countries. PMID:20348117

  2. Effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation in preterm low birth weight newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alo, D; Shahidullah, M; Mannan, M A; Noor, K

    2010-07-01

    This interventional study was done to determine the effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation on weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis in preterm low birth weight newborns during their hospital stay. It was carried out during the period of June 2006-May 2007 in the Newborn unit of a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Sixty preterm (28-34weeks), low birth weight (1000-1800g) AGA (appropriate for gestational age) newborns were enrolled within 24 hours of birth. Intervention and control newborns were matched in terms of birth weight and gestational age. Samples were volunteers. Parenteral amino acid (5%) supplementation in addition to usual nutritional management until enteral feeding reached three fourth of total calorie intake. Usual nutritional management was 10% intravenous dextrose and subsequent enteral feeding. Main outcome measured with weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis. Weight change was observed by two parameters such as mean percentage of maximum postnatal weight loss and mean days to reach birth weight, both were significantly lower in intervention than control group (psupplementation investigated in this study has been shown to have no effect. There was no difference in incidence of sepsis between intervention and control group (p>0.05). Improved nutritional supplementation with parenteral amino acids resulted in better growth as evident by lesser degree of weight loss and earlier regaining of birth weight in the early neonatal period. Biochemical parameters are not affected by parenteral amino acid supplementation.

  3. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

  4. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  5. Guidelines for feeding very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourabh; Singh, Balpreet; Chessell, Lorraine; Wilson, Jennifer; Janes, Marianne; McDonald, Kimberley; Shahid, Shaneela; Gardner, Victoria A; Hjartarson, Aune; Purcha, Margaret; Watson, Jennifer; de Boer, Chris; Gaal, Barbara; Fusch, Christoph

    2015-01-08

    Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW) neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  6. Association of Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Cord Blood Nitric Oxide Level with Birth Weight of Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naghavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy affects the birth weight of neonates. Some of the undesirable pregnancy outcomes are linked to lower birth weights. This study aimed to assess the relationship between maternal dietary patterns, weight gain during pregnancy and nitric oxide (NO, as an endothelial relaxing factor, and the possible effects on birth weight.Materials and Methods: At first, a pilot study was done, and finally a number of 233 mothers who referred to 4 public and private hospitals in Isfahan, the Central of Iran, during March 2014 to March 2015 via a convenience sampling method, were elected and participant in this study. Dietary patterns were assessed using a Persian version of Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Gestational weight gain was measured, too. Cord blood nitric oxide (NO level, and neonate’s anthropometric characteristics were measured after delivery.Results: The study participants consisted of 233 mother-neonate pairs. Overall, 4.3% of boys and 11.8% of girls, had low birth weight (< 2.500 gr. Mean gestational weight gain was 12.85 ± 4.37 kg, and there was a statistically significant between three birth-weight categories (Low birth weight, normal birth weight and high birth weight (P

  7. The effect of maternal breast variations on neonatal weight gain in the first seven days of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili Abbas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to examine whether specific maternal breast variations (such as flat nipple, inverted nipple, large breast or/and large nipple are barriers for weight gain in breastfed infants during the first seven days of life. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 100 healthy term neonates were followed from birth to day seven in two groups; Group A: fifty neonates born to mothers with specified breast variations and Group B: fifty neonates born to mothers without such breast variations ("normal breasts". All neonates were the first child of their families and there was no sex ratio difference between the two groups. Neonates' weight at birth and day seven were measured and the mean weight differences in the two groups were compared using paired t-test. Results Neonates born to mothers without the specified breast variations had a mean weight gain of (+ 53 ± 154.4 g at day seven., Not only there was no increase in the mean weight of neonates in the other group, but they had a mean decrease of weight of (- 162 ± 125.5 g by the seventh day of their life compared to birth weight. Thus, neonates born to mothers without breast variations had significantly greater weight gain than neonates born to the mothers with the specified variations (p Conclusion Breast variation among first-time mothers acts as an important barrier to weight gain among breastfed neonates in the early days of life. Health professionals need skills in the management of breastfeeding among mothers with the specified breast variations, so that mothers are given appropriate advice on how to breastfeed and overcome these problems.

  8. Glycerin Suppositories Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shalinkumar; Dereddy, Narendra; Talati, Ajay J; Gaston, Kan; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To study the characteristics of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glycerin suppositories (GS) and evaluate the association of GS use with outcomes. Study Design  This is a retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Infants with birth weight between 500 and 1,499 g were evaluated. We evaluated the frequency of GS use and compared the characteristics and outcomes of the GS group with the no-GS group. Multivariate analyses controlling for gestational age and small for gestational age status were performed to study the effect of GS on outcomes. Results  A total of 1,073 infants were included in the study. Out of those, 527 (49.1%) infants received GS. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis was not significantly different between the two groups, while days to reach full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were significantly longer in the GS group. Conclusion  Frequent use of GS warrants further prospective studies to evaluate its safety and efficacy in view of our study showing association with longer time to reach full enteral feeds. We speculate that GS use could be a marker for gastrointestinal dysmotility and hence the association with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althabe Fernando

    2012-09-01

    (4 using a color-coded tape to measure uterine height to estimate gestational age in women with unknown gestational age. In both intervention and control clusters, health providers will be trained in essential newborn care for low birth weight babies. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm infants. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01084096

  10. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althabe, Fernando; Belizán, José M; Mazzoni, Agustina; Berrueta, Mabel; Hemingway-Foday, Jay; Koso-Thomas, Marion; McClure, Elizabeth; Chomba, Elwyn; Garces, Ana; Goudar, Shivaprasad; Kodkany, Bhalchandra; Saleem, Sarah; Pasha, Omrana; Patel, Archana; Esamai, Fabian; Carlo, Waldemar A; Krebs, Nancy F; Derman, Richard J; Goldenberg, Robert L; Hibberd, Patricia; Liechty, Edward A; Wright, Linda L; Bergel, Eduardo F; Jobe, Alan H; Buekens, Pierre

    2012-09-19

    uterine height to estimate gestational age in women with unknown gestational age. In both intervention and control clusters, health providers will be trained in essential newborn care for low birth weight babies. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm infants.

  11. Contribution of low BirthWeight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between low and very low birth weight infants and perinatal mortality at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: A retrospective study of the hospital records in the labour ward and the Newborn Special Care Unit (N.B.S.C.U), of the UNTH was carried out for the ...

  12. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, D.J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Vink, J.M.; Haak, M.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on

  13. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Haak, Monique C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background

  14. Hypoglycaemia in fasting low birth weight infants in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) infants are commonly at risk of hypoglycaemia. The prevalence of hypoglycaemia and its neurological features in fasting LBW infants below 24 hours of age was assessed. Methods: Low birth weight (LBW) infants seen within 24 hours of birth who had not fed or received ...

  15. Enteral iron supplementation in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan John; Davies, Mark W

    2012-03-14

    Preterm infants are at risk of exhausting their body iron stores much earlier than healthy term newborns. It is widespread practice to give enteral iron supplementation to preterm and low birth weight infants to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. However, it is unclear whether supplementing preterm and low birth weight infants with iron improves growth and neurodevelopment. It is suspected that excess exogenous iron can contribute to oxidative injury in preterm babies, causing or exacerbating conditions such as necrotising enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity. Additionally, the optimal dose and timing of commencement and cessation of iron supplementation are uncertain. To evaluate the effect of prophylactic enteral iron supplementation on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm and low birth weight infants. The secondary objectives were to determine whether iron supplementation results in improved haematological parameters and prevents other causes of morbidity and mortality. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1951 to August 2011), CINAHL (1982 to August 2011) and conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials that compared enteral iron supplementation with no iron supplementation, or different regimens of enteral iron supplementation in preterm or low birth weight infants or both. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Both review authors separately evaluated trial quality and data extraction. We synthesised data using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs). Where data about the methodology and results or both were lacking, we made an attempt to contact the study authors for further information. We included twenty-six studies (2726 infants) in the

  16. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  17. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  18. Relationship Between Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Adiposity in Women With Mild Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Sean C; Landon, Mark B; Mele, Lisa; Reddy, Uma M; Casey, Brian M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Rouse, Dwight J; Thorp, John M; Sciscione, Anthony; Catalano, Patrick; Saade, George; Caritis, Steve N; Sorokin, Yoram; Grobman, William A

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the relationships among excessive gestational weight gain, neonatal adiposity, and adverse obstetric outcomes in women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. Based on self-reported prepregnancy body weight, gestational weight gain was categorized as excessive if it was greater than 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Maternal outcomes and neonatal anthropomorphic characteristics were compared between women with excessive weight gain and those without excessive weight gain. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to adjust for confounding factors. We studied 841 women who participated in the main trial and had prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and delivery information available (n=431 treatment group, n=410 no treatment). After adjustment for factors including treatment and prepregnancy BMI, excessive weight gain remained associated with large for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.81-4.93), birth weight greater than 4,000 g (adjusted OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.54-4.40), preeclampsia (adjusted OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.35-7.03), and cesarean delivery for labor arrest (adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.30-4.44). In addition, excessive weight gain was independently associated with increased total neonatal fat (Pweight (Pweight gain was independently associated with both greater birth weight and adiposity.

  19. Waste incineration and adverse birth and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Danielle C; Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-08-01

    Public concern about potential health risks associated with incineration has prompted studies to investigate the relationship between incineration and risk of cancer, and more recently, birth outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies evaluating the relationship between waste incineration and the risk of adverse birth and neonatal outcomes. Literature searches were performed within the MEDLINE database, through PubMed and Ovid interfaces, for the search terms; incineration, birth, reproduction, neonatal, congenital anomalies and all related terms. Here we discuss and critically evaluate the findings of these studies. A comprehensive literature search yielded fourteen studies, encompassing a range of outcomes (including congenital anomalies, birth weight, twinning, stillbirths, sex ratio and infant death), exposure assessment methods and study designs. For congenital anomalies most studies reported no association with proximity to or emissions from waste incinerators and "all anomalies", but weak associations for neural tube and heart defects and stronger associations with facial clefts and urinary tract defects. There is limited evidence for an association between incineration and twinning and no evidence of an association with birth weight, stillbirths or sex ratio, but this may reflect the sparsity of studies exploring these outcomes. The current evidence-base is inconclusive and often limited by problems of exposure assessment, possible residual confounding, lack of statistical power with variability in study design and outcomes. However, we identified a number of higher quality studies reporting significant positive relationships with broad groups of congenital anomalies, warranting further investigation. Future studies should address the identified limitations in order to help improve our understanding of any potential adverse birth outcomes associated with incineration, particularly focussing on broad groups of anomalies, to inform

  20. Birth Weight of Infants of Mothers With Aggressive Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A.; Koertge, Thomas E.; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N.; Gunsolley, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Background It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Methods Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers’ periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. Results There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported pregnancy outcomes, we used a compromised approach using prospective data as well as weaker retrospective data assuming that disease onset was likely before the births. Our results, within the limitations of this approach, indicate no evidence that AgP in the mother predisposes low birth weights. AgP has many unique biologic characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic. PMID:21819247

  1. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    ) status. OBJECTIVES: To compare the birth weight distributions of the INTERGROWTH-21st international standard to commonly used US references and examine the differences in the prevalence and neonatal mortality risk of SGA status (below the 10th percentile of a population reference). DESIGN, SETTING...... variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000...... and no significant change in the associated neonatal mortality risk, resulting in a decrease in the percentage of neonatal death attributable to SGA. Our study sheds light on how previously published studies on SGA status may be reinterpreted with the introduction of this new birth weight standard....

  2. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29% died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33% up to 24 hours and 97 (54% up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53, 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88, male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47. A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71. Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred.

  3. A STUDY OF MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel Kumar Kaushal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight is defined as the live births with less than 2.5 kg weight. LBW is one of the serious challenges in maternal and child health in both developed and developing countries. Objective: (1 To study the proportion of low birth weight neonates among hospital based deliveries. (2 To evaluate selected maternal factors associated with low birth weight in institutionally delivered newborn. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in S.N. Hospital, Agra from 1st September, 2007 to 31st August, 2009 from medical record section of Obstetrics & Gynaecology department. Mode of delivery, birth weight and sex of baby, age of mother, parity, gestational period were taken as variables. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was applied to observe the significance of association. Results: Proportion of LBW was found to be 38% and was higher in teenage pregnancy, in Muslim females, in high parity and among newborn females. Conclusion: Relationship of birth weight with sex of new born, birth order of new born, mode of delivery, gestational period and with parity of mother was found to be significant..

  4. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  5. [Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro de; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 23(0/7)-31(6/7) weeks, birth weight of 500-1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  7. Relationship between gestational age, birth weight and deciduous tooth eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Mohamed Khalifa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Delayed tooth eruption was related to lower birth weight and prematurity. The delayed eruption in preterm babies may be related to premature birth and not to a delay in dental development.

  8. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Low socio-economic status is the underlying cause of low birth weight. Other causes include maternal malnutrition; maternal diseases like antepartum hemorrhage, anaemia, cervical incompetence; adolescent pregnancies; short birth intervals; intrauterine infections; multiple pregnancy; congenital malformations; placental.

  9. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term...... the effect of ambient air pollution. The aim of this commentary is to review the published literature on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW regarding increased vulnerability for the above-mentioned subgroups.  Results: Although more than fifty epidemiological studies have examined...... the associations between ambient air pollution and TLBW to date, we only identified six studies that examined the potential effect modification of the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW by the above listed maternal risk factors. Two studies assessed effect modification caused by smoking...

  10. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  11. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Shyam V; Kulkarni, Madhav B; Sadavarte, Vaishali S; Ashtekar, Ratna S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg) over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby’s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades. PMID:20922101

  12. Neonatal outcomes after preterm birth by mothers’ health insurance status at birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarsdóttir Kristjana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. Methods The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32–36 weeks gestation from Western Australia during 1998–2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time until establishment of unassisted breathing (>1 minute, neonatal resuscitation (endotracheal intubation or external cardiac massage and admission to a neonatal special care unit. Results Compared with infants of privately insured women, infants of publicly insured women were more likely to receive a low Apgar score (ARR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.06-6.52 and take longer to establish unassisted breathing (ARR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.25-2.07, yet, they were less likely to be admitted to a special care unit (ARR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.80-0.87. No significant differences were evident in neonatal resuscitation between the groups (ARR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.54-2.67. Conclusions The underlying reasons for the lower rate of special care admissions in infants of publicly insured women compared with privately insured women despite the higher rate of low Apgar scores is yet to be determined. Future research is

  13. Neonatal Bacteraemia Among 112,360 Live Births

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Huggard, D

    2016-10-01

    Our aims were to determine the incidence of bacteraemia in a cohort of neonatal patients over a 14 year period, to describe the organisms involved, and to establish the rates of sepsis with regard to both early onset sepsis (EOS) and late onset sepsis (LOS). Lastly, we investigated the trends of neonatal sepsis, to determine whether changes in clinical practice influenced the rate of blood culture positivity. With regards to EOS, GBS was the predominant pathogen, followed by E.coli, CoNS, and S. aureus . The overall mean EO rate per 1000 live births (LBs) was 1.19. Looking at LOS, S. aureus , CoNS , Enterococcus spp. were the most common bacteria cultured. The mean LOS rate was 1.88 per 1000 live births. The overall rate of EOS remained fairly steady. GBS remains the major pathogen in EOS; however its incidence has remained largely unchanged over time in relation to both EOS and LOS. Conversely the rate of LOS peaked from ’05-’09, mainly due to an increase in Staphylococcus aureus , CoNS and Enterococcus spp. cases, and then improved dramatically in the following years. This was likely due to a change in hospital policies in relation to hand hygiene and intravenous line placement and maintenance.

  14. [Neonatal polysomnography in newborn infants with severe birth asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Duarte, A M; Domínguez-Dieppa, F; Roca-Molina, M C

    Neonatal polysomnography studies (electroencephalogram, electrooculography, body movements, cardiorespiratory frequencies) were performed in 101 newborn full-term infants diagnosed with severe birth asphyxia. To analyse results, the sample was divided into two groups, depending on whether hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) had occurred or not. The results of the polysomnography studies were correlated with those from the full-term neurological examination and the sequelae from the neurological development during the first two years of life. Significant correlations were obtained among the variables that were studied. The normality observed in the electrophysiological study in the group of patients with severe asphyxia without HIE was associated with a full-term neurological examination and with a neurological development that has progressed in a satisfactory manner. In the group of patients with grade II HIE there was a predominance of severe alterations in the full-term neonatal polysomnography study, which were significantly correlated with the pathological full-term neurological examinations and serious sequelae from neurological development. It has been proved that neonatal polysomnography studies are a valuable aid in evaluating the neurological status of newborn infants in a critical condition and in predicting the sequelae of neurological development in the first two years of life. Further research should be aimed at determining the effects exerted by the daily administration of medication (sedatives, anaesthetics and antiepileptic agents) in critical newborn infants on electrical activity in the brain and the cyclic structuring of the different phases of sleep.

  15. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  16. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  17. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2014-01-01

    between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....

  18. Implications of Lipids in Neonatal Body Weight and Fat Mass in Gestational Diabetic Mothers and Non-Diabetic Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar

    2018-02-05

    Maternal lipid metabolism greatly changes during pregnancy and we review in this article how they influence fetal adiposity and growth under non-diabetic and gestational diabetic conditions. In pregnant women without diabetes (control), maternal glycemia correlates with neonatal glycemia, neonatal body weight and fat mass. In pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), maternal glucose correlates with neither neonatal glycemia, neonatal birth weight nor fat mass, but maternal triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol do correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity. The proportions of maternal plasma arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids decrease from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, and at term these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are higher in cord blood plasma than in mothers, indicating efficient placental transfer. In control or pregnant women with GDM at term, the maternal concentration of individual fatty acids does not correlate with neonatal body weight or fat mass, but cord blood fatty acid levels correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity-positively in controls, but negatively in GDM. The proportion of AA and DHA in umbilical artery plasma in GDM is lower than in controls but not in umbilical vein plasma. Therefore, an increased utilization of those two fatty acids by fetal tissues, rather than impaired placental transfer, is responsible for their smaller proportion in plasma of GDM newborns. In control pregnant women, maternal glycemia controls neonatal body weight and fat mass, whereas in mothers with GDM-even with good glycemic control-maternal lipids and their greater utilization by the fetus play a critical role in neonatal body weight and fat mass. We propose that altered lipid metabolism rather than hyperglycemia constitutes a risk for macrosomia in GDM.

  19. Still births, neonatal deaths and neonatal near miss cases attributable to severe obstetric complications: a prospective cohort study in two referral hospitals in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakimuli, Annettee; Mbalinda, Scovia N; Nabirye, Rose C; Kakaire, Othman; Nakubulwa, Sarah; Osinde, Michael O; Kakande, Nelson; Kaye, Dan K

    2015-04-17

    Neonatal near miss cases occur more often than neonatal deaths and could enable a more comprehensive analysis of risk factors, short-term outcomes and prognostic factors in neonates born to mothers with severe obstetric complications. The objective was to assess the incidence, presentation and perinatal outcomes of severe obstetric morbidity in two referral hospitals in Central Uganda. A prospective cohort study was conducted between March 1, 2013 and February 28, 2014, in which all newborns from cases of severe pregnancy and childbirth complications were eligible for inclusion. The obstetric conditions included obstetric haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, obstructed labour, chorioamnionitis and pregnancy-specific complications such as malaria, anemia and premature rupture of membranes. Still births, neonatal deaths and neonatal near miss cases (defined using criteria that employed clinical features, presence of organ-system dysfunction and management provided to the newborns were compiled). Stratified and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for perinatal death. Of the 3100 mothers, 192 (6.2%) had abortion complications. Of the remainder, there were 2142 (73.1%) deliveries, from whom the fetal outcomes were 257 (12.0%) still births, 369 (17.2%) neonatal deaths, 786 (36.7%) neonatal near misses and 730 (34.1%) were newborns with no or minimal life threatening complications. Of the 235 babies admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the main reasons for admission were prematurity for 64 (26.8%), birth asphyxia for 59 (23.7%), and grunting respiration for 26 (11.1%). Of the 235 babies, 38 (16.2%) died in the neonatal period, and of these, 16 died in the first 24 hours after admission. Ruptured uterus caused the highest case-specific mortality of 76.8%, and led to 16.9% of all newborn deaths. Across the four groups, there were significant differences in mean birth weight, p = 0.003. Antepartum hemorrhage

  20. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  1. Maternal and neonatal FTO rs9939609 polymorphism affect insulin sensitivity markers and lipoprotein profile at birth in appropriate-for-gestational-age term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesteiro, Eva; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Ortega-Azorín, Carolina; Guillén, Marisa; Corella, Dolores; Bastida, Sara

    2016-06-01

    The influence of maternal fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene polymorphism on neonatal insulin sensitivity/resistance biomarkers and lipoprotein profile has not been tested. The study aimed to assess the association between the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in mother-neonate couples and neonatal anthropometrical measurements, insulin sensitivity/resistance, and lipid and lipoprotein concentrations at birth. Fifty-three term, appropriate-for-gestational-age, Caucasian newborns together with their respective mothers participated in a cross-sectional study. Sixty-six percent of mothers and neonates carried the A allele (being AA or AT). TT mothers gained less weight during pregnancy, but non-significant maternal gene influence was found for neonatal bodyweight, body mass index, or ponderal index. Neonates from AA + AT mothers showed lower glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) but higher homeostatic model assessment insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) and homocysteine than neonates whose mothers were TT. AA + AT neonates had higher insulin and HOMA-IR than TT. The genotype neonatal × maternal association was tested in the following four groups of neonates: TT neonates × TT mothers (nTT × mTT), TT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nTT × mAA + AT), AA + AT neonates × TT mothers (nAA + AT × mTT), and AA + AT neonates × AA + AT mothers (nAA + AT × mAA + AT). Non-significant interactions between neonatal and maternal alleles were found for any parameter tested. However, maternal alleles affected significantly glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and homocysteine while neonatal alleles the arylesterase activity. Most significant differences were found between nATT + AA × mTT and nATT + AA × mAA + AT. Glycemia, insulinemia, and HOMA-IR were lower, while the Mediterranean diet adherence (MDA) was higher in the mAA + AT vs. mTT whose children were AA + AT. This dietary fact seems to counterbalance the potential negative effect on glucose homeostasis of

  2. Neonatal Outcome of Term Breech Births: A 15-Year Review at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study in Nigeria, the neonatal outcome between vaginal and cesarean births for fetuses presenting breech at term was not significantly different in terms of the neonatal mortality rate or neonatal intensive care unit admission rate [6]. In our hospital, the use of strict selection criteria for trial of vaginal breech delivery is lacking ...

  3. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Col-Araz, Nilgun

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine's Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth, and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r = 0.115, p history of disease during pregnancy (p computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p computers during pregnancy (p computers may have an effect on pre-term birth.

  4. Down syndrome birth weight in England and Wales: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K; Cole, Tim J; Springett, Anna L; Dennis, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if syndrome-specific birth weight charts were beneficial for babies with Down syndrome in England and Wales. Birth weights of 8,825 babies with Down syndrome born in England and Wales in 1989-2010 were obtained from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register. Birth weight centiles for 30-42 weeks gestation by sex were fitted using the LMS method and were compared to those for unaffected babies from the UK-WHO growth charts. For babies born with Down syndrome the median birth weight from 37 to 42 weeks was 2,970 g (10th-90th centile: 2,115-3,680) for boys and 2930 g (2,100-3,629) for girls, and the modal age of gestation was 38 weeks, 2 weeks earlier than for unaffected babies. At 38 weeks gestation they were only slightly lighter than unaffected babies (159 g for boys and 86 g for girls). However at 40 weeks gestation the shortfall was much greater (304 g and 239 g, respectively). In neonates with Down syndrome there is little evidence of growth restriction before 38 weeks gestation, so up to this age it is appropriate to use the UK-WHO birth weight charts. Thereafter birth weight is below that of unaffected babies and it should be plotted on the UK Down syndrome growth charts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Association between unintentional injury during pregnancy and excess risk of preterm birth and its neonatal sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang; Basso, Olga; Kramer, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    The sequelae of preterm births may differ, depending on whether birth follows an acute event or a chronic condition. In a population-based cohort study of 2,711,645 Canadian hospital deliveries from 2003 to 2012, 3,059 women experienced unintentional injury during pregnancy. We assessed the impact of the acute event on pregnancy outcome and on neonatal complications, such as nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, intubation, and death. We adjusted for maternal age, parity, pregnancy conditions, and (for neonates) gestational age in logistic regression analyses. Injury was significantly associated with fetal mortality and early preterm delivery. For preterm infants born to injured women during the hospitalization for injury versus those born to noninjured women, the adjusted odds ratios were 2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 4.17) for neonatal death, 2.44 (95% CI: 1.76, 3.37) for respiratory distress, 2.20 (95% CI: 1.26, 3.84) for nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.60, 2.96) for intubation, despite more favorable fetal growth in those born to noninjured women (adjusted birth-weight-for-gestational-age z score: 0.154 vs. 0.024, P = 0.041; small-for-gestational-age rate: 4.5% vs. 9.5%, P = 0.001). Our findings suggest that adaptation to the suboptimal intrauterine environment underlying chronic causes of preterm birth may protect preterm infants from adverse sequelae. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Birth weight of infants of mothers with aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A; Koertge, Thomas E; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N; Gunsolley, John C

    2012-03-01

    It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers' periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported periodontal examination. For periodontally healthy controls, 13.2% of babies born to siblings of AgP patients and 12.8% of babies born to unrelated mothers weighed characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic.

  7. The Relationship between CO Ambient and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Majd H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: LBW is the strongest factor related to prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood mortality and morbidity. Air pollution is one of the risk factors that is recently gaining attention. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the CO ambient and low birth weight in women referring to Tehran hospitals in 2007-2008. Methods: In this historical cohort study 225 pregnant women having lived within 5 kilometers of a monitoring station during pregnancy and referring to selected hospitals in Tehran were investigated. An information questionnaire was used for data collection and sampling was done by multistage sampling and convenience method. Women were assigned to low exposure group and high exposure group based on mean exposure to each pollutant during pregnancy. These two groups were matched with respect to confounding factors. SPSS software version 15, T statistics, 2, Man Withnney, and Relative Risk procedures were used for data analysis.Results: The result showed that 31.6% of CO high exposure group and 7.4% of CO low exposure group had Low birth weight baby. The result also showed a significant relationship between exposure to high amount of CO and LBW (p=0.001. Relative Risk calculated with confidence interval (RR=4/67, CI=(1/76-9/43 was found to be 95% and the amount of attributable risk was 66%.Conclusion: Based on these finding, exposure to carbon monoxide pollution can cause LBW. There should be an educational program about the disadvantages of CO pollutant on pregnant women living in densely populated areas of the city. Moreover, practical approaches should be provided to reduce these pollutants.

  8. Silver-based dressing in an extremely low-birth-weight infant: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Deanne L; Ireland, Susan; Benton, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Dressings containing silver have been considered dangerous for neonatal patients. Many practitioners are hesitant to place wound applications (with or without silver) on premature infants based on the potential risk of absorption and toxicity. Few studies have been conducted looking at long-term effects of current dressing products in the neonate. We used a flexible polyurethane foam containing ionic silver to treat the skin breakdown in a 23-week-old infant. The silver foam dressing was safely and successfully used in the treatment of this extremely low-birth-weight infant with skin breakdown.

  9. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  10. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  11. Increased birth weight associated with regular pre-pregnancy deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for Vietnamese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passerini, Luca; Casey, Gerard J; Biggs, Beverley A; Cong, Dai T; Phu, Luong B; Phuc, Tran Q; Carone, Marco; Montresor, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation program given to women of reproductive age in north-west Vietnam. The program was made available to all women of reproductive age (estimated 51,623) in two districts in Yen Bai Province for 20 months prior to commencement of birth weight data collection. Data were obtained for births at the district hospitals of the two intervention districts as well as from two control districts where women did not have access to the intervention, but had similar maternal and child health indicators and socio-economic backgrounds. The primary outcome was low birth weight. The birth weights of 463 infants born in district hospitals in the intervention (168) and control districts (295) were recorded. Twenty-six months after the program was started, the prevalence of low birth weight was 3% in intervention districts compared to 7.4% in control districts (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.81, p = 0.017). The mean birth weight was 124 g (CI 68 - 255 g, pcontrol districts. The findings of this study suggest that providing women with regular deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplements before pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight in rural Vietnam. The impact of this health system-integrated intervention on birth outcomes should be further evaluated through a more extensive randomised-controlled trial.

  12. Increased birth weight associated with regular pre-pregnancy deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for Vietnamese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation program given to women of reproductive age in north-west Vietnam. The program was made available to all women of reproductive age (estimated 51,623 in two districts in Yen Bai Province for 20 months prior to commencement of birth weight data collection. Data were obtained for births at the district hospitals of the two intervention districts as well as from two control districts where women did not have access to the intervention, but had similar maternal and child health indicators and socio-economic backgrounds. The primary outcome was low birth weight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The birth weights of 463 infants born in district hospitals in the intervention (168 and control districts (295 were recorded. Twenty-six months after the program was started, the prevalence of low birth weight was 3% in intervention districts compared to 7.4% in control districts (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.81, p = 0.017. The mean birth weight was 124 g (CI 68 - 255 g, p<0.001 greater in the intervention districts compared to control districts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study suggest that providing women with regular deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplements before pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight in rural Vietnam. The impact of this health system-integrated intervention on birth outcomes should be further evaluated through a more extensive randomised-controlled trial.

  13. Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a a a print email share Facebook Twitter Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight ... Article Body ​​​​​​​​A study in Pediatrics found giving iron supplements to low birth weight infants reduces the ...

  14. Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight. HE Onah, ACC Ikeme, PO Nkwo. Abstract. In a prospective cross-sectional study, the correlation between symphysiofundal height (SFH) and birth weight was evaluated in 2646 consecutive parturients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, ...

  15. Parental socioeconomic status and birth weight distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Birth weight is one of the most impor- tant determinants of perinatal well. -being and survival. It may be influenced by socioeconomic status among other factors. Objective: To evaluate the influ- ence of parental socioeconomic status on birth weight distribution of term infants. Patients ...

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight in Jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ademu

    The World Health. Organization (WHO) then conducted a study on eighteen different countries at different stages of development. This revealed that babies could be classified into three main groups based on their birth weight and gestational age: small for gestational age, appropriate for age, large for age. Low birth weight ...

  17. Factors predisposing to low birth weight in Jimma Hospital South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight continues to remain a major public health problem in Ethiopia in contrast to what is observed in many developing countries. Objectives: To assess some of the predisposing factors to low birth weight among deliveries in Jimma hospital. Design: Cross-sectional case referent study.

  18. Intrapartum prediction of birth weight using maternal anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This prospective study was conducted at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Nigeria, between April 1st and 31st of July, 2013 to predict birth weight in labour using four clinical methods and ultrasound scan independently and comparatively to determine which is closest to the actual birth weight. The four clinical methods are ...

  19. Factors influencing birth weights in Cameroon | Ngassa | Clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After gestational age has been shown to be significantly correlated with mean birth weights in Cameroon, the aim of this study was to determine other factors which can also influence birth weights. This was a cross sectional study carried out in the obstetrics and gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in Yaoundé during the ...

  20. Patterns of birth weight at a community level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    fill this gap and issues related to representativeness a community based study that identified a one-year live ... and type of latrine facility showed variation in low birth weight rates. These factors also showed independent and significant effect on birth weight patterns. ... were based on health facility records. According the ...

  1. Very Low Birth Weight Infants as Young Adults : Focus on aspects of cognition, behavior and sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Strang-Karlsson, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Major advances in the treatment of preterm infants have occurred during the last three decades. Survival rates have increased, and the first generations of preterm infants born at very low birth weight (VLBW; less than 1500 g) who profited from modern neonatal intensive care are now in young adulthood. The literature shows that VLBW children achieve on average lower scores on cognitive tests, even after exclusion of individuals with obvious neurosensory deficits. Evidence also exists for an i...

  2. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight......, gestational age, TSH, and smoking) did not change the findings of nonsignificant regression coefficients. CONCLUSION: Low birth weight per se has no evident role in the etiology of thyroid autoimmunity....

  3. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  4. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  5. Epigenetic Consequences of Low Birth-Weight and Preterm Birth in Adult Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua

    2018-01-01

    Adverse birth outcomes including low birth-weight and preterm birth are associated with long-term morbidity and health consequences at adult ages. Molecular mechanisms including epigenetic modification may have been involved in the adaptation to the stressful condition in peridelivery period whic...

  6. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  7. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  8. Birth spacing and neonatal mortality in India : Dynamics, frailty and fecundity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhalotra, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2008-01-01

    Using microdata on 30,000 child births in India and dynamic panel data models, we analyze causal effects of birth spacing on subsequent neonatal mortality and of mortality on subsequent birth intervals, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity. Right censoring is accounted for by jointly estimating

  9. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). METHODS: First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations...... of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age childhood asthma outcomes. RESULTS: Younger gestational...... age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal...

  10. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of triplets or higher-order extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Vohr, Betty R; Wrage, Lisa; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F; Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J; Walsh, Michele C; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2011-03-01

    Extremely low birth weight twins have a higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than singletons. Higher-order extremely low birth weight multiple births may have an even higher rate of death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Extremely low birth weight (birth weight 401-1000 g) multiple births born in participating centers of the Neonatal Research Network between 1996 and 2005 were assessed for death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined by the presence of 1 or more of the following: moderate to severe cerebral palsy; mental developmental index score or psychomotor developmental index score less than 70; severe bilateral deafness; or blindness. Infants who died within 12 hours of birth were excluded. Maternal and infant demographic and clinical variables were compared among singleton, twin, and triplet or higher-order infants. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the association between singletons, twins, and triplet or higher-order multiples and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for confounding variables that may affect death or neurodevelopmental impairment. Our cohort consisted of 8296 singleton, 2164 twin, and 521 triplet or higher-order infants. The risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was increased in triplets or higher-order multiples when compared with singletons (adjusted odds ratio: 1.7 [95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.24]), and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27 [95% confidence: 0.95-1.71]). Triplet or higher-order births are associated with an increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18 to 22 months' corrected age when compared with extremely low birth weight singleton infants, and there was a trend toward an increased risk when compared with twins.

  11. Maternal Factors for Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth At Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neebha Ojha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight and preterm birth are the major community health problems in developing countries. They are the major determinants of perinatal survival and infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and the maternal risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth among hospital deliveries in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of TUTH. Maternal risk factors like age, parity, ethnicity, history of previous abortion, history of previous cesarean section, antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were studied. Information on all births that occurred was extracted from maternity case notes and delivery registers.  Results: During the study period, there were 685 singleton live births. Among these 78(11.4% were low birth weight and 47(6.9% were preterm birth. The mean birth weight was 2950±488 gm. The mean weight of female was statistically less compared to male babies (p=0.032. The signi cant risk factors for LBW were primiparity (OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.25-3.58, Indo-Aryan ethnicity (OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.12-3.45 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.08; 95%CI 1.17-8.12. As for PTB antepartum hemorrhage (OR 8.63; 95%CI 1.99-37.30 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.04-.89 were signi cant risk factors.  Conclusions: Parity, ethnicity, and medical disorders were the main risk factors for low birth weight. Antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were signi cant risk factors for preterm birth. Keywords: low birth weight; preterm birth; risk factors.

  12. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. Method for performing cerebral perfusion-weighted MRI in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laswad, Tarek; Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto; Gudinchet, Francois [University of Lausanne (CH). Radiology Department, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Wintermark, Pia; Moessinger, Adrien [University of Lausanne, Division of Neonatology, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Cerebral perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) in neonates is known to be technically difficult and there are very few published studies on its use in preterm infants. In this paper, we describe one convenient method to perform PWI in neonates, a method only recently used in newborns. A device was used to manually inject gadolinium contrast material intravenously in an easy, quick and reproducible way. We studied 28 newborn infants, with various gestational ages and weights, including both normal infants and those suffering from different brain pathologies. A signal intensity-time curve was obtained for each infant, allowing us to build perfusion maps. This technique offered a fast and easy method to manually inject a bolus gadolinium contrast material, which is essential in performing PWI in neonates. Cerebral PWI is technically feasible and reproducible in neonates of various gestational age and with various pathologies. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araz, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)

  15. Clinical Outcome of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Usman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a DNA virus and a marker of the herpes virus groups. This virus was found only in human and the infection occurs for a long time. The transmission of CMV infection to fetus/neonates is via congenital infections or perinatal infections. Clinical manifestation of symptomatic CMV infection of the fetus has two presentations, early and second early manifestations. Diagnosis of neonatal CMV infection may be done by serologic test based on detection of IgM of CMV infection. The objective of this study is to asses clinical outcome of CMV infection of low birth weight infants delivery with long term sequelae. An observational study was conducted since March 2010 until December 2011 in Advent and Hermina Pasteur Hospital, all subjects were low birth weight infants (LBWI. The inclusion criterias are all LBWI who were delivered in those hospital or were a referred neonates. The exclusion criterias are major congenital defect, which is not related to congenital CMV infection and neonates’ death before one week of life. Every neonate was examine both their physical and peripher blood count, glucose, Ca. Liver function test done for neonates with acute hepatitis and titre IgG and IgM CMV serial, head ultrasound serial and head CT scan/MRI used for babies with intracranial bleeding and hydrocephaly.  During the period of this study there were 50 cases of LBWI, consisted of 41 preterm babies, and 30 small for gestational age babies. Clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis were found in 20% subjects, all of them with the  elevation of liver function test. Microcephaly which occured in the first untill three weeks of life were 8%. Ventricular dilatation were 10% in the first week of life and increased up to 48% after three weeks. Cases with intracranial haemorrhage were found in 6% and 10% with cerebral calcification on head while sensorineural hearing loss were 8%. All of LBWI have 100% serorespon immune IgG. IgM CMV

  16. Impaired kidney growth in low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Chellakooty, Marla; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is an important risk factor for hypertension and unfavorable prognoses of a number of renal diseases. It is also associated with reduced kidney size and nephron number. A differentiation between the effects of low birth weight versus being born premature or small...... for gestational age has, however, not been addressed. METHODS: The influence of weight for gestational age (percentage deviation from expected mean), gestational age, birth weight, and early diet on kidney growth was studied in 178 children born pre- or postmature and/or small or large for gestational age......, comparing them to 717 mature children, birth weight appropriate for gestational age. Kidney size was determined by bilateral ultrasonography measuring length, width and depth, using the equation of an ellipsoid for volume calculation. The examinations were performed at 0, 3, and 18 months of age together...

  17. Birth Weight and Intelligence in Young Adulthood and Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-06-01

    We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow-up assessments, with intelligence scores increasing across 4 birth weight categories and declining for the highest birth weight category. The adjusted differences between those in the 5 IQ points at all 3 follow-up assessments, corresponding to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident across the normal birth weight range and so were not accounted for by low birth weight only. The association between birth weight and intelligence is stable from young adulthood into midlife. These long-term cognitive consequences may imply that even small shifts in the distribution of birth size, in normal-sized infants as well, may have a large impact at the population level. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Disseminated candidemia refractory to caspofungin therapy in an infant with extremely low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ju Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic fungal infections have high morbidity and mortality rates in neonates, especially neonates with an extremely low birth weight (ELBW. Here, we describe a 21-day-old ELBW female infant with an amphotericin B-unresponsive congenital Candida albicans infection that was treated with caspofungin. Blood sterilization was performed during the first episode, but a second episode of candidemia occurred after the discontinuation of caspofungin. Blood sterilization was again performed during the second round of caspofungin treatment, but fungal endocarditis and renal fungal balls still developed during the second episode. Caspofungin can be considered for invasive candidiasis in premature infants, especially in life-threatening situations. As for the focal lesions, more aggressive treatments other than just parenteral antibiotics should be considered. The literature regarding caspofungin therapy for neonatal candidiasis is also reviewed.

  19. Evaluation of within-litter birth weight variation in piglets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VaZindove

    2014-03-23

    Mar 23, 2014 ... Canario, L., Lundgren, H., Haandlykken, M. & Rydhmer, L., 2010. Genetics of growth in piglets and the association with homogeneity of weight within litters. J. Anim. Sci. 88, 1240-1247. Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K. & Bhebhe, E., 2006. Genetic determination of individual birth weight, litter weight and litter size ...

  20. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in Tanzanian cot-nursed neonates and its relation to postnatal weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, HFH; Massawe, AW; Okken, A; Coenraads, PJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    In healthy cot-nursed Tanzanian neonates (n = 92, gestation 26-42 weeks) measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and weight change were performed during the first 24 h after birth at an average ambient humidity of 70% and an environmental temperature of 32 degrees C. Urine production on day

  1. Weight concerns in male low birth weight adolescents: relation to body mass index, self-esteem, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blond, Anna; Whitaker, Agnes H; Lorenz, John M; Feldman, Judith F; Nieto, Marlon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Paneth, Nigel

    2008-06-01

    To compare weight concerns and self-reported body mass index (BMI) of low birth weight (LBW) adolescent boys to those of a normative sample and examine relationships among BMI, weight concerns, self-esteem, and depression in the LBW cohort. LBW boys (n = 260; mean age, 16.0) belong to the Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage Study birth cohort. Normative boys (n = 305; mean age, 16.5) belong to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Both samples were assessed in 2001-2004 with self-report questionnaires. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Weight perception and weight dissatisfaction were assessed with the Eating Symptoms Inventory. In LBW boys, self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory. Based on self-reported height and weight, LBW boys were more likely to be healthy weight or underweight and less likely to be overweight than normative boys. Despite having healthier self-reported BMIs, LBW boys reported more weight concerns than the normative sample. A total of 46.9% of LBW boys perceived their weight as abnormal, and 76.5% desired weight change. Weight concerns in LBW boys mostly reflected a perception of being underweight (31.2% of the cohort) and a desire to gain weight (47.5% of the cohort), although only 6.5% were clinically underweight. Weight concerns, but not BMI, were related to clinical depression and lower self-esteem. LBW adolescent boys are at high risk of experiencing weight concerns. Weight concerns rather than BMI are associated with emotional problems in LBW boys.

  2. Chronic Allopurinol Treatment during the Last Trimester of Pregnancy in Sows: Effects on Low and Normal Birth Weight Offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, E.T.; Antonides, A.; Fink-Gremmels, J.; Haar, ter K.; Kuller, W.I.; Meijer, E.; Nordquist, R.E.; Stouten, J.M.; Zeinstra, E.; Staay, van der F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are born with several risk factors for disease, morbidity and neonatal mortality, even if carried to term. Placental insufficiency leading to hypoxemia and reduced nutritional supply is the main cause for LBW. Brain damage and poor neurological outcome can be the

  3. Motor, Sleep/Wake and Physiological Organization in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Given Developmental Care. Conference Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Patricia T.; And Others

    This study examined the effect of a modification of nursing care on stressors associated with care procedures for low birth weight infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU); and on infants' physiological, motor, and behavioral development. The nursing staff of an NICU received training to reduce environmental and procedural stress, support…

  4. Abdominal adipose tissue compartments vary with ethnicity in Asian neonates: Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tint, Mya Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Godfrey, Keith M; Shuter, Borys; Kapur, Jeevesh; Rajadurai, Victor S; Agarwal, Pratibha; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Niduvaje, Krishnamoorthy; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Aris, Izzuddin Bin Mohd; Soh, Shu-E; Yap, Fabian; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kramer, Michael S; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Lee, Yung-Seng

    2016-05-01

    A susceptibility to metabolic diseases is associated with abdominal adipose tissue distribution and varies between ethnic groups. The distribution of abdominal adipose tissue at birth may give insights into whether ethnicity-associated variations in metabolic risk originate partly in utero. We assessed the influence of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue compartments in Asian neonates in the Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort. MRI was performed at ≤2 wk after birth in 333 neonates born at ≥34 wk of gestation and with birth weights ≥2000 g. Abdominal superficial subcutaneous tissue (sSAT), deep subcutaneous tissue (dSAT), and internal adipose tissue (IAT) compartment volumes (absolute and as a percentage of the total abdominal volume) were quantified. In multivariate analyses that were controlled for sex, age, and parity, the absolute and percentage of dSAT and the percentage of sSAT (but not absolute sSAT) were greater, whereas absolute IAT (but not the percentage of IAT) was lower, in Indian neonates than in Chinese neonates. Compared with Chinese neonates, Malay neonates had greater percentages of sSAT and dSAT but similar percentages of IAT. Marginal structural model analyses largely confirmed the results on the basis of volume percentages with controlled direct effects of ethnicity on abdominal adipose tissue; dSAT was significantly greater (1.45 mL; 95% CI: 0.49, 2.41 mL, P = 0.003) in non-Chinese (Indian or Malay) neonates than in Chinese neonates. However, ethnic differences in sSAT and IAT were NS [3.06 mL (95% CI:-0.27, 6.39 mL; P = 0.0712) for sSAT and -1.30 mL (95% CI: -2.64, 0.04 mL; P = 0.057) for IAT in non-Chinese compared with Chinese neonates, respectively]. Indian and Malay neonates have a greater dSAT volume than do Chinese neonates. This finding supports the notion that in utero influences may contribute to higher cardiometabolic risk observed in Indian and Malay persons in our population. If such

  5. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random-effects m...

  6. Birth weights and gestational ages of Malawian newborns at Queen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the distributions of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) and calculate rates of still birth (SB) of four years delivery in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital( QECH). Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out on data of deliveries conducted between January 2000 and December 2003.

  7. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  8. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...

  9. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, Stephen; Mens, Pètra F.; Karema, Corine; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Kaligirwa, Nadine; Vyankandondera, Joseph; de Vries, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence

  10. Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second phase LBW women (cases) were compared with a double number of women who gave birth to normal birth weight infants. Results: Among 939 women eligible for the study, the incidence of LBW was 7.8%. Reproductive age lower than 25 years, gestational age lower than 40 weeks, history of previous ...

  11. Nationwide Twin Birth Weight Percentiles by Gestational Age in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jan Hu

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: This is the first nationwide birth weight norm for twins in Taiwan, which is particularly useful for investigation into the predictors and outcomes of altered fetal growth through twin studies in the Taiwanese population.

  12. Sex Specific Genetic and Environmental Trends in Birth Weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant. Estimation of sex specific variance components had no significant influence on the direction and magnitude of genetic trends indicating of homogeneity of variance by sex for birth weight in this population. Keywords: Breeding values ...

  13. Maternal and cord blood fatty acid patterns with excessive gestational weight gain and neonatal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiyong; Ye, Kui; Han, Yanping; Sheng, Jie; Jin, Zhongxiu; Bo, Qinli; Hu, Chunqiu; Hu, Chuanlai; Li, Li

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the association of maternal excessive gestational weight gain with saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in maternal and cord serum. We included 77 pairs of women and their newborns and classified them into three groups as follows: mothers with normal gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group I (30 pairs), mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group II (30 pairs), and mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their macrosomic babies in group III (17 pairs). Serum fatty acid concentrations were determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No remarkable difference in maternal dietary intake was observed among the three groups. C16:0, C18:0, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group III mothers than in group I mothers. Compared with group I neonates, total saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower but total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group II neonates (ppattern.

  14. The Relationship between CO Ambient and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kariman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: LBW is the strongest factor related to prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood mortality and morbidity. Air pollution is one of the risk factors that is recently gaining attention. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the CO ambient and low birth weight in women referring to Tehran hospitals in 2007-2008.

     

    Methods: In this historical cohort study 225 pregnant women having lived within 5 kilometers of a monitoring station during pregnancy and referring to selected hospitals in Tehran were investigated. An information questionnaire was used for data collection and sampling was done by multistage sampling and convenience method. Women were assigned to low exposure group and high exposure group based on mean exposure to each pollutant during pregnancy. These two groups were matched with respect to confounding factors. SPSS software version 15, T statistics, c2, Man Withnney, and Relative Risk procedures were used for data analysis.

     

    Results: The result showed that 31.6% of CO high exposure group and 7.4% of CO low exposure group had Low birth weight baby. The result also showed a significant relationship between exposure to high amount of CO and LBW (p=0.001. Relative Risk calculated with confidence interval (RR=4/67, CI=(1/76-9/43 was found to be 95% and the amount of attributable risk was 66%.

     

    Conclusion: Based on these finding, exposure to carbon monoxide pollution can cause LBW. There should be an educational program about the disadvantages of CO pollutant on pregnant women living in densely populated areas of the city. Moreover, practical approaches should be provided to reduce these pollutants.

  15. Standards of Birth Weight According to Gestational Age in the Northwestern Regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodych O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the neonatal registry for 2001-2010 years in Rivne and Volyn regions of Ukraine as well as 2006-2011 years of Khmelnytsky region was carried out. General information was available about body weight of 366 607 newborns, among which 188 687 were boys and 177 920 girls. Based on the analysis we developed local standards of birth body weight in relation to gestational age separately for boys and girls. Procedure for processing local standards met international standards that have been developed by the WHO. Availability of processed local standards depending on gestational age will enable neonatologists, pediatricians and researchers to clearly identify anomalies in the health of newborns in the northwestern regions of Ukraine. Therefore, identification of newborns with low or high birth weight will enable adequate and timely steps to improve their health.

  16. Air pollution and low birth weight in an industrialized city in Southeastern Brazil, 2003-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreno dos Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction: Birth weight is an important indicator of several conditions that manifest earlier (as fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibited growth and cognitive development and later in life such as chronic diseases. Air pollution has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: Retrospective cohort study investigated the association between low birth weight (LBW and maternal exposure to air pollutants in Volta Redonda city, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2003 to 2006. Methods: Birth data was obtained from Brazilian Information System. Exposure information (O3, PM10, temperature and humidity was provided by Governmental Air Quality Monitoring System. Linear and Logistic models, adjusted for sex, type of pregnancy, prenatal care, place of birth, maternal age, parity, education, congenital anomalies and weather variables were employed. Results: Low birth weight (LBW represented 9.1% of all newborns (13,660. For an interquartile range increase in PM10 it was found OR2 ndTrimester = 1.06 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.10, OR3 rdTrimester = 1.06 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.10 and, in O3 it was found OR2 ndTrimester = 1.03 (95%CI 1.01 - 1.04, OR3 rdTrimester = 1.03 (95%CI 1.02 - 1.04. The dose-response relationship and a reduction in birth weight of 31.11 g (95%CI -56.64 - -5.58 was observed in the third trimester of pregnancy due to an interquartile increase of O3. Conclusion: This study suggests that exposures to PM10 and O3, even being below the Brazilian air quality standards, contribute to risks of low birth weight.

  17. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years old for infants with birth weights under 500 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagara, Syunsuke; Kouwaki, Masanori; Togawa, Takao; Sugiura, Tokio; Okada, Mayumi; Koyama, Norihisa

    2017-09-21

    Marked improvements have been achieved in the survival of extremely low birth weight infants, but survival rates and prognoses of extremely small infants with birth weights ≤500 g remain poor. The aim of this study was to clarify long-term outcomes for surviving infants with birth weights ≤500 g. The study population comprised fetuses of gestational age ≥22 weeks, expected live- or stillbirth weight ≤500 g, and birth date between 2003 and 2012. Developmental assessments were performed prospectively at 3 years old. Data were obtained for 21 fetuses, including 10 live births and 11 stillbirths. Of the 10 live births, median gestational age was 25.2 weeks (range, 22.4-27.1 weeks), median birth weight was 426 g (range, 370-483 g), and two neonates died before discharge. One infant with severe asphyxia died within 12 h and another infant with Down syndrome died at 34 days. The survival rate was thus 80%. All surviving infants were small for gestational age. Seven of the 8 surviving infants (88%) weighed less than 2500 g at a corrected age of 40 weeks. Seven infants were available for developmental assessments at 3 years old. One infant could not be followed. Two of those seven infants (29%) showed normal development, three infants (42%) showed mild neurodevelopmental disability, and two infants (29%) showed severe neurodevelopmental disability. One infant had periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy. Two of the seven infants (29%) had short stature (g. Further large studies are needed to assess long-term outcomes for extremely small infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A study of neonatal body weight and colonization of Ureaplasma Urealiticum on the new borns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi Saidi K

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma urealyticum is an important cause in habital abortion, perinatal, death chorioamnionitis and low birth weight. In this study, 163 specimens obtained from neonates who have borned in the two university hospital of Tehran. 240 new born infant had the weight less than or equal 2500 g (low birth weight and others had more than 2500 g (from the total in 37 cases, ureaplasma urealyticum colonized and 126 cases were responded negative. From these positive cases 9 were L.B.W (two birth weight and 28 were normal weight and from the negative cases. 15 had L.B.W and 111 had normal weight. Finally with the 5% probability of error byK square (K² test. Two factors, colonization and weight of new born infant show the correlation. Sampling location, the age of mothers, and the position of chorioamnions are three factors that were studied. Two factors of the above do not display correlation about normal infant and L.B.W.

  19. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros C. Rosal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p<0.016. Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5 and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0 women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8. GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p<0.001. Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed.

  20. Divergence of estimated fetal weight and birth weight in singleton fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadis, Alexandros; Eleftheriades, Makarios; Papadopoulos, Vassileios; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate differences in distribution of estimated fetal weight (EFW) and birth weight (BW) of ongoing fetuses and neonates of the same gestational age. Reference curves for EFW (Hadlock BPD-HC-AC-FL formula, N = 1191) and BW (N = 1036) in singleton pregnancies from 24 +0 to 40 +6 gestational weeks were calculated. Multiple pregnancies, fetuses with major or multiple abnormalities or syndromes and iatrogenic preterm deliveries due to preeclampsia or abnormal fetal Doppler were excluded. The standardized residuals for EFW and BW were calculated and compared. EFW and BW can be accurately described by quadratic equations (R 2  = 0.944 and 0.807, respectively). The distribution of standardized residuals for BW using the EFW formula was negative from 28 +0 to 35 +6 weeks. The 50th and 5th centiles of BW were lower than those of EFW throughout prematurity, and they converged at approximately 38 gestational weeks. The 5th centile for BW was 30% lower than the 5th centile for EFW at 27 weeks, 27.5% lower at 30 weeks and 19.4% at 34 weeks. Preterm infants have lower BW distribution compared to the expected EFW of ongoing pregnancies of the same gestational age, supporting the concept of hidden intrauterine morbidity for a proportion of these infants.

  1. Associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with neonatal adiposity in the Healthy Start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Anne P; Brinton, John T; Glueck, Deborah H; Shapiro, Allison L; Harrod, Curtis S; Lynch, Anne M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2015-02-01

    Maternal obesity and weight gain during pregnancy are risk factors for child obesity. Associations may be attributable to causal effects of the intrauterine environment or genetic and postnatal environmental factors. We estimated associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) overall and in early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy with neonatal adiposity. Participants were 826 women enrolled in a Colorado prebirth cohort who delivered term infants (2010-2013). GWG to 39 wk of gestation was predicted by using mixed models, and early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy rates of GWG (0-17, 17-27, and 27 wk to delivery) were calculated from repeated weight measures. Neonatal body composition was measured by using air-displacement plethysmography ≤3 d after birth. Each1-kg/m(2) increase in maternal BMI was associated with increased neonatal fat mass (5.2 g; 95% CI: 3.5, 6.9 g), fat-free mass (7.7 g; 95% CI: 4.5, 10.9 g), and percentage of body fat (0.12%; 95% CI: 0.08%, 0.16%). Each 0.1-kg/wk increase in predicted GWG was associated with increased fat mass (24.0 g; 95% CI: 17.4, 30.5 g), fat-free mass (34.0 g; 95% CI: 21.4, 46.6 g), and percentage of body fat (0.55%; 95% CI: 0.37%, 0.72%). No interaction was detected between BMI and GWG in their effects on neonatal body composition. Early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy rates of GWG were independently associated with fat mass and percentage of body fat. Midpregnancy and late pregnancy GWGs were associated with fat-free mass. An observed GWG that exceeded recommendations was associated with higher neonatal fat mass and fat-free mass but not percentage of body fat relative to adequate GWG. Maternal prepregnancy BMI and GWG, including period-specific GWG, were positively and independently associated with neonatal adiposity. Associations of early and midpregnancy weight gain with neonatal adiposity support the hypothesis that greater maternal

  2. Neonatal outcomes of preterm infants in breech presentation according to mode of birth in Canadian NICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Abhay; Zhu, Qiaohao; Lee, Shoo K; Shah, Prakesh S

    2011-03-01

    Many medical practitioners have adopted the practice of caesarean section for preterm infants in breech presentation based on term infant data. Some studies have highlighted deleterious effects on survival, such as intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular leucomalacia, while others have reported no difference from the outcomes after vaginal delivery. To compare outcomes of preterm infants of ≤32 weeks' gestational age who were in breech position at the time of birth according to mode of birth in Canadian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). 29 Canadian NICUs. Neonates admitted to participating NICUs in the Canadian Neonatal Network between 2003 and 2007 were included in this retrospective study. Infants who were in breech position at the time of birth were divided into two groups: vaginal birth (VB) and caesarean section (CS). Data on common neonatal outcomes were compared using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Neonatal mortality and other neonatal morbidities. Of 3552 preterm infants in breech position at birth, 2937 (83%) were delivered by CS and 615 (17%) by VB. Multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for perinatal risk factors indicated that VB was associated with an increased risk of death (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.3), chronic lung disease (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.9) and severe retinopathy of prematurity (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3). Vaginal birth for preterm infants in breech presentation is possibly associated with a higher risk of adverse neonatal outcomes compared with caesarean birth in Canadian NICUs. It is not clear whether adverse outcomes are due to the mode of delivery or whether breech birth is associated with other risk factors, an issue that can only be resolved by a randomised controlled trial.

  3. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large-for-gestation......Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large...

  4. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA.Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana.Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05.This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  5. Effect of Implementing a Birth Plan on Womens' Childbirth Experiences and Maternal & Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Amal Hussain; Mohamed, Hanan El Sayed; Elkader, Shadia Abd; El-Nemer, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth satisfaction represents a sense of feeling good about one's birth. It is thought to result from having a sense of control, having expectations met, feeling empowered, confident and supported. The aim of this study was to implement a birth plan and evaluate its effect on women's childbirth experiences and maternal, neonatal outcomes. A…

  6. Serious adverse neonatal outcomes such as 5-minute Apgar score of zero and seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction are increased in planned home births after cesarean delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Gr?nebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B.; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    The United States is with 37,451 home births in 2014 the country with the largest absolute number of home births among all developed countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence and risks of a 5-minute Apgar score of zero and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in women with a history of prior cesarean delivery for planned home vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), compared to hospital VBAC and hospital birth cesarean deliveries for term normal weight infa...

  7. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L; De Silva, N Maneka G; Wood, Andrew R; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A; McCarthy, Mark I; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Tim D; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F A; Nohr, Ellen A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T; Scholtens, Denise M; Davey Smith, George; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Frayling, Timothy M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Freathy, Rachel M

    2016-03-15

    Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, vitamin D status, and adiponectin level. Offspring birth weight from 18 studies. Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The maternal genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2-g (95% CI, 0 to 3 g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P = .008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were also associated with birth weight with effect sizes of 8 g (95% CI, 6 to 10 g) per glucose-raising allele (P = 7 × 10(-14)) and -4 g (95% CI, -6 to -2 g) per SBP-raising allele (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. A 1-SD ( ≈ 4 points) genetically higher maternal BMI was associated with a 55-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 17 to 93 g). A 1-SD ( ≈ 7.2 mg/dL) genetically higher maternal fasting glucose concentration was associated with 114-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 80 to 147 g). However, a 1-SD ( ≈ 10 mm Hg) genetically higher maternal SBP was associated with a 208-g

  8. Assessment of Fetal Kidney Growth and Birth Weight in an Indigenous Australian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Diehm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indigenous Australians experience higher rates of renal disease and hypertension than non-Indigenous Australians. Low birth weight is recognized as a contributing factor in chronic disease and has been shown to increase the risk of renal failure in adulthood. A smaller kidney volume with fewer nephrons places an individual at risk of hypertension and renal failure. Indigenous Australians have fewer nephrons than non-Indigenous Australians. In this study, intrauterine fetal and kidney growth were evaluated in 174 Indigenous Australian babies throughout gestation in order to record and evaluate fetal growth and kidney size, within a population that is at high risk for chronic illness.Methods: Pregnant women that identified as Indigenous, or non-Indigenous women that were pregnant with a partner who identified as an Indigenous Australian were eligible to participate. Maternal history, smoking status, blood and urine samples and fetal ultrasounds were collected throughout pregnancy. Fetal kidney measurements were collected using ultrasound. Statistical analysis was performed using the Stata 14.1 software package.Results: 15.2% of babies were born prematurely. 44% of the mothers reported smoking in pregnancy. The median birth weight of this cohort was 3,240 g. Male fetuses had higher kidney to body weight ratios than female fetuses (P = 0.02. The birth weights of term neonates whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were lower (327 g, P < 0.001 than the birth weights of term babies from non-smoking mothers. The kidney volumes of babies whose mothers smoked were also smaller (P = 0.02, but were in proportion to body weight.Conclusion: In this cohort of Indigenous women smoking was associated with both increased number of preterm births and with a reduction in birth weights, even of term infants. Since kidney volume is a surrogate measure of nephron number and nephrogenesis is complete at birth, babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy

  9. A Secular Trend in Birth Weight and Delivery Practices in Periurban Vietnam During 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Duc Minh; Nguyen, Anh Duy; Nguyen, Chuong Canh; Le, Vui Thi; Hoang, Son Ngoc; Bui, Ha Thi Thu

    2017-07-01

    The remarkable increase in Vietnamese economic conditions can increase the birth weight in neonates and better delivery practices among women. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System started in 2004. An open cohort of data consisting of about 57 561 people from 17 993 households has been followed primarily with respect to demography, economy, and education. The aim of this research is to study secular trends in delivery practice and birth weight in the past decade (2005-2012) in Chi Linh. We found a significant change in delivery rates at hospitals and cesarean section rates, but the birth weights over a decade of drastic economic development were stable. Furthermore, the findings show significant associations of birth weight and delivery practices with the child's sex, mother's age, and household income. Our results might be considered as representative for other similar periurban settings in Vietnam. We suggest that appropriate policies should be developed given the reduction in the use of delivery services in commune health centers in urban areas.

  10. Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes among healthy Middle-Eastern females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Papazian

    Full Text Available Studies on the relative impact of body mass index in women in childbearing age and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes are scarce in the Middle East.The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG on neonatal outcomes. The effect of maternal age and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was also examined.This is a retrospective cross sectional observational study of 1000 full term deliveries of women enrolled thru the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network, in Lebanon. Maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and GWG and neonatal outcomes such as weight, height, head circumference and Apgar score were the primary studied variables in this study. Total maternal weight gain were compared to the guidelines depicted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM.The negative outcomes of newborns such as lean body weight and macrosomia were significantly present in women who gained respectively below or above the IOM's cut-off points. Pregestational body mass index influenced significantly the infants' birth weight, in both the underweight and obese categories. Birth height, head circumference and Apgar score were not influenced by pregestational body mass index or gestational weight gain. No significant associations were found between maternal age and pregestational body mass index and gestational weight gain.Studies evaluating the impact of weight before and during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes and anthropometrics measurements are lacking in the Middle East. Our results highlight the importance of nutritional counseling in order to shed the extra weights before conceiving and monitor weight gain to avoid the negative impact on feto-maternal health.

  11. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  12. Developmental outcome of low birth-weight and preterm newborns: a re-view of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems. Global statistics demonstrates an increase in the prevalence of low birth weight in the developing countries. Low birth weight infants are exposed to complications such as major neurosensory impairements, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances. The majority of infant's death and developmental disorders were due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight. Infants weighing less than 2500 g, is a major determinant of both neonatal and infant mortality rates and, together with congenital anomalies (e.g., cardiac, central nervous system, and respiratory, contributes significantly to childhood morbidity. Various studies indicate that low birth weight infants are suffering from physiological and psychosocial disabilities, two to three times more than the other children. At school age, preterm and low birth weight infants have poorer physical growth, cognitive function, and school performance. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Although the survival rates have increased dramatically and the incidence of morbidities has decreased, the complications are still considered to be associated with economical and social burdens. Most children with Low birth weight suffer from multiple disabilities. Therefore, they need special and consistent care. On demand of reducing the infant mortality rate, the need to decrease the complications in low birth weight and preterm infants should be considered by the policy makers in health care system. In this review article, we assessed current evidences on developmental outcomes of low birth weight and

  13. Perinatal and infant mortality and low birth weight among residents near cokeworks in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolk, H.; Pattenden, S.; Vrijheid, M.; Thakrar, B.; Armstrong, B.

    2000-02-01

    With growing evidence of the adverse health effects of air pollution--especially fine particulates--investigators must concentrate on the fetus, neonate, and infant as potentially vulnerable groups. Cokeworks are a major source of smoke and sulfur dioxide. In the current study, the authors investigated whether populations residing near cokeworks had a higher risk of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes. Zones of 7.5-km radius around 22 cokeworks in Great Britain were studied, within which the authors assumed that exposure declined from highest levels within 2 km to background levels. Routinely recorded birth and death data for Great Britain during the period 1981--1992 were analyzed. Each individual record had a postcode that referred to a small geographical area of typically 15--17 addresses. The authors calculated expected numbers on the basis of regional rates, stratified by year, sex, and a small-area socio-economic deprivation score. For all cokeworks combined, the observed/expected ratio within 2 km of cokeworks was 1.00 for low-birth-weight infants; 0.94 for still births; 0.95 for infant mortality; 0.86 for neonatal mortality; 1.10 for postneonatal mortality; 0.79 for respiratory postneonatal mortality; and 1.07 for postneonatal Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Respiratory postneonatal mortality was low throughout the entire 0--7.5-km study area. There was no statistically significant decline in risk with distance from cokeworks for any of the outcomes studied. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of an increased risk of low birth weight, stillbirths, and/or neonatal mortality near cokeworks, and there was no strong evidence for any association between residence near cokeworks and postneonatal mortality. One must remember, however, the limited statistical power of the study to detect small risks.

  14. Definition and outpatient management of the very low-birth-weight infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Jessie R; Makari, Doris

    2012-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as chronic lung disease of prematurity, is the major cause of pulmonary disease in infants. The pathophysiology and management of BPD have evolved over the past four decades as improved neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) modalities have increased survival rates. The likelihood for developing BPD increases with the degree of prematurity and reaches 25-35% in very low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants. BPD affects many organ systems, and infants with BPD are at increased risk for rehospitalization and numerous complications following NICU discharge. The management of BPD and medically related problems, particularly during the first 2 years of life, remains a continuing challenge for parents and healthcare providers. It is important that a multidisciplinary team consisting of the neonatologist/attending physician, primary care physician, and other specialized support staff work in concert and meet regularly to provide continuity of care and accurate patient assessments.

  15. Trajectory and correlates of growth of extremely-low-birth-weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen; Schluchter, Mark; Margevicius, Seunghee; Andreias, Laura; Taylor, H Gerry; Cuttler, Leona

    2014-02-01

    Catch-up growth may predispose to obesity and metabolic sequelae. We sought to examine the trajectory and correlates of growth and catch up among extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) (<1 kg) adolescents. A cohort study of 148 neurologically normal ELBW children and 115 normal-birth-weight (NBW) controls born during the period 1992-1995 was conducted. Longitudinal measures of gender-specific growth of ELBW children from birth, in addition to growth and measures of obesity of ELBW and NBW children at 14 y, were evaluated. Following neonatal growth failure, ELBW children had accelerated growth, but at 8 y, they still had lower weight and height z scores than NBW children. By 14 y, ELBW boys had caught up in growth to their NBW controls, but ELBW girls remained significantly smaller. ELBW children, however, did not differ from their controls in measures of obesity. In hierarchical multiple regression analyses, only maternal BMI and weight gain during infancy and childhood predicted the ELBW children's 14-y weight z scores, BMI z scores, and abdominal circumference. Perinatal risk factors, including intrauterine growth, only predicted growth up to 20 mo. Maternal BMI and rate of growth, rather than perinatal factors, predict 14-y obesity among neurologically normal ELBW adolescents.

  16. Maternal fat mass at mid-pregnancy and birth weight in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ramos, Tatiana; Sichieri, Rosely; Hoffman, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between maternal body composition and foetal development is unclear. To determine the relationship between maternal body composition [fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)] and foetal growth and birth weight, independent of potential confounding factors. This study consisted of 92 women, normal and overweight/obese, recruited from the Instituto Fernandes Figueira in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Body composition (FM and FFM) was estimated using bioelectrical impedance. Foetal growth was assessed using serial ultrasound measurements at the second and third trimester and infant's weight and length were measured at birth. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between maternal FM and FFM and birth weight adjusted for gestational age (BWt) and change in estimated foetal weight (ΔEFW), controlling for infant gender, maternal serum glucose, energy intake, parity, height and income. Maternal FM, but not FFM, was positively associated with BWt (p = 0.02) and borderline with ΔEFW (p = 0.05). FM expressed as a percentage of body weight (%FM) showed a significant positive association with BWt (p maternal FM at mid-pregnancy is associated with neonatal BW and foetal growth.

  17. [Incidence of fetal macrosomia among single live birth neonates and influencing factors in Xi' an, 2010-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Bai, R H; Wang, L L; Dang, S N; Mi, B B; Yan, H

    2016-08-10

    To analyze the incidence and influencing factors on fetal macrosomia among single live birth neonates in Xi' an. A questionnaire survey was conducted among women at the childbearing age who were selected through multi stage stratified random sampling in Xi 'an during 2010-2013. All the childbearing aged women involved, were in pregnancy or having definite pregnancy outcomes. A total of 4 970 women at childbearing age and their infants were investigated. The overall incidence of fetal macrosomia weight among the single live birth neonates under study, was 9.7% during 2010-2013 (8.9% in 2010, 8.1% in 2011, 10.0% in 2012 and 10.1% in 2013, respectively). The incidence rates of fetal macrosomia appeared 10.5% in the central district and, 8.6% in the rural-urban area of Xi'an. There were statistically significant differences (Pmacrosomia. The incidence of fetal macrosomia in Xi' an was higher than the national figures. The incidence of fetal macrosomia was higher in the central district than in rural-urban area. Having male neonate, postmature birth, gestational diabetes, being multipara, drinking during pregnancy were the risk factors related to fetal macrosomia.

  18. Low birth weight: risk factors in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Y.S.A.; Bataineh, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights (LBW) in Irbid, Jordan, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in Prince Rashed Hospital (PRH). Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 15-45 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive in PRH during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is also a need to discourage early pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy. (author)

  19. Relationship Among Mothers' Glycemic Level, Periodontitis, and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Eliesita C; Cruz, Simone S; Adan, Luis Fernando F; Vianna, Maria Isabel P; Passos-Soares, Johelle S; Trindade, Soraya C; Oliveira, Ernesto P; Oliveira, Michelle T; Cerqueira, Eneida de M M; Pereira, Antonio Luis; Barreto, Maurício L; Seymour, Gregory John

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of glycemic level on the relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was conducted with 372 females divided into cases (109 mothers of newborns with birth weight periodontal status. Results were analyzed using logistic regression. The likelihood of having children with LBW among the mothers with periodontitis was six times greater than that observed among mothers without periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR adjusted] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47 to 15.17), even after adjustment. There was also a strong, statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and LBW in both the normal glycemic-level group (HbA1c levels Periodontitis and glycemic levels appeared to have opposing influences on birth weight, with periodontitis being associated with LBW and the magnitude of the association being altered depending on maternal blood glucose level.

  20. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamal, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)

  1. Is Biology Destiny? Birth Weight and Differential Parental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Time diaries of sibling pairs from the PSID-CDS are used to determine whether maternal time investments compensate for or reinforce birth-weight differences among children. The findings demonstrate that the direction and degree of differential treatment vary by mother's education. Less-educated mothers devote more total time and more educationally oriented time to heavier-birth-weight children, whereas better-educated mothers devote more total and more educationally oriented time to lower-birth-weight children. The compensating effects observed among highly educated mothers are substantially larger than the reinforcing effects among the least-educated mothers. The findings show that families redistribute resources in ways that both compensate for and exacerbate early-life disadvantages. PMID:22865101

  2. Birth weight and intelligence in young adulthood and midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident......OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. METHODS: The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members...... of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. RESULTS: Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow...

  3. [Disorders of the mother-child relationship in newborn infants with low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, J P; Calame, A; Marchand, C; Plancherel, B; Prod'hom, L S

    1981-02-01

    The influence of premature birth or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on the mother-child relationship has been studied in 80 children with birth-weight below 2000 g, treated in the Neonatology Unit of the Pediatric Department of Lausanne University. 40 children with birth-weight over 2500 g and without perinatal complications born in the Obstetrical Department of the same hospital were used as controls. The 80 infants with low birth-weight presented only minor neonatal disturbances and showed later on a normal psychomotor development. The mother-child relationship was evaluated by free and structured interviews accompanied by a questionnaire and by regular contacts throughout the first 12 months. With the exception of the professional work of the mother during and after pregnancy, all the family and social factors were not significantly different in the 3 groups. The mothers of premature children showed significantly more disturbances of their family relationship than the mothers in the control group. On the other hand, a significantly higher number of attachment problems is the only difference observed in the group of mothers of IUGR-babies. There was no mathematical correlation between these problems and the characteristics of the family and social-economic environment of the mothers. The importance of subjective, i.e. psychological, factors as cause of difficulties in the mother-child relationship is stressed.

  4. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  5. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  6. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  7. Improving Maternal Healthcare Access and Neonatal Survival through a Birthing Home Model in Rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wickstrom

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available High neonatal mortality in Haiti is sustained by limited access to essential maternity services, particularly for Haiti’s rural population. We investigated the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to provide basic prenatal, delivery, and neonatal services for women with uncomplicated pregnancies while simultaneously providing triage and transport of women with pregnancy related complications. The model included consideration of the local context, including women’s perceptions of barriers to healthcare access and available resources to implement change. Evaluation methods included the performance of a baseline community census and collection of pregnancy histories from 791 women living in a defined area of rural Haiti. These retrospective data were compared with pregnancy outcome for 668 women subsequently receiving services at the birthing home. Of 764 reported most recent pregnancies in the baseline survey, 663(87% occurred at home with no assistance from skilled health staff. Of 668 women followed after opening of the birthing home, 514 (77% subsequently gave birth at the birthing home, 94 (14% were referred to a regional hospital for delivery, and only 60 (9% delivered at home or on the way to the birthing home. Other measures of clinical volume and patient satisfaction also indicated positive changes in health care seeking. After introduction of the birthing home, fewer neonates died than predicted by historical information or national statistics. The present experience points out the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to increase access to essential maternity services.

  8. An observational study of associations among maternal fluids during parturition, neonatal output, and breastfed newborn weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Newborn weight measurements are used as a key indicator of breastfeeding adequacy. The purpose of this study was to explore non-feeding factors that might be related to newborn weight loss. The relationship between the intravenous fluids women receive during parturition (the act of giving birth, including time in labour or prior to a caesarean section) and their newborn's weight loss during the first 72 hours postpartum was the primary interest. Methods In this observational cohort study, we collected data about maternal oral and IV fluids during labour or before a caesarean section. Participants (n = 109) weighed their newborns every 12 hours for the first three days then daily to Day 14, and they weighed neonatal output (voids and stools) for three days. Results At 60 hours (nadir), mean newborn weight loss was 6.57% (SD 2.51; n = 96, range 1.83-13.06%). When groups, based on maternal fluids, were compared (≤1200 mls [n = 21] versus > 1200 [n = 53]), newborns lost 5.51% versus 6.93% (p = 0.03), respectively. For the first 24 hours, bivariate analyses show positive relationships between a) neonatal output and percentage of newborn weight lost (r(96) = 0.493, p fluids (final 2 hours) and neonatal output (r(42) = 0.383, p = 0.012). At 72 hours, there was a positive correlation between grams of weight lost and all maternal fluids (r(75) = 0.309, p = 0.007). Conclusions Timing and amounts of maternal IV fluids appear correlated to neonatal output and newborn weight loss. Neonates appear to experience diuresis and correct their fluid status in the first 24 hours. We recommend a measurement at 24 hours, instead of birth weight, for baseline when assessing weight change. Because practices can differ between maternity settings, we further suggest that clinicians should collect and analyze data from dyads in their care to determine an optimal baseline measurement. PMID:21843338

  9. Effects of early pregnancy BMI, mid-gestational weight gain, glucose and lipid levels in pregnancy on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2015-04-03

    Maternal glucose and lipid levels are associated with neonatal anthropometry of the offspring, also independently of maternal body mass index (BMI). Gestational weight gain, however, is often not accounted for. The objective was to explore whether the effects of maternal glucose and lipid levels on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat were independent of early pregnancy BMI and mid-gestational weight gain. In a population-based, multi-ethnic, prospective cohort of 699 women and their offspring, maternal anthropometrics were collected in gestational week 15 and 28. Maternal fasting plasma lipids, fasting and 2-hour glucose post 75 g glucose load, were collected in gestational week 28. Maternal risk factors were standardized using z-scores. Outcomes were neonatal birth weight and sum of skinfolds in four different regions. Mean (standard deviation) birth weight was 3491 ± 498 g and mean sum of skinfolds was 18.2 ± 3.9 mm. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain as well as early pregnancy BMI, gestational week at inclusion, maternal age, parity, smoking status, ethnic origin, gestational age and offspring's sex. However, weight gain was the strongest independent predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds, with a 0.21 kg/week increased weight gain giving a 110.7 (95% confidence interval 76.6-144.9) g heavier neonate, and with 0.72 (0.38-1.06) mm larger sum of skinfolds. The effect size of mother's early pregnancy BMI on birth weight was higher in non-Europeans than in Europeans. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of offspring's birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain. Mid-gestational weight gain was a stronger predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds than early

  10. Crew Resource Management for Obstetric and Neonatal Teams to Improve Communication During Cesarean Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Mary P; Dziadkowiec, Oliwier; Kleiner, Catherine; Halverson-Carpenter, Katherine; Link, Terri; Barry, James

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of crew resource management training and interventions on the quality and quantity of communication during cesarean births in a tertiary academic hospital's labor and birthing services. A prospective pre-post crew resource management training intervention. Tertiary academic hospital in the Western United States. All members of obstetric and neonatal teams that participated in cesarean births. Over a 5-month time period, all obstetric and neonatal staff were required to participate in team training in crew resource management critical language, communication, and team structure. Trained observers collected baseline data (n = 52) for 3 months on the quantity and quality of communications that occurred during cesarean births. Postintervention data (n = 50) were gathered for 3 months after team training. Analysis approach included use of Fisher's exact test, independent-samples t test, and multilevel generalized linear regression models with Poisson distribution. There was a statistically significant increase in quantity and quality of communication from pre- to postintervention assessment for obstetric and neonatal staff. Although the increase in quality was similarly great between both types of teams, increase in quantity was more substantial in obstetric staff. Principles of team communication training shown to be effective in increasing communication among team members in a variety of clinical areas were also effective in improving communication in the labor and birth setting during cesarean births. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic derangements in IUGR neonates detected at birth using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specific amino acids that were significantly elevated in IUGR neonates included Histidine, Methionine, Arginine, Aspartic, Valine, Alanine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Glutamic acid, Tyrosine, Ornithine, Phenylalanine, and lastly citrulline. These derangements were recognized to be similar to those found in different disorders.

  12. Birth weight curves tailored to maternal world region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Joel G; Sgro, Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Glazier, Richard H; Bocking, Alan; Hilliard, Robert; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2012-02-01

    Newborns of certain immigrant mothers are smaller at birth than those of domestically born mothers. Contemporary, population-derived percentile curves for these newborns are lacking, as are estimates of their risk of being misclassified as too small or too large using conventional rather than tailored birth weight curves. We completed a population-based study of 766 688 singleton live births in Ontario from 2002 to 2007. Smoothed birth weight percentile curves were generated for males and females, categorized by maternal world region of birth: Canada (63.5%), Europe/Western nations (7.6%), Africa/Caribbean (4.9%), Middle East/North Africa (3.4%), Latin America (3.4%), East Asia/Pacific (8.1%), and South Asia (9.2%). We determined the likelihood of misclassifying an infant as small for gestational age (≤ 10th percentile for weight) or as large for gestational age (≥ 90th percentile for weight) on a Canadian-born maternal curve versus one specific to maternal world region of origin. Significantly lower birth weights were seen at gestation-specific 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles among term infants born to mothers from each world region, with the exception of Europe/Western nations, compared with those for infants of Canadian-born mothers. For example, for South Asian babies born at 40 weeks' gestation, the absolute difference at the 10th percentile was 198 g (95% CI 183 to 212) for males and 170 g (95% CI 161 to 179) for females. Controlling for maternal age and parity, South Asian males had an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.68) of being misclassified as small for gestational age, equivalent to approximately 116 in 1000 newborns; for South Asian females the OR was 2.41 (95% CI 2.34 to 2.48), equivalent to approximately 106 per 1000 newborns. Large for gestational age would be missed in approximately 61 per 1000 male and 57 per 1000 female South Asian newborns if conventional rather than ethnicity-specific birth weight curves were used. Birth weight curves

  13. The effect of kangaroo ward care in comparison with "intermediate intensive care" on the growth velocity in preterm infant with birth weight control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Oleti Tejo

    2016-10-01

    Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in preterm infants. In this study, we compared the efficacy of "baby care in kangaroo ward (KWC)" with "baby care in intermediate intensive care (IIC)" in stable preterm infants (birth weight birth weight <1100 g) infants at term gestational age. Clinical trial registry of India CTRI/2014/05/004625 WHAT IS KNOWN: • Kangaroo mother care (KMC) reduces neonatal mortality, neonatal sepsis and improves growth outcome in VLBW infants. What is new: • Baby care by mother can be given safely in kangaroo ward from a weight of 1150 g in stable preterm infants without any adverse effects.

  14. Intraventricular hemorrhage risk factors in very low birth weight newborns: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of variables that affect the risk of severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Methods: Analytic case-control study, in a population consisting of all VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a maternity hospital, between January 2002 and December 2007. The authors considered as cases all VLBW newborns with severe IVH (grade ≥ 3, and control all VLBW newborns without IVH. Independent variables included obstetric, perinatal and neonatal diagnosis and therapy. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Rresults: During this period, of the 864 VLBW newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, 9.7% had severe IVH. With bivariate analysis an association between severe IVH, gestational age and birth weight was found. Prenatal care and pre-eclampsia were associated with a decrease in the incidence of severe IVH. Amnionitis, being outborn, vaginal delivery, male gender, intubation in the delivery room, surfactant, hyaline membrane disease, pneumothorax, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC perforation and oscillatory high frequency ventilation were associated with an increased incidence of severe IVH. By multivariate logistic regression, the variables associated with increased risk of severe IVH were: pneumothorax (OR = 3.8; 95%CI = 1.7-8.3, NEC with perforation (OR = 8.8; 95%CI = 1.7-45.0, vaginal delivery (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.0-4.1 and high frequency ventilation (OR = 4.8; 95%CI = 1.3-17.3. The following were protective of severe IVH: gestational age (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.52-0.72, patent ductus arteriosus treatment with indomethacin (OR = 0.26; 95%CI = 0.11-0.6 and fertility treatment (OR = 0.24; 95%CI = 0.06-0.94. Cconclusion: These data outline the importance of improvement of pre and neonatal care to reduce severe IVH.

  15. Neonatal Alopecia Due to Birth Trauma: Case Report and Trichoscopic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberati, Giulia; Starace, Michela; Patrizi, Annalisa; Piraccini, Bianca Maria

    2016-07-01

    A 4-day-old boy was referred for evaluation of an oval patch of occipital alopecia associated with caput succedaneum and ipsilateral eyelid ecchymoses. Based on the history of a prolonged, difficult labor with vacuum-assisted delivery, the diagnosis of neonatal alopecia associated with birth trauma was made. Trichoscopy showed purple dots corresponding to blood extravasation and follicular ostia. We also review the trichoscopic differential diagnosis of focal neonatal alopecia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Respiratory Viruses in Neonates: A Prospective, Community-based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Mohinder; Alsaleh, Asma; Lambert, Stephen B; Ware, Robert S; Mhango, Lebogang P; Mackay, Ian M; Whiley, David M; Sloots, Theo P; Grimwood, Keith

    2016-12-01

    A community-based birth cohort study collected weekly nasal swabs and recorded daily symptoms from 157 full-term infants. An average of 0.25 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.34) respiratory virus infections per neonatal period were detected. Human rhinoviruses of diverse subtypes dominated; almost 50% were asymptomatic and continued rhinovirus detections may signify new genotypes. Respiratory viruses are common and often unrecognized in healthy neonates.

  17. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality due to Birth Asphyxia in Southern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne CC; Mullany, Luke C.; Tielsch, James M.; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Shrestha, Shardaram R.; Darmstadt, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our goal was to identify antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in a rural, low resource, population-based cohort in Southern Nepal. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were collected prospectively during a cluster randomized, community-based trial evaluating the impact of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity in Sarlahi, Nepal. 23,662 infants were born in study regions between September 2002 - January 2006. Multivariable regression modeling was performed to determine adjusted relative risk estimates of birth asphyxia mortality for antepartum, intrapartum, and infant risk factors. RESULTS Birth asphyxia deaths (9.7/1,000 live births) accounted for 30% of neonatal mortality. Antepartum risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality included low paternal education (relative risk [RR]: 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23 to 2.33), Madeshi ethnicity (RR: 1.94; CI: 1.27 to 2.97) and primiparity (RR: 1.71; CI: 1.16 to 2.53). Facility delivery (RR: 1.89; CI: 1.19 to 3.00), maternal fever (RR: 2.02; CI: 1.26 to 3.23), maternal swelling of the face, hands or feet (RR: 1.40; CI: 1.01 to 1.96), and multiple births (RR: 4.77; CI: 2.78 to 8.20) were significant intrapartum risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality. Premature infants (asphyxia mortality (RR: 7.12; CI: 4.25 to 11.90). CONCLUSIONS Maternal infections, prematurity, and multiple births are important risk factors for birth asphyxia mortality in the low-resource, community-based setting. Low socioeconomic status is highly associated with birth asphyxia and the mechanisms leading to mortality need to be further elucidated. The interaction between maternal infections and prematurity may be an important target for future community-based interventions to reduce the global impact of birth asphyxia on neonatal mortality. PMID:18450881

  19. Periventricular-intraventricular haetnorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAN 1994. Periventricular-intraventricular haetnorrhage in low-birth-weight infants at Baragwanath Hospital ... dation,IO while many women delivering premature infants have not received proper antenatal care. .... required mechanical ventilation and one-third of those who did not, allocated by random number generation,.

  20. Ramadan during pregnancy and birth weight of newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I.; Amelia, Dwirani; Painter, Rebecca C.; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    P= 0·44), although there was a non-significant trend towards lower birth weight with fasting in the second and third trimester. Women who fasted had significantly lower total energy, macronutrient and water intake as compared with women who did not. Women's intake was also lower during Ramadan

  1. Combating low birth weight due to malaria infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, James G; Scoullar, Michelle J L; Boeuf, Philippe

    2018-03-07

    Decreased l-arginine and nitric oxide bioavailability in pregnant women with malaria contributes to low birth weight, suggesting that l-arginine supplementation could be a potential treatment (McDonald et al ). Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Direct Maternal Genetic Effects and Birth Weight Trends of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correlation between direct and maternal effects was negative implying that selection should be directed at both components, considering the maternal heritability estimate, which was moderate. The environmental parameter records of the study area suggest that birth weight was not depressed by the tropical semi arid ...

  3. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    :: We investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years...

  4. Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital in Atwima ... Journal of the Ghana Science Association ... pregnancy. Intensification of health education efforts to improve maternal nutrition at ANC (Ante natal clinic) is recommended.

  5. Variation in individual piglet birth weights in a Large White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CVBWT) was 17.6% and ranged from 0.47% to 50.7%. The distribution of CVBWT in the herd was positively skewed. CVBWT increased as NBA increased. Multiparous sows farrowed litters with higher ...

  6. Improved appetite of pregnant rats and increased birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition and pathogenic colonization of the vagina are two major contributors to preterm labour, newborn survival and low birth weight babies. Hypothetically, the use of probiotics as food supplements might improve the appetite and health of the mother and their newborn babies. Sprague-Dawley albino rats were ...

  7. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2 Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa. University ... Conclusion: - The association of low birth weight with substance use was strong, particularly, with maternal khat chewing, cigarette ... the magnitude of alcohol drinking habit among women in reproductive ...

  8. Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We, therefore, investigated effects of exposure to biomass fuels on reduced birth weight in the Malawian population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using secondary data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey with a total of 9124 respondents. Information on exposure to biomass fuels, ...

  9. Successful management of a set of preterm, low birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: We report a case of successful management of preterm, low birth weight quadruplets (QI, QII, QIII, and QIV) delivered at 32 weeks by Caesarean section to a 30 year old primiparous mother. QIII and QIV developed septicaemia with conjugated bilirubinaemia and were managed with intravenous antibiotics, and ...

  10. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (PV-IVH) aInong very-low-birthweight infants at Baragwanath Hospital has not been well docwnented. In this prospective study, a total of 282 live-born infants with birth weights of 1 000 - 1 749 g were studied over a 41/2-month period. Every infant had at least ...

  11. Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish standard ranges and curve of mean gestational birth weights validated by ultrasonography for the Cameroonian population in Yaoundé. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in the metropolis between March 5 and ...

  12. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...

  13. Association between maternal gingivitis, low birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between maternal gingivitis and pregnancy outcome, including low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery. This prospective study was conducted among 300 randomly selected pregnant women aged 20-34 years attending the antenatal clinic, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ...

  14. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  15. Two year neurological outcomes of very low birth weight infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High risk newborns such as the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) require long term follow up to ascertain their subsequent survival and quality of life (based on neurological intactness). Though such data is now standard in the developed world, little is known in published literature about the situation in resource ...

  16. Early Postnatal Growth Of Preterm Low Birth Weight, Appropriately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postnatal growth monitoring is useful in assessing the health of preterm babies but their growth patterns have not been sufficiently studied in Africans. Aim: To describe the growth achievements of preterm, low birth weight, appropriately-sized, Nigerian infants. Study design: The subjects were prospectively ...

  17. Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria, Nigeria. B Danborno, A Afegbua. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy Vol. 5(1) 2006: 21-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2 Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa. University; email.negdaysun@yahoo.com, Corresponding author: Negussie Deyessa. Original article. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public hospitals: A case control study. Emebet Dendir1 ...

  19. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  20. References of Birth Weights for Gestational Age and Sex from a Large Cohort of Singleton Births in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  1. Acid-base changes in canine neonates following normal birth or dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, C F; Silva, L C G; Rodrigues, J A; Veiga, G A L; Vannucchi, C I

    2009-07-01

    There are limited data concerning blood gas parameters in neonatal dogs. Knowledge of the normal physiology may facilitate effective therapeutic intervention and potentially reduce neonatal mortality. This study examined acid-base parameters in pups born at normal parturition (n = 27) compared with those born after obstetrical assistance or caesarean operation (n = 13) and those born following oxytocin (OXY) administration for treatment of uterine inertia (n = 11). Pups were subjected to an objective scoring method of neonatal health adapted from use in humans (the Apgar score) at birth and again at 5 and 60 min after birth. Venous blood samples were collected at 5 and 60 min after birth for evaluation of blood gas parameters. At birth, all pups had low Apgar scores and a mixed acidosis. The base excess was lowest for pups delivered after OXY administration. The Apgar score improved for all pups after 5 min of birth and there was an improvement in carbon dioxide tension, base excess and venous blood pH at 1 h, although in all pups a metabolic acidosis persisted. These data provide an important insight into neonatal physiology and the variability of blood gas parameters in pups born at normal and abnormal parturition and provide the basis for clinical decision making following dystocia.

  2. Low birth weight in a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Carolina Queiroz de Souza; Cacella, Bruna Cristina de Almeida; Mandetta, Myriam Aparecida; Balieiro, Maria Magda Ferreira Gomes

    2015-01-01

    to identify the prevalence of low birth weight in the city of São Paulo. epidemiological cross-sectional study with data collected by means of the Brazilian Live Birth Information System related to births occurred in the city of São Paulo between 2007 and 2013. Maternal, gestational, childbirth, and neonatal variables were analyzed descriptively and by association. 9.65% (1,342,655) of live births were underweight (mean of 3234.55 grams in the term group and 2312.17 in the pre-term group) with a mean maternal age of 27.53 years old. The risk factors identified include maternal age, not having a partner, low maternal level of education, other race rather than white, pre-term pregnancy, multiple births, low number of prenatal check-ups, and cesarean delivery. knowledge of this evidence favors planning the care provided by defining strategies to reduce it and consequently improve maternal and infant health care.

  3. [Relations between pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain, and the occurrence of neonatal asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-hui; Liu, Jian-meng; Liu, Wei-hong; Ma, Rui; Ye, Rong-wei; Chen, Huan; Xue, Ming-jun; Cheng, Ling-chun; Wu, Li-min; Pan, Yu-juan; Chen, Hao; Ren, Ai-guo; Li, Song; Li, Zhu

    2008-07-01

    To assess the relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain during pregnancy, and the risk of neonatal asphyxia. Data was collected in 6 countiedeities covered by Peri-natal Health Care Surveillance System which was part of a Sino-American cooperative project on neural tube defects prevention established in 1992. The study population consisted of 83,030 women who attended premarital/preconception medical physical examination program and had delivered single live birth with at least 20 gestational weeks from 1995 to 2000 in Jiaxing area, Zhejiang province. from the Chi-square test were employed to test the differences in the rates of neonatal asphyxia between groups with different BMI and other characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression method was conducted to examine the association between pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and the risk of asphyxia. Results The average rate of neonatal asphyxia was 11.3% (95% CI: 11.1%-11.6%). The rates of neonatal asphyxia among women with BMI or = 25.0 kg/m2 were 11.0% (95% CI: 10.5%-11.5%), 11.3% (95% CI: 11.1%- 11.6%), 11.8% (95% CI: 11.0%-12.6%), and 12.9% (95% CI: 11.6%-14.4%) respectively. The rates of neonatal asphyxia were 12.4% among women with weight gain neonatal asphyxia were 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01-1.12) for women with weight gain at 0.3-kg/wk and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02-1.20) for women with weight gain or = 0.5 kg/wk. Lower weight gain seemed to have the effect of increasing the risk of neonatal asphyxia.

  4. Glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1, GSTT1) gene polymorphisms, maternal gestational weight gain, bioimpedance factors and their relationship with birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Romanian mothers and their newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărginean, Claudiu; Bănescu, Claudia Violeta; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Tripon, Florin; Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Iancu, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between mother-child GSTM1, GSTT1 gene polymorphisms, maternal weight gain, maternal bioimpedance parameters and newborn's weight, in order to identify the factors that influence birth weight. We performed a cross-sectional study on 405 mothers and their newborns, evaluated in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Tertiary Hospital from Romania. Newborns whose mothers had the null genotype of GSTT1 gene polymorphism were more likely to gain a birth weight of >3 kg, compared to newborns whose mothers had the T1 genotype (odds ratio - OR: 2.14, 95% confidence interval - CI: [1.03; 4.44]). Also, the null genotype of GSTM1 gene polymorphism in both mothers and newborns was associated with a higher birth weight. Gestational weight gain was positively associated with newborn's birth weight (pbirth weight of more than 3 kg (p=0.006 and p=0.037). The null genotype of GSTT1 gene polymorphism in mothers and the null genotype of GSTM1 in mothers and newborns had a positive effect on birth weight. Also, increased maternal fat mass and basal metabolism rate were associated with increased birth weight. We conclude that maternal GSTM1÷GSTT1 gene polymorphisms present an impact on birth weight, being involved in the neonatal nutritional status. The clinical relevance of our study is sustained by the importance of identifying the factors that influence birth weight, which can be triggers for childhood obesity.

  5. Bedside upper gastrointestinal series in critically ill low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Gopi K; Levin, Terry L; Kurian, Jessica; Kohli, Anirudh; Borenstein, Steven H; Goldman, Harold S

    2014-10-01

    The upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series is the preferred method for the diagnosis of malrotation. A bedside UGI technique was developed at our institution for use in low birth weight, critically ill neonates to minimize the risks of transportation from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) such as hypothermia and dislodgement of support lines and tubes. To determine the ability of a bedside UGI technique to identify the position of the duodenojejunal junction (DJJ) in low birth weight, critically ill infants in the NICU. We retrospectively reviewed bedside UGI examinations performed in premature infants weighing less than 1,500 g from 2008 to 2013 and correlated the findings with clinical data, imaging studies and surgical findings. Of 27 patients identified (weight range: 633-1,495 g), 21 (78%) bedside UGI series were diagnostic. Twenty of 27 cases (74%) demonstrated normal intestinal rotation. One case demonstrated malrotation with midgut volvulus, which was confirmed at surgery. In six cases (22%), the position of the DJJ could not be accurately determined. No cases of malrotation with midgut volvulus were missed. None of the patients with normal bedside UGI studies was found to have malrotation based on clinical follow-up (mean: 20 months), surgical findings or further imaging. The bedside UGI is a useful technique to exclude malrotation in critically ill neonates and minimizes potential risks of transportation to the radiology suite. Pitfalls that may preclude a diagnostic examination include incorrect timing of radiographs, patient rotation, suboptimal enteric tube position and bowel distention. In cases of diagnostic uncertainty, a follow-up study should be performed.

  6. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Using Aminophylline for the Treatment of Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Shu-Leei; Lee, Wei-Te; Lee, Pei-Lun; Lu, Chu-Chong; Chen, Hsiu-Lin

    2016-02-01

    Aminophylline has been widely used in the treatment of apneic episodes in premature infants. Animal models suggest caution in the use of aminophylline as it may increase the cerebral metabolic rate and decrease the rate of anoxic survival in neonates. This study aimed to evaluate the neurological outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants treated with aminophylline for apnea in our neonatal intensive care unit. All VLBW infants (body birth weight prematurity, and necrotizing enterocolitis were not significantly different between the two groups. Only bronchopulmonary dysplasia remained significantly higher in the aminophylline group after adjusting for risk factors (48.08% vs. 21.15%; adjusted odds ratio: 12.50; p apnea of prematurity had no apparent and additional risk on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of VLBW infants at a corrected age of 18 months. Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the adverse neurological effects of aminophylline treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus among Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So Yoon; Shim, So-Yeon; Sung, In Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Here, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and mortality of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in Korea and assess the associated factors of PHH. This cohort study used prospectively collected data from the Korean Neonatal Network (KNN). Among 2,386 VLBW infants in the KNN database born between January 2013 and June 2014, 63 infants who died without brain ultrasonography results were excluded. Maternal demographics and neonatal clinical characteristics were assessed. The overall incidence of IVH in all the VLBW infants was 42.2% (987 of 2,323), while those of IVH grade 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 25.1%, 7.0%, 4.8%, and 5.5%, respectively. The incidence and severity of IVH showed a negatively correlating trend with gestational age and birth weight. PHH developed in 0%, 3.5%, 36.1%, and 63.8% of the surviving infants with IVH grades 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Overall, in the VLBW infants, the IVH-associated mortality rate was 1.0% (24/2,323). Only IVH grade severity was proven to be an associated with PHH development in infants with IVH grades 3-4. This is the first Korean national report of IVH and PHH incidences in VLBW infants. Further risk factor analyses or quality improvement studies to reduce IVH are warranted.

  8. Secular trends in seasonal variation in birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Jensen, Camilla; Gamborg, Michael; Raymond, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been shown to influence birth weight (BW) and one of these are season of birth. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variation in BW in Denmark during 1936-1989, and to see if the variation could be explained by sunshine...... exposure during pregnancy. METHODS: The study population was selected from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register and included 276 339 children born between 1936 and 1989. Seasonal variation was modeled using a non-stationary sinusoidal model that allowed the underlying trend in BW and the amplitude...

  9. Oral immunoglobulin for the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, Mohan; Haque, Khalid N

    2011-10-05

    Rotavirus infection is the most common neonatal nosocomial viral infection. It is a major health problem worldwide. Epidemics with the newer P(6)G9 strains have been reported in neonatal units globally. These strains can cause severe symptoms in most infected infants. Infection control measures become necessary and the utilization of hospital resources increase. Local mucosal immunity in the intestine to rotavirus is important in the resolution of infection and protection against subsequent infections. Boosting local immunity by oral administration of anti-rotaviral immunoglobulin preparations might be a useful strategy in treating rotaviral infections, especially in low birth weight babies. To determine the effectiveness and safety of oral immunoglobulin preparations for the treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 2500 g) Electronic databases including The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2004), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL, Biological Abstracts (BIOSIS) were searched by the strategy outlined in the protocol. Science Citation Index search for all articles that referenced Barnes 1982 were searched. The proceedings of the Pediatric Academic Societies published online at 'Abstracts Online' were searched. Ongoing registered trials at www.clinicaltrials.gov and www.controlled-trials.com were searched. Authors prominent in the field were contacted for any unpublished articles and more information on published articles was sought. Reference lists of identified clinical trials and personal files were also reviewed. The above search was updated in July 2011. The criteria used to select studies for inclusion were: 1) DESIGN: randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials 2) Hospitalized low birth weight infants with rotavirus diarrhea 3) INTERVENTION: Oral immunoglobulin preparations compared to placebo or no intervention 4) At least one of the following outcomes

  10. Birth weight following pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David M; Reid, Colleen E; Jesdale, Bill M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-09-01

    In late October 2003, a series of wildfires exposed urban populations in Southern California to elevated levels of air pollution over several weeks. Previous research suggests that short-term hospital admissions for respiratory outcomes increased specifically as a result of these fires. We assessed the impact of a wildfire event during pregnancy on birth weight among term infants. Using records for singleton term births delivered to mothers residing in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) during 2001-2005 (n = 886,034), we compared birth weights from pregnancies that took place entirely before or after the wildfire event (n = 747,590) with those where wildfires occurred during the first (n = 60,270), second (n = 39,435), or third (n = 38,739) trimester. The trimester-specific effects of wildfire exposure were estimated using a fixed-effects regression model with several maternal characteristics included as covariates. Compared with pregnancies before and after the wildfires, mean birth weight was estimated to be 7.0 g lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.8, -2.2] when the wildfire occurred during the third trimester, 9.7 g lower when it occurred during the second trimester (95% CI: -14.5, -4.8), and 3.3 g lower when it occurred during the first trimester (95% CI: -7.2, 0.6). Pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California wildfires was associated with slightly reduced average birth weight among infants exposed in utero. The extent and increasing frequency of wildfire events may have implications for infant health and development.

  11. Psychological and psychophysiological functioning of young adults born preterm: The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Pyhälä, Riikka

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in neonatal intensive care during the last few decades have led to a remarkable improvement in the survival rates of preterm infants born with very low birth weight (< 1500 g; VLBW). However, VLBW may have a cost for the physical, psychosocial and cognitive development of the survivors. Nevertheless, there has been little research into the long-term consequences of VLBW that last till or emerge in adulthood. In addition, there have been relatively few studies on whether the adult...

  12. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael

    2007-01-01

    prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...

  13. HEALTH STATUS OF EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN AT AGE 8 YEARS: CHILD AND PARENT PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen; Forrest, Christopher B; Schluchter, Mark; Taylor, H. Gerry; Drotar, Dennis; Holmbeck, Grayson; Andreias, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Context Parental proxy reports have indicated poorer health for preterm children as compared to normal birth weight controls. The perspective of their children may however differ. Objective To compare the self reported health of preterm children to normal birth weight controls and the children’s perspective to that of their parents. Design Study of extremely low birth weight (<1kg) and normal birth weight children and their parents conducted 2006–2009. Setting Children’s hospital. Participants Eight year old extremely low birth weight (n=202) and normal birth weight (n=176) children of similar sociodemographic status. Main Outcome Measures The Child Health and Illness Profile child and parent reports. Results There was poor agreement between the parent and child ratings of health for both the extremely low birth weight and normal birth weight cohorts. Extremely low birth weight children rated their health similar to normal birth weight children. In contrast parents of extremely low birth weight children reported significantly poorer health for their children than parents of normal birth weight controls including poorer Satisfaction with health, Comfort and Achievement and less Risk avoidance. Conclusion There is poor agreement between child and parent reports of health. Eight year old extremely low birth weight children rate their health similar to that of normal birth weight controls. Their parents however report significantly poorer health. Both child and parent perspective needs to be considered when making health care decisions. PMID:21969395

  14. A study on the measurement of the nucleated red blood cell (nRBC count based on birth weight and its correlation with perinatal prognosis in infants with very low birth weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hwan Kil

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of this study was conducted to investigate the mean nRBC count in very low births weight infants (VLBWIs and to determine the usefulness of the nRBC as an independent prognostic factors of perinatal complications in VLBWIs. Methods : This study was conducted on 112 VLBWIs who were hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of the author's hospital within the period from March 2003 to and May 2008. Based on the infants’ nucleated red blood cells (nRBC counts at birth, on the third day after birth, on the seventh day after birth, in the second week after birth, and in the fourth week after birth in the medical records, the correlation between nRBC or absolute nRBC counts with birth weight, gestational age, and other perinatal outcomes were retrospectively investigated, Results : In VLBWIs, their mean nRBC and absolute nRBC counts were showing a gradual decrease after birth, and they were consisteantly kept at low values since one week after and inversely proportional to the birth weights. The mean nRBC counts based on the stage after birth showed a significant correlation with perinatal death, necrotizing enterocolitis, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusion : The increase in the nRBC count showed a significant correlation with having a severe intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and perinatal death in VLBWIs. If an increase or no decrease in the nRBC count after birth is observed, newborninfant care precautions should be required.

  15. NIRS study of cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in neonate at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xinlin; Ding, Haiyan; Teng, Yichao; Zhou, Congle; Zhang, Dandan

    2011-01-01

    To study the changes of cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in normal neonates at 2-5 min post-birth and understand the effects of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) upon cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics in newborn neonates. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was employed to measure the absolute quantity of brain tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) in newborn neonates and the changes of concentrations of deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) and oxygenation hemoglobin (HbO2) with time relative to initial values to further obtain the changes of total hemoglobin (tHb) and cerebral perfusion (denoted by HbD). In normal neonates at 2-5 min post-birth, rSO2 increased while tHb remained relatively stable and HbD increased. In neonates born of PIH mothers at 3-5 min post-birth, the changes of tHb were markedly higher than those in the normal infants, pNIRS can detect the changes of cerebral oxygenation and blood flow in a non-invasive and effective way.

  16. Birth weight, sex, and celiac disease: a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuja-Halkola R

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Kuja-Halkola,1 Benjamin Lebwohl,1,2 Jonas Halfvarson,3 Louise Emilsson,4–6 Patrik K Magnusson,1 Jonas F Ludvigsson1,2,7,8 1Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4Department of Health Management and Health Economy, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 6Centre for Clinical Research, Vårdcentralen Värmlands Nysäter, County Council of Värmland, Värmland, 7Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Objective: Earlier research suggests that birth weight may be associated with celiac disease (CD, but the direction of association has been unclear potentially due to confounding effect from genetic and intrafamilial factors. Through within-twin analyses, we aimed to minimize confounding effects such as twins that share genetic and early environmental exposures.Materials and methods: Using the Swedish Twin Registry, we examined the birth weight of 146,830 twins according to the CD status. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to a small intestinal biopsy reports.Results: The prevalence of diagnosed CD was 0.5% (n=669, and we included 407 discordant pairs of CD–non-CD twins. Comparing the 669 CD patients with non-CD twins, the association between birth weight and future CD was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] per 1000 g increase in birth weight: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.97–1.38. In males, the association was positive and statistically significant (OR=1.50; 95% CI

  17. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations...... of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. RESULTS: 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence...... of 16.9 per 10,000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (phypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68...

  18. Ethnic disparities in the risk of adverse neonatal outcome after spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, Jelle M.; Mol, Ben-Willem J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe ethnic disparities in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth and related adverse neonatal outcome. Design. Nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting. The Netherlands, 19992007. Population. Nine hundred and sixty-nine thousand, four hundred and ninety-one singleton

  19. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Bellinger, D; McCormick, M C

    2007-03-01

    Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature (mathematics. Potential predictor variables were categorized into 4 domains: sociodemographic, neonatal, maternal mental health and early childhood (ages 3 and 5). Regression analysis was used to create a model to predict reading and mathematics scores. Variables from all domains were significant in the model, predicting low achievement scores in reading (R (2) of 0.49, model p-value mathematics (R (2) of 0.44, model p-value education and income, and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and male gender (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Lower mathematics scores were predicted by lower maternal education, income and age and Black or Hispanic race (sociodemographic); lower birth weight and higher head circumference (neonatal); lower maternal responsivity (maternal mental health); lower intelligence, visual-motor skill and higher behavioral disturbance scores (early childhood). Sequential early childhood risk factors in premature and LBW children lead to a cumulative risk for academic difficulties and can be used for early identification.

  20. Pharmacoeconomic impact of use of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low-birth-weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimaguila MAVT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Ann VT Dimaguila,1,2 Peter Gal,1,3,4 Tiffany Wilson,1 John E Wimmer Jr,1,2 McCrae Smith,1,2 Rita Q Carlos,1,2 Christie C Davanzo,1,2 J Laurence Ransom1,2 1Women's Hospital of Greensboro, Cone Health, Greensboro, NC, USA; 2Piedmont Neonatology, Greensboro, NC, USA; 3Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Greensboro Area Health Education Center, Greensboro, NC, USA Background: A recent study showed that use of Lactobacillus reuteri as probiotic prophylaxis decreased the necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC rate from 15.1% to 2.5% in neonates with birth weight below 1000 g. Given the controversies surrounding use of probiotics in neonatal intensive care units, we address one additional aspect of routine implementation of probiotics for NEC prophylaxis – the pharmacoeconomic impact. Methods: Using data from our initial published experience, and continuing data collection after instituting a higher dose of L. reuteri, we measured the reduction in NEC in neonates with birth weight below 1000 g. Cost savings from prior studies examining the cost and outcomes of medical and surgical NEC were used to calculate the financial impact of routine L. reuteri DSM 17938 prophylaxis. Results: Medical records for 354 neonates were reviewed, 232 in the years before introduction of L. reuteri prophylaxis and 79 who received L. reuteri prophylaxis dosed at 0.1 mL daily and 43 neonates given a total daily dose of 0.2 mL as one or two doses. The incidence of NEC was significantly lower in the neonates who received L. reuteri (two of 122 neonates [1.6%] versus 35 of 232 neonates [15.1%]. The expected benefits for our neonatal intensive care unit per 100 extremely low-birth-weight neonates treated were four fewer deaths, five fewer cases of medical NEC, eight fewer cases of surgical NEC, one less patient with short-bowel syndrome, and a cost saving of approximately $2.2 million. Conclusion: Prophylactic

  1. Factors influencing the enrollment of eligible extremely-low-birth-weight children in the part C early intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C Jason; Elliott, Marc N; Rogowski, Jeannette; Lim, Nelson; Ratner, Jessica A; Schuster, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether eligible extremely-low-birth-weight children ( or =24 weeks, and survival for the first 120 days of life. We created a linked data set with data from Early Intervention (1996-2001), Vital Records (1996-1998), death certificates, and Medicaid. Each child was followed from birth to 3 years old, the program eligibility period. A total of 54% of ELBW children were enrolled in EI at any time from birth to 36 months. Even among children ever enrolled in Medicaid (83% of all ELBW children), only 63% were enrolled in EI. Being born in a multiple gestational birth, having heavier birth weight (750 to 999 g), and having ever enrolled in Medicaid were positively associated with EI enrollment. Among Medicaid patients for whom perinatal data were available, additional risk adjustment showed that EI enrollment was more likely with birth in level 3 hospitals, birth weight 750 to 999 g, Neonatal Medical Index severity level V (most severe), and longer initial length of hospital stay. Only about half of eligible ELBW children in South Carolina were enrolled-much lower than reported elsewhere. Efforts are needed to understand why eligible infants are not being enrolled and to develop strategies to remedy the situation.

  2. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-11-02

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4-6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration-a surrogate marker for MID-was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10-15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  3. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Trumpff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  4. An observational study of associations among maternal fluids during parturition, neonatal output, and breastfed newborn weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibb William

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Newborn weight measurements are used as a key indicator of breastfeeding adequacy. The purpose of this study was to explore non-feeding factors that might be related to newborn weight loss. The relationship between the intravenous fluids women receive during parturition (the act of giving birth, including time in labour or prior to a caesarean section and their newborn's weight loss during the first 72 hours postpartum was the primary interest. Methods In this observational cohort study, we collected data about maternal oral and IV fluids during labour or before a caesarean section. Participants (n = 109 weighed their newborns every 12 hours for the first three days then daily to Day 14, and they weighed neonatal output (voids and stools for three days. Results At 60 hours (nadir, mean newborn weight loss was 6.57% (SD 2.51; n = 96, range 1.83-13.06%. When groups, based on maternal fluids, were compared (≤1200 mls [n = 21] versus > 1200 [n = 53], newborns lost 5.51% versus 6.93% (p = 0.03, respectively. For the first 24 hours, bivariate analyses show positive relationships between a neonatal output and percentage of newborn weight lost (r(96 = 0.493, p Conclusions Timing and amounts of maternal IV fluids appear correlated to neonatal output and newborn weight loss. Neonates appear to experience diuresis and correct their fluid status in the first 24 hours. We recommend a measurement at 24 hours, instead of birth weight, for baseline when assessing weight change. Because practices can differ between maternity settings, we further suggest that clinicians should collect and analyze data from dyads in their care to determine an optimal baseline measurement.

  5. Birth weight is associated with placental fat mass- and obesity-associated gene expression and promoter methylation in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Ji-Tai; Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Wu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    To explore the relationship between birth weight and fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene expression and promoter methylation status in the Chinese population. Seventy-five neonates and their mothers were recruited from Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. Subjects were divided into three groups by birth weight: low (weight groups compared to the low-weight group (p = 0.023). Methylation rates of CpG11 sites were significantly decreased in high-birth weight newborns (p = 0.018). Multiple linear regressions showed placental FTO mRNA, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and CpG11 methylation rate were independently associated with increased fetal birth weight. Additionally, FTO mRNA expression was negatively associated with CpG6.7.8.9 methylation in mothers that underwent C-section. High placental FTO expression is associated with increased birth weight in Chinese neonates, and FTO promoter methylation level at a specific CpG site is negatively associated with birth weight. Further work is needed to determine the functionality of this CpG site in placentas.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  7. A regional multilevel analysis: can skilled birth attendants uniformly decrease neonatal mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Brodish, Paul; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2014-01-01

    Globally 40 % of deaths to children under-five occur in the very first month of life with three-quarters of these deaths occurring during the first week of life. The promotion of delivery with a skilled birth attendant (SBA) is being promoted as a strategy to reduce neonatal mortality. This study explored whether SBAs had a protective effect against neonatal mortality in three different regions of the world. The analysis pooled data from nine diverse countries for which recent Demographic and Health Survey data were available. Multilevel logistic regression was used to understand the influence of skilled delivery on two outcomes-neonatal mortality during the first week of life and during the first day of life. Control variables included age, parity, education, wealth, residence (urban/rural), geographic region (Africa, Asia and Latin America/Caribbean), antenatal care and tetanus immunization. The direction of the effect of skilled delivery on neonatal mortality was dependent on geographic region. While having a SBA at delivery was protective against neonatal mortality in Latin America/Caribbean, in Asia there was only a protective effect for births in the first week of life. In Africa SBAs were associated with higher neonatal mortality for both outcomes, and the same was true for deaths on the first day of life in Asia. Many women in Africa and Asia deliver at home unless a complication occurs, and thus skilled birth attendants may be seeing more women with complications than their unskilled counterparts. In addition there are issues with the definition of a SBA with many attendants in both Africa and Asia not actually having the needed training and equipment to prevent neonatal mortality. Considerable investment is needed in terms of training and health infrastructure to enable these providers to save the youngest lives.

  8. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  9. Retardo no crescimento intrauterino, baixo peso ao nascer e prematuridade em recém-nascidos de grávidas com malária, na Colômbia Intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight and prematurity in neonates of pregnant women with malaria in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Tobón-Castaño

    2011-06-01

    total of 394 infected (27% by P. falciparum and 73% by P. vivax and 1,322 noninfected pregnant women were followed. RESULTS: Exposure to gestational malaria was associated with increased risk of low birth weight (RR = 1.37; 1.03-1.83, short height (RR = 1.52; 1.25-1.85, intrauterine growth retardation (RR = 1.29; 1.0-1.66 and prematurity (RR = 1.68; 1.3-2.17. Prematurity was 77% higher in infants of mothers with malaria by P. falciparum than infants of mothers with malaria by P. vivax (RR = 1.77; 1.2-2.6. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight and intrauterine growth retardation were associated with malaria during pregnancy. Infection with P. vivax was related with adverse effects on the newborn, similar to that reported for P. falciparum.

  10. Preterm birth, respiratory failure and BPD: which neonatal management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, Francesca; Lista, Gianluca; Scopesi, Fabio; Somaschini, Marco; Cuttano, Armando; Grappone, Lidia; Maffei, Gianfranco

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth is a significant problem in the world regarding perinatal mortality and morbidity in the long term, especially bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Premature delivery is often associated to failure in transition to create an early functional residual capacity (FRC), since many preterm babies need frequently respiratory support. The first and most effective preventive measure to reduce the incidence of BPD is represented by the attempt to avoid preterm birth. Whenever this fails, the prevention of every known risk factors for BPD should start in the delivery room and should be maintained in the NICU through the use of tailored management of high-risk infants. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serum cortisol values, superior vena cava flow and illness severity scores in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that high cortisol concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Neonatal illness severity and mortality risk scores are reliable in predicting morbidity and mortality. The objectives were (i) to assess the correlation between serum cortisol levels and clinical assessment of multi-organ dysfunction\\/illness severity scores (CRIB II, SNAPPE-II and neonatal multiple organ dysfunction score (NEOMOD)) in first 24 h in VLBW infants and (ii) to assess the relationship between surrogates of end organ blood flow and serum cortisol levels. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight <1500 g were eligible for enrollment. Echocardiography evaluation of superior vena cava (SVC) flow was carried out in the first 24 h life. Cortisol levels were measured simultaneously and appropriate clinical scores were calculated. RESULT: A total of 54 VLBW neonates were enrolled following parental consent. Two patients were excluded because of congenital malformations. In 14 babies the cortisol value was not simultaneously obtained. The mean birth weight was 1.08 kg, mean gestational age was 27.8 weeks. There was a significant correlation between cortisol and NEOMOD score (P=0.006). There was no correlation between cortisol and CRIB II score (P=0.34), SVC flow (P=0.49) and mean arterial blood pressure respectively (P=0.35). CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between SVC flow and cortisol values or between cortisol and mean blood pressure values. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels and neonatal organ dysfunction score evaluated suggesting that stressed VLBW infants do mount a cortisol response.

  12. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  13. Persisting behavior problems in extremely low birth weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Hack, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    To describe behavior problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) adolescents born 1992 through 1995 based on parent ratings and adolescent self-ratings at age 14 years and to examine changes in parent ratings from ages 8-14. Parent ratings of behavior problems and adolescent self-ratings were obtained for 169 ELBW adolescents (mean birth weight 815 g, gestational age 26 wk) and 115 normal birth weight (NBW) controls at 14 years. Parent ratings of behavior at age 8 years were also available. Behavior outcomes were assessed using symptom severity scores and rates of scores above DSM-IV symptom cutoffs for clinical disorder. The ELBW group had higher symptom severity scores on parent ratings at age 14 years than NBW controls for inattentive attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and social problems (all p's < .01). Rates of parent ratings meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for inattentive ADHD were also higher for the ELBW group (12% vs. 1%, p < .01). In contrast, the ELBW group had lower symptom severity scores on self-ratings than controls for several scales. Group differences in parent ratings decreased over time for ADHD, especially among females, but were stable for anxiety and social problems. Extremely low birth weight adolescents continue to have behavior problems similar to those evident at a younger age, but these problems are not evident in behavioral self-ratings. The findings suggest that parent ratings provide contrasting perspectives on behavior problems in ELBW youth and support the need to identify and treat these problems early in childhood.

  14. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....

  15. Association of DNA adducts and genetic polymorphisms with birth weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Chvátalová, Irena; Solanský, I.; Topinka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 608, - (2006), s. 121-128 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : pregnancy outcomes * birth weight * genetic polymorphism Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2006

  16. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (BW) has been associated with poor bone health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BW and bone mass and metabolism in adult BW discordant monozygotic twins (MZ). METHODS: 153 BW extremely discordant MZ twin-pairs were...... individuals using regression analyses with or without adjustment for height, weight, age, sex, and intra-pair correlation. Within-pair differences were assessed using Student's T-test and fixed-regression models. RESULTS: BW was not associated with BTMs, LS-, TH-, FN- or WB-BMD, but BW was associated with WB...

  17. Metabolic derangements in IUGR neonates detected at birth using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.A. Abd El-Wahed

    consequences which are possibly dictated by in utero programming together with environmental and dietetic manipulation after birth. ... during adulthood [4,5]. These consequences are probably related to ''Perinatal Programming” and ..... cose metabolism during fetal development in IUGR [34]. Glutamine levels in our study ...

  18. Maternal and neonatal outcomes at an alongside birth center and at a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneck, Camilla Alexsandra; Riesco, Maria Luiza Gonzalez; Bonadio, Isabel Cristina; Diniz, Carmem Simone Grilo; Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos de

    2012-02-01

    To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in low-risk women assisited in an alongside birth center and at a hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of low-risk women in São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil), from 2003 to 2006. The study included 991 women who delivered a child at the alongside birth center and 325 who delivered a child at a hospital. Data were obtained from medical records. A comparative analysis was performed for all of the women, who were stratified according to parity. The chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare outcomes between women who delivered in alongside birth center and those who gave birth in the hospital. There was a homogeneous distribution of women according to parity (45.4% were nulliparous, and 54.6% had one or more previous deliveries). Statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of amniotomy (more frequent in nulliparous women treated at the hospital), the use of oxytocin during labor, and the use of postpartum analgesia (both more frequent among women of any parity treated at the hospital). The rate of episiotomy was higher in nulliparous women, both in the alongside birth center and at the hospital. Neonatal interventions were more frequent at the hospital and included aspiration of the upper airways, gastric aspiration, gastric lavage, and the use of an open oxygen mask. Other events that occurred with greater frequency at the hospital included caput succedaneum, respiratory discomfort, and admittance to the neonatal unit. There was no difference in Apgar scores at the fifth minute or cases of maternal or perinatal death. Care at the alongside birth center involved fewer interventions and had maternal and neonatal outcomes similar to those of the hospital setting.

  19. Birth asphyxia: a major cause of early neonatal mortality in a Tanzanian rural hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersdal, Hege Langli; Mduma, Estomih; Svensen, Erling; Perlman, Jeffrey

    2012-05-01

    Early neonatal mortality within the first 24 hours contributes substantially to overall neonatal mortality rates. The definition of birth asphyxia (BA) is imprecise, and reliable cause-specific mortality data are limited; thus the estimated proportion of BA-related deaths globally remains questionable. The objective was to determine the presumed causes of neonatal death within the first 24 hours in a rural hospital in Northern Tanzania. This is a prospective descriptive observational study conducted in the delivery room and adjacent neonatal area. Research assistants were trained to observe and record events related to labor, neonatal resuscitation, and 24-hour postnatal course. BA was defined as failure to initiate spontaneous respirations and/or 5-minute Apgar score neonatal area. Forty-nine infants died secondary to BA (61%), prematurity (18%), LBW (8%), infection (2%), congenital abnormalities (8%), and unclear reason (2%). The 5-minute Apgar score was ≥7 in 50% of the infants who died secondary to BA. Most cases of early neonatal mortality were related to BA, and prematurity and LBW are additional important considerations. Reducing perinatal mortality requires a multifaceted approach with attention to issues related to BA, potential complications of prematurity, and LBW. The 5-minute Apgar score is a poor surrogate of BA.

  20. Programming of Adiposity in Childhood and Adolescence: Associations With Birth Weight and Cord Blood Adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joy; Smith, Andrew D A C; Fraser, Abigail; Sattar, Naveed; Lindsay, Robert S; Ring, Susan M; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Nelson, Scott M

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to maternal adiposity during pregnancy is associated with higher offspring birth weight and greater adiposity through childhood and adult life. As birth weight reflects the summation of lean and fat mass, the extent to which fat mass at birth tracks into later life is unknown. To determine whether fat mass at birth is associated with child and adolescent adiposity. UK birth cohort with markers of neonatal fat mass; cord blood leptin, adiponectin, and birth weight and adiposity outcomes at age 9 (n = 2775) and 17 years (n = 2138). Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-determined fat mass, and obesity at age 9 and 17 years. Higher cord blood leptin was associated with higher z scores of fat mass [difference in mean per 10 pg/mL: 0.03 standard deviation (SD); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.00 to 0.06], waist circumference (0.04 SD; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.07), and BMI (0.04 SD; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.08) at age 9. However, by age 17 the adjusted results were attenuated to the null. Cord blood adiponectin was not associated with measures of adiposity at age 9. At age 17, cord blood adiponectin was positively associated with fat mass (0.02 SD per 10 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.03) and waist circumference (0.04 SD per 10 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.05). Birth weight was positively associated with waist circumference (0.03 SD per 100 g; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.04) and BMI (0.02 SD per 100 g; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.03), but not fat mass or odds of obesity. Cord blood leptin and adiponectin were not associated with obesity at either age. Increased cord blood leptin and adiponectin, known surrogates of fetal fat mass, were weakly associated with increased fat mass in late childhood and adolescence, respectively.

  1. Perinatal factors and regional brain volume abnormalities at term in a cohort of extremely low birth weight infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal A Parikh

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate diverse clinical antecedents of total and regional brain volume abnormalities and white matter hyperintensity volume on term MRI in extremely low birth weight (birth weight ≤1000 g survivors. A consecutive cohort of extremely low birth weight infants who survived to 38 weeks postmenstrual age (n = 122 and a control group of 16 healthy term newborns underwent brain MRI at term-equivalent age. Brain volumes were measured using semi-automated and manual segmentation methods. Using multivariable linear regression, clinical antecedents were correlated with volumes of total brain tissue, white matter hyperintensities, and regional tissues/structures, adjusted for age at MRI, total cranial volume, and total tissue volume. Regional brain volumes were markedly reduced in extremely low birth weight infants as compared to term newborns (relative difference range: -11.0%, -35.9%. Significant adverse clinical associations for total brain tissue volume included: small for gestational age, seizures, caffeine therapy/apnea of prematurity, duration of parenteral nutrition, pulmonary hemorrhage, and white matter injury (p<0.01 for each; relative difference range: -1.4% to -15.0%. Surgery for retinopathy of prematurity and surgery for necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation were significantly associated with increasing volume of white matter hyperintensities. Regional brain volumes are sensitive to multiple perinatal factors and neonatal morbidities or interventions. Brain growth measurements in extremely low birth weight infants can advance our understanding of perinatal brain injury and development.

  2. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Inter-pregnancy Weight Change and Risks of Severe Birth-Asphyxia-Related Outcomes in Singleton Infants Born at Term: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Martina; Johansson, Stefan; Cnattingius, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with increased risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes, but the mechanisms are unclear. If a change of exposure (i.e., maternal body mass index [BMI]) over time influences risks, this would be consistent with a causal relationship between maternal BMI and offspring risks. Our objective was to investigate associations between changes in maternal BMI between consecutive pregnancies and risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes in the second offspring born at term. This study was a prospective population-based cohort study that included 526,435 second-born term (≥37 wk) infants of mothers with two consecutive live singleton term births in Sweden between January 1992 and December 2012. We estimated associations between the difference in maternal BMI between the first and second pregnancy and risks of low Apgar score (0-6) at 5 min, neonatal seizures, and meconium aspiration in the second-born offspring. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for BMI at first pregnancy, maternal height, maternal age at second delivery, smoking, education, mother´s country of birth, inter-pregnancy interval, and year of second delivery. Analyses were also stratified by BMI (neonatal seizures, and meconium aspiration increased with inter-pregnancy weight gain. Compared with offspring of mothers with stable weight (BMI change of -1 to neonatal seizures and meconium aspiration were 1.42 (95% CI 1.00-2.02) and 1.78 (95% CI 1.19-2.68), respectively. The increased risk of neonatal seizures related to weight gain appeared to be restricted to mothers with BMI neonatal resuscitation efforts. Risks of birth-asphyxia-related outcomes increased with maternal weight gain between pregnancies. Preventing weight gain before and in between pregnancies may improve neonatal health.

  4. Kindergarten classroom functioning of extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Taylor; Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Espy, Kimberly A; Anselmo, Marcia G; Minich, Nori; Hack, Maureen

    2014-12-01

    Cognitive, behavioral, and learning problems are evident in extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW, <28 weeks gestational age or <1000 g) children by early school age. However, we know little about how they function within the classroom once they start school. To determine how EPT/ELBW children function in kindergarten classrooms compared to termborn normal birth weight (NBW) classmates and identify factors related to difficulties in classroom functioning. A 2001-2003 birth cohort of 111 EPT/ELBW children and 110 NBW classmate controls were observed in regular kindergarten classrooms during a 1-hour instructional period using a time-sample method. The groups were compared on frequencies of individual teacher attention, competing or offtask behaviors, task management/preparation, and academic responding. Regression analysis was also conducted within the EPT/ELBW group to examine associations of these measures with neonatal and developmental risk factors, kindergarten neuropsychological and behavioral assessments, and classroom characteristics. The EPT/ELBW group received more individual teacher attention and was more often off-task than the NBW controls. Poorer classroom functioning in the EPT/ELBW group was associated with higher neonatal and developmental risk, poorer executive function skills, more negative teaching ratings of behavior and learning progress, and classroom characteristics. EPT/ELBW children require more teacher support and are less able to engage in instructional activities than their NBW classmates. Associations of classroom functioning with developmental history and cognitive and behavioral traits suggest that these factors may be useful in identifying the children most in need of special educational interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...

  6. Placental Growth Measures in Relation to Birth Weight in a Latin American Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlos; Veiga, Angélica; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso, Viviane

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The placenta, translates how the fetus experiences the maternal environment and is a principal influence on birth weight (BW). Objective To explore the relationship between placental growth measures (PGMs) and BW in a public maternity hospital. Methods Observational retrospective study of 870 singleton live born infants at Hospital Maternidad Sardá, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, between January 2011 and August 2012 with complete data of PGMs. Details of history, clinical and obstetrical maternal data, labor and delivery and neonatal outcome data, including placental measures derived from the records, were evaluated. The following manual measurements of the placenta according to standard methods were performed: placental weight (PW, g), larger and smaller diameters (cm), eccentricity, width (cm), shape, area (cm(2)), BW/PW ratio (BPR) and PW/BW ratio (PBR), and efficiency. Associations between BW and PGMs were examined using multiple linear regression. Results Birth weight was correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.001), whereas gestational age was moderately correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.001). By gestational age, there was a positive trend for PW and BPR, but an inverse relationship with PBR (p < 0.001). Placental weight alone accounted for 49% of birth weight variability (p < 0,001), whereas all PGMs accounted for 52% (p < 0,001). Combined, PGMs, maternal characteristics (parity, pre-eclampsia, tobacco use), gestational age and gender explained 77.8% of BW variations (p < 0,001). Among preterm births, 59% of BW variances were accounted for by PGMs, compared with 44% at term. All placental measures except BPR were consistently higher in females than in males, which was also not significant. Indices of placental efficiency showed weakly clinical relevance. Conclusions Reliable measures of placental growth estimate 53.6% of BW variances and project this outcome to a

  7. Trends in mortality and morbidity for very low birth weight infants, 1991-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbar, Jeffrey D; Badger, Gary J; Carpenter, Joseph H; Fanaroff, Avroy A; Kilpatrick, Sarah; LaCorte, Meena; Phibbs, Roderic; Soll, Roger F

    2002-07-01

    Medical care for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and their mothers has changed dramatically during the 1990s, yet it is unclear how these changes have affected mortality and morbidity. We used the Vermont Oxford Network Database to identify trends in clinical practice and patient outcomes for VLBW infants born from 1991 to 1999. Logistic regression was used to evaluate temporal trends in practices and outcomes while adjusting for patient characteristics and accounting for clustering of cases within hospitals. There were 118 448 infants 501 to 1500 g from 362 neonatal intensive care units enrolled in the Network Database from 1991 to 1999. Prenatal care, cesarean section, multiple births, antenatal steroids, and 1-minute Apgar scores increased during this period, as did the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure, high-frequency ventilation, surfactant, and postnatal steroids. The proportion of white infants decreased; the proportions of Hispanic infants and those of other races increased. The crude and adjusted rates of mortality, pneumothorax, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and severe IVH declined from 1991 to 1995, whereas from 1995 to 1999, the rates of mortality, IVH, and severe IVH did not change significantly, and pneumothorax increased. There have been major changes in both obstetric and neonatal care during the 1990s. These changes were associated with decreases in mortality and morbidity for VLBW infants during the first half of the decade. However, since 1995, no additional improvements in mortality or morbidity have been seen, ending a decades-long trend of improving outcomes for these infants.

  8. Candida Chorioamnionitis Leads to Preterm Birth and Adverse Fetal-Neonatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Maki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida chorioamnionitis is rare but can lead to neonatal infection, high mortality, and neurodevelopmental impairment. We aimed to investigate maternal clinical features and perinatal outcomes and discuss future management strategies. We reviewed the medical records of women with Candida chorioamnionitis at our hospital over a 10-year period (n=9 and previous published case reports and case series. The most prevalent Candida species was C. albicans (71.3% of the all cases. The most prevalent predisposing condition was preterm premature rupture of membranes (31/123, 25.2%, followed by pregnancy with a retained intrauterine contraceptive device (26/123, 21.1% and pregnancy after in vitro fertilization (25/123, 20.3%. Preterm labor was the most common symptom (52/123, 42.3%, and only 13% of cases involved fever. Of the infants, 27% of the singletons and 23.8% of the twins were born before 22 gestational weeks, while 60% of the singletons and 76.2% of the twins were born at 22–36 weeks. The median birth weight of the babies born after 22 weeks was 1230 g. The mortality rates of the singletons and twins born after 22 weeks of gestation in the year 2000 or later were 28.6% and 52.4%, respectively. Antenatal treatment for Candida chorioamnionitis has not been established.

  9. Surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants less than 750 grams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowski, Tomasz; Aboulhassan, Sleiman Sebastian; Fritzsche, Dirk; Misterski, Marcin; Marczak, Jakub; Szymańska, Anna; Szarpak, Lukasz; Augustyn, Cyprian; Cichoń, Romuald; Perek, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-09

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs more frequently in premature infants. Depending on the degree of prematurity, these children often have other serious comorbidities that could significantly impact on surgical outcome. This study aimed to evaluate clinical results of the surgical ligation of PDA in extremely low body weight preterm infants with birth weight below 750 grams and to identify risk factors of mortality. A total of 31 preterm infants with birth weight below 750 grams and significant PDA were operated between 2006 and 2016 through posterolateral thoracotomy (n=16) or with the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) method (n = 15). Mean weight at the time of surgery was 750.8 ± 104.7 g. The gestational age ranged from 22 to 32 weeks. Data were retrospectivel1y analyzed and prospective 100% follow-up was performed. In-hospital mortality was 25.8% (n = 8). Type of surgery had no influence on the results. During the follow-up period lasting 5.2 ± 2.5 years two other patients died. One-year and 5-year probability of survival was 77.4% and 74.2%, respectively. The predominant cause of death was acute heart failure. All patients with preoperative renal dysfunction died in the postoperative period. Moreover, Cox regression analysis revealed renal dysfunction as an independent risk factor of early death. Preterm infants with birth weight less than 750 grams and significant PDA are highly challenging patients. Despite the recent advances in perioperative management with neonates, surgery is still associated with high early mortality rate irrespective of applied method.

  10. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, Adeladza K; Jaakkola, Jouni Jk; Quansah, Reginald; Norgbe, Gameli K; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli

    2012-10-17

    Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP) on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243 g (95% CI: 496, 11) and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65) reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23) and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92) increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW) for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429 g (95% CI: 259, 599) reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59) excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results. Maternal use of charcoal as a cooking fuel during

  11. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amegah Adeladza K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. Methods A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Results Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243g (95% CI: 496, 11 and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65 reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23 and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92 increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429g (95% CI: 259, 599 reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59 excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results

  12. Birth weight and the risk of histological subtypes of ovarian and endometrial cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabert, Britton; Aarestrup, Julie; Ulrich, Lian G

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of birth weight associations with ovarian and endometrial cancer risks are limited with inconsistent results, and none has evaluated associations by histologic subtype. We utilized prospectively collected birth weight information to investigate the association with risk of ova...

  13. Extreme Temperatures May Increase Risk for Low Birth Weight at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may increase risk for low birth weight at term, NIH study suggests Monday, February 27, 2017 Extreme ... may increase the risk that infants born at term will be of low birth weight, according to ...

  14. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  15. Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, L; Nankervis, C A; Delooze, D; Giannone, P J

    2007-03-01

    Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment are common strategies for the prevention or management of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA). To compare the clinical responses of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants to indomethacin prophylaxis with that of other infants who were managed expectantly by being treated with indomethacin or surgically only after an sPDA was detected. Retrospective cohort investigation of 167 ELBW infants who received indomethacin prophylaxis (study) and 167 ELBW infants (control) treated expectantly who were matched by year of birth (1999 to 2006), birth weight, gestational age (GA) and gender. Mothers of the two groups of infants were comparable demographically and on the history of preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, antepartum steroids and cesarean delivery. Study and control infants were similar in birth weight, GA, low 5 min Apgar scores, surfactant administration, the need for arterial blood pressure control, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neonatal mortality. Necrotizing enterocolitis, spontaneous intestinal perforations, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III to IV, periventricular leukomalacia and stage 3 to 5 retinopathy of prematurity occurred also with similar frequency in both groups of infants. In the indomethacin prophylaxis group, 29% of the infants developed sPDA, and of them 38% responded to indomethacin treatment. In the expectantly treated group, 37% developed sPDA, and of them 59% responded to indomethacin treatment. Overall, surgical ligation rate for sPDA was similar between both groups of patients. In our experience, indomethacin prophylaxis does not show any advantages over expectant early treatment on the management of sPDA in ELBW infants. Although no deleterious effects were observed, prophylaxis exposed a significant number of infants who may have never developed sPDA, to potential indomethacin-related complications.

  16. Birth weight classification in gestational diabetes: is there an ideal chart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Silveira Mastella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is associated to increased rates of large for gestational age newborns and macrosomia. Several charts are used to classify birth weight. Is there an ideal chart to classify newborns of GDM mothers? Methods: We evaluated adequacy of birth weight of 332 neonates born to GDM mothers at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Newborns were classified according to gestational age as small (SGA, adequate or large (LGA based on four charts: Alexander, Pedreira, INTERGROWTH 21st Project and SINASC-2012. The latter was built using data from a large national registry of 2012, the Born Alive National Surveillance System (Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos – SINASC, which included 2.905,789 birth certificates. Frequencies of SGA and LGA and Kappa agreement were calculated. Results: In non-gender adjusted curves, SGA rates (95% confidence interval varied from 8% (5-11 to 9% (6-13; LGA rates, from 11% (8-15 to 17% (13-21. For males, SGA rates varied from 3% (1-6% to 6% (3-11%, and LGA rates, from 18% (13-24% to 31% (24-38%; for female, SGA rates were from 3% (1-7% to 10% (6-16% and LGA rates, from 11% (6-16% to 19% (13-26%. Kappa results were: ALEXANDER vs. SINASC-2012: 0.80 (0.73-0.88; INTERGROWTH 21st vs. SINASC-2012 (adjusted by sex: 0.62 (0.53-0.71; INTERGROWTH 21st vs. PEDREIRA: 0.71 (0.62-0.79; SINASC-2012 (by sex vs. PEDREIRA: 0.86 (0.79-0.93. Conclusions: Misclassification has to be taken into account when evaluating newborns of GDM mothers, as LGA rates can almost double depending on the chart used to classify birth weight.

  17. Intraventricular hemorrhage in a very low birth weight infants: Associated risk factors in Isfahan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiee, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Prematurely born infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) suffer significant morbidity and mortality, particularly with those infants with high-grade hemorrhage. Previous studies have proposed a number of risk factors for IVH; however, lack of adequate matching for gestational age and birth weight may have confounded the results. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that affect the risk of IVH. We identified 31 preterm infants with gestational age < 32 weeks and birth weight < 1500 g, with IVH, from November 2003 to January 2005 at Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A control group of 90 infants, matched for gestational age and birth weight was selected. Maternal factors, labor and delivery characteristics and neonatal parameters were collected in both groups. Results of cranial ultrasound examinations were also collected. The significant risk factors for IVH were found to be: patent ductus artreiosus arteriosus (PDA) [4 (13.3%) versus 3(3.3%) (p=0.01)], longer duration of assisted ventilation [4 (2.8+-5.8 days versus 0.5+-2.1 days (p=0.002)], a higher number of endotracheal suctioning [9.7+-18.4 versus 3.06+-13.7 (p=0.004)], surfactant use, [7(22.6%) versus 3(3.4%) (p=0.003)], positive pressure ventilation at birth [12 (38.7%) versus 12(13.3%), (p=0.004)] and low Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes. Whereas antenatal steroid treatments and cesarean sections have protective effect on the occurrence of IVH. Our data emphasize the importance of obstetric and prenatal care to improve outcomes of premature infants. (author)

  18. Ecological analysis of secular trends in low birth weight births and adult height in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Urayama, Kevin Yuji; Yoshii, Keisuke; Subramanian, S V; Yokoya, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight (LBW) births since the 1970s. We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 115 249 live births included the vital statistics (1969-2014), as well as trends in average height among 3 145 521 adults born between 1969 and 1996, included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan. LBW rates exhibited a U-shaped pattern showing reductions until 1978-1979 (5.5%), after which it increased. Conversely, average adult height peaked for those born during the same period (men, 171.5 cm; women, 158.5 cm), followed by a reduction over the next 20 years. LBW rate and adult height showed a strong inverse correlation (men, r=-0.98; women, r=-0.88). A prediction model based on birth and economical characteristics estimated the national average of adult height would continue to decline, to 170.0cm (95% CI 169.6 to 170.3) for men and 157.9cm (95% CI 157.5 to 158.3) for women among those born in 2014. Adult height in Japan has started to decline for those born after 1980, a trend that may be attributed to increases in LBW births over time. Considering the known association between shorter adult height and adverse health outcomes, evidence of population-level decline in adult health due to long-term consequences of increasing LBW births in Japan is anticipated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nuri Sener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A newborn baby girl developed seizures right after birth. On the fourth day, the baby was examined using diffusion sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diagnosed to have neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Laboratory findings confirmed the diagnosis. This is the first case of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD where diffusion MRI sequence helped in the diagnosis. We find association of NALD with seizures at birth is an extremely rare occurrence, and so far, only one case has been mentioned in the literature.

  20. Association of excessive mobile phone use during pregnancy with birth weight: an adjunct study in Kumamoto of Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Oda, Masako; Ohba, Takashi; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Masuda, Shota; Katoh, Takahiko

    2017-06-08

    Low birth weight has been shown to be closely associated with neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibited growth, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases later in life. Some studies have also shown that excessive mobile phone use in the postnatal period may lead to behavioral complications in the children during their growing years; however, the relationship between mobile phone use during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight is not clear. The aim of the present study was to determine the associations of excessive mobile phone use with neonatal birth weight and infant health status. A sample of 461 mother and child pairs participated in a survey on maternal characteristics, infant characteristics, and maternal mobile phone usage information during pregnancy. Our results showed that pregnant women tend to excessively use mobile phones in Japan. The mean infant birth weight was lower in the excessive use group than in the ordinary use group, and the frequency of infant emergency transport was significantly higher in the excessive use group than in the ordinary use group. Excessive mobile phone use during pregnancy may be a risk factor for lower birth weight and a high rate of infant emergency transport.

  1. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. RESULTS: Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty......BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated...... regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log-transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: -87 g (95% CI: -137, -340 per 1.70 ng/mL), -43 g (95% CI: -108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and -135 g (95% CI: -192, -78 per 1...

  2. Serious adverse neonatal outcomes such as 5-minute Apgar score of zero and seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction are increased in planned home births after cesarean delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available The United States is with 37,451 home births in 2014 the country with the largest absolute number of home births among all developed countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence and risks of a 5-minute Apgar score of zero and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in women with a history of prior cesarean delivery for planned home vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC, compared to hospital VBAC and hospital birth cesarean deliveries for term normal weight infants in the United States from 2007-2014. We report in this study outcomes of women who had one or more prior cesarean deliveries and included women who had a successful vaginal birth after a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC at home and in the hospital, and a repeat cesarean delivery in the hospital. We excluded preterm births (<37 weeks and infants weighing under 2500 g. Hospital VBACS were the reference. Women with a planned home birth VBAC had an approximately 10-fold and higher increase in adverse neonatal outcomes when compared to hospital VBACS and hospital repeat cesarean deliveries, a significantly higher incidence and risk of a 5-minute Apgar score of 0 of 1 in 890 (11.24/10,000, relative risk 9.04, 95% confidence interval 4-20.39, p<.0001 and an incidence of neonatal seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction of 1 in 814 (Incidence: 12.27/10,000, relative risk 11.19, 95% confidence interval 5.13-24.29, p<.0001. Because of the significantly increased neonatal risks, obstetric providers should therefore not offer or perform planned home TOLACs and for those desiring a VBAC should strongly recommend a planned TOLAC in the appropriate hospital setting. We emphasize that this stance should be accompanied by effective efforts to make TOLAC available in the appropriate hospital setting.

  3. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S.D.; Zhang, M.G.; Der, G.; Mathur, S.; Mina, T.H.; Reynolds, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EM...

  4. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-09-01

    Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500-4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother's Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother's job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother's poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother's job style had the most adverse effect (B=-0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother's level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother's job style and household income (B=-0.17). According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother's job situation in order to prevent any adverse effects.

  5. Birth-related mid-posterior rib fractures in neonates: a report of three cases (and a possible fourth case) and a review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Bilo, Rob A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Forensic Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robben, Simon G.F. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    Posterior rib fractures in young children have a high positive predictive value for non-accidental injury (NAI). Combined data of five studies on birth trauma (115,756 live births) showed no cases of rib fractures resulting from birth trauma. There have, however, been sporadic cases reported in the literature. We present three neonates with both posterior rib fractures and ipsilateral clavicular fractures resulting from birth trauma. A review of the literature is also presented. The common denominator and a possible mechanical aetiology are discussed. In total, 13 cases of definitive birth-related posterior rib fractures were identified. Nearly all (9/10) posterior rib fractures were (as far as reported in the original publications) in the midline. In 12 of the 13 children, birth weight was high and in 7 children birth was complicated by shoulder dystocia. An interesting finding was that in cases where a clavicular fracture was present, this was on the ipsilateral side. Radiologists, when presented with a neonate with posterior rib fractures, should be aware of this rare differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Birth-related mid-posterior rib fractures in neonates: a report of three cases (and a possible fourth case) and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijn, Rick R. van; Bilo, Rob A.C.; Robben, Simon G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Posterior rib fractures in young children have a high positive predictive value for non-accidental injury (NAI). Combined data of five studies on birth trauma (115,756 live births) showed no cases of rib fractures resulting from birth trauma. There have, however, been sporadic cases reported in the literature. We present three neonates with both posterior rib fractures and ipsilateral clavicular fractures resulting from birth trauma. A review of the literature is also presented. The common denominator and a possible mechanical aetiology are discussed. In total, 13 cases of definitive birth-related posterior rib fractures were identified. Nearly all (9/10) posterior rib fractures were (as far as reported in the original publications) in the midline. In 12 of the 13 children, birth weight was high and in 7 children birth was complicated by shoulder dystocia. An interesting finding was that in cases where a clavicular fracture was present, this was on the ipsilateral side. Radiologists, when presented with a neonate with posterior rib fractures, should be aware of this rare differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Morbidity and Mortality among Infants with Normal Birth Weight in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 286 babies admitted to the unit during this period, the major causes of morbidity were septicaemia in 35.9 percent, neonatal jaundice in 19 percent, tetanus in 13 percent and birth asphyxia in 10.9 percent. There were 52 deaths, an overall mortality of 18 percent. Neonatal tetanus was the leading cause of death in this ...

  8. NEONATAL SEPTICAEMIA IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... Antibiotic sensitivity revealed high resistance to ampicillin and good sensitivity to aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, clavulanic acid potentiated amoxycillin ... Antibiotic sensitivity shows adequate sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third .... generation cephalosporins as a first line (routine).

  9. Neonatal septicaemia in low birth weight infants at Kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The common organisms isolated were gram negative organisms 60 (66.6%), while gram positive organisms were 30 (33.4%). Antibiotic sensitivity revealed high resistance to ampicillin and good sensitivity to aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, clavulanic acid potentiated amoxycillin and chloramphenicol.

  10. Kangaroo position: Immediate effects on the physiological variables of preterm and low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Cesário Defilipo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method is a significant neonatal alternative that ensures better quality humanized care for preterm and low birth weight newborns. Objective: To analyze the immediate physiological effects of the kangaroo position in critically ill newborns. Methods: Open clinical trial with parallel interventions, involving preterm (up to 28 days old low or very low birth weight newborns (minimum weight of 1,250 grams of both sexes, that were clinically stable and undergoing enteral nutrition. The degree of respiratory distress was assessed and quantified using the Silverman-Anderson scoring system. Heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were collected using a pulse oximeter. Respiratory rate was determined by auscultation for one minute. The newborns were submitted to the kangaroo position once only, for 90 minutes. Results: Participants were 30 newborns, 56.7% of which were girls. Comparison of the variables before and after application of the kangaroo position using the Wilcoxon test showed a statistically significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.02 and Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01. The remaining variables showed no significant differences: heart rate (p = 0.21, peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.26 and axillary temperature (p = 0.12. Conclusion: There was a decline in the respiratory rate and Silverman-Anderson score after application of the kangaroo position, while peripheral oxygen saturation, axillary temperature and heart rate remained stable.

  11. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau: A Randomized-controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, K.J.; Larsen, N.; Biering-Sorensen, S.; Andersen, A.; Eriksen, H.B.; Monteiro, I.; Hougaard, D.; Aaby, P.; Netea, M.G.; Flanagan, K.L.; Benn, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS: Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in

  12. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

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    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1% by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman.

  13. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

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    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight.The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight.Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors.Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7.Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  14. Effects of early pregnancy BMI, mid-gestational weight gain, glucose and lipid levels in pregnancy on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat: A population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal glucose and lipid levels are associated with neonatal anthropometry of the offspring, also independently of maternal body mass index (BMI). Gestational weight gain, however, is often not accounted for. The objective was to explore whether the effects of maternal glucose and lipid levels on offspring’s birth weight and subcutaneous fat were independent of early pregnancy BMI and mid-gestational weight gain. Methods: In a population-based, multi-ethnic, prospect...

  15. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

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    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  16. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  17. Cord Blood Metabolome Is Highly Associated with Birth Weight, but Less Predictive for Later Weight Development

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    Christian Hellmuth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence. Methods: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA, polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform. Cord blood metabolites were related to growth factors by linear regression models adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Cord blood metabolites were highly associated with birth weight. Lysophosphatidylcholines C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C18:2, C20:4, C14:0, C16:0, C18:3, GPL-FA C20:3n-9, and GPL-FA C22:5n-6 were positively related to birth weight, while higher cord blood concentrations of NEFA C22:6, NEFA C20:5, GPL-FA C18:3n-3, and PCe C38:0 were associated with lower birth weight. Postnatal weight gain and BMI z-scores in adolescents were not significantly associated with cord blood metabolites after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: Potential long-term programming effects of the intrauterine environment and metabolism on later health cannot be predicted with profiling of the cord blood metabolome.

  18. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants...... A supplementation (VAS) or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were obtained 2, 6, and 12 months after enrolment. RESULTS: Overall there was no effect of early BCG on growth in the first year of life. The effect of early BCG on weight and mid-upper-arm circumference at 2 months tended to be beneficial among girls...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...

  19. Respiratory symptoms in the first 7 years of life and birth weight at term - The PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, Daan; Wijga, Alet; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hoekstra, Maarten; Gerritsen, Jorrit; de Jongste, Johan C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The relation between birth weight and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children remains unclear. Previous studies focused on a relation at separate ages. A longitudinal analysis may lead to a better understanding. Objectives: To estimate the effect of birth weight on the development and

  20. [Costs of the initial care of children with birth weight less than or equal to 1500 g in 1981].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monset-Couchard, M; Jaspar, M L; de Bethmann, O; Relier, J P

    1984-10-01

    In 1981, 151 neonates with birth weight (B.W.) less than or equal to 1500 g were admitted to the Port-Royal Intensive Care Unit (ICU) (31% of admissions), 81% being born outside. Total mortality was 26% (53% less than or equal to 1000 g). For children who died, the median hospital stay was 9 days; in survivors, it was 69d (109d for BW less than or equal to 1000 g 71d for BW 1001-1250 g, 61d for BW 1251-1500 g), similar in hypotrophic and eutrophic infants. Average weight at direct discharge from Port-Royal ICU was 2627 +/- 565 g. The smaller the infants were at birth, the later they were discharged after assumed term. Complications (more frequent in smaller infants) played a major part in discharge delay. The cost of initial care included every step from birth to final discharge, all hospital charges and transports. Average cost per survivor was 200,356 F, but it reached 336,545 F, in patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and 354,605 F in those with necrotizing enterocolitis. Although the mostly good quality of survival justifies these expenses, the authors advocate increased prevention of very early prematurity and severe intra-uterine growth retardation, and development of maternal transport, as well as of prenatal call for a neonatal team in cases of unexpected birth out a of a perinatal center.

  1. Birth plan compliance and its relation to maternal and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hidalgo-Lopezosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to know the degree of fulfillment of the requests that women reflect in their birth plans and to determine their influence on the main obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Method: retrospective, descriptive and analytical study with 178 women with birth plans in third-level hospital. Inclusion criteria: low risk gestation, cephalic presentation, single childbirth, delivered at term. Scheduled and urgent cesareans without labor were excluded. A descriptive and inferential analysis of the variables was performed. Results: the birth plan was mostly fulfilled in only 37% of the women. The group of women whose compliance was low (less than or equal to 50% had a cesarean section rate of 18.8% and their children had worse outcomes in the Apgar test and umbilical cord pH; while in women with high compliance (75% or more, the percentage of cesareans fell to 6.1% and their children had better outcomes. Conclusion: birth plans have a low degree of compliance. The higher the compliance, the better is the maternal and neonatal outcomes. The birth plan can be an effective tool to achieve better outcomes for the mother and her child. Measures are needed to improve its compliance.

  2. Novel Approaches to Neonatal Resuscitation and the Impact on Birth Asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Pas, Arjan B; Sobotka, Kristina; Hooper, Stuart B

    2016-09-01

    Historically, recommendations for neonatal resuscitation were largely based on dogma, but there is renewed interest in performing resuscitation studies at birth. The emphasis for resuscitation following birth asphyxia is administering effective ventilation, as adequate lung aeration leads not only to an increase in oxygenation but also increased pulmonary blood flow and heart rate. To aerate the lung, an initial sustained inflation can increase heart rate, oxygenation, and blood pressure recovery much faster when compared with standard ventilation. Hyperoxia should be avoided, and extra oxygen given to restore cardiac function and spontaneous breathing should be titrated based on oxygen saturations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

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    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  4. Validity of Self-Reported Birth Weight: Results from a Norwegian Twin Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Thomas S; Kutschke, Julia; Brandt, Ingunn; Harris, Jennifer R

    2017-10-01

    The association between birth weight and later life outcomes is of considerable interest in life-course epidemiology. Research often relies on self-reported measures of birth weight, and its validity is consequently of importance. We assessed agreement between self-reported birth weight and official birth records for Norwegian twins born 1967-1974. The intraclass correlation between self-reported birth weight and register-based birth weight was 0.91 in our final sample of 363 twins. It could be expected that 95% of self-reported birth-weight values will deviate from official records within a maximum of +446 grams and a minimum of -478 grams - around a mean deviation of 16 grams. Self-reported birth weight had a sensitivity of 0.78-0.89 and a positive predictive value of 0.59-0.85, and an overall weighted kappa of 0.71. We further assessed agreement by conducting two linear regression models where we respectively regressed self-reported birth weight and register-based birth weight on adult body mass index, a known association. The two models were not significantly different; however, there were different levels of significance in parameter estimates that warrant some caution in using self-reported birth weight. Reliability of self-reported birth weight was also assessed, based on self-reports in another sample of twins born 1935-1960 who had reported their birth weight in two questionnaires 34 years apart. The intraclass correlation was 0.86, which indicates a high degree of reliability. In conclusion, self-reported birth weight, depending on context and age when birth weight was reported, can be cautiously used.

  5. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality......: the MRR of vitamin A supplementation compared with placebo, controlled for randomisation to "early BCG" versus "no early BCG" was 1.08 (95% CI 0.79 to 1.47). Stratification by sex revealed a significant interaction between vitamin A supplementation and sex (P=0.046), the MRR of vitamin A supplementation...

  6. Human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) targets rotavirus from birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobari, Jarir At; Satria, Cahya Dewi; Handley, Amanda; Watts, Emma; Cowley, Daniel; Nirwati, Hera; Ackland, James; Standish, Jane; Justice, Frances; Byars, Gabrielle; Lee, Katherine J.; Barnes, Graeme L.; Bachtiar, Novilia S.; Icanervilia, Ajeng Viska; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Pavlic, Daniel; Bishop, Ruth F.; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Buttery, Jim P.; Soenarto, Yati

    2018-01-01

    Background A birth dose strategy using a neonatal rotavirus vaccine to target early prevention of rotavirus disease may address remaining barriers to global vaccine implementation. Methods We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in Indonesia to evaluate the efficacy of an oral human neonatal rotavirus vaccine (RV3-BB) to prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis. Healthy newborns received three doses of RV3-BB administered in a neonatal schedule at 0-5 days, 8 and 14 weeks or infant schedule at 8, 14 and 18 weeks, or placebo. Laboratory-confirmed rotavirus gastroenteritis was graded using a modified Vesikari score. The primary analysis was efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis from two weeks after all doses to 18 months in the combined vaccine group (neonatal and infant schedule) compared with placebo. Results Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis to 18 months was 63% in the combined vaccine group (95% CI 34, 80; p<0.001), 75% in the neonatal vaccine group (95% confidence interval [CI] 44, 91; p<0.001) and 51% in the infant vaccine group (95% CI 7, 76; p=0.03) in the per protocol analysis, with similar results in the intention-to-treat analysis. Vaccine efficacy to 12 months was 94% in the neonatal vaccine group (95%CI 56, 99; p=0.006). Vaccine take occurred in 78/83 (94%) in the neonatal vaccine group and 83/84 (99%) in the infant vaccine group.