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Sample records for birth weight neonate

  1. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

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    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  2. Life expectancies and outcomes in extremely low birth weight neonates

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    Nayeri F, Amini E, Shariat M, Mansoori B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Background: Much has changed in neonatal care for extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1000g infants over the recent years in Iran, resulting in an increase in their survival rate. We determined neonatal survival and short-term morbidity rates among ELBW infants, and the correlation of these factors with mortality risk. "n"nMethods: All single live-born ELBW babies delivered at Vali-e-Asr Hospital over a four-year period were identified. Data that were prospectively collected included: maternal age, prenatal and perinatal complications, antenatal steroid use, birth weight, gestational age, route of delivery, sex, need for resuscitation, APGAR score, need for mechanical  ventilation, and complications including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, sepsis, jaundice, intraventricular  hemorrhage (IVH, necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC metabolic and hematologic and cardiac disorders. Information was statistically analyzed and a probability value of <0.05 was considered significant. "n"nResults: A total of 93 neonates were included in the study. The survival rate in the delivery room was 36.6%. The lowest birth weight was 400g, with a mean birth weight of 850.43(±136.48g, and the lowest gestational age was 22 weeks. The mean gestational period was 28.31(±2.77 weeks. The most frequent complication after birth was RDS(69.89% and the least frequent was NEC (6.4%. Short and normal gestation was observed in 44.08% and 48.4% of the neonates, respectively. There was a significant relationship between neonatal mortality and the need for resuscitation after birth, RDS and need for a respirator (p<0.05. "n"nFurthermore, there was significant increase in mortality among neonates with gestational age <30 weeks, birth weight under 750g and lack of steroids before birth (p<0.05. "n"nConclusions: To enhance perinatal and neonatal care and decrease the rate of preterm labor, improved standard resuscitation and increased administration of antenatal

  3. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

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    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  4. Maternal serum magnesium level and low birth weight neonate

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    Seyed Mohammadreza Parizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of study was to compare the serum level of magnesium in mothers having low birth weight with those having normal birth weight neonates. Methods: In a case-control study, women who delivered low birth weight neonate (cases, compared with normal birth weight (controls in serum concentration of magnesium. Blood samples collected within 24 h after delivery. Concentration of magnesium assessed by standard atomic absorption spectro-photometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to control of potential confounding variables. Results: A total of 116 mothers (67 cases and 49 control were studied. Mothers in two groups did not differ in age, body mass index, and socioeconomic or demographic factors. Maternal magnesium concentration did not differ between two groups 0.86 ± 0.11 m.mol/l versus 0.94 ± 0.22 m.mol/l respectively ( P = 0.09. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between serum magnesium levels of low birth weight infants′ mother and normal weight infants′ mother.

  5. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality Among Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004 were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02, low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001, Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001, resuscitation at birth (P=0.001, respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001 need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001, neurological complications (P=0.001 and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  6. Effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight

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    Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight.Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  7. Effect of Ramadan Fasting during Pregnancy on Neonatal Birth Weight

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    1Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight. Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  8. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

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    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  9. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age

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    Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara; Katz, Joanne;

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age...

  10. The Placental Microbiome Varies in Association with Low Birth Weight in Full-Term Neonates

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    Jia Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence indicated that low birth weight was an independent risk factor for obesity, impaired glucose regulation, and diabetes later in life. However, investigations into the association between low birth weight and placental microbiome in full-term neonates are limited. Placentas were collected from low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW full-term neonates (gestational age 37 w0d–41 w6d consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The anthropometric measurements were measured and 16S ribosomal DNAamplicon high-throughput sequencing were utilized to define bacteria within placenta tissues. It showed that birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference, and placenta weight were significantly lower in LBW than NBW neonates (p < 0.05. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs (p < 0.05 and the estimators of community richness (Chao indexes (p < 0.05 showed a significantly lower diversity in LBW than NBW neonates. There were significant variations in the composition of placenta microbiota between the LBW and NBW neonates at the phylum and genus level. Furthermore, it indicated that Lactobacillus percentage was positively associated with birth weight (r = 0.541, p = 0.025. In conclusion, our present study for the first time detected the relationship between birth weight and placental microbiome profile in full-term neonates. It is novel in showing that the placental microbiome varies in association with low birth weight in full-term neonates.

  11. Survival Rate of Low and Very Low Birth Weight Neonates in an Iranian Community

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    A Puyanfar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the incidence and survival rates of neonates weighing less than 2500g for duration of the first 28 days in an Iranian community.Methods: In this prospective longitudinal study, all neonates with birth weight less than 2500g were selected from the list of all neonates born in the only public-sector referral hospital, for a six months period. The weight of neonates at birth along with some demographic variables was recorded on a checklist. A cohort of neonates with birth weight less than 2500g were followed for 28 days. Mortality within 28 days of birth was used as end point. Continuous variables were summarized using mean and 95% confidence intervals, while categorical variables were presented as ratios and percentages.Results: About 1750 neonates were born of which 168 neonates with birth weights less than 2500g were recorded giving a proportion of 9.6%. Of 168 neonates, 21 (12.5% had very low birth weights (VLBW (birth weights<1500g. Survival rates for the groups of LBW (1500<birth weights<2500g and VLBW neonates were 98.4% and 66.6%, respectively. Regression analysis showed birth weight has, unsurprisingly, the most effect (beta= 0.501 on the survival rate among variables studied in this research.Conclusion: The survival rate among VLBW births in our study is dramatically low (66.6%. Not only attempts must be made to reduce the incidence and prevalence of this problem but also we need to work on the related factors of neonates' survival rate in this community.

  12. Treatment Failure of Nosocomial Pertussis Infection in a Very-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate

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    Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Farnoux, Caroline; Bidet, Philippe; Caro, Valérie; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Benhayoun, Mounir; Aujard, Yannick; Guiso, Nicole; Bingen, Edouard

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of nosocomial maternal transmission of Bordetella pertussis to a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonate in whom treatment was unsuccessful. This case underscores the need for rapid and sensitive PCR diagnosis in VLBW neonates and in parents with clinical signs of pertussis and suggests that standard treatment may not be appropriate for VLBW neonates. PMID:17021121

  13. Awake caudal anesthesia for inguinal hernia operations: successful use in low birth weight neonates.

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    Geze, S; Imamoğlu, M; Cekic, B

    2011-09-01

    Neonates with inguinal hernia face a relatively high risk of incarcerated hernia and bowel obstruction and this therefore requires surgical treatment. Complications following general anesthesia even for minor surgery are more common in low birth weight neonates than in term neonates. Caudal epidural anesthesia without adjunct general anesthesia has been recommended for neonates to reduce the risk of postoperative complications. The successful application of awake caudal anesthesia with levobupivacaine for inguinal hernia repair in 15 low birth weight neonates is reported. Single dose caudal epidural anesthesia was administered for inguinal hernia surgery to avoid complications associated with general anesthesia. Caudal block was performed with 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) levobupivacaine. Caudal anesthesia can be recommended as an effective technique for avoiding postoperative anesthetic complications in low birth weight neonates.

  14. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight of the neonate in a Nigerian Hospital

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    Abubakar A Panti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been several publications from different countries on the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, such reports from Nigeria are lacking in literature. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate at term pregnancy in a Nigerian hospital. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto between 1 st October 2008 and 31 st March 2009. Data gestational age at delivery (in weeks, parity, mode of delivery, fetal birth weight, placental weight, fetal gender, presence or absence of maternal medical diseases were obtained from 1009 singleton term deliveries who met the inclusion criteria for the study. The data was processed using EPI-INFO version 2005 and statistical analysis performed using one-way analysis of variance. A probability of 0.05 was set for statistical significance. Results: The placental birth weight ranged from 300 to 890 g with a mean of 590±82 g while the birth weight of the neonate ranged from 2030 to 5020 g with an average of 3275±469 g. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38.8±1.1 weeks while the mean placental birth weight ratio was 18.2±2.4 Increase in birth weight of the neonate was associated with corresponding increase in placental weight. However, as the gestational age at term advances the proportion of increase in the former was greater than that of the latter. Conclusions: There is a positive correlation between placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, the ratio of the placental and neonatal birth weights at term decreases with advancing gestational age. Thus, prolongation of pregnancy at term may adversely affect the fetus.

  15. The Relationship between Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Nasrin Khalessi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Maternal hypovitaminosis D may impair fetal growth and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction and neonatal low birth weight. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and neonate’s birth weight.Materials and methods:A cross-sectional, descriptive analytical study was carried out in the nursery ward of 2 hospitals (Tehran-Iran during one year (January 2011- January 2012. One hundred and two neonates were categorized into two groups, neonates with birth weight< 2500 gr (n=52 and neonates with birth weight>2500 gr (n=50. Data regarding medical history, physical examination and anthropometric measurements of neonates were noted in a questionnaire. Birth time blood samples of their mothers were analyzed for serum 25-(OH-vitamin D by ELISA method. Maternal vitamin D status was compared in two groups.Results:Mean maternal vitamin D (vit D level was 31.46 nmol/L. Forty eight percent of mothers had vitamin D deficiency, 27.5% had vit D insufficiency and 24.5% were normal. Mean maternal vitamin D level of LBW neonates was lower than other group; 25.05 vs. 38.13 (p= 0.001. All mothers of neonates with head circumference ≤ 33 cm also had vitamin D deficiency (p= 0.007.Conclusion:Maternal Vitamin Ddeficiency may increase the risk of low birth weight neonate and modifying maternal nutrition behavior and their vit D level could be beneficial on pregnancy outcome.

  16. Mortality in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Neonates in México City (1985–2009

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    José Iglesias-Leboreiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze 25 years of mortality of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW neonates (≤1000 g in a private hospital in Mexico City and to establish the current viability limit for ELBW neonates. Methods. We designed a prospective observational study of all ELBW neonates born between 1985 and 2009. Neonatal mortality, early neonatal mortality, and the 120-day mortality rate were analyzed in 5-year intervals by two categories of birth weight (501–750 g and 751–1000 g. Results. Among the 50,823 total births, 158 were ELBW (3.1 per 103. Neonatal mortality (death ≤28 days decreased for the 501–750 g neonates from 88.9% (1985–1989 to 55.6% (2005–1999 (P=.008 and for 751–1000 g neonates also decreased from 50% to 5.3% (P=.002. The 120-day mortality for neonates over 500 g diminished: 501–750 g neonates, 88.9% to 61.1% (P=.02 and for 751–1000 g neonates, 62.5% to 15.8% (P=.002. The highest viability limit was established in neonates who weighed ≥650 g and were ≥26 weeks in gestational age. Conclusions. The survival of ELBW neonates has improved in Mexico particularly in private hospitals, and it was more evident over the years 2004–2009. These data suggest that it is possible to increase the ELBW neonates survive in developing counties.

  17. Weight-for-length relationship at birth to predict neonatal diseases

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    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth curves are extremely useful for classifying newborn children and predicting neonatal diseases. However, such curves rely on knowledge of the gestational age, which is not always easily obtained. Therefore, the study of other anthropometric measurements and their interrelationship is always desirable, in order to attain such objectives. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether newborns' birth weight and length can identify neonatal diseases, independent of knowledge of the gestational age. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective study. SETTING: Institute of Teaching and Research of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: During the period from February 1995 to January 1998, 8,397 live newborns were studied in the hospital's maternity ward. PROCEDURES: The weight and length of live newborns were obtained at birth, thus allowing the analysis of weight-for-length adequacy, i.e. the distribution of birth weight for each class of birth lenght. These measurements were determined for the first 4,634 live newborns and the 10th and 90th percentiles were established. These parameters were applied to the next 3,763 consecutive newborns of the same population. The relationships between these variables and some neonatal diseases were investigated. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Birth weight and length, weight-for-length adequacy (10th and 90th percentiles for weight distribution in each 1-cm length class, weight/length index (10th and 90th percentiles of newborn's weight divided by the length and frequent neonatal diseases in this population. RESULTS: There was a significant association of adequacy and index with the following affections: asphyxia, jaundice, hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, congenital pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension and sepsis. Additionally, there was a relationship between the index and respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea and persistent ductus arteriosus

  18. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

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    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  19. Comparison of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Selenium Levels in Low and Normal Birth Weight Neonates

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    Lyly Nazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the maternal and umbilical cord serum selenium concentrations in Low and normal birth weight neonates.Materials and methods:A case-control study was carried out in Vali-Asr and Akbarabadi Hospitals (Jan. to Dec. 2013. Two groups; case group; 91 mothers who delivered a low birth weight (LBW neonate and control group; 86 subjects who delivered a normal birth weight neonate were selected. Immediately after birth, 5 ml of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, and sent to laboratory to assay Se concentrations. To compare both groups' blood Se concentration, data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0.Results:Eighty six (48.6% mothers with normal birth weight neonates and 91 (51.4% mothers with low birth weight infants entered the study. Mean maternal mothers' age and mean maternal blood Se were 28.55+5.90 years and 79.3756+26.46915. A significant association was seen between maternal blood and cord blood Se level in control and case group (P value<0.0001, r = 0.69 and(P value<0.001, r = 0.79. On the other hand no differences were seen between 2 groups' maternal blood Se level (P Value = 0.65. Umbilical Cord blood Se concentration was not also different between case and control group (P value = 0.46.Conclusion:We found that maternal and umbilical cord blood Se concentrations were not different in low and adequate birth weight infants, however; umbilical cord Se concentrations were positively correlated with maternal blood Se concentrations.

  20. PREVALENCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF E. COLI IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEONATES OF EARLY ONSET SEPSIS

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    R. Singh et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world which can be classified into early onset sepsis (EOS which occurs in the first 7 days of life and late onset sepsis (LOS which occurs ≥7 days of life. E. coli has been reported to be one of the significant and most common nosocomial pathogen which may cause septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis in the newborn. Most of the antibiotics which have been used extensively as life saving are rendered useless because of the emergence of resistant strains of bacterias. Therefore for determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of E. coli which is responsible for EOS and LOS and to establish the relationship with birth weight, a total of 229 blood samples were obtained from the neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU who showed the clinical signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis and sent for culture and sensitivity. Out of these 229, 102 showed the positive culture, among which early onset sepsis was found in 80 neonates while late onset sepsis was diagnosed in 22 neonates. The most frequent pathogen isolated from positive blood culture was E. coli (66.66% and it was also the most common pathogen in low birth weight and preterm neonates of both early (59 cases- 57.84% and late-onset (9 cases- 8.82% sepsis and the incidence was found higher in early onset sepsis. The isolate was completely resistant to vancomycin and the resistance was higher for monotherapy of semi-synthetic penicillin group of antibiotics than their combination therapy with sulbactum. Imepenam and gatifloxacin showed the highest sensitivity (100%, followed by Piperacillin - tazobactum and ciprofloxacin, however the frequency of resistance was more common in low birth weight neonates of early onset sepsis.

  1. Maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies are associated with reduced birth weight in thrombocytopenic neonates.

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    Dahl, J; Husebekk, A; Acharya, G; Flo, K; Stuge, T B; Skogen, B; Straume, B; Tiller, H

    2016-02-01

    In this comparative cross-sectional study, possible associations between maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies and birth weight in neonatal thrombocytopenia are explored. Although commonly detected in pregnancies and generally regarded as harmless, it has been suggested that such antibodies might be associated with fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT). As a link between FNAIT due to human platelet antigen 1a-specific antibodies and reduced birth weight in boys has previously been demonstrated, we wanted to explore whether maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies might also affect birth weight. To examine this, suspected cases of FNAIT referred to the Norwegian National Unit for Platelet Immunology during the period 1998-2009 were identified. Pregnancies where the only finding was maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies were included. An unselected group of pregnant women participating in a prospective study investigating maternal-fetal hemodynamics at the University Hospital North Norway during the years 2006-2010 served as controls. Twenty-nine percent of controls had anti-HLA class I antibodies. The thrombocytopenic neonates had a significantly lower adjusted birth weight (linear regression, P=0.036) and significantly higher odds of being small for gestational age (OR=6.72, P<0.001) compared with controls. Increasing anti-HLA class I antibody levels in the mother were significantly associated with lower birth weight and placental weight among thrombocytopenic neonates, but not among controls. These results indicate that maternal anti-HLA class I antibodies in thrombocytopenic neonates are associated with reduced fetal growth. Further studies are needed to test if placental function is affected.

  2. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

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    Gabriel, Marta Lucia [Fundacao Faculdade Regional de Medicina (FUNFARME), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base; Piatto, Vania Belintani [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Soares, E-mail: depimagem@famerp.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2010-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  3. Late-onset neonatal sepsis in preterm infants with birth weight under 1.500 g

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    Stella Marys Rigatti Silva

    Full Text Available Objective: the research objective was to characterize preterm infants with birth weight under 1500 g, and to identify the incidence of late-onset neonatal sepsis among this population. Methods: a prospective cohort study with a sample of 30 preterm newborns that weighed under 1500 g and were hospitalized in the NICU of the university hospital. Data were collected from January to December 2013 using a structured instrument. Results: of the 30 neonates included in the study, 14 developed late-onset neonatal sepsis with a prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococci. Conclusions: the incidence of late-onset neonatal sepsis indicates a vulnerability in preterm infants due to immunological immaturity. These results reveal that knowledge of the profile of newborn infants admitted to the NICU and the risk factors to which they are exposed are central to the planning of nursing care for these patients. Future studies should address strategies for preventing nosocomial infection.

  4. Impact of maternal risk factors on the incidence of low birth weight neonates in southern India

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    : U.N.Reddy, VamshiPriya, SwathiChacham, SanaSalimKhan, J Narsing Rao, Mohd Nasir mohiuddin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is recommended as one of the twelve global indicators for monitoring the health of the community and is an important determinant of adverse perinatal and neonatal events. LBW infant carries five times higher risk of dying in the neonatal period and three times more in infancy. Aims and Objectives: To estimate the incidence of LBW and impact of various maternal and biosocial factors on the incidence of LBW neonates in the study population. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in Princess Esra hospital, a tertiary care hospital in south India, over a period of six months. All consecutive LBW (single ton neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit were enrolled, while those born of multiple gestation and those with major congenital malformations were excluded. Results: A total of 300 neonates were included in the present study out of which 150 were LBW and 150 weighed ≥2500 gm. Higher maternal weight (>60kgs had low incidence of LBW neonates (p value-0.03. Illiterate women had a remarkably higher incidence of LBW babies (p value-0.001. In primigravida incidence of LBW was 61.2%. Higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with oligo hydramnio’s. Conclusions: This study showed that maternal age, weight, literacy level and parity have a significant influence on the incidence of LBW. Incidence of LBW neonate in the study was 50%. Risk of having LBW neonates was higher in primigravida. There was a significant association between LBW with oligo hydramnio’s and female gender.

  5. Birth Weight

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    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  6. Changes in Survival and Neonatal Morbidity in Infants with a Birth Weight of 750 g or Less

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, M. J.; Bruinse, H. W.; van der Heide-Jalving, M.; Termote, J. U. M.; de Vries, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Improvement in perinatal and neonatal care has resulted in increased survival of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Objectives: To describe survival and neonatal morbidity in a cohort of ELBW infants, to compare two consecutive 5-year periods, and compare appropriate (AGA) with s

  7. Determinants of survival in very low birth weight neonates in a public sector hospital in Johannesburg

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    Cooper Peter A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Audit of disease and mortality patterns provides essential information for health budgeting and planning, as well as a benchmark for comparison. Neonatal mortality accounts for about 1/3 of deaths Methods This was a retrospective chart review of 474 VLBW infants admitted within 24 hours of birth, between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2007, to the neonatal unit of Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH in Johannesburg, South Africa. Binary outcome logistic regression on individual variables and multiple logistic regression was done to identify those factors determining survival. Results Overall survival was 70.5%. Survival of infants below 1001 grams birth weight was 34.9% compared to 85.8% for those between 1001 and 1500 grams at birth. The main determinant of survival was birth weight with an adjusted survival odds ratio of 23.44 (95% CI: 11.22 - 49.00 for babies weighing between 1001 and 1500 grams compared to those weighing below 1001 grams. Other predictors of survival were gender (OR 3. 21; 95% CI 1.6 - 6.3, birth before arrival at the hospital (BBA (OR 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08 - 0.69, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC (OR 0.06; 95% CI: 0.02 - 0.20, hypotension (OR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01 - 0.21 and nasal continuous positive airways pressure (NCPAP (OR 4.58; 95% CI 1.58 - 13.31. Conclusions Survival rates compare favourably with other developing countries, but can be improved; especially in infants

  8. [Use of lumbar puncture in the evaluation of late-onset sepsis in low birth weight neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea-Vera, Alonso; Turín, Christie Gloria; Rueda, María Susana; Guillén-Pinto, Daniel; Medina-Alva, Pilar; Tori, Aldredo; Rivas, María; Zegarra, Jaime; Castañeda, Anne; Cam, Luis; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the use of lumbar punctures (LP) in the evaluation of late-onset neonatal sepsis. It is recommended to perform an LP as part of the evaluation of late-onset sepsis. We used a cohort of 414 newborns with a birth weight late-onset sepsis is low and can result in undiagnosed and undertreated meningitis. The use of LP in the evaluation of neonatal sepsis must be encouraged in the neonatal units.

  9. Frequency of x-ray examinations of neonates classified according to their birth weight in NICU

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    Ono, K.; Hada, M.; Mitarai, T.; Kato, Y. [Oita Prefectural Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oita (Japan); Akahane, K.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T. [Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    For neonates, red bone marrow is distributed in the whole body, and it is reported that cancer susceptibility to radiation may be higher than fetuses. However, there are few reports about the frequency of X-ray examination for neonates. To clarify the X-ray examination of neonates in intensive care unit, we investigated the actual frequency of mobile X-ray, CT and fluoroscopy. We followed the 306 infants who were admitted in and discharged from neonatal intensive care unit of Oita Prefecture Hospital between October 1 in 1998 and June 30 in 1999. The investigated items were types of radiograph, the number of mobile X-ray, and CT and fluoroscopy examination, the body weight at birth (BWAB), and the body weight at the day when X-ray examination was performed (BWXE). These were classified according to the BWAB. The relation between the frequency of X-ray examination and the high-risk-infant classification was examined. For mobile X-ray, the 1053 radiographs were performed, including 258 chest radiographs, 685 combined abdominal and chest radiographs, 52 abdominal radiographs, 37 wrist radiographs, 21 others radiographs. For CT, the 118 examinations was performed, including 116 head, 2 abdominal. For fluoroscopy, the 24 examinations were performed, including 13-air contrast enema, 5 gastroduodenal, 2 cystoradiogram, 1 urethrography, 1 intestine, 2 cavitas nasi and 152 abdominal radiographs. These showed that for less BWAB, more X-ray examinations were carried out. In the high-risk-infant classification, a lot of X-ray frequencies were observed for infants with extremely low BWAB. The infant with extremely low BWAB was accompanied with complication such as respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, and meconium disease. The histogram of the BWXE had two peaks; one at 600g-800g, another at 2100g-2500g. This study revealed the current frequency of X-rays examination in neonatal intensive care unit. We evaluated the dose to neonates in another paper of IRPA-10

  10. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight

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    Rachel C. Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. METHODS: this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI and mental development index (MDI of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: mean birth weight was 1,119 g (SD: 247 and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2. Approximately 44.3%(n = 86 of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n = 79 had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI < 85 at 12 months of corrected age. On the mental scale, 76 (39.1% children presented abnormal cognitive development (MDI < 85. Children with neonatal sepsis were 2.5 times more likely to develop changes in neuromotor development (OR: 2.50; CI: 1.23-5.10. There was no association between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development impairment. CONCLUSION: neonatal sepsis was an independent risk factor for neuromotor development impairment at 12 months of corrected age, but not for mental development impairment.

  11. No relationship between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants aged two years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jun Zhu; Ying-Ying Bao; Guo-Lian Zhang; Li-Xin Ma; Ming-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of age in very low birth weight infants (≤1500 g) born by cesarean with those by vaginal delivery. Methods: In this retrospective, case-control study, we evaluated neonatal mortality, medical conditions and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age in 710 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born between January 2005 and December 2010. Of the 710 infants, 351 were born by the cesarean and 359/710 by vaginal route. Results: There were no significant differences in neonatal mortality between the cesarean delivery group and vaginal delivery group [56/351 (15.9%) vs. 71/359 (19.8%), P=0.20]. VLBW infants delivered by the cesarean procedure had a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome than those born by the vaginal route [221/351 (63.0%) vs. 178/359 (49.6%), P Conclusions: In neither neurodevelopment nor neonatal mortality did cesarean birth offered significant advantages to VLBW infants. Moreover, the operation might be associated with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome for VLBW infants. The mode of delivery of VLBW infants should be largely based on obstetric indications and maternal considerations rather than perceived better outcomes for the neonate.

  12. A study of birth weight of full term neonates and its′ determinants

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    Yugantara R Kadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is highly prevalent in India and has a multifactorial causation. There is a need to study and identify the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors determining birth weight. This will help in planning ante natal care more effectively. Materials and Methods : Study-type-cross-sectional study-setting: Hospital based. Study-subject: Mothers and their new borns. Sample size: All the births taken place during the study period. Study period: July 2010-June 2011. Study tools : (0 i Questionnaire. (ii pediatric weighing machine. Inclusion criteria : m0 others attending ante natal care (ANC clinic from 1 st trimester with minimum three antenatal visits, non-anemic at the end of 2 nd trimester, had full-term and singleton delivery. Exclusion criteria : H/O pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, diabetes mellieutus (DM, tuberculosis (TB, urinary tract infection (UTI, delivered preterm and tobacco chewers or mishri users. Statistical Analysis : Percentages, mean and SD of birth weight, χ2 test, ANOVA, Z-test, and Binary logistic. Results: By using birth weight as a continuous data it was observed that birth-weight was significantly associated with maternal age (F = 3.360, df = 2, P = 0.035, education (F = 4.401, df = 4, P = 0.002 and breakfast (z = 3.970, P = 0.00. Proportion of LBW was 42.4%. For analysis, groups of newborns on the basis of birth weight showed significant association between LBW and maternal education (χ2 = 12.734, df = 4, P = 0.013, breakfast (χ2 = 13.241, df = 1, P = 0.00 and evening snacks (χ2 = 4.275, df = 1, P = 0.013. According to the binary logistic regression, breakfast and education were significant and best predictors for birth weight. Conclusion: Education and breakfast are strong determinants of birth-weight. Less educated women need more intense health education.

  13. Replication of a Genome-Wide Association Study of Birth Weight in Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Feenstra, Bjarke; Shaffer, John R.; Bream, Elise NA; Geller, Frank; Feingold, Eleanor; Weeks, Daniel E; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Saleme, Cesar; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Merrill, David; Fong, Chin-To; Busch, Tamara; Berends, Susan K; Comas, Belen; Camelo, Jorge L; Boyd, Heather; Laurie, Cathy; Crosslin, David; Zhang, Qi; Doheny, Kim F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Melbye, Mads; Marazita, Mary L; Dagle, John M; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine associations in a preterm population between rs9883204 in ADCY5 and rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 with birth weight. Both markers were associated with birth weight in a term population in a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study by Freathy et al. Study design A meta-analysis of mother and infant samples was performed for associations of rs900400 and rs9883204 with birth weight in 393 families from the U.S., 265 families from Argentina and 735 mother-infant pairs from Denmark. Z scores adjusted for infant sex and gestational age were generated for each population separately and regressed on allele counts. Association evidence was combined across sites by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Results Each additional C allele of rs900400 (LEKR1/CCNL1) in infants was marginally associated with a 0.069 standard deviation (SD) lower birth weight (95% CI = −0.159 – 0.022, P = 0.068). This result was slightly more pronounced after adjusting for smoking (P = 0.036). There were no significant associations identified with rs9883204 or in maternal samples. Conclusions These results indicate the potential importance of this marker on birth weight irrespective of gestational age. PMID:21885063

  14. Maternal Hemoglobin Levels during Pregnancy and their Association with Birth Weight of Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam Tabrizi, F; Barjasteh, S

    2015-01-01

    Back ground Anemia in pregnancy is associated with increased rates of maternal and perinatal mortality, premature delivery, low birth weight, and other adverse outcomes Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted on 1405 Iranian pregnant women who delivered during 2015. Blood was collected from all the subjects to measure the hemoglobin (Hb) during 16-19 weeks, 22-24 weeks, and 34-36 weeks of gestation. According to the level of hemoglobin, it is divided into 4 groups. Group 1; Hb > 10.1 gm/100ml (control group), Group 2; Hb= 8.1-10 gm/100ml (mild anemia) Group 3; Hb= 6.5-8 gm/100ml (moderate anemia) Group 4; Hb 10 g/dl), considered as normal gave birth to heavier and normal babies (3.3 kg). The severity of anemia during three trimesters was closely associated with birth weight of newborns. Conclusion The low hemoglobin values during three trimesters of pregnancy were associated with low birth weight in Iran. The anemia can lead to intra uterine growth retardation. PMID:26985354

  15. Outcome of Very Lov Birth Weight Infants in Neonatal Care Unit of Dicle University Faculty of Medicine

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    Selahattin Katar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for infants weighing less than 1500 g, who were admitted to the neonatal care unit of our hospital from April 2005 to February 2006.The number of VLBW admissions to the our neonatal care unit was 91, fourty one percent female and %49 were male. The mean birth weight was 1191±261 g and gestational age was 29±2.4 weeks. The mortality rate was 37.3 %. Antenatal steroids had been given to only 8% of mothers. The most important maternal risk factors were preeclampsia/eclampsia 30%, premature rupture of membranes 13%, hemorhage 8%. Respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed 47%, surfactant was given to 40% of these infants. The major causes of death were sepsis, respiratuar distres syndrome, and extreme prematurity.Compared with reports from other developed NICU, VLBW infants at our center had higher mortality rates. We conclude that, the major cause of high mortality rate depends on low-social –cultural –education conditions associated with insufficient prenatal care, neonatal care and inaccurate neonatal transport in our region.

  16. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and outcome of very-low-birth-weight infants in the German Neonatal Network.

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    Kathrin Hanke

    Full Text Available It was the aim of our study to evaluate the independent effect of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM as a cause of preterm delivery on mortality during primary hospital stay and significant morbidities in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants < 32 weeks of gestation.Observational, epidemiological study design.Population-based cohort, German Neonatal Network (GNN.6102 VLBW infants were enrolled in GNN from 2009-2012, n=4120 fulfilled criteria for primary analysis (< 32 gestational weeks, no pre-eclampsia, HELLP (highly elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome or placental abruption as cause of preterm birth.Multivariable logistic regression analyses included PPROM as potential risk factors for adverse outcomes and well established items such as gestational age in weeks, birth weight, antenatal steroids, center, inborn delivery, multiple birth, gender and being small-for-gestational-age.PPROM as cause of preterm delivery had no independent effect on the risk of early-onset sepsis, clinical sepsis and blood-culture proven sepsis, while gestational age proved to be the most important contributor to sepsis risk. The diagnosis of PPROM was associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55, p=0.03 but not with other major outcomes.The diagnosis of PPROM per se is not associated with adverse outcome in VLBW infants < 32 weeks apart from a moderately increased risk for BPD. Randomized controlled trials with primary neonatal outcomes are needed to determine which subgroup of VLBW infants benefit from expectant or intentional management of PPROM.

  17. Central diabetes insipidus: alert for dehydration in very low birth weight infants during the neonatal period. A case report

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    Maria Lúcia Silveira Ferlin

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI is a rare cause of hypernatremia during the neonatal period. The diagnosis is particularly difficult in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. CASE REPORT: We report on a preterm newborn who presented CDI soon after birth. On the third day of life, signs of dehydration were present despite normal fluid supply. The diuresis rate was 4.4 ml/kg/h. Although the fluid supply was then increased, the dehydration continued, with hypernatremia, normal glycemia, diuresis of 7.4 ml/kg/h and urine density of 1005 mOsmol/l. Thus, a diagnostic hypothesis of diabetes insipidus was raised. A test with a nasal vasopressin analogue (dDAVP was performed and CDI was confirmed. Reduction of the fluid supply became possible through appropriate treatment. CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of CDI is rarely made during the neonatal period, especially in VLBW newborns, because of the difficulty in detecting elevated diuresis. Persistent hypernatremia, usually accompanied by hyperthermia despite abundant fluid supply, weight loss and low urine osmolality are important signs of alert.

  18. Prenatal and neonatal variables associated with enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth in low birth weight preterm infants

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    Kátia Maria Dmytraczenko Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible prenatal and neonatal variables that may influence the prevalence of tooth enamel hypoplasia in preterm and low birth weight children (LBW and a matched control group of term children with normal birth weight (NBW. The study sample consisted of 61 children born preterm and with LBW examined at 18-34 months of age. The control group was formed by 61 infants born full term and with NBW examined at 31-35 months of age. All children were born at the Center of Integrated Attention of Women's Health (CAISM-UNICAMP. FDI criteria were followed for dental examination. Medical data was collected retrospectively from hospital records. Among preterms, 57.4% had some type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE, 52.5 % had opacities and 21.3 % presented hypoplasia. Among full-term children, 24.6% presented DDE, 24.6% had opacities and 3.3% had hypoplasia. LBW preterm infants presented a higher prevalence of hypoplasia than NBW controls. The deciduous teeth most affected by hypoplasia were maxillary incisors. There was no significant association with prenatal variables; among neonatal variables there was a significant association with respiratory distress syndrome and neurological examination at discharge with an altered result.

  19. The effect of neonatal vitamin A supplementation on growth in the first year of life among low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation (VAS) may amplify the effect of vaccines. We therefore investigated if neonatal VAS given with and without Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine to low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates had an effect on growth in the first year of life. We hypothesised that VAS would......, and 12 months after inclusion. RESULTS: Overall there was no effect of neonatal VAS on growth in the first year of life. By 2 months, VAS tended to have a beneficial effect on weight and head circumference when given with BCG but not when given without BCG (interaction: weight-for-age p = 0.07 and head...... received DTP. CONCLUSION: The results support other trials indicating that neonatal VAS does not have consistent effects on childhood growth and if anything the effects seem to be temporary. They also show that the effect may differ by vaccination status, being beneficial when given with BCG at birth...

  20. Birth weight discordant twins have increased prenatal mortality and neonatal morbidity: an analysis of 1,132 twins

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    Sara Domingues

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple pregnancies have increased significantly over the past decades. Birth weight discordance (BWD is a common problem between twins, but its association with an increased morbidity and mortality is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of BWD among twins and to evaluate its impact on perinatal morbidity.Methods: Retrospective study of 1,132 twins born in a tertiary perinatal center, over a period of 8 years (2003-2010, that were divided in two groups: concordant (intrapair birth weight difference ≤ 20% or discordant (> 20%. The two groups were compared in terms of epidemiological and obstetric data, mode of delivery, perinatal morbidity and mortality.Results: During the study period, multiple gestation occurred in 2% of cases, of which 96% were twins. BWD was found in 212 (19% twins. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that maternal age ≥ 35 years and hypoxic-ischemic placental infarction were risk factors for the occurrence of BWD. The discordant group showed a significantly higher incidence of congenital skeletal and central nervous system malformations, a higher rate of hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit and a longer duration of hospitalization. The percentage of those requiring assisted ventilation, pulmonary surfactant, parenteral nutrition and central venous catheters was significantly higher in the discordant group compared with the concordant one. The rate of stillbirth was significantly higher in the discordant group (3% versus 1%; mortality was also higher (3% versus 2%, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.405.Conclusion: BWD was associated with increased prenatal mortality and neonatal morbidity. Diagnosis and management of pregnant women with this fetal condition in tertiary perinatal centers may improve the prognosis of these infants.

  1. Early Caffeine Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants and Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Won; Lim, Gina; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Sochung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung

    2015-12-01

    The use of caffeine citrate for treatment of apnea in very low birth weight infants showed short-term and long-term benefits. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to document the effect providing caffeine early (0-2 days of life) compared to providing caffeine late (≥3 days of life) in very low birth weight infants on several neonatal outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We searched MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed for this meta-analysis. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Jadad's scale. Studies were included if they examined the effect of the early use of caffeine compared with the late use of caffeine. Two reviewers screened the candidate articles and extracted the data from the full-text of all of the included studies. We included a total of 59,136 participants (range 58,997-59,136; variable in one study) from a total of 5 studies. The risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 0.902; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.828 to 0.983; P=0.019), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (OR, 0.507; 95% CI, 0.396 to 0.648; Pcaffeine group. Early caffeine use was not associated with a risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and NEC requiring surgery. This meta-analysis suggests that early caffeine use has beneficial effects on neonatal outcomes, including mortality and BPD, without increasing the risk of NEC.

  2. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed very-low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, P J; Adcock, E W; DelPaggio, D; Swift, L L; Greene, H L

    1996-08-01

    Preterm infant formulas (PIFs) for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight, pyridoxine at levels up to five-fold greater than in term infant formula and 18-fold greater than in human milk. We evaluated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in VLBW infants who received PIF during their first postnatal month. Eighty-eight plasma and 124 urine samples were collected for riboflavin- and pyridoxine-concentration measurements from 57 clinically healthy VLBW infants weekly during their first postnatal month. Concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of the sample, patients were receiving > or = 80% of their total calories via enteral feedings. Plasma riboflavin concentrations rose from 45.3 +/- 7.3 ng/ml at baseline (mean +/- SEM) to 173.5 +/- 20.3 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 177.3-199.7 ng/ml during the following three weekly measurements; values were up to 14-fold above baseline concentration. Urine riboflavin concentration increased from 534 +/- 137 ng/ml at baseline to 3,521 +/- 423 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 4,451-5,216 ng/ml during the next 3 weeks. In a similar pattern, baseline plasma (69.4 +/- 10.4 ng/ml) and urine (145 +/- 30 ng/ml) pyridoxine concentrations were significantly increased by 1 week postnatal age; they remained at 163-248 ng/ml (plasma) and 1,573-2,394 ng/ml (urine) through the first postnatal month. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed VLBW infants increased from baseline concentrations by 1 week of postnatal age and remained elevated for the first postnatal month. High daily intake and immature renal development are probable contributing causes of the elevated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations. We suggest that lower daily enteral administration of riboflavin and pyridoxine should maintain adequate blood concentrations and minimize potential toxicity.

  3. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age: individual participant level meta-analysis.

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    Tanya Marchant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1 birth weight, (2 gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3 neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999-2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (< 2,500 g babies were either preterm (< 37 weeks gestation or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age. 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born < 34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4-121.4], with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34-36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0-10.7], but the likelihood for babies born 34-36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3-47.4]. Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  4. 新生儿出生体重与出生方式的关系%Relationship between birth weight of neonates and delivery modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 周文正; 蒋秋静; 周晓军; 张华

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨重庆市主城区9年新生儿出生体重变化趋势及其与出生方式的关系.方法:对2002 ~ 2010年重庆市主城区筛查的104 234名新生儿的出生体重及出生方式进行回顾性分析.比较新生儿出生体重变化趋势及其与出生方式的关系.结果:9年间重庆市主城区新生儿出生体重有增加趋势;剖宫产率处于较高水平;不同出生体重新生儿出生方式存在差异,出生体重大于4 000 g和出生体重3 500 ~4 000 g的新生儿组剖宫产率高于其他组.结论:胎儿体重的增长,增加了剖宫产率.重视孕妇孕期体重管理,控制新生儿出生体重,可作为降低剖宫产率的措施之一.%Objective: To explore the relationship between change trend of neonatal birth weight and delivery modes from 2002 to 2010. Methods; The birth weights and delivery modes of 104 234 neonates from the main urban area of Chongqing city from 2002 to 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. The change trend of neonatal birth weight and its relationship with delivery modes were compared. Results; From 2002 to 2010, the average birth weight of the neonates in main urban area of Chongqing city showed an increasing trend; the rate of ce-sarean section was high; there was significant difference in the delivery modes among the neonates with different birth weights, the rates of cesarean section in birth weight > 4 000 g group and 3 500 - 4 000 g group were significantly higher than those in the other groups. Conclusion: The increase of fetal weight increases the rate of cesarean section; paying more attention to maternal weight control during pregnancy and controlling neonatal birth weight can be used as measures to reduce the rate of cesarean section.

  5. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Neonatal Patients with Birth Weight Greater than 1500 g in Taiwan

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    Yi-Hsing Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To understand the characteristics, ophthalmic outcomes, and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in patients with birth weight (BW greater than 1500 g. The applicability of the ROP screening criteria to the Taiwanese population was also examined. Methods: The study included 104 eyes from 54 ROP patients who had BW greater than 1500 g from 1981 to 2008. Demographic information, disease courses, ophthalmic outcomes, and possible systemic risk factors were recorded. The infants were divided into groups of mild and severe ROP for a risk factor analysis. Results: The mean gestational age (GA of the infants was 31 ± 1.3 weeks, and the mean BW was 1675 ± 249 g. Mild ROP regressed in 94 eyes (90%, and 10 eyes (10% developed severe ROP. After various treatments, the regression rates for prethreshold or threshold ROP (n = 8 and stage 4 ROP (n = 2 were 100% and 50%, respectively. Forty-eight patients (85% had at least three associated systemic risk factors. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with an intraventricular hemorrhage were found to have an increased chance of developing severe ROP, especially those with BW greater than 1500 g (p = 0.015. There was also a significant association between patients who had severe ROP and an increased risk of having cerebral palsy (CP at 1.5 years of age (p = 0.013. Conclusion: The majority of patients with BW greater than 1500 g developed mild ROP. However, advanced ROP with poor visual outcome was also encountered in some patients.

  6. 新生儿出生体重影响因素的研究%Study on the effect factors of neonatal birth weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴涤; 杨艳芳; 关明杰; 王宗霞; 葛华

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解新生儿出生体重的影响因素,为孕期保健提供科学依据.方法:采用病例对照研究,收集母亲和新生儿资料,采用Logistic回归法分析母亲孕期状况与新生儿出生体重的关系.结果:调整主要混杂因素后,母亲文化程度高、每天看电视时间长和孕妇身高可以降低低出生体重发生的危险;睡眠质量差、孕期焦虑和收缩压高可增加低出生体重发生的危险性.结论:孕妇文化程度、身高、血压、孕期睡眠质量、情绪及看电视时问是新生儿出生体重的影响因素.%Objective: To understand the effect factors of neonatal birth weight, and provide a scientific basis for health care during pregnancy. Methods: A case - control study was used to collect the data of mothers and neonates, logistic regression method was used to analyze the relationship between pregnancy status of mothers and neonatal birth weight. Results: After adjustment for the main confounding factors, high educational level of mothers, watching TV every day for a long time and body height of pregnant women could reduce the risk of low birth weight; poor quality of sleep, anxiety during pregnancy and high systolic pressure could increase the risk of low birth weight. Conclusion: The effect factors of neonatal birth weight include educational level, body height, blood pressure, quality of sleep, emotion and TV time of pregnant women.

  7. Effects of therapeutic approach on the neonatal evolution of very low birth weight infants with patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian S.R. Sadeck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of treatment approach on the outcomes of newborns (birth weight [BW] < 1,000 g with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, from the Brazilian Neonatal Research Network (BNRN on: death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH III/IV, retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgical (ROPsur, necrotizing enterocolitis requiring surgery (NECsur, and death/BPD. METHODS: This was a multicentric cohort study, retrospective data collection, including newborns (BW < 1000 g with gestational age (GA < 33 weeks and echocardiographic diagnosis of PDA, from 16 neonatal units of the BNRN from January 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2011. Newborns who died or were transferred until the third day of life, and those with presence of congenital malformation or infection were excluded. Groups: G1 - conservative approach (without treatment, G2 - pharmacologic (indomethacin or ibuprofen, G3 - surgical ligation (independent of previous treatment. Factors analyzed: antenatal corticosteroid, cesarean section, BW, GA, 5 min. Apgar score < 4, male gender, Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension (SNAPPE II, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, late sepsis (LS, mechanical ventilation (MV, surfactant (< 2 h of life, and time of MV. Outcomes: death, O2 dependence at 36 weeks (BPD36wks, IVH III/IV, ROPsur, NECsur, and death/BPD36wks. Statistics: Student's t-test, chi-squared test, or Fisher's exact test; Odds ratio (95% CI; logistic binary regression and backward stepwise multiple regression. Software: MedCalc (Medical Calculator software, version 12.1.4.0. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: 1,097 newborns were selected and 494 newborns were included: G1 - 187 (37.8%, G2 - 205 (41.5%, and G3 - 102 (20.6%. The highest mortality was observed in G1 (51.3% and the lowest in G3 (14.7%. The highest frequencies of BPD36wks (70.6% and ROPsur were observed in G3 (23.5%. The lowest occurrence of

  8. Accelerated growth rate induced by neonatal high-protein milk formula is not supported by increased tissue protein synthesis in low-birth-weight piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Agnès Jamin; Bernard Sève; Jean-Noël Thibault; Nathalie Floc’h

    2012-01-01

    Low-birth-weight neonates are routinely fed a high-protein formula to promote catch-up growth and antibiotics are usually associated to prevent infection. Yet the effects of such practices on tissue protein metabolism are unknown. Baby pigs were fed from age 2 to 7 or 28 d with high protein formula with or without amoxicillin supplementation, in parallel with normal protein formula, to determine tissue protein metabolism modifications. Feeding high protein formula increased growth rate betwee...

  9. Unique risks of red blood cell transfusions in very-low-birth-weight neonates: associations between early transfusion and intraventricular hemorrhage and between late transfusion and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Robert D; Baer, Vickie L; Del Vecchio, Antonio; Henry, Erick

    2013-10-01

    Red blood cell transfusions can be life-saving for neonates with severe anemia or active hemorrhage. However, risks of transfusions exist and should always be weighed against potential benefits. At least two transfusion risks are unique to very low birth weight neonates. The first is an association between transfusions given in the first days after birth and the subsequent occurrence of a grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage. The second is an association between "late" RBC transfusions and the subsequent occurrence of necrotizing enterocolitis. Much remains to be discovered about the pathogenesis of these two outcomes. Moreover, work is needed to clearly establish whether transfusions are causatively-associated with these outcomes or are co-variables. This review will provide basic data establishing these associations and propose mechanistic explanations.

  10. Clinical Indicators of Late-Onset Sepsis Workup in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anirudha; Shukla, Sonia; Rahman, Nazia; Gunzler, Douglas; Abughali, Nazha

    2016-07-01

    Background Late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Objectives To determine the incidence of LOS workup, association, and predictive value of clinical indicators leading to culture-positive versus culture-negative sepsis workup. Methods All sepsis workups performed after 7 days of life, in neonates with birth weight of birth weight, corrected gestational age, and chronological age, at the time of workup. The clinical indicators leading to the performance of sepsis workup were compared between cases and controls. Results The incidence of culture-positive workup was 87/345 (25.2%) and that of LOS was 84/279 (30.1%). Among various clinical indicators, hypothermia and apnea were significantly associated with culture-positive sepsis workup (p = 0.015 and 0.004, respectively), with a positive predictive value of 81.2 and 71.4%, respectively. Conclusion In VLBW infants, one-fourth of sepsis workups resulted in a positive culture. Apnea and hypothermia were the most significant predictors of culture-positive workup after matching for GA, birth weight, chronological age, and corrected GA at the time of the workup.

  11. Consequences of a low litter birth weight phenotype for postnatal lean growth performance and neonatal testicular morphology in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, M N; Spencer, J D; Almeida, F R C L; Patterson, J L; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Dyck, M K; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-10-01

    The consequences of a low litter average birth weight phenotype for postnatal growth performance and carcass quality of all progeny, and testicular development in male offspring, were investigated. Using data from 25 sows with one, and 223 sows with two consecutive farrowing events, individual birth weight (BW) was measured and each litter between 9 and 16 total pigs born was classified as low (LBW), medium (MBW) or high (HBW) birth weight: low and high BW being defined as >1 standard deviation below or above, respectively, the population mean for each litter size. Litter average BW was repeatable within sows. At castration, testicular tissue was collected from 40 male pigs in LBW and HBW litters with individual BW close to their litter average BW and used for histomorphometric analysis. LBW piglets had a lower absolute number of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells in their testes and a higher brain : testis weight ratio than HBW piglets. Overall, LBW litters had lower placental weight and higher brain : liver, brain : intestine and brain : Semitendinosus muscle weight ratios than MBW and HBW litters. In the nursery and grow-finish (GF) phase, pigs were kept in pens by BW classification (9 HBW, 17 MBW and 10 LBW pens) with 13 males and 13 females per pen. Average daily gain tended to be lower in LBW than HBW litters in lactation (P = 0.06) and throughout the nursery and GF phases (P weight between LBW, MBW and HBW litters (P weight was similar between BW classifications; however, LBW litters needed 9 more days to reach the same slaughter weight than HBW litters (P < 0.001). BW classification did not affect carcass composition traits. In conclusion, LBW litters showed benchmarks of intrauterine growth retardation, LBW had a negative impact on testicular development and germ and somatic cell populations, and was associated with decreased postnatal growth during all phases of production; however, no measurable effect on carcass composition traits was

  12. Study on the factors influencing birth weight of 307 neonates%307例新生儿出生体重影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英惠; 曹文成; 罗彦; 陈海霞; 鲁文清

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查影响新生儿出生体重的因素、为孕期保健提供科学依据.方法 选择2011年07月01日至2011年11月30日期间在武汉市某医院分娩的单胎活产的307例产妇为研究对象,对其进行面对面问卷调查,用广义线性回归分析探讨影响新生儿出生体重的因素.结果 新生儿出生体重男婴高于女婴(β=101.046,P<0.01);孕期染发和孕期患病可能导致出生体重降低(β=- 371.481,P<0.05;β=-94.053,P<0.01);母亲产前体质指数增加和母亲孕前少量饮酒可能导致新生儿出生体重增加(β=20.020,P<0.01;β=357.844,P<0.05).结论 新生儿性别、母亲孕期染发、孕期患病情况、产前体质指数和饮酒情况均为新生儿出生体重的影响因素.%Objective To investigate the factors influencing neonatal birth weight,and provide basis for health care during pregnancy. Methods A total of 307 parturients who delivered a live-bom singleton infant from July 1st,2011 to November 30 at,2011 in one hospital of Wuhan were selected as study objects,and each of them completed a face to face interview. General linear regression analysis was applied to find factors influencing neonatal birth weight. Results Male new-boms were heavier than that of female (p = 101. 046, P<0.05;^= -94. 053, P< 0.01). There was positive correlation between antenatal body mass index, small amounts of alcohol drinking before pregnancy with birth weight ( p = 20. 020, P < 0.01; ?= 357. 844, P<0.05). Conclusions The neonatal sex,hair coloring and illness during pregnancy,antenatal body mass index and alcohol drinking may be the factors influencing neonatal birth weight.

  13. Mid-gestational serum uric acid concentration effect on neonate birth weight and insulin resistance in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Nasri, Khadijeh; Razavi, Maryamsadat; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Esmat; Chehrei, Ali; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between mid-gestational serum uric acid and birth weight in diabetic pregnant women with or without insulin resistance. Methods: In a prospective cohort study, fasting uric acid, blood glucose, and serum insulin were measured in 247 pregnant women between 20-22 weeks of gestational period. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Stratification analysis and independent t-test was used to ass...

  14. 极低和超低出生体重儿败血症临床分析%Analysis of clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities in very low birth weight infants and extremely low birth weight infants with neonatal sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林素; 吴百威; 王能里; 刘花兰; 胡淑英; 林振浪

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解极低和超低出生体重儿败血症临床特点、病原菌分布及药物敏感情况,以指导临床合理用药.方法 对1999年1月1日至2008年12月31日温州医学院附属育英儿童医院新生儿重症监护病房收治的56例极低和超低出生体重儿败血症(早发型败血症3例,晚发型败血症53例)临床特点、血培养结果及药物敏感情况进行回顾性分析.结果 极低和超低出生体重儿败血症临床表现无特征性.血培养结果阳性43例,以条件致病菌为主,其中新生儿早发型败血症血培养阳性1例.为脑膜炎败血黄杆菌;新生儿晚发型败血症血培养病原菌中,革兰阴性细菌主要是肺炎克雷伯菌(33.3%,14/42);革兰阳性细菌以凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌为首(26.2%,11/42),其次是肠球菌(11.9%,5/42);另有真菌感染2例,为白念珠菌败血症(4.8%,2/42).药物敏感试验方面,所有凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌均为耐苯唑西林凝同酶阴性葡萄球菌,对大部分β-内酰胺类抗生素耐药,对林可霉素、氨基糖苷类、大环内酯类及喹诺酮类抗生素亦不敏感,但对万古霉素未发现耐药,对利福平均敏感;所有肺炎克雷伯菌均产超广谱β-内酰胺酶,仅对碳青霉烯类、氨基糖苷类以及喹诺酮类等少数抗生素敏感.56例败血症患儿治愈43例,死亡13例(包括6例病情恶化放弃治疗),病死率为23.2%.结论极低和超低出生体重儿败血症临床表现缺乏特异性,病原菌主要为条件致病菌,并存在多重耐药,对可疑败血症患儿应及时行病原学检查及药物敏感试验,合理选择抗生素.为减少多重耐药菌感染的发生,应正确合理使用第三代头孢菌素.%Objective To review the basic clinical characteristics and the pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities to neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) and extremely low birth weight infants ( ELBWI) for selection of appropriate antibiotics. Methods A

  15. Analysis of factors affecting the neonatal birth weight%影响新生儿出生体质量的多因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易礼兰; 张宝林; 韩琦; 刘嘉琦; 陈兰; 刘学芹

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解新生儿出生体质量的影响因素。方法采取随机整群抽样方法收集北京、哈尔滨、长沙及广州4个城市5539例单胎活产新生儿出生体质量及相关数据,运用单因素分析及多元Logistic回归分析,筛选新生儿出生体质量的影响因素。结果单因素分析显示,新生儿性别和胎龄,母亲产次、年龄、妊娠前体质指数(BMI)、孕期增加体质量、文化程度和职业8个因素对新生儿出生体质量有影响。采用Logistic回归分析发现,胎儿为男性(OR=2.13)、母亲年龄≥25岁(OR=3.30)、母亲妊娠前BMI≥24.0 kg/m2(OR=3.77)、母亲孕期体质量增加≥12.5 kg(OR=1.64)为巨大儿发生的危险因素;而母亲妊娠前BMI<18.5 kg/m2(OR=2.25)、早产(OR=16.43)是低出生体质量儿发生的危险因素。结论早产、孕期体质量增加过多、母亲孕前BMI偏高或偏低是导致异常出生体质量发生的主要因素。%Objectives To investigate factors affecting neonate birth weight. Methods Random cluster sampling method was adopted to investigate the physical development of 5539 single live newborns in Beijing, Harbin, Changsha, and Guang-zhou. Single factor analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to find the factors influencing neonate birth weight. Re-sults Single factor analysis showed that neonatal sex, gestational age, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, mother's education and occupation have effects on neonatal birth weight. Risk factors for macrosomia, including male fetus, maternal age≥25 years before pregnancy, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI≥24 kg/m2, gestational weight gain greater than 12.5 kg, and preterm delivery and maternal pre-pregnant BMI<18.5 kg/m2 are the risk factors of low birth weight. Conclu-sions Premature, excessive weight gain during pregnancy, high or low maternal pre-pregnancy BMI are main factors that caused abnormal body mass in

  16. Association of late-onset neonatal sepsis with late neurodevelopment in the first two years of life of preterm infants with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Hentges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the influence of late-onset sepsis on neurodevelopment of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, according to the etiologic agent METHOD: This was a cohort of newborns with birth weight < 1,500 g and gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to the institutional intensive care unit (ICU with up to 48 hours of life, and followed-up at the outpatient follow-up clinic for preterm infants with VLBW until 2 years of corrected age. Exclusion criteria: death within the first 72 hours of life, congenital malformations and genetic syndromes, children with congenital infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, congenital infection (STORCH, presence of early-onset spesis and cases with more than one pathogen growth in blood cultures. Septic and non-septic infants were compared regarding neonatal outcomes and mortality. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale (BSDI-II at 18 to 24 months of corrected age. RESULTS: 411 preterm infants with VLBW were eligible; the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,041 ± 281grams. Late-onset sepsis occurred in 94 preterm infants with VLBW (22.8%. VLBW infants with Gram-positive infection showed motor deficit when compared to the non-septic group, 68.8% vs. 29.3%, respectively (OR 6; 1.6-21.8, p = 0.006; the cognitive development was similar between the groups. The overall mortality rate from infection was 26.7%; considering the pathogens, the rates were 18.7% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 21.8% for Gram-positive bacteria, and 50% for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. CONCLUSION: Neonatal sepsis has a significant influence on late neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants with VLBW, and Gram-positive infections are associated with motor deficit.

  17. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  18. [Consequences of the composition of human milk for the nutrition of low-birth-weight neonates. III. Sodium and potassium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, G; Springer, S

    1990-12-01

    The concentrations of sodium and potassium were studied in the 24 hour pooled human milk of 37 mothers delivered preterm (PTM) and of 19 mothers delivered at term (TM) from the second to the eighth postnatal day and in addition in the PTM during the third week of lactation. During the 4th week of life the sodium balance was estimated in 31 very low birth weight infants fed a human milk formula enriched with NaCl (n = 11) or NaH2PO4 (n = 11) and in 9 infants fed the same formula without supplementary sodium. The concentrations of sodium decrease significantly during the first week of lactation. The values are significantly higher in PTM than in TM during the first 3 days but decrease in both milks to values between 1 and 2 mmol/100 ml. The concentrations of potassium increase up to the 4th day of lactation and fall to approximately 1.5 mmol/100 ml at the end of the first week of lactation. There are no differences between PTM and TM. In all three balance groups the sodium balance are positive. But only in the infants fed a sodium-supplemented human milk formula the weight gain was adequate according to the protein and caloric intakes. No signs of a pathological sodium retention could be observed during the balance period. The data suggest that a sodium intake of more than 2.5 mmol/kg/day is necessary for optimal growth. Thus, the phosphorus supplementation should be done generally as 1 mmol NaH2PO4/100 ml human milk in very low birth weight infants.

  19. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  20. Sepse neonatal como fator de risco para leucomalácia periventricular em pré-termos de muito baixo peso Periventricular leukomalacia in very low birth weight preterm neonates with high risk for neonatal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Silveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação de leucomalácia periventricular (LPV e sepse neonatal em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso (RNMBP. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos RNMBP com suspeita clínica de infecção nascidos na instituição de 01/08/2005 a 31/07/2007. Foram excluídos óbitos antes dos 14 dias, malformações do sistema nervoso central e infecções congênitas. Foi realizado ultra-som cerebral no terceiro dia e semanalmente até a sexta semana de vida ou alta. LPV foi diagnosticada por hiperecogenicidade difusa periventricular persistente por mais de 7 dias, ou por cistos periventriculares. RNMBP foram divididos em grupos com e sem LPV. Sepse foi definida por manifestação clínica com cultura positiva. Os testes t, Mann-Whitney, qui-quadrado e regressão logística foram usados. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 88 RNMBP, sendo que 62 (70,5% sobreviveram e 51 (57,8% tiveram LPV. Os grupos foram semelhantes no peso de nascimento, idade gestacional, escore de Apgar, tipo de parto, SNAPPE-II, presenças de enterocolite necrosante, persistência de canal arterial e óbitos. Sepse e ventilação mecânica foram mais freqüentes no grupo com LPV (23,5 e 2,7%, p = 0,005; 86 e 59%, p = 0,004, respectivamente. Na regressão logística, ambos foram fatores de risco independentes para LPV (p = 0,027 e 0,015, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Corioamnionite é fator de risco definido para LPV. Demonstramos que sepse neonatal também é fator de risco importante. Acreditamos que a resposta inflamatória sistêmica seja o principal fator envolvido na etiopatogenia da LPV em RNMBP.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between periventricular leukomalacia (PVL and neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI. METHODS: We studied VLBWI with a clinical suspicion of infection who had been born at our institution between the 1st of August, 2005 and the 31st of July, 2007. Children were excluded if they died before reaching 14 days, had malformations

  1. Treatment of neonatal fungal infective endocarditis with recombinant tissue plasminogen: activator in a low birth weight infant case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Aslan; Cebeci, Burcu; Buyukkale, Gokhan; Semerci, Seda Yılmaz; Bornaun, Helen; Oztarhan, Kazim; Gokce, Muge; Cetinkaya, Merih

    2015-10-01

    With advances in medical sciences, an increase in survival rates of low birth weight; increased incidence in use of catheter and antibiotics, and total parenteral nutrition are reported, therefore, the rate of fungal infections in late and very late onset neonatal sepsis have increased. Although fungal endocarditis rarely occur in newborns, it has a high morbidity and mortality. Antifungal therapy is often insufficient in cases who develop fungal endocarditis and surgical treatment is not preferred due to its difficulty and high mortality. Herein, fungal endocarditis in a preterm newborn treated with single-dose recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in addition to antifungal therapy is presented and relevant literature has been reviewed. The vegetation completely disappeared following treatment and no complication was observed.

  2. Development of left ventricular longitudinal speckle tracking echocardiography in very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia during the neonatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czernik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In preterm infants, postnatal myocardial adaptation may be complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We aimed to describe the development of left ventricular function by serial 2D, Doppler, and speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE in infants with and without BPD during the neonatal period and compare these to anthropometric and conventional hemodynamic parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective echocardiography on day of life (DOL 1, 7, 14, and 28 in 119 preterm infants 10% were seen for the apical segment. While anthropometric parameters show rapid development during the first 4 weeks of life, the speckle tracking parameters did not differ statistically significantly during the neonatal period. Infants with and without BPD differed significantly (p<0.001 in the development of anthropometric parameters, conventional hemodynamic parameters except for heart rate, and 2D-STE parameters: global longitudinal systolic strain rate (GLSSR and longitudinal systolic strain for the mid left wall (LSSR. The largest differences were seen at DOL 1 and 7 in GLSSR (p<0.001 and in LSSR (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Reproducible 2D-STE measurements are possible in preterm infants <1500 g. Cardiac deformation reveals early (DOL 1 and 7 ventricular changes (GLSSR and LSSR in very low birth weight infants who develop BPD.

  3. 新生儿血清瘦素与出生体重关系的研究%Relation of serum leptin to birth weight in neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕梅

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究早产和足月新生儿血清瘦素与出生体重的关系.方法 共收集143例早产和足月新生儿,按胎龄进行分组,并进行出生测量,于生后第3天检测瘦素水平.结果 足月儿血清瘦素浓度显著高于早产儿,瘦素浓度与胎龄的关系按非线性模式增加,胎龄34周以后,瘦素浓度增加明显加快;胎龄32周后血清瘦素浓度与出生体重呈正相关关系.结论 胎龄>32周的新生儿体内可能已开始存在脂肪-胰岛素内分泌轴.%Objective To investigate the relate of leptin to birth weight in preterm and term neonates. Methods A total of 143 preterm and term newborns were recruited and categorised according to gestation length. Anthropemetric measurements were performed at birth, leptin were measured at 3 days of life. Results Serum leptin was significantly higher in term than in preterm,the relation between serum leptin and gestation followed a non -linear pattern; the slope of the curve began to increase after 34 weeks gestation, serum leptin was associated with birth weight in newborn more than 32 weeks gestation. Conclusion Adipoinsular axis might exist in newborn more than 32 weeks gestation.

  4. Neonatal sepsis and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants in Matanzas, Cuba 2006-2010: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rogelio Robaina Castellanos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN La sepsis neonatal se ha asociado a peor resultado del neurodesarrollo en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso. En Cuba se desconoce el impacto de la sepsis neonatal en el neurodesarrollo de los recién nacidos de muy bajo peso, egresados de sus unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. OBJETIVO Determinar el impacto de la sepsis neonatal como factor de riesgo de alteraciones del neurodesarrollo en una población de recién nacidos cubanos de muy bajo peso. MÉTODOS Se realizó un estudio de cohorte con 89 neonatos con peso al nacer 15 mg/dl (odds ratio 4,0; IC 95%: 1,1-14,3; p=0,03. CONCLUSIONES La sepsis neonatal debe considerarse como una causa importante, dentro de los múltiples eventos causales, de daño cerebral en el recién nacido pretérmino.

  5. The effects of music on the selected stress behaviors, weight, caloric and formula intake, and length of hospital stay of premature and low birth weight neonates in a newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, J

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music on selected stress behaviors, weight, caloric and formula intake, and length of hospital stay. Subjects were 52 preterm and low birth weight newborns in a newborn intensive care unit (NBICU) who were in stable condition and restricted to isolettes. Subjects in the experimental and control groups were matched for equivalency based on sex, birth weight, and diagnostic criticality. Eleven males and 15 females were assigned to the control group and received routine auditory stimulation. The experimental group of 11 males and 15 females received music stimulation, which consisted of approximately 60 minutes of tape recorded vocal music, including lullabies and children's music, and routine auditory stimulation. Thirty-minute segments of the recording were played alternatively with 30 minutes of routine auditory stimulation three times daily. Exposure to music stimulation occurred only during the infants' stay in the NBICU. Results suggest music stimulation may have significantly reduced initial weight loss, increased daily average weight, increased formula and caloric intake, significantly reduced length of the NBICU and total hospital stays, and significantly reduced the daily group mean of stress behaviors for the experimental group. Data analyses suggest the length of hospital stay may be correlated with the amount of stress experienced by the neonate and not with weight gains. Theoretical and practical aspects of these results are discussed.

  6. Neonatal near miss in the Birth in Brazil survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Leite, Alvaro Jorge Madeiro; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2014-08-01

    This study used data from the Birth in Brazil survey, a nationwide hospital-based study of 24,197 postpartum women and their newborns, collected between February 2011 and July 2012. A three-stage cluster sampling design (hospitals, days, women) was used consisting of stratification by geographic region, type of municipality (capital or non-capital), and type of hospital financing. Logistic regression was used to identify variables that were potential predictors of neonatal mortality and neonatal near miss indicators. After testing nineteen variables, five were chosen to compose a set of neonatal near miss indicators (birth weight of less than 1,500 g, Apgar score of less than 7 in the 5th minute of life, use of mechanical ventilation, gestational age of less than 32 weeks and congenital malformations). The neonatal near miss rate in the Birth in Brazil survey was 39.2 per thousand live births, three and a half times higher than the neonatal mortality rate (11.1 per thousand). These neonatal near miss indicators were able to identify situations with a high risk of neonatal death.

  7. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation associated with a cluster of deaths and poor early growth in a randomised trial among low-birth-weight boys of vitamin A versus oral polio vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of oral polio vaccine administered already at birth (OPV0) on child survival was not examined before being recommended in 1985. Observational data suggested that OPV0 was harmful for boys, and trials have shown that neonatal vitamin A supplementation (NVAS) at birth may...

  8. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  9. Clinical outcome of neonatal bacterial meningitis according to birth weight Evolução clínica da meningite bacteriana neonatal de acordo com o peso de nascimento

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    Vera Lúcia Jornada Krebs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical outcome and the complications of bacterial meningitis according to birth weight of out born neonates admitted in intensive care unit during an 11 year-period. METHOD: Eighty-seven newborns were studied. Thirty-four infants were low birth weight newborn and 53 presented birth weight > " 2500 g. The clinical data were obtained through the analysis of patients’ files. Fisher’s exact test, the c² and the Mann-Whitney test were applied. RESULTS: Neurological symptoms were more common in infants weighed > " 2500 g (pOBJETIVO: Descrever a evolução clínica e as complicações da meningite bacteriana de acordo com o peso de nascimento em recém-nascidos admitidos em unidade de terapia intensiva externa durante o período de 11 anos. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 87 neonatos, dos quais 34 foram recém-nascidos de baixo peso e 53 apresentaram peso > " 2500 g. Os dados clínicos foram obtidos por análise dos prontuários médicos. Foram realizados teste exato de Fisher, teste do c² e teste de Mann-Whitney. RESULTADOS: Os sintomas neurológicos foram mais comuns em neonatos com peso > " 2500 g (p<0,05 . As complicações ocorreram na metade dos casos em ambos os grupos, com mortalidade global de 11.5%. CONCLUSÃO: A freqüência de complicações foi alta em ambos os grupos, independentemente do peso de nascimento. Não houve associação entre óbito e peso de nascimento. Os neonatos com cultura de líquor positiva apresentaram pior prognóstico.

  10. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  11. Maternal factors influencing neonatal birth weight in placenta previa%前置胎盘患者新生儿出生体重的影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单虹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨前置胎盘患者新生儿出生体重的影响因素。方法回顾性分析2011年1月至2014年12月响水县人民医院住院分娩的单胎妊娠前置胎盘60例患者的临床资料。前置胎盘患者作为研究组,同期无胎盘异常的单胎妊娠产妇60例为对照组。分析前置胎盘患者新生儿出生体重的影响因素。结果研究组新生儿出生体重低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。研究组早产发生率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论前置胎盘患者分娩的新生儿出生体重较低,前置胎盘对新生儿出生体重的影响主要是由于早产的发生率升高。在前置胎盘患者,随分娩时孕周的增加,新生儿出生体重增加。%Objective To evaluate maternal factors influencing neonatal birth weight in placenta previa .Methods During the study period from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014, 60 singleton pregnancy women with placenta previa hospitalized in The People’ s Hospital of Xiangshui County were selected as study objects;60 singleton pregnancy women without placenta previa were randomly selected as control group.The characteristics of pregnant women and the birth weight of neonates were evaluated restrospctively .Statistical analysis using regression models was performed to analyzed the influence factors on neonatal weight in placenta previa .Results Neonates born after a pregnancy complicated with placenta previa had significantly lower birth weight ( P<0.05 ) .Women with placenta previa had higher incidence of preterm delivery (P<0.05).Conclusion Placenta previa is associated with low neonatal birth weight , and this association is chiefly due to preterm delivery .With the increase of gestational age , the neonatal birth weight increases accordingly in placenta previa .

  12. Escore CRIB, peso ao nascer e idade gestacional na avaliação do risco de mortalidade neonatal CRIB score, birth weight and gestational age in neonatal mortality risk evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sara J de Brito

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a mortalidade dos recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso em uma UTI neonatal conforme as variações do escore CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies, do peso de nascimento e da idade gestacional em determinado período. MÉTODOS: O escore CRIB foi aplicado seqüencial e prospectivamente em todos os recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento 10 (79,4%. A curva ROC (Receiver Operator Characteristic para os valores de CRIB, peso de nascimento e idade gestacional gerou áreas sob a curva de 0,88, 0,76 e 0,81, respectivamente. Na análise bivariada, o CRIB, peso e idade gestacional mostraram-se preditores de mortalidade, sendo o escore CRIB>4 o de melhor resultado com sensibilidade de 75,8%, especificidade de 86,7%, valor preditivo positivo de 63,3% e valor preditivo negativo de 92,2%. CONCLUSÕES: Os recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento 10 tiveram maiores taxas de mortalidade, sendo o escore CRIB>4 o que representou melhor poder preditivo quando comparado com peso ao nascer e idade gestacional.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mortality rate of very low birth weight babies born at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU during a specified period of time according to variations in CRIB (Clinical Risk Index for Babies score, birth weight and gestational age. METHODS: From January 1997 to December 2000, the CRIB score was prospectively applied to all newborn infants admitted to the NICU of an university hospital of Londrina, Brazil, with birthweight under 1,500 g and/or gestational age of less than 31 weeks. The exclusion criteria were: death before 12 hours of life, presence of lethal congenital malformations and newborns who had been referred from other hospital. RESULTS: Two hundred and eighty-four infants met the inclusion criteria. Mean birth weight was 1,148±248 g (median =1,180, mean gestational age was 30.2±2.4 weeks (median =30.0 and mean CRIB score was 3.8±4.4 (median =2.0. The neonatal mortality rate was 23.2%, varying according to mean

  13. Intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants: associated risk factors and outcome in the neonatal period Hemorragia intracranianana: evolução dos recém-nascidos de baixo peso no período neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Catache Mancini

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is a severe complication in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns (NB. With the purpose of studying the incidence of IVH, the associated risk factors, and the outcomes for these neonates, we studied all the VLBW infants born in our neonatal unit. Birth weight, gestational age, presence of perinatal asphyxia, mechanical ventilation, length of hospitalization, apnea crisis, hydrocephalus, and periventricular leukomalacia were analyzed. The diagnosis of IVH was based on ultrasound scan studies (Papile's classification performed until the tenth day of life and repeated weekly in the presence of abnormalities. Sixty-seven/101 neonates were studied. The mortality rate was 30.6% (31/101 and the incidence of IVH was 29.8% (20/67 : 70% grade I, 20% grade III and 10% grade IV. The incidence of IVH in NB A hemorragia intracraniana constituí uma grave complicação na evolução dos recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso (RN-MBP no período neonatal. Realizou-se este estudo, incluindo os recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso admitidos no Berçário Anexo à Maternidade do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, com o objetivo de determinar a incidência de hemorragia intracraniana (HIC, os fatores de risco associados e sua evolução no período neonatal. Foram analisados o peso de nascimento, idade gestacional, presença de asfixia neonatal, uso de ventilação mecânica, tempo de internação, presença de episódios de apnéia, hidrocefalia e leucoencefalomalácia. O diagnóstico de HIC baseou-se no exame ultra-sonográfico realizado até o décimo dia de vida, de acordo com a classificação de Papille. Foram admitidos no período 101 RN-MBP, dos quais 67 preencheram aos critérios de inclusão. A taxa de mortalidade do período foi de 30,6% (31/101 e a incidência de HIC foi de 29,8% (20/67, sendo 70% grau I, 20 grau II e 10% grau IV. A incidência de HIC em recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento menos do que 1000g foi de 53,8% (p

  14. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

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    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  15. Maternal low protein diet reduces birth weight and increases brown adipose tissue UCP-1 and FNDC5 gene expression in male neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  16. 新生儿出生体重与NICU医院感染相关性研究%STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEONATAL BIRTH WEIGHT AND NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION IN NICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓丽; 王书会; 李新征; 董荣芝; 王晖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between neonatal birth weight and nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) , and provide basis for the effective prevention. Methods Retrospective and prospective methods were used to survey all the infants discharged from NICU in the hospital in 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010. Results Of the 4 811 infants discharged from NICU during the four years, 101 infants suffered from nosocomial infection on 106 cases, with the nosocomial infection rate of 2. 10% and the infection case - rate of 2. 20% . When the neonate's birth weight was less than 1 000 g, the daily infection rate of them was 5. 43%. And the daily infection rate of neonate with birth weight more than 2500g was 1. 65%. Conclusion The lower birth weight of neonate, the higher incidence of nosocomial infection. Low birth weight infants are population with high - risk of nosocomial infection.%目的 研究新生儿出生体重与新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)医院感染的关系,为有效防控提供依据.方法 采用回顾性和前瞻性相结合调查方式,对2007-2008年度与2009-2010年度该医院NICU所有出院新生儿分段进行调查.结果 该医院NICU在4年内,共监测4 811例出院新生儿,发生医院感染101例、106例次,新生儿医院感染率为2.10%、例次感染率为2.20%.新生儿出生体重≤1 000 g,日感染发生率为5.43‰;出生体重≥2500g,日感染发生率为1.65‰.结论 新生儿出生体重越低,医院感染发生率越高,低出生体重儿是医院感染的高危人群.

  17. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    displayed high levels of activated T cells and mucosal IL-12p70, TNF-α, IL-13, IL-10, and IL-2; and winter newborns had the highest levels of innate immune cells, IL-5, type 17-related immune mediators, and activated T cells. Birth season fluctuations seem to affect neonatal immune development and result...

  18. Neonatal cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis in a preterm extremely-low-birth-weight infant with favourable outcome at 3-year follow-up: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, P; Rizzollo, S; Monetti, C; Carbonara, C; Priolo, C; Mastretta, E; Barberis, L; Galletto, P; Cigna, P; Leonessa, M L; Sala, U; Gomirato, G; Mostert, M; Stronati, M; Ruffinazzi, G; Tzialla, C; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Kaguelidou, F; Farina, D

    2012-05-01

    Invasive disseminated neonatal aspergillosis is an uncommon disease, with only scattered reports in literature in the last few years. Here we report on a 25-week gestational age, 730 g at birth preterm female infant who developed on day-of-life 10 multiple cutaneous exhulcerative lesions in her right arm, trunk and abdomen. Early recognition and diagnosis of these lesions as a due to cutaneous initial symptom of cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis, as well as prompt treatment with Liposomal amphotericin B + Itraconazole, secured successful recovery from the systemic infection. Skin lesions healed without any surgical treatment. The infant was discharged in good health. Long-term follow-up at three years of age revealed normality of all neurodevelopmental and cognitive parameters. To our knowledge, this is one of the very few cases of survival, free from sequelae, for a preterm infant affected by neonatal cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis.

  19. A retrospective epidemiological analysis on birth weight of neonates and its risk factors in Nanjing city%南京市新生儿出生体重的回顾性流行病学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方亮; 张竹繁; 刘启兰; 虞项; 沈冲

    2012-01-01

    the questionnaire survey. The information of maternal age, weight,educational level,gestational age,gravidity and neonatal birth weight etc. Were collected according to the maternal health card provided by local maternity and child care center. Results :① The average birth weight of the neonates in Nanjing in the year 2002-2004 was 3 373.76 ± 466.23 g. The incidence rate of low birth weight was 1.4% and that of macrosomia was 6.8%. ② The average birth weight and height of the neonates in Xuanwu district(3 505.71 ± 541.92 g,49.69 ± 3.37 cm) were significantly higher than those in Luhe district (3 293.09 ± 392.01 g,48.63 ± 2.70 cm) (P < 0.05). The birth weights of male were significantly higher than those of female in Xuanwu and Luhe districts,respectively (both P < 0.001). ③The birth weight of the neonates of 2004 was significantly higher than that of 2003, and the birth weight of female of 2003 was lower than that of 2002 (P < 0.05) in Xuanwu district,whereas no statistical differences of birth weight was found between the years of 2002,2003 and 2004. ④ With the increase of gestational age,birth weights of the neonates elevated significantly in different districts and different gender(P< 0.01). Additionally, birth weights of female linearly increased with the increase of pregnancy age (F= 3.887,P< 0.01). Conclusion; The results suggest that there were significant rural-urban difference and sex difference for birth weight in Nanjing City. Birth weight arises significantly with the increase of gestational age and pregnancy age.

  20. Epidemic microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis in very-low-birth weight infants: experience of the German Neonatal Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Härtel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We evaluated blood culture-proven sepsis episodes occurring in microclusters in very-low-birth-weight infants born in the German Neonatal Network (GNN during 2009-2010. METHODS: Thirty-seven centers participated in GNN; 23 centers enrolled ≥50 VLBW infants in the study period. Data quality was approved by on-site monitoring. Microclusters of sepsis were defined as occurrence of at least two blood-culture proven sepsis events in different patients of one center within 3 months with the same bacterial species. For microcluster analysis, we selected sepsis episodes with typically cross-transmitted bacteria of high clinical significance including gram-negative rods and Enterococcus spp. RESULTS: In our cohort, 12/2110 (0.6% infants were documented with an early-onset sepsis and 235 late-onset sepsis episodes (≥72 h of age occurred in 203/2110 (9.6% VLBW infants. In 182/235 (77.4% late-onset sepsis episodes gram-positive bacteria were documented, while coagulase negative staphylococci were found to be the most predominant pathogens (48.5%, 95%CI: 42.01-55.01. Candida spp. and gram-negative bacilli caused 10/235 (4.3%, 95%CI: 1.68% -6.83% and 43/235 (18.5% late-onset sepsis episodes, respectively. Eleven microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis were detected in 7 hospitals involving a total 26 infants. 16/26 cluster patients suffered from Klebsiella spp. sepsis. The median time interval between the first patient's Klebsiella spp. sepsis and cluster cases was 14.1 days (interquartile range: 1-27 days. First patients in the cluster, their linked cases and sporadic sepsis events did not show significant differences in short term outcome parameters. DISCUSSION: Microclusters of infection are an important phenomenon for late-onset sepsis. Most gram-negative cluster infections occur within 30 days after the first patient was diagnosed and Klebsiella spp. play a major role. It is essential to monitor epidemic microclusters of sepsis in

  1. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  2. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  3. The piglet's behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  4. A randomised controlled trial of early insulin therapy in very low birth weight infants, "NIRTURE" (neonatal insulin replacement therapy in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornette Luc

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in adult intensive care have highlighted the importance of insulin and improved glucose control on survival, with 32% reduction in mortality, 22% reduction in intensive care stay and halving of the incidence of bacteraemia. Very low birth weight infants requiring intensive care also have relative insulin deficiency often leading to hyperglycaemia during the first week of life. The physiological influences on insulin secretion and sensitivity, and the potential importance of glucose control at this time are not well established. However there is increasing evidence that the early postnatal period is critical for pancreatic development. At this time a complex set of signals appears to influence pancreatic development and β cell survival. This has implications both in terms of acute glucose control but also relative insulin deficiency is likely to play a role in poor postnatal growth, which has been associated with later motor and cognitive impairment, and fewer β cells are linked to risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. Methods A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of early insulin replacement in very low birth weight babies (VLBW, birth weight Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78428828. EUDRACT Number 2004-002170-34

  5. Hearing loss in low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, D; Petmezakis, J; Papazissis, G; Messaritakis, J; Matsaniotis, N

    1982-07-01

    The hearing of 98 perinatal intensive care survivors with a mean birth weight of 1,540 g was assessed at a mean age of 6 1/2 years. They represented 73% of the long-term survivors with birth weights of 1,800 g or less who had been cared for in our neonatal unit during the three-year period 1971 through 1973. Nine of the 98 infants had sensorineural hearing loss, and 14 had exudative otitis media. During their neonatal period, the infants with hearing loss experienced more frequent apneic attacks, hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin level, greater than 14 mg/dL), and hypothermia compared with their healthy counterparts. There was no evidence that the duration of stay in the incubator or the use of stay in the incubator or the use of ototoxic drugs had affected the hearing of these low-birth-weight infants.

  6. Anthropometric surrogates for screening of low birth weight newborns: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Prasuna, J G; Taneja, D K

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries, where about 75% of births occur at home or in the community, logistic problems prevent the weighing of every newborn child. This study compares various anthropometric surrogates for identification of low birth weight neonates. A longitudinal community based study was done in an urban resettlement colony and 283 singleton neonates within 7 days of birth were examined for the anthropometric measurements such as head, chest, mid upper arm circumference and foot length as a screening tool for low birth weight. Chest circumference measured within 7 days of birth appeared to be the most appropriate surrogate of low birth weight with highest sensitivity (75.4%), specificity (78.4%), and positive predictive value (48.9%) as compared with other anthropometric parameters. Low birth weight neonates in absence of weighing scales can be early identified by using simple anthropometric measurements for enhanced home-based care and timely referral.

  7. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal

  8. Child Health USA 2014: Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent of infants born very preterm or at low birth weight. However, even babies born “late preterm” (34–36 weeks’ gestation) or at moderately low birth weight (1,500–2,499 grams) are more ...

  9. Fatores de risco para a mortalidade de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Factores de riesgo para la mortalidad de recién nacidos de muy bajo peso en Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal Risk factors for the mortality of very low birth weight newborns at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Almeida Carneiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores associados à mortalidade de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso internados em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de referência no Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal baseado na análise de prontuários de uma amostra aleatória de recém-nascidos admitidos em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de janeiro de 2007 a junho de 2010. Foram considerados elegíveis para o estudo recém-nascidos com peso inferior a 1500g, provenientes do bloco obstétrico da própria instituição. Foram identificadas variáveis demográficas maternas, variáveis relacionadas às condições de gestação e parto e variáveis do recém-nascido. A associação entre as variáveis foi aferida por meio do teste do qui-quadrado e Odds Ratio. As variáveis associadas até o nível de 25% (pOBJETIVO: Identificar los factores asociados a la mortalidad de recién nacidos de muy bajo peso, internados en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de referencia en el Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, basado en el análisis de prontuarios de una muestra aleatoria de recién nacidos admitidos en una Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal desde enero de 2007 hasta junio de 2010. Fueron considerados elegibles para el estudio los recién nacidos con peso inferior a 1.500g, provenientes del bloque obstétrico de la propia institución. Fueron identificadas variables demográficas maternas, variables relacionadas a las condiciones de gestación y parto y variables del recién nacido. La asociación entre las variables fue verificada por medio de la prueba de chi cuadrado y Odds Ratio. Las variables asociadas hasta el nivel de 25% (pOBJECTIVE: To identify variables associated with mortality among very low birth weight infants admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on chart data of a random sample of premature

  10. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2009-06-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  11. National neonatal weight policy survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B

    2012-02-01

    This survey was conducted to review the current practice regarding frequency of weight measurement in neonatal units in the Republic of Ireland, and whether these practices are in keeping with best practice as described in the literature. There was an 88.5% (23 of 26) response rate to this survey. 6 (26%) units had a written policy, and 16 (70%) had an unwritten agreed practice. In the Vermont Oxford Network\\'s potentially better practices daily weight measurements on newborn infants are recommended until the infant is stable and growing and then alternate day measurements The most common practices in this survey were to weigh infants on alternate days, this occurred in 9 (39%) units, and twice weekly in 6 (26%). Less than 31% of units had a separate policy for those less than 30 weeks, on assisted ventilation, or transitioning to enteral feeds. Most weigh infants on alternate days, and plot weights weekly, which is in keeping with best practice. Few units have separate policies for specific subgroups as is recommended in the limited literature. Consensus guidelines should be developed and promoted nationally.

  12. Fatores de risco para mortalidade neonatal em crianças com baixo peso ao nascer Factores de riesgo para mortalidad neonatal en niños con bajo peso al nacer Risk factors for neonatal mortality among children with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Monteiro Ribeiro

    2009-04-01

    Informaciones sobre Mortalidad, fueron integrados por la técnica de linkage. En modelo jerarquizado, las variables de los niveles distal (factores socioeconómicos, intermedio (factores de atención a la salud y proximal (factores biológicos fueron sometidas al análisis univariado y regresión logística multivariada. RESULTADOS: Con el ajuste de las variables en la regresión logística multivariada, las variables del nivel distal que permanecieron significativamente asociadas con el óbito neonatal fueron: la cohabitación de los padres, número de hijos vivos y tipo de hospital de nacimiento; en el nivel intermedio: número de consultas en el pre-natal, complejidad del hospital de nacimiento y tipo de parto; y en el nivel proximal: sexo, edad gestacional, peso al nacer, índice de Apgar y presencia de malformación congénita. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados a la mortalidad neonatal en los nacidos vivos con bajo peso están relacionados con la atención a la gestante y al recién nacido, reductibles por la actuación del sector salud.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors associated with neonatal deaths among children with low birth weight. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out on live births weighing between 500 g and 2,499 g from single pregnancies without anencephaly in Recife (Northeastern Brazil between 2001 and 2003. Data on 5,687 live births and 499 neonatal deaths obtained from the Live Birth Information System and the Mortality Information System were integrated through the linkage technique. Using a hierarchical model, variables from the distal level (socioeconomic factors, intermediate level (healthcare factors and proximal level (biological factors were subjected to univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: After adjusting the variables through multivariate logistic regression, the factors from the distal level that remained significantly associated with neonatal death were: cohabitation by the parents, number of

  13. Susceptibility weighted imaging of the neonatal brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meoded, A.; Poretti, A. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Northington, F.J. [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tekes, A.; Intrapiromkul, J. [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Huisman, T.A.G.M., E-mail: thuisma1@jhmi.edu [Division of Pediatric Radiology and Division of Neuroradiology, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a well-established magnetic resonance technique, which is highly sensitive for blood, iron, and calcium depositions in the brain and has been implemented in the routine clinical use in both children and neonates. SWI in neonates might provide valuable additional diagnostic and prognostic information for a wide spectrum of neonatal neurological disorders. To date, there are few articles available on the application of SWI in neonatal neurological disorders. The purpose of this article is to illustrate and describe the characteristic SWI findings in various typical neonatal neurological disorders.

  14. Pregestational body mass index is related to neonatal abdominal circumference at birth--a Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, M; Wehberg, S; Vinter, C A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of maternal pregestational body mass index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth. To define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, nonsmoking, normal weight women. DESIGN: Population-based study...

  15. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  16. Aplicação clínica da ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lúcia Gabriel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o valor do diagnóstico precoce de alterações hemodinâmicas em hemorragias e eventos hipóxico-isquêmicos pela avaliação de imagens e mensuração do índice de resistência por meio da ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Cinquenta neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso foram submetidos a ultrassonografia craniana com Doppler com a técnica transfontanela anterior e transtemporal sequenciais. RESULTADOS: Foram detectadas alterações cerebrais em 32% dos prematuros, sendo 22% com hemorragia intracraniana, 8% com leucomalácia periventricular e 2% com toxoplasmose. Dentre os 34 casos (68%, do total de neonatos, nos quais não foram detectadas lesões cerebrais pela ultrassonografia craniana, 18 (53% apresentaram alterações no índice de resistência. O índice de resistência variou conforme a época do exame. CONCLUSÃO: Existe correlação entre a presença de alterações na hemodinâmica cerebral e subsequente desenvolvimento de hemorragias e lesões hipóxico-isquêmicas, pela mensuração do índice de resistência. Alterações do índice de resistência, embora não preditoras de morte, estão relacionadas com a gravidade do quadro clínico em neonatos prematuros de muito baixo peso.OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. RESULTS: Cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis

  17. 陕西省活产单胎新生儿低出生体重现况及其影响因素分析%Incidence of low birth weight among single live birth neonates and influencing factors in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱萍; 张若; 李照青; 屈鹏飞; 赵亚玲; 颜虹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence of low birth weight among single live birth neonates and identify the influencing factors in Shaanxi province.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the childbearing aged women selected through multi stage stratified random sampling in Shaanxi during 2010-2013, all of these childbearing aged women were in pregnancy or had definite pregnancy outcomes.Results A total of 28 164 childbearing aged women and their infants were investigated.The overall incidence of low birth weight among the single live birth neonates surveyed was 3.4% during 2010-2013 (4.1% in 2010, 4.4% in 2011,3.1% in 2012, 2.6% in 2013, respectively).The incidence of the low birth weight was 3.8% in southern Shaanxi, 3.4% in northem Shaanxi and 3.2% in central area of Shaanxi.The incidence of the low birth weight was 2.5% in urban area and 3.6% in rural area.Compared with the low birth weight incidence of 2.6% in full-term infant, the low birth weight incidence was 32.0% in preterm infants.The results of logistic regression analysis suggested that being female infant (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.36-1.81) , preterm delivery (OR =18.28, 95% CI: 15.23-21.96), lower educational level of mothers (OR =1.27, 95% CI:1.06-1.52), antenatal care times <4 (compared with 4-7,OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.14-1.63) ,antenatal care times ≥8 (compared with 4-7, OR=1.84, 95% Ch 1.48-2.29), gestational hypertension (OR=3.07, 95% CI: 2.12-4.43) , being multipara (OR=1.21,95% CI: 1.03-1.41) , taking no folic acid during pregnancy (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.12-1.52) were risk factors for the low birth weight of neonate.Conclusion The incidence of low birth weight among single live birth neonates was in decline in Shaanxi.The incidence of the low birth weight was higher in rural area than in urban area.The incidence of the low birth weight was lower than national level.Being female neonate, preterm delivery, lower education level of mothers, irregular antenatal

  18. Linguistic Production Abilities of 3-Year-Old Children Born Premature with Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Of 30 children with low birth weight, only 4 demonstrated clinically significant language problems at age 3. Language problems were characterized by circumscribed expressive syntax difficulties but were not related systematically to birth weight, gestational age, length of neonatal hospitalization, severity of respiratory illness, socioeconomic…

  19. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  20. Physiological response to hypoxia in piglets of different birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ramírez-Necoechea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to extend the characterization of the proposed naturalistic experimental model of piglets born with hypoxia by assessing the relationship between birth weight, intra partum asphyxia and gross indicators of neurophysiological alterations in newborn piglets. Three groups of 50 piglets each were classified according to their birth weight into normal (1000-1350 g, low (below 1000 g, and high (over 1350 g. In comparison to piglets within normal weight, those born with high birth weights showed acid-base imbalance as reflected by lower pH levels (7.03±0.01, hypercapnia (88.50±13.20 mmHg, and lactic acidosis (lactate levels: 89.40±26.30. These piglets had lower viability scores (5.40±0.60 and longer periods of time to contact the udder (52.30±8.30 than piglets with normal birth weight. In conclusion, data show that piglets with birth weight over 1350 g are at a higher risk of gross neurophysiological deficits, probably secondary to neonatal hypoxia.

  1. Which Anthropometric Measure Best Correlates with Neonatal Fat Mass at Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Gal, Moran; Landau-Helman, Yeela; Biderman, Lihi; Nir, Romy; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    Objective Body composition provides additional information than weight alone. There is currently no accepted anthropometric measure of adiposity in infants, yet weight and length data allow calculations of a wide array of indices. The study objective was to identify the anthropometric index which best correlates with neonatal adiposity, by examining the associations between neonatal fat mass and several anthropometric indices of newborn infants. Study Design The sum of skinfolds (SSF), birth weight, and birth length were measured in 94 healthy infants (58% males) born at term to healthy mothers. Several anthropometric indices were calculated, and their relationship with SSF was assessed using linear regression adjusting for gestational age and sex. Results SSF at birth was significantly higher in females compared with males (20.7 ± 3.3 vs. 18.8 ± 4.1 mm, p = 0.019). Birth weight, birth weight-for-gestational-age percentile, birth weight percentile, and weight/length ratio had the highest associations with SSF, yet R (2) values were very low, ranging from 16 to 18%. Body mass index (BMI), BMI percentile, ponderal index, and the symmetry index had even lower associations. Conclusion No anthropometric measure can confidently assess fat mass in infants at birth, in accordance with previous research. When body composition data are needed, they should be directly measured.

  2. Representación gráfica del riesgo de mortalidad neonatal en un centro perinatal regional en Mérida, Yucatán, México The graphical display of neonatal mortality risk at a regional perinatal center in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico: The joint effect of birth weight and gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Osorno-Covarrubias

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el riesgo de mortalidad neonatal por edad gestacional y el peso al nacer. Material y métodos. Se estudió una cohorte de 19 668 neonatos que egresaron entre el 1 de enero de 1995 y el 31 de octubre de 1999 del Centro Médico Nacional Ignacio García Téllez, del tercer nivel de atención perinatal del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de la Península de Yucatán. Se registraron el peso al nacer, edad gestacional y condición de egreso. Se calculó el riesgo absoluto (RA de mortalidad para cada semana de edad gestacional y grupo de peso. Resultados. El RA de mortalidad observado en neonatos de entre 34 a 44 semanas y peso mayor o igual a 2 250 g fue de 0.4%, de 15% para aquellos de entre 26 a 32 semanas con peso mayor o igual a 1000 g, y de 73% para los de entre las 26 a las 34 semanas, con peso al nacimiento de entre 750 y 1 000 g. Conclusione. El RA de mortalidad neonatal aumentó a menor. edad gestacional y peso. Los datos pueden ser utilizados como valores de referencia para nuestro hospital y para comparación con otros hospitales.Objective. To determine the neonatal mortality risk according to gestational age and birth weight. Material and Methods. The cohort consisted of 19 668 newborns of Centro Médico Nacional (National Medical Center Ignacio García Téllez, a tertiary level healthcare institution of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexican Institute of Social Security, IMSS of the Yucatan Peninsula. All new-borns discharged from the hospital between January 1 st , 1995 and October 31 st , 1999 were included in the study. Birth weight, gestational age, and conditions upon discharge were recorded. Absolute risk (AR of mortality was calculated for each week-of-gestation- and birth group. Results. Observed AR in newborns 34 to 44 weeks of gestational age and weighing at least 2 250 g was 0.4, while that for those 26 to 32 weeks of gestational age and weighing between 1000 g was 15%. Conclusions. AR of

  3. Role of enteric supplementation of probiotics on late-onset sepsis by candida species in preterm low birth weight neonates: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in invasive fungal infections (IFIs in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU is jeopardizing the survival of preterm neonates. Probiotics modulating the intestinal microflora of preterm neonates may minimize enteral fungal colonization. Aims: This study was to examine whether probiotic supplementation in neonates reduced fungal septicemia. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind trial investigating the supplementation of preterm infants with a probiotic was done from May 2012 to April 2013, with 112 subjects randomized into two groups. Primary outcome: Decreased fungal colonization in gastrointestinal tract. Others: Incidence of late onset septicemia; duration of the primary hospital admission; number of days until full enteral feeds established. Results: Full feed establishment was earlier in probiotics group compared to placebo group (P = 0.016. The duration of hospitalization was less in the probiotic group (P = 0.002. Stool fungal colonization, an important outcome parameter was 3.03 ± 2.33 × 10 5 colony formation units (CFU in the probiotics group compared to 3 ± 1.5 × 10 5 CFU in the placebo group (P = 0.03. Fungal infection is less in the study group (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The key features of our study were reduced enteral fungal colonization, reduce invasive fungal sepsis, earlier establishment of full enteral feeds, and reduced duration of hospital stay in the probiotics group.

  4. Mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo: influência do peso ao nascer e de fatores sócio-demográficos e assistenciais Neonatal mortality: socio-economic, health services risk factors and birth weight in the City of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Furquim de Almeida

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo, apesar da sua tendência decrescente, constitui em um importante problema para a saúde pública. Os principais fatores de risco podem ser agrupados em quatro categorias básicas de variáveis: características do recém-nascido, características maternas, condições socioeconômicas e características dos serviços de saúde. O peso ao nascer e a prematuridade constituem fatores dominantes, compondo complexas redes de articulação com os demais. METODOLOGIA: Este é um estudo caso-controle, com base em dados vinculados do SIM e SINASC no Município de São Paulo, no primeiro semestre de 1995. Foi utilizada análise hierárquica, considerando quatro blocos de variáveis (características socioeconômicas, do recém-nascido, maternas e serviços de saúde para o conjunto de recém-nascidos e para três grupos de peso ao nascer: BACKGROUND: Although neonatal mortality has been declining in the City of São Paulo, it still is an important public health problem. Four basic categories constitute risk factors: newborn characteristics, maternal characteristics, socio-economic conditions and quality of health care. Low birth weight and prematurity are the dominant factors and constitute a complex network with other factors. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out based on linked birth and death certificates of the City of São Paulo for the first semester of 1995. The study performed a hierarchical analysis, considering four blocks of variables (characteristics of the new-born; mothers, health care and socio-economic status for all birth-weight groups together and separately for three birth-weight groups: 2,500g. RESULTS: The final model for all newborns together showed statistical significant association for mothers under 20 years of age, being born in a SUS hospital, birth weight <2,500g and prematurity. The three birth weight groups showed distinctive patterns of risk factors

  5. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusharisupeni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity. Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types. Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:177-80.].

  6. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusharisupeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality.Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing.Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity.Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types.Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence.

  7. 基于二孩政策的活产儿出生顺序与早产及低出生体质量关系研究%Relationship between birth order of live neonates and premature and low birth weight:a cross-sectional study due to the two-child policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计德永; 王君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨活产儿出生顺序与早产及低出生体质量的关系,为提高人口出生质量提供参考。方法选取2013年在某市妇幼保健院分娩的所有单胎活产儿为研究对象,资料收集于新生儿出生医学信息登记系统。结果活产儿出生顺序在1~8之间(1.4±0.6),出生顺序为1占65.9%(4055/6151),出生顺序为2占29.8%(1835/6151),出生顺序为3及以上占4.2%(261/6151)。出生顺序为1、2、3及以上的活产儿的早产检出率分别为8.2%、14.1%和27.2%(趋势χ2=113.620, P<0.05),低出生体质量检出率分别为6.2%、11.1%和26.8%(趋势χ2=132.228, P<0.05)。控制产妇年龄、文化程度及户口所在地后多因素分析显示,出生顺序为2、3及以上的活产儿出现早产的危险性分别是出生顺序1的1.546倍和3.186倍,出现低出生体质量的危险性分别是出生顺序1的1.991倍和5.530倍。结论高出生顺序为早产及低出生体质量发生的高危因素。%Objective To explore the relationship between birth order and premature, low birth weight among live neonates in order to provide the basis for improving birth quality. Methods All live neonates of single birth were selected from this hospital in 2013, and the data were collected from Medical Birth Register. Results The number of birth order was 1~8 (1. 4 ± 0. 6), the proportion of first birth or-der was 65. 9% (4 055/6 151), second birth order was 29. 8% (1 835/6 151), and third or more birth order was 4. 2% (261/6 151). The prevalence rate of premature birth was 8. 2% in first birth order, 14. 1% in second birth and 27. 2% in third or more birth (χ2 =113. 620, P<0. 05), and the prevalence rate of low birth weight was 6. 2 in first birth order, 11. 1% in second birth and 26. 8% in third or more birth (χ2 =132. 228, P<0. 05). The factors of maternal age, educational level and residence were controlled and multivariate analysis showed that, the risk of premature

  8. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

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    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight. METHODS: We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data. RESULTS: Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative

  9. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...... birth weight increased the risk of infantile colic in children born at term (gestational weeks 37-41)....

  10. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

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    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  11. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence of ...

  12. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W.R. Tyrrell; R.C. Richmond (Rebecca C.); T.M. Palmer (Tom); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); J. Rangarajan (Janani); S. Metrustry (Sarah); A. Cavadino (Alana); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); L.L. Armstrong (Loren L.); N.M.G. De Silva (N. Maneka G.); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); F. Geller (Frank); R. Myhre (Ronny); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); I. Huikari (Ille); J.N. Painter (Jodie N.); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); C. Allard (Catherine); D. Berry (Diane); L. Bouchard (Luigi); S. Das; D.M. Evans (David); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); M.G. Hayes (M. Geoffrey); J. Heikkinen (Jani); A. Hofman (Albert); B.A. Knight (Bridget); P.A. Lind (Penelope); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); G. Mcmahon (George); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Melbye (Mads); A.P. Morris (Andrew); M. Nodzenski (Michael); C. Reichetzeder (Christoph); S.M. Ring (Susan); S. Sebert (Sylvain); V. Sengpiel (Verena); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C. Power (Christine); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); H. Bisgaard (Hans); S.F. Grant; C. Nohr (Christian); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); B. Jacobsson (Bo); J.C. Murray (Jeffrey C.); B. Hocher (Berthold); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); D.M. Scholtens (Denise M.); G.D. Smith; M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J.F. Felix (Janine); E. Hypponen (Elina); W.L. Lowe Jr. (William); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); R.M. Freathy (Rachel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIMPORTANCE Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE To test for genetic evide

  13. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

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    Sandip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  14. Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders among a Population of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

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    Amir Mohammad Armanian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid function disorders, particularly congenital hypothyroidism (CHT, are important endocrine dysfunctions associated with permanent morbidities. CHT is more prevalent among preterm low-birth-weight neonates compared to term infants with normal weight. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 126 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates referred to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran during 2012-2014. On day five of birth and two, four, and six weeks after birth, blood samples were collected from the infants to determine thyroid function disorders, including transient hypothyroxinemia, neonatal hypothyroidism, transient primary neonatal hypothyroidism, and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Results: In total, 126 infants with mean gestational age of 30.5±2.29 weeks and mean birth weight of 1246.90±193.58 g were enrolled in this study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of Conclusion: According to the results of this study, thyroid function disorders are relatively common in preterm VLBW neonates, and serum T4 level is correlated with gestational age in these infants. Therefore, thyroid function tests with a consistent protocol are required for premature infants. It is recommended that further research be performed on larger sample sizes to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function disorders in preterm infants.

  15. Correlation of prepregnancy weight and lipid levels of late pregnancy in gestational diabetes melli-tus with neonatal birth weight%妊娠期糖尿病孕妇孕前体质量和孕晚期血脂水平与新生儿出生体质量的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁俊蓉; 周益伟; 徐静; 胡欣; 陈艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究妊娠期糖尿病孕妇孕前体质量和孕晚期血脂水平与新生儿出生体质量的关系。方法选择正常糖耐量孕妇(对照组)和妊娠期糖尿病孕妇(妊娠期糖尿病组)各52例,采用日立7080型全自动生化分析仪测定血清总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)和脂蛋白(a)[LP(a)],同时记录两组孕妇的年龄、孕周、妊娠前体质量与新生儿出生体质量等。结果妊娠期糖尿病组孕前体质量、TG、LDL-C 均显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。孕前体质量、TG 与新生儿出生体质量呈正相关(P <0.05),LP(a)与新生儿出生体质量呈负相关(P <0.05)。结论妊娠期糖尿病孕妇存在以 TG、LDL-C 升高为特点的高脂血症,与正常糖耐量孕妇相比,伴发了更为严重的血脂代谢异常,并明显影响着新生儿的出生体质量,因此对妊娠期糖尿病孕妇进行孕前体质量的控制、孕晚期血脂水平的监测和必要的饮食指导具有重要的临床意义。%Objective To investigate the relationship of prepregnancy weight and lipid levels of late pregnancy in gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM)with neonatal birth weight. Methods Fifty-two normal glucose tolerance(NGT)pregnant women(control group)and 52 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus( GDM group)were chose. Hitachi 7080 automatic biochemical analyzer was used to measure the serum levels of total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)and lipoprotein(a)[LP(a)]. At the same time, maternal age,gestational age,body weight before pregnancy and fetal birth weight were recorded in the two groups. Results Prepregnancy weight and the levels of TG and LDL-C were significantly higher in GDM group than those in control group(P <0. 01

  16. Correlation of maternal weight gain during pregnancy with the outcome of pregnancy and neonatal birth weight%孕妇孕期增重与妊娠结局和新生儿出生体重的相关性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation of maternal weight gain during pregnancy with the outcome of pregnancy and neonatal birth weight.Methods A total of 346 patients of single fetal primipara in my hospital from January 2011 to December 2011 were enrolled in the study.The general characteristics,maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI),the value of weight gain during pregnancy,pregnancy outcome,and birth weight were retrospective analyzed.The correlation between maternal weight gain during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight was analyzed.Results The incidences of hypertension and diabetes in the obesity group were significantly increased.In the pregnant women with weight gain of 15.1~20 kg,the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension,gestational diabetes were significantly increased (P<0.05).The neonatal weight ratio showed no significant difference between the normal weight group and the obesity group (P>0.05).Conclusion Excessive weight gain of women before pregnancy has a great influence on the outcome of pregnancy,resulting in a potential risk,but weight gain has little influence on neonatal birth weight%目的 探讨孕妇的体重指数与妊娠结局和新生儿出生体重的相关性.方法 选取2011年1~12月在我院就诊并住院分娩的单胎初产妇346例为研究对象,回顾性分析孕产妇的一般特征、孕前体重指数(BMI)、怀孕期间体重增加值、妊娠结局和新生儿体重,并分析孕期体重指数与新生儿出生时体重的关联性.结果 孕前肥胖组的妊娠高血压、糖尿病发病率明显增高,孕期增重15.1~20kg则孕妇妊高征、妊娠期糖尿病发病率明显增加(P均<0.05),孕妇体重正常组和肥胖组组新生儿体重构成比比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 妇女怀孕前的体重增长过大对妊娠结局有影响,具有潜在风险,但孕期妇女体重增加对新生儿的出生体重影响不大.

  17. 极低出生体重儿早期死亡的围生期危险因素分析%Analysis of perinatal risk factors for early neonatal death among very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月凤; 周平; 吴香兰; 陈睿; 卢光进

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the relationship between perinatal risk factors and early neonatal death among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. [Methods] A retrospective cohort of 143 VLBW infants admitted to NICU was studied. The dependent variable was the outcome, either survival or death at 7 days of life. The independent variables were assigned into three levels: distal, intermediate and proximal according to hierarchical model. All variables were subjected to univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. [Results] Early neonatal mortality was 13. 29% (19/143) in VLBW infants. After the adjustment of variables through multivariate Logistic regression it showed that infants born to mother with cord prolapse had higher risk exposure for early death than those of mother without cord prolapse in the distal level (AOR:8. 69;95%C/:1. 128~67. 002). At the intermediate level,infants with gestational age (GAX28 weeks and 5-min Apgar scores<7 had higher odds of early death than those of GA≥28 weeks and 5-min Apgar scores≥7 (AOR: 11. 47, 13. 55;95%CJ:2. 066~63. 712,3. 156 - 58. 221 respectively). At the proximal level, infants with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) had higher risk of early death than those without ICH (AORS4. 56,95%C7:1. 088 - 19. 170). [Conclusions] The early neonatal mortality among VLBW infants is still high and continues to be a significant public health problem. Asphyxia at birth is the highest risk factor of early neonatal death. Reducing birth asphyxia through enhancing obstetric quality and strengthening cooperation between obstetric and neonatology department is still the key to decrease early neonatal death of VLBW infants.%[目的]探讨极低出生体重(very low birth weight,VLBW)儿早期死亡的围生期高危因素. [方法]选取在本院新生儿科住院的143例VLBW儿为研究对象.生后7d的结果:生存或死亡作为应变量,根据分层分析模型将围产期高危因素(自变量)分为远端、中间和近端3

  18. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  19. Trends of preterm birth and low birth weight in Japan: a one hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorifuji Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportions of preterm birth (PTB, ie., delivered before 37 gestational weeks and low birth weight (LBW, ie., birth weight less than 2500 g at delivery have been rising in developed countries. We sought to examine the factors contributing to the rise in Japan, with particular focus on the effects of obstetric interventions. Methods We used a database maintained by one large regional hospital in Shizuoka, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers who delivered live singleton births from 1997 to 2010 (n = 19,221. We assessed the temporal trends in PTB and LBW, then divided the study period into four intervals and compared the proportions of PTB and LBW. We also compared the newborns’ outcomes between the intervals. Results PTB, in particular medically indicated PTB, increased considerably. The increase was largely explained by changes in caesarean sections. The neonatal outcomes did not worsen, and instead the Apgar scores and proportions requiring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission improved. In particular, the risks of NICU admission in the interval from 2007 to 2010 were decreased among all births [odds ratio (OR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.75, 0.95] and medically indicated births (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68 compared with the interval from 1997 to 2000. Conclusions Despite the increases in PTB as well as LBW, the present study suggests benefits of obstetric interventions. Rather than simple categorization of PTB or LBW, indicators such as perinatal mortality or other outcomes may be more appropriate for evaluation of perinatal health in developed countries.

  20. Effects of maternal and infant characteristics on birth weight and gestation length in a colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kelly J; Capozzi, Denise K; Newsome, Joseph T

    2008-12-01

    A retrospective study using maternal and birth statistics from an open, captive rhesus macaque colony was done to determine the effects of parity, exposure to simian retrovirus (SRV), housing, maternal parity, and maternal birth weight on infant birth weight, viability and gestation length. Retrospective colony statistics for a 23-y period indicated that birth weight, but not gestation length, differed between genders. Adjusted mean birth weights were higher in nonviable infants. Mothers positive for SRV had shorter gestations, but SRV exposure did not affect neonatal birth weights or viability. Infants born in cages had longer gestations than did those born in pens, but neither birth weight nor viability differed between these groups. Maternal birth weight did not correlate with infant birth weight but positively correlated with gestation length. Parity was correlated with birth weight and decreased viability. Increased parity of the mother was associated with higher birth weight of the infant. A transgenerational trend toward increasing birth weight was noted. The birth statistics of this colony were consistent with those of other macaque colonies. Unlike findings for humans, maternal birth weight had little predictive value for infant outcomes in rhesus macaques. Nonviable rhesus infants had higher birth weights, unlike their human counterparts, perhaps due to gestational diabetes occurring in a sedentary caged population. Similar to the situation for humans, multiparity had a protective effect on infant viability in rhesus macaques.

  1. Prenatal care in combination with maternal educational level has a synergetic effect on the risk of neonatal low birth weight: new findings in a retrospective cohort study in Kunshan City, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Dai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dose-response relationship and synergetic effect of the maternal educational level and two measures of prenatal care on neonatal low birth weight (LBW risk. METHODS: Data were derived from the Perinatal Health Care Surveillance System (PHCSS from January 2001 to September 2009 in Kunshan City, Jiangsu province, eastern China, which included data on 31412 women with a normal birth weight delivery and 640 women with a LBW delivery. Logistic modelling was performed to estimate the association including the joint effects with odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI between the prenatal care measures and LBW risk after adjusting for the potential confounders. The dose-response relationship between the number of prenatal care visits and the risk of LBW was investigated by modeling the quantitative exposure with restricted cubic splines (RCS. RESULTS: There was a significant synergetic effect on the LBW risk between maternal educational attainment and the number of prenatal care visits (χ(2 = 4.98, P = 0.0257, whereas no significant maternal educational attainment interaction was found with the week of initiation of prenatal care after adjusting for relevant confounding factors (χ(2 = 2.04, P = 0.1530, and the LBW risk displayed a 'U-shape' curve tendency among the different number of prenatal care visits (P for nonlinearity = 0.0002 using RCS. In particular, the ORs were approaching the curve's bottom when the women had 9 or 10 prenatal care visits. Comparing with 5 prenatal care visits, the ORs and 95%CI of LBW risk for 7, 9, 11 and ≥ 13 visits were 0.92 (0.82-1.03, 0.50 (0.38-0.66, 0.62 (0.47-0.82, and 0.99 (0.61-1.60, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that appropriate prenatal care, in combination with a higher maternal educational level, can produce a protective interaction effect on LBW risk. Reasonable health resource assignment for different social statuses should be taken into account by

  2. Low birth weight in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, H M; Ismail, N N; Gebbie, D A

    1991-06-01

    Low birth weight babies are defined as those weighing under 2,500 g. They make 13.5% of all births at the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur but contribute to 74.8% of all deaths. They are most likely to be Indian babies and least likely to be Chinese. Among all 3 communities, the primigravidae tend to produce smaller babies than multiparae but this is also true for the Indian of parity more than 3. The Malay teenager is more likely to produce small babies than their older counterparts but not so with the Indian and Chinese. There are definite clinical factors associated with or causing the births of small babies and the lighter the baby, the more influential are these factors. Maternal hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage, multiple pregnancy and unexplained intrauterine death are the 4 outstanding associations with both low birth weight and perinatal death. Although the spontaneous (often premature) onset of labour was the commonest preceding factor, it was much less important in the lowest birth weight groups of babies and was a less important contributor to perinatal death.

  3. Birth Tourism and Neonatal Intensive Care: A Children's Hospital Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhael, Michel; Cleary, John P; Dhar, Vijay; Chen, Yanjun; Nguyen, Danh V; Chang, Anthony C

    2016-12-01

    Objective The aim of this article is to examine characteristics of birth tourism (BT) neonates admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods This was a retrospective review over 3 years; BT cases were identified, and relevant perinatal, medical, social, and financial data were collected and compared with 100 randomly selected non-birth tourism neonates. Results A total of 46 BT neonates were identified. They were more likely to be born to older women (34 vs. 29 years; p < 0.001), via cesarean delivery (72 vs. 48%; p = 0.007), and at a referral facility (80 vs. 32%; p < 0.001). BT group had longer hospital stay (15 vs. 7 days; p = 0.02), more surgical intervention (50 vs. 21%; p < 0.001), and higher hospital charges (median $287,501 vs. $103,105; p = 0.003). One-third of BT neonates were enrolled in public health insurance program and four BT neonates (10%) were placed for adoption. Conclusion Families of BT neonates admitted to the NICU face significant challenges. Larger studies are needed to better define impacts on families, health care system, and society.

  4. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  5. Study on the correlation between pregestational BMI & weight gain during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight & infant obesity%孕前体重指数、孕期增重与新生儿出生体重及婴儿肥胖相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓青; 王小莹; 龙俊

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between pregestational BMI&weight gain during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight&newborn obesity.Methods:285 pregnant women(primiparity)with single pregnancy were divided into low body weight group (n=68),nor-mal weight group(n=164)and obese group(n=53)according to pregestational body mass index (BMI).The status of weight gain during pregnancy ,birth weight of newborn and infant obesity was observed and recorded ,and the correlation was analyzed .Results:The difference in the comparison of birth weight of newborn was statistically significant in these groups (P<0.05);the obese infants were more many in the obese group.The maternal weight was correlated with the months of obese infants (P<0.05).Conclusion:The pregestational weight has no correlation with weight gain during pregnancy ,but the weight gain during pregnancy is closely correlated with neonatal birth weight . Therefore the weight gain during pregnancy should closedly be monitored and diet be reasonably controlled ,so the birth rate of obese infants will be reduced .%目的:探讨孕前体重指数、孕期体重增加与新生儿出生体重及婴儿肥胖相关性研究。方法:按孕前体重指数将285例单胎初产妊娠孕妇分为低体重组68例、正常体重组164例及肥胖组53例,观察记录三组孕妇孕期体重增加、新生儿出生体重及婴儿肥胖情况,并分析其相关性。结果:不同体重组新生儿体重比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);肥胖组肥胖婴儿较多,且孕妇体重与肥胖儿月份呈相关性,其中不同体重组婴儿出生后1个月、3个月肥胖比例与孕妇体重呈正相关(P<0.05),且孕妇体重指数越高,出现肥胖儿越早。结论:孕前体重与孕期增重无相关性,但孕期增重与新生儿的出生体重有密切相关性,故应在孕期严密监测孕妇体重增加情况,合理控制饮食,从而降低肥胖儿出生率。

  6. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  7. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Christopher J.; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G.; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Matthew P Fox; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; SIMON, Jonathon L.; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village s...

  8. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  9. Suplementação enteral e parenteral com glutamina em neonatos pré-termo e com baixo peso ao nascer Enteral and parenteral supplementation with glutamine in preterm and low-birth-weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Borges

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A glutamina é o aminoácido livre mais abundante no sangue e no músculo esquelético, bem como é o principal substrato energético para células de elevado turnover, como enterócitos e leucócitos. Adicionalmente, a glutamina representa o principal aminoácido transferido para o feto pela placenta e, juntamente com o glutamato, constituem os aminoácidos mais abundantes no leite materno. Todavia, bebês nascidos prematuramente sofrem interrupção abrupta do fornecimento placentário de glutamina, o que acarreta em dependência exclusiva da síntese endógena ou do fornecimento exógeno deste aminoácido. Aliado a isso, neonatos pré-termo (PT e com baixo peso ao nascer (BPN, freqüentemente, recebem apenas nutrição parenteral total nas primeiras semanas de vida, a qual não contém glutamina. Cabe ainda destacar que esses bebês possuem pouca massa muscular e, portanto, seus estoques de glutamina são limitados. Uma vez que neonatos PT e com BPN estão sujeitos a intenso crescimento e a inúmeros estresses fisiológicos, é possível que a glutamina seja um nutriente condicionalmente essencial nessa fase da vida, fato que estimulou a realização de estudos com a finalidade de avaliar os possíveis benefícios clínicos da suplementação enteral e parenteral com glutamina em neonatos PT e com BPN.Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid found in the blood and skeletal muscle, and is the principal energetic substrate for cells with a high turnover, such as enterocytes and leucocytes. Furthermore, glutamine is the most important amino acid that is passed to the foetus via the placenta, and together with glutamate, is the most abundant amino acid in maternal milk. Preterm infants suffer an abrupt interruption in the supply of glutamine via the placenta, which leads to an exclusive dependence on the endogenous synthesis or the exogenous supply of this amino acid. Preterm neonates (PT as well as low-birth-weight neonates (LBW frequently

  10. Oral L-carnitine supplementation in low-birth-weight newborns: a study on neonates requiring combined parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melegh, B; Kerner, J; Sándor, A; Vincellér, M; Kispál, G

    1986-01-01

    Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on plasma ketone body (KB) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations was studied in ten premature infants requiring combined enteral and parenteral nutrition. At the second week of life (9 to 14 days of age) the infants were randomly divided into two groups. Five of them (plasma carnitine value, 33.77 +/- 2.48 mumol/l; mean +/- SEM) received oral L-carnitine supplementation (60 mumol/kg daily) added to pasteurized pooled human milk for seven consecutive days; additional five (plasma carnitine value, 36.70 +/- 5.19 mumol/l) served as controls. Composition of the daily diet was nearly constant in the study period. On the seventh day, prior to an Intralipid infusion, plasma carnitine and ketone body levels were significantly increased in the supplemented group as compared to controls or to previous values of the same group. In response to lipid infusion the fat load induced ketone body production was significantly higher in the supplemented group as compared to controls, whereas the triglycerides reached higher levels in the control group. It is suggested that L-carnitine supplementation in low-weight newborns promotes ketone body formation from endogenous stores as well as from exogenous fat supply, and thus may enhance triglyceride utilization.

  11. Reference birthweight range for multiple birth neonates in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Noriko

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reference range for the birthweight of multiple births neonates is necessary for the assessment for intrauterine growth. Methods Pairs of multiple births were identified by birthplace, the ages of the parents, gestational age, and the year and month of birth. We studied a total of 32,232 livebirth-livebirth pairs of twins, 1894 triplet live births, and 206 quadruplet live births. Results The median birthweight of males, taking gestational age into account, was ca. 0.05 kg–0.1 kg heavier than that of females. Compared to singleton neonates, the median birthweight of twins was ca. 0.15 kg smaller at the gestational age of 34 weeks, increasing to ca. 0.5 kg at 42 weeks of gestation. As for birth order, the mean birthweight of the first-born twin was heavier than that of the second-born. The standard deviation of birthweight was larger for second-born twins. The birthweight of twins from multiparous mothers was greater than those from primiparous mothers. The median birthweight according to gestational age was found to be the greatest in twins, lower in triplets and the lowest in quadruplets. In triplets, the 50th percentile was 0.08 kg heavier in boys than for girls. Conclusion Our results can be used for assessment of birthweight of multiple births in Japan.

  12. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting On Neonatal Weight In Different Trimesters Of Pregnancy

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    nahid sarafraz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: several investigations have been done to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on fetal and maternal health, which have all led to controversial results. The role of Ramadan fasting time in birth weight is still unclear. This study evaluated the effect of fasting at different periods of pregnancy on birth weight. Methods: 250 pregnant women fasting at least one day during Ramadan participated in this retrospective cohort study. Subjects were categorized into 3 groups, namely first trimester (n=112, second trimester (n=68 and third trimester (n=70 of pregnancy. Demographic and anthropometric data, obstetric history and history of Ramadan fasting were recorded. After delivery, neonatal birth weight was measured. The mean of weight and frequency of low birth weight in each group were calculated. Probable related factors of low birth weight of neonates with fasting mothers were evaluated. Results: The mean of birth weight in different groups of Ramadan fasting time in first, second and third trimester of pregnancy were 3411.52±529.88, 3214.57±463.56 and 3336.86±444.89 gr respectively, which had a statistically significant difference (p=0.03. Frequencies of low birth weight in different groups of Ramadan fasting time in first trimester was 8.9%, in second trimester 8.8% and in third trimester it was 7.1%, which had no statistically significant difference (p=0.9. Among all evaluated factors, only neonatal sex was related to low birth weight. Conclusion: Time of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy does not affect birth weight.

  13. Studies on the relationship between maternal lifestyle and neonatal birth weight%母亲一般情况及生活方式与新生儿出生体重的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林麒; 揭金花; 许榕仙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of maternal lifestyle on neonatal birth weight (BW) among pregnant women in Xiamen in order to provide the basic reference for the health intervention strategies during pregnancy. Methods A prospective study was conducted on pregnant women who met the study criterion in prenatal care clinics of Xiamen maternity and child care centers from January to November in 2009. All participants were required to complete lifestyle surveys and were followed up until delivery. Any possible factors related to neonatal BW were analyzed by the multiple linear regression analysis and logistic regression, and variables which were not selected to the model but clinically meaningful were analyzed by nonparametric test and the chi-square test. Results Out of 440 pregnant women who completed the survey, only 417 had been fully followed up. Logistic regression analysis revealed that doing exercise (B 0, P0, P<0. 05) had a positive correlation with BW, however passive smoking (bneonatal BW, usually BW decreased as passive smoking time increased (DP < 0. 05) . Conclusions Pregnant women should avoid exposing to smoke, exercise appropriately and do some housework, which would be helpful for neonatal BW control.%目的 了解厦门地区孕妇一般情况、生活方式对新生儿出生体重(Birth Weight,BW)的影响,为孕中期保健干预策略和措施制定提供参考.方法 前瞻性队列研究,2009年1月~11月于厦门市妇幼保健院产前保健门诊随机选取符合条件对象,进行孕妇生活方式调查,追踪妊娠结局并对孕产妇和新生儿出生体重进行测量.与新生儿出生体重相关的各种可能因素采用多元线性回归与logistic回归分析,未选入模型但临床认为较有意义

  14. Retrospective Epidemiological Analysis on the Neonatal Birth Weight in Wuhan Jiang'an%武汉市江岸区新生儿出生体质量影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪泽敏; 汪静; 王姽; 李岚; 李纯; 刘淑运; 王齐

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate birth weight conditions and factors in the riverbank area,and to provide a scientif-ic basis for the work of maternal and child health.Methods 12 150 newborns from 9 midwifery hospitals of the riverbank area were chose,and their weight and related factors were analyzed.Results The sex ratio was 1.33∶1.The incidences of low birth weight children and high birth weight children were 4.99% and 6.05% respectively.The average birth weights of baby boy and baby girl of normal birth weight were (3 294.24 ± 343.20)g and (3 278.97 ± 337.49)g respectively,and there was no significant differences (χ2 =-1.097,P >0.05).Logistic regression showed that pre-term child was more susceptible to low birth weight (P 0.05)。多元 Logistic 回归分析显示,早产儿比过期产儿更易发生低出生体质量儿(P <0.01);孕妇入院体质量越重,分娩巨大儿的风险就越大(P <0.01);剖宫产的胎儿发生巨大儿的概率是顺产的0.498倍。结论低出生体质量儿的发生与孕周有关;巨大儿发生与入院体质量和分娩方式有关。应重视新生儿体质量变化的研究,根据其影响因素加强孕产期系统管理,保障母婴安全。

  15. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

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    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  16. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  17. Mathematics deficiencies in children with very low birth weight or very preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, >2500 g and >36 weeks GA). MD are found even in children without global disorders in cognition or neurosensory status and when IQ is controlled, and they are associated with other learning problems and weaknesses in perceptual motor abilities and executive function. Factors related to poorer mathematics outcomes include lower birth weight and GA, neonatal complications, and possible abnormalities in brain structure. While little is known about the nature of MD in these children, studies of MLD in other neurodevelopmental disorders and in children with learning disabilities provide useful models for further investigation. Further investigation of the neuropsychological and neuropathological correlates of distinct types of mathematics difficulties is also needed. Studies along these lines will yield information about the unique features of MD in children with VLBW/VPTB and about the nature and origins of poor mathematics achievement more generally.

  18. Very Low Birth Weight Infant Necessitating Nissen Fundoplication for Weaning off the Mechanical Ventilator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Güney Varal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER is one of the common problems of neonatal intensive care units. Although this condition does not always need to be treated, it occasionally causes clinically serious consequences. Initial management is medical; however, in some cases surgery might be required. A premature neonate with birth weight of 1370 grams was managed in our ICU. The patient was mechanical ventilator dependent due to GER. The patient needed Nissen fundoplication for successfully weaning off the ventilator.

  19. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

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    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  20. Green teeth are a late complication of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battineni, Sireesha; Clarke, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Eruption of green, discolored teeth affecting the primary dentition has been described in association with congenital viral infection, sepsis, hemolytic jaundice, and cholestasis. The purpose of this paper was to present the cases of 3 extremely low birth weight preterm infants who were noted to have green teeth at the corrected ages of 10 to 12 months. All had a history of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia during their time in neonatal intensive care. For infants with prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, extreme preterm birth and/or extremely low birth weight may be additional risk factors predisposing to the eruption of green teeth in later infancy.

  1. Study on the relationship between vitamin supplementation from the second trimester of pregnancy and neonatal birth weight and length%孕中期补充复合维生素片与新生儿出生体格关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张齐放; 陆懿维; 侯晓静; 汪淑梅; 王红

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析孕中期起补充复合维生素片与新生儿出生体重和身长的关系.方法 调查2010年2月-2011年6月上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院产科门诊做产前检查的无妊娠合并症和并发症的孕妇及其分娩的新生儿各280例.实验组孕妇在孕中期起开始补充复合维生素片(爱乐维)1片直至分娩,正常饮食,无专业配膳.对照组孕妇正常饮食,无专业配膳.比较对照组与实验组新生儿出生体重和身长.结果 实验组新生儿中巨大儿多于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);低体重儿则少于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组新生儿的身长比较差异无统计学意义(P=0.20).结论 孕中期起补充复合维生素片对新生儿出生体重有影响,但对出生身长则无影响.在加强孕期营养健康指导时,应合理补充各种维生素片,密切监控孕妇的各项安全指标,有利于保障新生儿安全.%Objective To analyze the relationship between vitamin supplementation from the second trimester of pregnancy and neonatal birth weight and length. Methods A total of 280 gravidas without pregnancy complications who received prenatal care in the obstetrics in our hospital and 280 neonates they delivered were recruited from February 2010 to June 2011. The gravidas in the study group were supplemented with vitamin tablets ( Ailewei) one pill each day from the second trimester of pregnancy to delivery with normal diet. The gravidas in the control group were on normal diet. Neonatal birth weight and length in the two groups were compared. Results All the neonatal birth weight and length were analyzed. The frequency of fetal macrosomia in the study group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05), but the number of neonates with low birth weight was less(P <0. 05). There was no significant difference in neonatal length between the two groups (P = 0. 20). Conclusion Supplementation of vitamin

  2. Survival Analysis of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  3. Survival Analysis of very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  4. Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.

  5. Decline in the negative association between low birth weight and cognitive ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Berkay; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight predicts compromised cognitive ability. We used data from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS), and the 2000–2002 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to analyze how this association has changed over time. Birth weight was divided into two categories, <2,500 g (low) and 2,500–4,500 g (normal) and verbal cognitive ability was measured at the age of 10 or 11 y. A range of maternal and family characteristics collected at or soon after the time of birth were considered. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between birth weight and cognitive ability in a baseline model and in a model that adjusted for family characteristics. The standardized difference (SD) in cognitive scores between low-birth-weight and normal-birth-weight children was large in the NCDS [−0.37 SD, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.46, −0.27] and in the BCS (−0.34, 95% CI: −0.43, −0.25) cohorts, and it was more than halved for children born in the MCS cohort (−0.14, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.06). The adjustment for family characteristics did not explain the cross-cohort differences. The results show that the association between low birth weight and decreased cognitive ability has declined between the 1950s and 1970s birth cohorts and the 2000--2002 birth cohort, despite a higher proportion of the low-birth-weight babies having a very low birth weight (<1,500 g) in the more recent birth cohort. Advancements in obstetric and neonatal care may have attenuated the negative consequences associated with being born small. PMID:27994141

  6. Effects of individualized medical intervention on liquids and neonatal birth weight in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus in late pregnancy%个体化医学干预对妊娠期糖尿病孕妇孕晚期血脂及新生儿出生体重的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴姝; 韦青; 冯筱; 李磊; 俞力

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨个体化医学干预对妊娠期糖尿病(GDM )孕妇孕晚期血脂与新生儿出生体重的影响。方法测定GDM孕妇115例(A组)和265例正常孕妇(B组)三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL‐C)及低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL‐C)等血脂水平。A组中,40例行个体化医学干预(A1组),75例行门诊随访干预(A2组)。记录新生儿出生体重。结果与B组相比,A2组 T G较高,HDL‐C较低(P<0.05)。A1组 TG和 LDL‐C较B组低(P<0.05)。A2组新生儿出生体重较A1组和B组高(P<0.05)。GDM孕妇TG水平与新生儿出生体重正相关(r=0.42,P<0.05)。结论TG水平与新生儿出生体重之间存在较大关系。个体化医学干预能够改善GDM 孕妇孕晚期的血脂水平、降低新生儿出生体重。%Objective To explore the effects of individualized medicalized intervention on maternal liquids and neonatal birth weight in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM ) in late pregnancy .Methods Plasma levels of triglyceride (TG ) ,high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL‐C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL‐C) in late pregnancy were detected in 115 pregnant women with GDM (group A) and 75 women with normal pregnancy(group B) .Of group A ,40 cases(group A1) were treated with individualized medical intervention and 75 cases(group A2) treated with outpatient follow‐up intervention .The neonatal birth weights were recorded .Results TG was higher ,but HDL‐C was lower ,in group A2 than those in group B(P<0 .05) .TG and LDL‐C were lower in group A1 than those in group B(P<0 .05) .The neonatal birth weight was lower in groups of A1 and B than that in group A2(P<0 .05) .There was a positive correlation between TG and neonatal birth weight in group A (r=0 .42 ,P<0 .05) .Conclusion Neonatal birth weight is closely related to TG in late pregnancy .The individualized medical intervention

  7. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  8. DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES BY AN ANTHROPOMETRIC SURROGATE MEASURE: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Birth weight is an indicator of both neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal health, nutrition and quality of antenatal services. OBJECTIVE: To find out important anthropometric parameter(s in the newborn as related to birth weight so that newborns with low birth weight can be identified. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cross sectional, analytical, hospital based study was conducted at Amritsar on 200 term low birth weight newborn babies(<2.5 kg born during a period of 10 months and their various anthropometric measurements (HC, CC, MAC, TC, CFC were taken according to standard techniques. RESULTS: The study showed a strong correlation (p <0.001 between mid-arm circumference (r=0.834 and birth weight, followed by head circumference (r=0.816 and birth weight. Other parameters were also strongly correlated (p < 0.001. A value of <9.2 cm and <7.6 cm for mid-arm circumference showed highest validity for picking up newborns weighing <2500 gm and <2000 gm respectively. CONCLUSION: Measurement of arm circumference is easier, convenient and statistically superior to other anthropometrical parameters in detection of low birth weight newborn babies. The researchers recommend designing of a simple 'Tri-colored tape' for early detection of 'At Risk' LBW newborns in rural communities for their timely management.

  9. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design....

  10. Prognostic potential of amniotic fluid analysis at birth on canine neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppetti, D; Martino, P A; Ravasio, G; Bronzo, V; Pecile, A

    2015-12-01

    Glucose, lactate and cortisol concentrations in amniotic fluid were measured at birth in 95 pups and related to neonatal viability based on Apgar scoring and to neonatal mortality. Neither amniotic parameters nor neonatal mortality were associated with the Apgar score. Stillborn pups showed high lactate (P amniotic concentrations (P amniotic fluid differences were observed between normal and malformed pups. Amniotic glucose (P amniotic fluid collected at birth could be a valuable predictor of neonatal outcomes in dogs.

  11. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  12. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26–42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  13. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althabe Fernando

    2012-09-01

    (4 using a color-coded tape to measure uterine height to estimate gestational age in women with unknown gestational age. In both intervention and control clusters, health providers will be trained in essential newborn care for low birth weight babies. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm infants. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01084096

  14. The effect of maternal breast variations on neonatal weight gain in the first seven days of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeili Abbas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to examine whether specific maternal breast variations (such as flat nipple, inverted nipple, large breast or/and large nipple are barriers for weight gain in breastfed infants during the first seven days of life. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 100 healthy term neonates were followed from birth to day seven in two groups; Group A: fifty neonates born to mothers with specified breast variations and Group B: fifty neonates born to mothers without such breast variations ("normal breasts". All neonates were the first child of their families and there was no sex ratio difference between the two groups. Neonates' weight at birth and day seven were measured and the mean weight differences in the two groups were compared using paired t-test. Results Neonates born to mothers without the specified breast variations had a mean weight gain of (+ 53 ± 154.4 g at day seven., Not only there was no increase in the mean weight of neonates in the other group, but they had a mean decrease of weight of (- 162 ± 125.5 g by the seventh day of their life compared to birth weight. Thus, neonates born to mothers without breast variations had significantly greater weight gain than neonates born to the mothers with the specified variations (p Conclusion Breast variation among first-time mothers acts as an important barrier to weight gain among breastfed neonates in the early days of life. Health professionals need skills in the management of breastfeeding among mothers with the specified breast variations, so that mothers are given appropriate advice on how to breastfeed and overcome these problems.

  15. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  16. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Campos Monteiro de Castro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29% died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33% up to 24 hours and 97 (54% up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53, 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88, male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47. A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71. Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred.

  17. Contributing death factors in very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal deaths account for 40% of deaths under the age of 5 years worldwide. Therefore, efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing childhood mortality by two-thirds by 2015 are focused on reducing neonatal deaths in high-mortality countries. The aim of present study was to determine death factors among very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, medical records of 2,135 infants admitted between years 2008 and 2010 in neonatal intense care unit of Alzahra Educational-Medical centre (Tabriz, Iran were analysed by path method using statistical software SPSS 18. Results: Variables such as duration of hospitalisation, birth weight, gestational age have negative effect on infant mortality, and gestational blood pressure has positive direct effect on infant mortality that at whole represented 66.5% of infant mortality variance (F = 1018, P < 0.001. Gestational age termination in the positive form through birth weight, and also gestational blood pressure in negative form through hospitalisation period had indirect effect on infant mortality. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the duration of low-birth-weight infant′s hospitalisation is also associated with infant′s mortality (coefficient -0.7; P < 0.001. This study revealed that among the maternal factors only gestational blood pressure was in relationship with infants′ mortality.

  18. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C

    2006-01-01

    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies...... are limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...... pubertal development, testicular hormone production or sperm quality, available evidence points towards a subtle impairment of both Sertoli cell and Leydig cell function. Animal studies support the hypothesis that impaired perinatal growth restriction, depending on the timing, can affect postnatal testis...

  19. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  20. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2014-01-01

    Background: A low birth weight has been extensively related to poor adult health outcomes. Birth weight can be seen as a proxy for environmental conditions during prenatal development. Identical twin pairs discordant for birth weight provide an extraordinary model for investigating the association...... between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... in association with birth weight discordance. Results: Our association analysis revealed no CpG site with genome-wide statistical significance (FDR twin...

  1. Neonatal outcomes after preterm birth by mothers’ health insurance status at birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarsdóttir Kristjana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. Methods The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32–36 weeks gestation from Western Australia during 1998–2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time until establishment of unassisted breathing (>1 minute, neonatal resuscitation (endotracheal intubation or external cardiac massage and admission to a neonatal special care unit. Results Compared with infants of privately insured women, infants of publicly insured women were more likely to receive a low Apgar score (ARR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.06-6.52 and take longer to establish unassisted breathing (ARR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.25-2.07, yet, they were less likely to be admitted to a special care unit (ARR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.80-0.87. No significant differences were evident in neonatal resuscitation between the groups (ARR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.54-2.67. Conclusions The underlying reasons for the lower rate of special care admissions in infants of publicly insured women compared with privately insured women despite the higher rate of low Apgar scores is yet to be determined. Future research is

  2. Relationship of Pre-Pregnant Body Mass Index,Weight Gain During Pregnancy,Birth Weight of Neonate and Non-Selected Caesarean Section%孕妇孕前体重指数、孕期体重增加与新生儿出生体重及非选择性剖宫产的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔宝奎; 樊萍; 马晓东; 郭粉妮; 赵尹霄

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of maternal pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain during pregnancy on birth weight of neonate and incidence of non-selected caesarean section. Methods From January 2000 to May 2010, 3231 cases of pregnancy women giving birth to a single baby for the first time were recruited into the study. Pre-pregnant BMI and weight gain during pregnancy were measured and the pregnancy outcomes were followed up. According to BMI, they were divided into low BMI group(n = 671) , normal BMI group(n= 1845)and high BMI group(n= 715). They were further divided into 5^9 kg group(n = 331) , (9-18) kg group(n= 1755)and ^>18 kg group (n= 1145) according to weight gain during pregnancy. There had no significant differences between age, relevant family history of genetic diseases, pregnancy complications and parity between two groups (P18 kg group than (9-18)kg group and 5^9 kg group (P0.05)(本研究遵循的程序符合本院人体试验委员会所制定的伦理学标准,得到该委员会批准,分组征得受试对象本人的知情同意,并与之签署临床研究知情同意书).结果 三组孕前BMI不同孕妇新生儿出生体重比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).孕前低BMI组的低出生体重儿发生率高,孕前高BMI组巨大儿发生率高,非选择性剖宫产率随孕妇孕前BMI降低而降低.三组孕妇孕期体重增加不同,新生儿出生体重比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).孕妇孕期体重增加过多,则巨大儿发生率增加;孕妇孕期体重增加越少,非选择性剖宫产率则越低.结论 孕妇孕前BMI过高和孕期体重增加过多,可导致新生儿出生体重增加,非选择性剖宫产率增高.

  3. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  4. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  5. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  6. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  7. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeadi, Reza; Ghorbani, Zahra; Shapouri Moghaddam, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU)-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05). The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000). The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  8. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  9. Neonatal Bacteraemia Among 112,360 Live Births

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Huggard, D

    2016-10-01

    Our aims were to determine the incidence of bacteraemia in a cohort of neonatal patients over a 14 year period, to describe the organisms involved, and to establish the rates of sepsis with regard to both early onset sepsis (EOS) and late onset sepsis (LOS). Lastly, we investigated the trends of neonatal sepsis, to determine whether changes in clinical practice influenced the rate of blood culture positivity. With regards to EOS, GBS was the predominant pathogen, followed by E.coli, CoNS, and S. aureus . The overall mean EO rate per 1000 live births (LBs) was 1.19. Looking at LOS, S. aureus , CoNS , Enterococcus spp. were the most common bacteria cultured. The mean LOS rate was 1.88 per 1000 live births. The overall rate of EOS remained fairly steady. GBS remains the major pathogen in EOS; however its incidence has remained largely unchanged over time in relation to both EOS and LOS. Conversely the rate of LOS peaked from ’05-’09, mainly due to an increase in Staphylococcus aureus , CoNS and Enterococcus spp. cases, and then improved dramatically in the following years. This was likely due to a change in hospital policies in relation to hand hygiene and intravenous line placement and maintenance.

  10. Down syndrome birth weight in England and Wales: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K; Cole, Tim J; Springett, Anna L; Dennis, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if syndrome-specific birth weight charts were beneficial for babies with Down syndrome in England and Wales. Birth weights of 8,825 babies with Down syndrome born in England and Wales in 1989-2010 were obtained from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register. Birth weight centiles for 30-42 weeks gestation by sex were fitted using the LMS method and were compared to those for unaffected babies from the UK-WHO growth charts. For babies born with Down syndrome the median birth weight from 37 to 42 weeks was 2,970 g (10th-90th centile: 2,115-3,680) for boys and 2930 g (2,100-3,629) for girls, and the modal age of gestation was 38 weeks, 2 weeks earlier than for unaffected babies. At 38 weeks gestation they were only slightly lighter than unaffected babies (159 g for boys and 86 g for girls). However at 40 weeks gestation the shortfall was much greater (304 g and 239 g, respectively). In neonates with Down syndrome there is little evidence of growth restriction before 38 weeks gestation, so up to this age it is appropriate to use the UK-WHO birth weight charts. Thereafter birth weight is below that of unaffected babies and it should be plotted on the UK Down syndrome growth charts.

  11. Effects of Maternal Factors on Birth Weight in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misato Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the possible factors related to the birth weight (BW using the Japanese perinatal database. Methods. The live infants born at 37 to 41 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Cases with diabetic pregnancy, preeclampsia, an anomalous fetus, and a fetus with chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. A multiple regression analysis for confounding factors and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for comparing the BW in 2006 and 2010 were used for the statistical analysis. Results. The BW significantly decreased from 2950.8 g in 2006 (n=27,723 to 2937.5 g in 2010 (n=38,008 in the overall population, and this decrease was similar for male and female neonates. All confounding factors, except for the mode of delivery, affected the BW. Primiparity, smoking, and a female gender were related to the decrease in BW, whereas maternal age, maternal height, weight gain during pregnancy, BMI, the use of in vitro fertilization, induction of labor, and gestational duration were related to an increased BW. The ANCOVA showed that no significant change of the BW was seen between 2006 and 2010 (the difference was 2.164 g, P=0.414. Conclusion. The gestational duration is the most important factor affecting the BW in singleton term infants.

  12. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random-effects m......The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...... with a birth weight greater than 4 kg, SBP increased with birth weight (p groups (p

  13. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  14. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  15. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    was constant for all ages investigated and did not differ between men and women. Compared with subjects having birth weights in the reference category (3251-3750 g), those with the lowest birth weights (2000-2750 g) had 17% higher mortality (95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.22), and those with the highest...

  16. Increased birth weight associated with regular pre-pregnancy deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for Vietnamese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation program given to women of reproductive age in north-west Vietnam. The program was made available to all women of reproductive age (estimated 51,623 in two districts in Yen Bai Province for 20 months prior to commencement of birth weight data collection. Data were obtained for births at the district hospitals of the two intervention districts as well as from two control districts where women did not have access to the intervention, but had similar maternal and child health indicators and socio-economic backgrounds. The primary outcome was low birth weight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The birth weights of 463 infants born in district hospitals in the intervention (168 and control districts (295 were recorded. Twenty-six months after the program was started, the prevalence of low birth weight was 3% in intervention districts compared to 7.4% in control districts (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.81, p = 0.017. The mean birth weight was 124 g (CI 68 - 255 g, p<0.001 greater in the intervention districts compared to control districts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study suggest that providing women with regular deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplements before pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight in rural Vietnam. The impact of this health system-integrated intervention on birth outcomes should be further evaluated through a more extensive randomised-controlled trial.

  17. Inverse Relationship between Birth Weight and Blood Pressure in Growth-Retarded but Not in Appropriate for Gestational Age Infants during the First Week of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smal, Jaime C.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Bruinse, Hein W.; Steendijk, Paul; van Bel, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: Various studies have shown an association between low birth weight and the prevalence of elevated blood pressure later in life. However, a relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in the neonatal period has not been investigated yet. Objective: To study the relationship betwe

  18. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  19. A Study of Surrogate Parameters of Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Y

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : Which anthropometric parameter is correlating highly with birth weight? Can we use this parameter as a screening test for predicting birth weight? What is their cut-off value? Hypothesis: Various anthropometric parameters of newborn correlate each other positively. Objective : To find out the most effective anthropometric parameter in the newborn to assess birth weight so that newborn with LBW can be identified.. Study design: Hospital based cross-sectional study. Participants : Newborn babies born in KIMS, Karad. Results : Relatively highest correlation was observed between birth weight & thigh circumfirence (T.C. (r = 0.8637 & next with chest circumfirence (C.C.. (r = 0.8247 Cut-off values of T.C. & C.C. had better sensitivity, specificity & predictive value for identifying LBW babies. Conclusion : T.C. is the best effective parameter to predict birth weight. Next to it is C.C.

  20. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...... for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term...

  1. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck;

    2006-01-01

    .002 (-0.010 to 0.014); P = 0.77]. When restricting the analysis to twin pairs with a within-pair difference in birth weight of 500 g or greater or to twin pairs born 4 wk or more before term, the regression coefficients were almost unchanged. Controlling for potential confounders (sex, zygosity......CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight...

  2. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  3. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  4. Evaluation of postnatal growth in very low birth weight infants: a neonatologist's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, E; Boni, L; Rossi, C; Coscia, A; Giuliani, F; Spada, E; Milani, S; Fabris, C

    2008-09-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definitions of their optimal nutrition and postnatal growth pattern are still controversial. It is known that VLBW infants have a specific postnatal growth pattern markedly different from that of higher birthweight full-term infants. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to trace VLBW infants growth charts for weight, length and head circumference. These charts will be a useful tool to monitor postnatal growth of VLBW infants both during hospitalisation and after discharge, up to 2 or 3 years of age. A useful tool in VLBW infants growth evaluation could also be absolute velocity charts that, allowing a better and earlier identification of growth anomalies, could permit the observation of phenomena not yet visible on distance charts. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. These neonates represent about 1-1.5% of all live born infants in developed countries (1) and they constitute the large majority of the population in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). For this reason, the correct evaluation of their postnatal growth is of primary concern nowadays although the definitions of optimal nutrition and postnatal growth pattern are still controversial.

  5. Influence of the Umbilical Cord Insertion Site on the Optimal Individual Birth Weight Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Brouillet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Question. To determine whether the umbilical cord insertion site of singleton pregnancies could be linked to the newborn birth weight at term and its individual growth potential achievement. Material and Methods. A cohort study including 528 records of term neonates was performed. Each neonate was assessed for growth adjusted for gestational age according to the infant’s growth potential using the AUDIPOG module. We considered two categories of umbilical cord insertions: central and peripheral. Intrauterine growth restriction was defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square, Student’s t test, Wilcoxon test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Results. We observed a total of 343 centrally inserted cords versus 185 peripheral cords. There were twice as many smokers in the mothers of the peripheral category compared to the centrally inserted ones. More importantly, we demonstrated that only 17/343 (5.0% of infants with central cord insertion were growth restricted, compared to 37/185 (20.0% of the infants born with a peripheral insertion. Neonates with centrally inserted cord were significantly heavier. Conclusion. The umbilical cord insertion site of singleton pregnancies is associated with the newborn’s birth weight at term and its individual growth potential achievement.

  6. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood pres

  7. Which factors could explain the low birth weight paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight children are unusual among well-off families. However, in Brazil, low birth weight rate was higher in a more developed city than in a less developed one. The study objective was to find out the reasons to explain this paradox. METHODS: A study was carried out in two municipalities, Ribeirão Preto (Southeastern Brazil and São Luís (Northeastern Brazil, which low birth weight rates were 10.7% and 7.6% respectively. Data from two birth cohorts were analyzed: 2,839 newborns in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and 2,439 births in São Luís in 1997-1998. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Low birth weight risk factors in São Luís were primiparity, maternal smoking and maternal age less than 18 years. In Ribeirão Preto, the associated variables were family income between one and three minimum wages, maternal age less than 18 and equal to or more than 35 years, maternal smoking and cesarean section. In a combined model including both cohorts, Ribeirão Preto presented a 45% higher risk of low birth weight than São Luís. When adjusted for maternal smoking habit, the excess risk for low birth weight in Ribeirão Preto compared to São Luís was reduced by 49%, but the confidence interval was marginally significant. Differences in cesarean section rates between both cities contributed to partially explain the paradox. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking was the most important risk factor for explaining the difference in low birth weight between both cities. The other factors contributed little to explain the difference in low birth weight rates.

  8. 孕产妇BMI及其变化对足月新生儿体重及分娩方式的影响%THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL BML AND LTS CHANGES IN WEIGHT ON DELIVERY MODES AND NEONATAL BIRTH WEIGHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许为金; 黄力伟; 毛莹; 魏碧蓉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of maternal BMI and its changes in weight on delivery modes and neonatal birth weight.Methods:A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of of primipara 334 cases of the first bit of the Fujian Provincial Hospital from January 2012 to October single fetus full -term birth, maternal BMI and its changes and full -term newborns weight and mode of delivery relationship.Results:Pre-pregnancy obesity and weight thin and obesity compared the huge children the incidence and rate of cesarean section, the difference was statistically significant (x 2 =43.692,35.782;p<0.01,0.01).Prenatal obese full -term newbo-rns, compared with those of normal weight , a huge children's likelihood of cesarean section rate increased significantly (x 2 =43.692, 35.782;p<0.01,0.01).a group (gestational △BMI <4) compared with Group C and Group, its huge child incidence and rate of cesarean section, the difference was statistically significant (x 2 =14.527,28.133;p<0.01,0.01).Conclusion:Maternal obesity or pregnancy BMI increase is too large, full-term newborns heavier the huge children of the high incidence of cesarean section rate .%  目的:探讨孕产妇BMI及其变化对足月新生儿体重以及分娩方式的影响.方法:回顾性分析2012-01~2012-10在福建省立医院分娩的单胎足月头位的初产妇334例的临床资料,分析孕妇 BMI及其变化与足月新生儿体重和分娩方式的关系.结果:孕前肥胖者与体重消瘦和肥胖者比较,其巨大儿发生率和剖宫产率,差异有统计学意义(x 2=36.019,28.952;p<0.01,0.01).产前肥胖者足月新生儿,与体重正常者比较,发生巨大儿的可能性和剖宫产率显著增加(x 2=43.692,35.782;p<0.01,0.01). a组(妊娠期△BMI<4)与c组和b组比较,其巨大儿发生率和剖宫产率,差异有统计学意义(x2=14.527,28.133;p<0.01,0.01).结论:孕妇肥胖或妊娠期BMI增幅过大,足月新生儿体重较重,巨大儿的发生率高,剖宫产率高.

  9. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  10. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  11. 药浴水疗对早产儿及低体重儿胆红素及血糖的影响%The effects of medicated hydrotherapy on bilirubin and blood glucose in premature and low birth weight neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小华; 朱湘陵; 冯兰青; 卢群娣; 曹辉娟; 叶惠梅; 陈婉婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 根据新生儿黄疸药浴方制成适合早产儿及低体重儿的药浴水疗方,观察此药浴水疗方对早产儿及低体重儿黄疸及血糖的影响.方法 选择住院的采用药浴水疗的38例早产儿或低体重儿为药浴组,同期非药浴水疗的38例早产儿或低体重儿为对照组,以新生儿黄疸的药浴方加减制成适合早产儿或低体重儿生理特点的药浴方,配成500 mL的药液,两组均在出生后24 h进行水疗或沐浴,监测其血糖值、经皮胆红素值的变化.结果 (1)药浴组药浴前后血糖比较,第1、3天差异有统计学意义(P0.05);(2)两组胆红素值比较:第24、48小时两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),出生后第96、144小时差异有统计学意义(P 0.05). There was no significant difference of bilirubin between two groups at the 24th and 48 th hour after birth (P > 0. 05 ) ; while it was significantly lower in hydrotherapy group than that in control group at the 96th and 144th hour (P < 0.01). Conclusion The medicated hydrotherapy can reduce hyperbilirubinemia in premature infants and low birth weight infants within 24 hours after birth and alleviate physiological jaundice . And there is no hypoglycemia in medicated bathing.

  12. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...... female children born of Danish mothers in Denmark between 1973 and 1991 were included (n = 523,757) and followed for a total of 4,739,547 person-years at risk. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Information on birth weight was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The cohort...... was followed up in the NPR for PCOS diagnoses from age 15 years until the end of 2006. Furthermore, information on maternal diabetes diagnoses was extracted from the NPR. RESULT(S): The risk of PCOS was significantly increased in women with birth weight =4,500 g (incidence rate ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence...

  13. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim. Low birth weight (LBW) is a result of preterm birth or intrauterine growth retardation, and in both cases is the strongest single factor associated with perinatal and neonatal mortality. It is considered that socioeconomic factors, as well as mothers bad habits, play the most significant role in the development of LBW, which explains notable number of researches focused on this particular problem. The aim of this study was to characterize socioeconomic factors, as well as smok...

  14. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  15. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, th

  16. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.;

    1999-01-01

    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men. T...

  17. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  18. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS:  Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in Guin...

  19. Weight at birth and all-cause mortality in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years. Associations...... with death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality...... was constant for all ages investigated and did not differ between men and women. Compared with subjects having birth weights in the reference category (3251-3750 g), those with the lowest birth weights (2000-2750 g) had 17% higher mortality (95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.22), and those with the highest...

  20. Risk Factors for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Larijani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors which predispose to the development of high grade IVH (grade 3 and 4 in very low birth weight infants. Material & Methods: In a retrospective case control clinical study files of all premature infants with birth weights less than 1500 grams admitted between April 2004 and Oct 2005 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Akbar Abadi hospital in Tehran were reviewed. 39 infants with IVH grade 3 and 4 were identified. A control group of 82 VLBW infants matched for gestational age and birth weight were selected. Prenatal data, delivery characteristics, neonatal course data and reports of cranial ultrasonography were carefully collected for both groups. Those variables that achieved significance (p<0.05 in univariate analysis entered to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Findings: A total of 325 VLBW infants were evaluated. Mortality rate was 21.5%. Of the remaining the incidence of high grade IVH was 15.5%. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that following factors are associated with greater risk of high grade IVH occurrence: Low gestational age (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low birth weight (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low Apgar score at 5 minute (OR:1.58; 95% CI:1.59-6.32, hyaline membrane disease (HMD, OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.42-7.45 and maternal tocolytic therapy with magnesium sulfate (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 1.10-24.5. Conclusion: Our results showed that maternal tocolytic therapy, mechanical ventilation, low gestational age, low birth weight, apnea, and low 5 minute Apgar score increased the risk of major IVH.

  1. Socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of low birth weight babies: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiti Narain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO definition, infants with birth weights of less than 2,500 grams are classified as low birth weight (LBW. LBW is a sensitive indicator for predicting the chances of both infant survival and healthy childhood growth and development, and it also reflects the present and past health status of the mother. LBW constitutes an important factor affecting neonatal mortality and morbidity.Objective: To find the incidence of low birth weight babies and its determinants Materials and methods: Present study was a cross sectional type. All mothers delivering live born singleton neonate in study place (Postnatal ward of Rohilkhand Medical College and hospital were interviewed with pretested, predesigned schedule. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21software and chi square test, OR etc.Results: Overall incidence of LBW was 20% and mean birth weight was 2776.85 + 383.6 gm LBW was found to be more common in the rural population and poor educational status. A higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with inadequate diet and those who were anaemic. Conclusion: Low birth weight still poses a fair problem in our perspective, and when we cannot control ethnic factors like height, or do a drastic socio-economic upliftment, some basic factors, like good ANC care, correcting anemia, and above all motivating the mother to follow some habits in the ANC period like adequate consumption of food and adequate rest, institutional deliveries shall take a long way forward in addressing the problem.

  2. Reducing neonatal mortality associated with preterm birth: gaps in knowledge of the impact of antenatal corticosteroids on preterm birth outcomes in low-middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L; Jobe, Alan H; Miodovnik, Menachem; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Buekens, Pierre; Belizan, Jose; Althabe, Fernando

    2016-05-24

    The Global Network's Antenatal Corticosteroids Trial (ACT), was a multi-country, cluster-randomized trial to improve appropriate use of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) in low-resource settings in low-middle income countries (LMIC). ACT substantially increased ACS use in the intervention clusters, but the intervention failed to show benefit in the targeted < 5th percentile birth weight infants and was associated with increased neonatal mortality and stillbirth in the overall population. In this issue are six papers which are secondary analyses related to ACT that explore potential reasons for the increase in adverse outcomes overall, as well as site differences in outcomes. The African sites appeared to have increased neonatal mortality in the intervention clusters while the Guatemalan site had a significant reduction in neonatal mortality, perhaps related to a combination of ACS and improving obstetric care in the intervention clusters. Maternal and neonatal infections were increased in the intervention clusters across all sites and increased infections are a possible partial explanation for the increase in neonatal mortality and stillbirth in the intervention clusters, especially in the African sites. The analyses presented here provide guidance for future ACS trials in LMIC. These include having accurate gestational age dating of study subjects and having care givers who can diagnose conditions leading to preterm birth and predict which women likely will deliver in the next 7 days. All study subjects should be followed through delivery and the neonatal period, regardless of when they deliver. Clearly defined measures of maternal and neonatal infection should be utilized. Trials in low income country facilities including clinics and those without newborn intensive care seem to be of the highest priority.

  3. RED BLOOD CELL TRANSFUSION IN VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AND/OR INFANTS LESS THAN 32 WEEKS OF GESTATIONAL AGE – 4 YEARS EXPERIENCE IN A NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Rodrigues Correia

    2016-06-01

    Discussion and Conclusion: RBC transfusions were more frequently used in preterm infants with lower GA and BW. Transfusion criteria applied were consistent with National Neonatal Guidelines in 2004. The transfused preterm infants had higher morbidity.

  4. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight in the Southeast of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Mohsen; Danaei, Mina; Kermani, Akram Jabbari Nejad; Bakhshandeh, Marzieh; Foroodnia, Shohreh; Mahmoudabadi, Zahra; Amirzadeh, Raheleh; Safizadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and related factors of low birth weight (LBW) in the Southeast of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Kerman province. Data were collected from Iranian Maternal and Neonatal Network at public and private hospitals. All live births from March 2014 to March 2015 considered as the source population. The risk factors including maternal age, gravida, parity, abortion, pregnancy risk factors, maternal nationality, maternal education, maternity insurance, place of living, consanguinity, neonate sex, preterm labor, place of birth, delivery manager, and delivery type were compared between LBW and normal birth weight groups. Results: The prevalence of LBW was 9.4% in the present study. Preterm labor (odds ratio [OR]: 22.06; P 35 years (OR: 1.21; P = 0.001), delivery by cesarean section (OR: 1.17; P = 0.002), pregnancy risk factors (OR: 1.67; P 35 years old, and maternal medical risk factors are some critical interventions to reduce its burden. Increasing the access to high-quality health-care services in rural and deprived areas is another effective strategy for the prevention of LBW.

  6. Oxidative stress markers at birth: Analyses of a neonatal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Rizzo, Manfredi; Scaturro, Giusy; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Cappello, Francesco; Corsello, Giovanni; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In order to further understand neonatal stress and, thus, control it efficaciously, there is a need for more information on the manifestations of stress at the molecular level in the newborn, with particular regard to oxidants, and anti-oxidant and anti-stress mechanisms, including mitochondrial heat shock protein-chaperones such as Hsp60. We investigated patterns of anti-oxidants, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and Hsp60 levels in sera from newborns and found significant associations between glutathione (GSH) levels and gestational age, delivery modality, and lipid hydroperoxydes (LOOH) level. LOOH levels and spontaneous (vaginal) delivery were independently associated with increased GSH levels when these were above the median. Hsp60 and LOOH levels were positively correlated whereas Hsp60 and GSH levels were inversely correlated in spontaneously delivered newborns; in contrast, Hsp60 and GSH levels were positively correlated in newborns delivered by cesarea. Our results point to new directions in the search for definite patterns of GSH, LOOH, and Hsp60 in the newborn's serum that might have functional and diagnostic significance and that could help in the monitoring of newborn health during and after delivery. In addition, the data provide a starting basis for investigating the precise roles and interplay of GSH and Hsp60 in the maintenance of an optimal redox balance at birth to cope with the stress inherent to delivery, and also for investigating the predictive value of any given pattern of GSH, LOOH, and Hsp60 at birth with regard to health status and risk of disease in adult life.

  7. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  8. Standards of Birth Weight According to Gestational Age in the Northwestern Regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodych O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the neonatal registry for 2001-2010 years in Rivne and Volyn regions of Ukraine as well as 2006-2011 years of Khmelnytsky region was carried out. General information was available about body weight of 366 607 newborns, among which 188 687 were boys and 177 920 girls. Based on the analysis we developed local standards of birth body weight in relation to gestational age separately for boys and girls. Procedure for processing local standards met international standards that have been developed by the WHO. Availability of processed local standards depending on gestational age will enable neonatologists, pediatricians and researchers to clearly identify anomalies in the health of newborns in the northwestern regions of Ukraine. Therefore, identification of newborns with low or high birth weight will enable adequate and timely steps to improve their health.

  9. 妊娠期糖尿病患者血糖水平与新生儿出生体重关系分析%The Analysis of the Relationship for Gestational Diabetes Blood Sugar Levels in Patients with Neonatal Birth Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜百灵; 张方芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To further investigate the relationship for gestational diabetes blood sugar levels in patients with neonatal birth weight. Method:124 cases of pregnant women admitted to our hospital from January 2009 to April 2012 were chosen as the research object.The clinical information of pregnant women was analyzed and studied retrospectively. Result:(1)In fasting glucose levels and neonatal birth weight,the gestational diabetes group was higher than the healthy control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).(2)In the incidence of huge children, the pregnancy diabetic group was higher than healthy control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).(3)Neonatal birth weight and maternal glucose levels of the gestational diabetes group and the healthy control group showed a positive relationship. Conclusion:Gestational diabetes blood sugar levels with birth weight shows a positive relationship,so monitoring blood sugar levels for pregnant women has important implications for the prevention of the occurrence of a huge child.%目的:进一步探讨妊娠期糖尿病患者血糖水平与新生儿出生体重之间的相关性。方法:选取本院2009年1月-2012年4月收治的124例孕妇为研究对象,针对孕妇的临床资料进行了回顾性分析和研究。结果:(1)在空腹血糖水平和新生儿出生体重两方面,妊娠糖尿病组均高于健康对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);(2)在巨大儿发生率方面,妊娠糖尿病组高于健康对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);(3)妊娠糖尿病组和健康对照组新生儿出生体重与孕妇血糖水平呈现出正相关的关系。结论:妊娠期糖尿病患者血糖水平与新生儿出生体重之间呈现出正相关的关系,因此针对孕妇血糖水平进行监测,对于预防巨大儿的发生具有重要的意义。

  10. Closed Catheter Access System Implementation in Reducing Bloodstream Infection Rate in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily eRundjan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Bloodstream infection (BSI is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality encountered in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, especially in developing countries. Despite the implementation of infection control practices, such as strict hand hygiene, the BSI rate in our hospital is still high. The use of a closed catheter access system to reduce BSI related to intravascular catheter has hitherto never been evaluated in our hospital. Objective To determine the effects of closed catheter access system implementation in reducing the BSI rate in preterm neonates with low birth weight.Methods Randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 low birth weight preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal unit at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from June to September, 2013. Randomized subjects either received a closed or non-closed catheter access system. Subjects were monitored for 2 weeks for the development of BSI based on clinical signs, abnormal infection parameters, and blood culture. Results Closed catheter access system implementation gave a protective effect towards the occurrence of culture-proven BSI (relative risk 0.095, 95% CI 0.011 to 0.85, p=0.026. Risk of culture-proven BSI in the control group was 10.545 (95% CI 1.227 to 90.662, p=0.026. BSI occurred in 75% of neonates without risk factors of infection in the control group compared to none in the study group.Conclusions The use of a closed catheter access system reduced the BSI in low birth weight preterm infants. Choosing the right device design, proper disinfection of device and appropriate frequency of connector change should be done simultaneously.

  11. Genetic evidence for causal relationships between maternal obesity-related traits and birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C.; Palmer, Tom M.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L.; De Silva, N. Maneka G.; Wood, Andrew R.; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J.; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M. Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E.; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P.; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M.; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Spector, Tim D.; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F.A.; Nohr, Ellen A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Scholtens, Denise M.; Smith, George Davey; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F.; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Structured abstract Importance Neonates born to overweight/obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. Objective To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Design, Setting and Participants We used Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are causally related to offspring birth weight. Mendelian randomization makes use of the fact that genotypes are randomly determined at conception and are thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. Data were analysed on 30,487 women from 18 studies. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies located in Europe, North America or Australia and participating in the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. We tested associations between a genetic score of 30 BMI-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (i) maternal BMI and (ii) birth weight, to estimate the causal relationship between BMI and birth weight. Analyses were repeated for other obesity-related traits. Exposures Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol level, vitamin D status and adiponectin level. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Offspring birth weight measured by trained study personnel (n=2 studies), from medical records (n= 10 studies) or from maternal report (n=6 studies). Results Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2g (95%CI: 0, 3g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P=0.008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were

  12. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  13. Method for performing cerebral perfusion-weighted MRI in neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laswad, Tarek; Alamo, Leonor; Meuli, Reto; Gudinchet, Francois [University of Lausanne (CH). Radiology Department, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland); Wintermark, Pia; Moessinger, Adrien [University of Lausanne, Division of Neonatology, Lausanne (Switzerland)]|[Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    Cerebral perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) in neonates is known to be technically difficult and there are very few published studies on its use in preterm infants. In this paper, we describe one convenient method to perform PWI in neonates, a method only recently used in newborns. A device was used to manually inject gadolinium contrast material intravenously in an easy, quick and reproducible way. We studied 28 newborn infants, with various gestational ages and weights, including both normal infants and those suffering from different brain pathologies. A signal intensity-time curve was obtained for each infant, allowing us to build perfusion maps. This technique offered a fast and easy method to manually inject a bolus gadolinium contrast material, which is essential in performing PWI in neonates. Cerebral PWI is technically feasible and reproducible in neonates of various gestational age and with various pathologies. (orig.)

  14. Determinants of low birth weight in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzur Kader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is an important public health concern. The study was aimed to identify the important socioeconomic, anthropometric and nutritional determinants associated with LBW. Factors included maternal household wealth status, age, literacy, nutritional status, parity, stature, gestational age and chewing betel nut or tobacco. Methods: The study included data of 4436 enrolled pregnant women in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention Matlab (MINIMat trial from November 2001 to October 2003. A random subset of (n= 3267 single live birth infants born between May 2002 and June 2004 with complete information on birth weight was analyzed. Pearson’s chi square test and logistic regression analysis were done to assess the association between the factors and LBW. Results: Almost one third of the infants were born with LBW and mean birth weight was 2693 g. Maternal poor wealth status, BMI less than 18.5, short stature (height < 152 cm and preterm (<37 weeks birth were found to be strong predictors of LBW. Women’s age, hemoglobin status and chewing tobacco or betel nut were not found to be associated with LBW. Conclusion: Women’s wealth status, literacy, maternal nutrition and prevention of preterm birth are the key factors that need to be considered to improve birth weight of infants. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 130-134

  15. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...

  16. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in Tanzanian cot-nursed neonates and its relation to postnatal weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, HFH; Massawe, AW; Okken, A; Coenraads, PJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    1996-01-01

    In healthy cot-nursed Tanzanian neonates (n = 92, gestation 26-42 weeks) measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and weight change were performed during the first 24 h after birth at an average ambient humidity of 70% and an environmental temperature of 32 degrees C. Urine production on day

  17. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Monica L.; Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Sankey, Heather Z.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p < 0.016). Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5) and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0) women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8). GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p < 0.001). Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed. PMID:27688913

  18. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  19. [Prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in the a capital in the Brazilian Northeast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse Albuquerque; Santos, Sheila Lima Diogenes; Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da; Campelo, Viriato

    2016-06-01

    The main determinants of the risk of mortality in the neonatal period are low birth weight and premature birth. The study sought to analyze the adequacy of prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in a northeastern Brazilian capital. This is a case-control study. A model for adequacy of prenatal conditions composed of four indicators was created. Descriptive statistics for univariate analysis were used; as well as Wald linear trend tests, Student's t and chi-square test for bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression for multivariate analysis with p adequacy of prenatal care, variable indicator III remained significant, showing that mothers who had inadequate prenatal care had an increased chance for the occurrence of the outcome, highlighting the need for adequate public health policies of care for pregnant women in the municipality under scrutiny.

  20. Predictors of birth weight and gestational age among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-10-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994-1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24-32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context.

  1. The Relationship between Folic Acid Intake and Infant Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Esmailzadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Folic acid is a B vitamin which 5mg daily intake before gestation and until the tenth week of pregnancy is recommended. Since no study has been conducted in some regions of East Azerbaijan including Bostanabad, Khosroshahr and Sarab and no prevalence was spotted in country specific studies, therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between folic acid intake and infant birth weight. Material and Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort. In this study, 1939 of pregnant women who were referred to health care centers before pregnancy were selected randomly. They were divided into two groups: first group of pregnant women who regularly took folic acid before pregnancy and second group included the women who did not take folic acid supplements. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using T-Test and ANOVA. Results: This study was conducted on 1939 mothers who had an average age of 25.98 years and average infants birth weight was 3.209 kg. Totally, 92.9% of the mothers had regular consumption of folic acid during pregnancy. Analysis of the results showed that with increasing maternal BMI, birth weight also increased. It showed a significant relationship between regular folic acid intake and increase in infant birth weight. Conclusion : Our results showed that both high maternal pre-pregnancy weight and folic acid intake lead to higher birth weight infants.

  2. Incidence of low birth weight and associated risk factors during March 2002-2003 in Tonekabon, Iran

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    S.Z. Hosseini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Low birth weight (LBW; birthweight 2500 g. or below is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This prospective study was conducted during March 2002 - 2003, to determine the incidence of low birth weight infants and associated risk factors in neonates born at Shahid Rajaee Hospital in Tonekabone, Iran.Materials and methods: For every LBW case, maternal age, sex, gestational age, parity, route of delivery and spacing between pregnancies of low birth weight were analyzed. For control, the first baby born before and immediately after the LBW baby who weighed more than 2500 g. at birth were analyzed.Results: The results revealed that the incidence of low birth weight was 4.2 % which is lower than population of other cities and only 0.34% (7 cases of newborns weighted 1500 g. or less. The higher incidence of low birth weight was found in the primigravid (P=0.042, in cesarean section (P=0.025 and close spacing of pregnancy (P=0.033. Maternal age and sex of baby had no significant effect on the incidence of low birth weight. There were more premature deliveries in cases than controls (P=0.000.Conclusion: According to present findings, LBW incidence of albeit in Tonekabon in comparison with other cities throught the country is at acceptable level, prevention of premature delivery and conduction of health education programs for high risk groups, especially primigravid can lower the rates.

  3. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  4. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

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    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  5. Fatores maternos e neonatais na incidência de displasia broncopulmonar em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Maternal and neonatal factors affecting the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicelle S. Cunha

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Obter a incidência de displasia broncopulmonar (DBP; avaliar os fatores maternos e neonatais associados com a doença; determinar a correlação entre DBP e a evolução dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados prospectivamente de 153 recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento inferior a 1.500 g, nascidos em Campinas de setembro de 2000 a abril de 2002 e tratados no Hospital Universitário. Foram utilizados razão de taxas de incidências com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC 95%, regressão Breslow-Cox, teste t de Student, regressão linear e teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Entre os 124 recém-nascidos que sobreviveram aos 28 dias de vida, 33 (26,6% apresentavam DBP. Peso de nascimento OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, to identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with the disease, and to determine the correlation between bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the progress of newborns. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected on 153 infants born in Campinas (state of São Paulo, Brazil from September 2000 to April 2002 weighing less than 1,500 g and treated at the University Hospital. The ratio of incidence rates with 95% CI, Breslow-Cox regression, Student's t test, linear regression and the Fisher's exact test were utilized. RESULTS: Among the 124 babies who survived until 28 days of age, 33 (26.6% developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Birthweight < 1,000 g (5.6; 95% CI 3.0, 10.4 and gestational age < 30 weeks (4.0; 95% CI 2.1, 7.2 were correlated with increased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Breslow-Cox regression showed that other factors including gender, Apgar score, hyaline membrane disease, antenatal steroid therapy, pregnancy-induced hypertension, delivery route and maternal age were not associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Mean duration of hospitalization and ventilator therapy in newborns with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 78.8 days (SD = 26

  6. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    ) status. OBJECTIVES: To compare the birth weight distributions of the INTERGROWTH-21st international standard to commonly used US references and examine the differences in the prevalence and neonatal mortality risk of SGA status (below the 10th percentile of a population reference). DESIGN, SETTING...... variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000......IMPORTANCE: This study introduces how the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) international birth weight standards alter our previous understanding and interpretations of fetal growth restriction as represented by small for gestational age (SGA...

  7. Developmental outcome of low birth-weight and preterm newborns: a re-view of current evidence

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    Farin Soleimani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems. Global statistics demonstrates an increase in the prevalence of low birth weight in the developing countries. Low birth weight infants are exposed to complications such as major neurosensory impairements, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances. The majority of infant's death and developmental disorders were due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight. Infants weighing less than 2500 g, is a major determinant of both neonatal and infant mortality rates and, together with congenital anomalies (e.g., cardiac, central nervous system, and respiratory, contributes significantly to childhood morbidity. Various studies indicate that low birth weight infants are suffering from physiological and psychosocial disabilities, two to three times more than the other children. At school age, preterm and low birth weight infants have poorer physical growth, cognitive function, and school performance. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Although the survival rates have increased dramatically and the incidence of morbidities has decreased, the complications are still considered to be associated with economical and social burdens. Most children with Low birth weight suffer from multiple disabilities. Therefore, they need special and consistent care. On demand of reducing the infant mortality rate, the need to decrease the complications in low birth weight and preterm infants should be considered by the policy makers in health care system. In this review article, we assessed current evidences on developmental outcomes of low birth weight and

  8. Effect of Implementing a Birth Plan on Womens' Childbirth Experiences and Maternal & Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Amal Hussain; Mohamed, Hanan El Sayed; Elkader, Shadia Abd; El-Nemer, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth satisfaction represents a sense of feeling good about one's birth. It is thought to result from having a sense of control, having expectations met, feeling empowered, confident and supported. The aim of this study was to implement a birth plan and evaluate its effect on women's childbirth experiences and maternal, neonatal outcomes. A…

  9. 子痫前期患者血清MPO、hs-CRP水平与新生儿出生体重的相关性%Relatingship between serum myeloperoxidase,hs-CRP levels and neonatal birth weight in patients with preeclampsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金英; 颜建英

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究重度子痫前期( PE )患者血清髓过氧化物酶( MPO )及超敏C反应蛋白( hs-CRP)水平与新生儿出生体重的关系。方法:选择2012年1~10月于我院产科住院分娩的60例重度PE孕妇,按发病时孕周不同分为早发型PE组(发病时孕周0.05)。(2)早发型与晚发型PE组血清hs-CRP高于同期对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。(3)早发型与晚发型PE组的血清MPO、hs-CRP水平与新生儿出生体重均呈负相关(P0.05)。结论:血清MPO、hs-CRP可能在PE的病理生理过程中发挥作用。重度PE患者血清MPO、hs-CRP水平升高可引起新生儿体重下降,其机制可能与胎儿宫内生长发育有关。%Objective:To investigate the relationships between concentrations of serum MPO,hs-CRP levels birth weight in patients with preeclampsia. Methods:A total of 60 women with PE and 60 normal pregnant women as control participated in this study. Patients with PE were divided into early-onset group (n=30,presented at0. 05). (2)Serum hs-CRP level of early-onset and late-onset PE group were higher than control group1 and control group 2,the differences were statistically significant (P0. 05). (3)Serum MPO,hs-CRP level and neonatal birth weight of early-onset and late-onset PE group were negatively correlated ( P0. 05). Conclusion:Serum MPO,hs-CRP levels of preeclampsia patients suggesting that they may be involved in the pathophysiologi-cal process of preeclampsia. In severe preeclampsia patients,elevated serum MPO,hs-CRP lev-els can cause low neonatal weight,and may be associated with fetal growth.

  10. Factors associated with the need for ventilation at birth of neonates weighing ≥2,500 g

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, José Roberto Pereira; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Sanudo, Adriana; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Approximately 20-40% of annual global neonatal deaths occur among infants with birthweights ≥2,500 g, and most of these deaths are associated with intrapartum asphyxia in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to evaluate the peripartum variables associated with the need for resuscitation at birth of neonates weighing ≥2,500 g. METHOD: This case-control retrospective study was performed on data from all public reference maternity units in the state of Ceará, Northeast Brazil, between March 2009 and March 2010. The subjects were singleton neonates without malformations weighing ≥2,500 g, who required positive-pressure ventilation in the delivery room. The controls had a 1-minute Apgar score of ≥8 and did not undergo resuscitation. Variables associated with positive-pressure ventilation in the delivery room were evaluated via conditional multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 2,233 live births with birth weights ≥2,500 g, 1-minute Apgar scores ≤7, and no malformations, 402 patients met the inclusion criteria, and they were paired with 402 controls. Risk variables for positive-pressure ventilation at birth were a gestational age <37 weeks (OR: 3.54; 95% CI: 1.14-10.92) and meconium-stained amniotic fluid (8.53; 4.17-17.47). Cervical examination at maternal admission (0.57; 0.38-0.84) and a written follow-up of the labor (0.68; 0.46-0.98) were identified as protective variables. CONCLUSIONS: Significant flaws in obstetric care are associated with the need for positive-pressure ventilation at birth for neonates weighing ≥2,500 g. PMID:27464294

  11. Race, ethnicity, concentrated poverty, and low birth weight disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group.

  12. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    of 16.9 per 10,000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (plow birth weight) infants among cases with hypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68......AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations...... of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. RESULTS: 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence...

  13. Perinatal and infant mortality and low birth weight among residents near cokeworks in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolk, H.; Pattenden, S.; Vrijheid, M.; Thakrar, B.; Armstrong, B.

    2000-02-01

    With growing evidence of the adverse health effects of air pollution--especially fine particulates--investigators must concentrate on the fetus, neonate, and infant as potentially vulnerable groups. Cokeworks are a major source of smoke and sulfur dioxide. In the current study, the authors investigated whether populations residing near cokeworks had a higher risk of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes. Zones of 7.5-km radius around 22 cokeworks in Great Britain were studied, within which the authors assumed that exposure declined from highest levels within 2 km to background levels. Routinely recorded birth and death data for Great Britain during the period 1981--1992 were analyzed. Each individual record had a postcode that referred to a small geographical area of typically 15--17 addresses. The authors calculated expected numbers on the basis of regional rates, stratified by year, sex, and a small-area socio-economic deprivation score. For all cokeworks combined, the observed/expected ratio within 2 km of cokeworks was 1.00 for low-birth-weight infants; 0.94 for still births; 0.95 for infant mortality; 0.86 for neonatal mortality; 1.10 for postneonatal mortality; 0.79 for respiratory postneonatal mortality; and 1.07 for postneonatal Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Respiratory postneonatal mortality was low throughout the entire 0--7.5-km study area. There was no statistically significant decline in risk with distance from cokeworks for any of the outcomes studied. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of an increased risk of low birth weight, stillbirths, and/or neonatal mortality near cokeworks, and there was no strong evidence for any association between residence near cokeworks and postneonatal mortality. One must remember, however, the limited statistical power of the study to detect small risks.

  14. Definition and outpatient management of the very low-birth-weight infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Jessie R; Makari, Doris

    2012-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as chronic lung disease of prematurity, is the major cause of pulmonary disease in infants. The pathophysiology and management of BPD have evolved over the past four decades as improved neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) modalities have increased survival rates. The likelihood for developing BPD increases with the degree of prematurity and reaches 25-35% in very low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants. BPD affects many organ systems, and infants with BPD are at increased risk for rehospitalization and numerous complications following NICU discharge. The management of BPD and medically related problems, particularly during the first 2 years of life, remains a continuing challenge for parents and healthcare providers. It is important that a multidisciplinary team consisting of the neonatologist/attending physician, primary care physician, and other specialized support staff work in concert and meet regularly to provide continuity of care and accurate patient assessments.

  15. RISK FACTORS IN PREGNANCY AND THEIR RELATION TO BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Azordegan

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available In 17 hospitals, 13123 new births were born during 1989 in Tehran. Some well-trained personnel observed the events, filling the required questionnaires, interviewing, and collecting necessary information. Among them 730 newborns was low birth weight (less than 2500 grams which was considered as cases. Immediately after each case was born, two normal newborn were randomly selected as controls. So at the end of data collection, a total of 1460 births were considered controls. In a case-control study the effect of some risk factors during pregnancy of mothers on birth weight and death rate of newborn during first 4 weeks of their life were fully investigated. Some of the findings are as follows: The past history of miscarriages will decrease the birth weight of the newborn and thereby will increase the death rate in the first 28 days of their life. In this respect the difference between case and control was highly significant. Other variables like past history of premature birth, chronic diseases, hemorrhage and severe vomiting showed the same results.

  16. Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Susan L; Racu, Camellia; Gregg, Vanessa; Simmens, Samuel J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be at higher risk for prematurity and low birth weight (corrected for gestational age) than controls. Medical records were reviewed for 25 mothers with PD and 33 mothers without a lifetime history of anxiety disorders or other major psychopathology as determined by diagnostic interview. Mothers also completed questionnaires concerning demographic information and life stresses. Compared to controls, infants with PD mothers were not significantly more likely to be born prematurely or earlier than controls but did show smaller birth weight corrected for gestational age, even after accounting for possible confounding influences. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Studying PD mothers during pregnancy could provide insight concerning mechanisms for the development of low birth weight and psychopathology.

  17. Enteral glutamine supplementation for very low birth weight infants decreases morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, J; Roig, J C; Meetze, W H; Veerman, M; Carter, C; Millsaps, M; Bowling, D; Dallas, M J; Sleasman, J; Knight, T; Auestad, N

    1997-11-01

    Glutamine, described as a "conditionally essential" amino acid for critically ill patients, has not been routinely added to parenteral amino acid formulations for critically ill neonates and is provided in only small quantities by the enteral route when enteral intake is low. We conducted a blinded, randomized study of enteral glutamine supplementation in 68 very low birth weight neonates randomly assigned to receive glutamine-supplemented premature formula versus premature formula alone between days 3 and 30 of life. Primary end points consisted of hospital-acquired sepsis, tolerance to subsequent enteral feedings (days with no oral intake), and duration of hospital stay. Hospital acquired sepsis was 30% (control group) and 11% (glutamine group). Logistic regression with birth weight as a covariate showed that: (1) feeding group was significant (p = 0.048) in determining the probability of developing proven sepsis over the course of hospitalization and (2) the estimated odds of developing sepsis were 3.8 times higher for infants in the control group than for those treated with glutamine. Glutamine-supplemented infants had better tolerance to enteral feedings as measured by percent of days on which feedings needed to be withheld (mean percentage of 8.8 vs 23.8, p = 0.007). Analysis of T cells demonstrated a blunting of the rise in HLA-DR+ and CD16 subsets in glutamine-supplemented infants. There were no differences in growth; in serum ammonia, urea, liver transaminase, or prealbumin concentrations; or in mean hospital stay. This study provides evidence for decreased morbidity in very-low-birth-weight neonates who receive enteral glutamine supplementation.

  18. Is adolescent pregnancy a risk factor for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria D'avila Nery Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether adolescent pregnancy is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW babies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and their newborns from a birth cohort in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected consecutively from March to July 2005. Information collected included socioeconomic, biological and reproductive aspects of the mothers, using a standardized questionnaire. The impact of early pregnancy on birth weight was evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 4,746 pairs of mothers and their babies. Of these, 20.6% were adolescents (< 20 years of age. Adolescent mothers had worse socioeconomic and reproductive conditions and perinatal outcomes when compared to other age groups. Having no prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors associated with low birth weight. Adolescent pregnancy, when linked to marital status "without partner", was associated with an increased proportion of low birth weight babies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence was a risk factor for LBW only for mothers without partners. Smoking during pregnancy and lack of prenatal care were considered to be independent risk factors for LBW.

  19. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  20. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  1. Nutritional support of very low birth weight newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzenberger, Georgia

    2009-06-01

    Nutritional support to promote optimal postnatal growth for very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns less than 1500 g at birth during the initial prolonged hospitalization is a significant issue. This article reviews the concepts involved in the nutritional support of VLBW newborns, including definitions and discussions of growth, optimal postnatal growth, body composition, initial weight loss, growth expectations, growth assessment tools used during the postnatal period, the relation between inadequate nutrition and neurodevelopment, the relation between protein intake and cognitive outcome, postnatal nutrition balance, the potential for programming of future adult-onset chronic conditions, a review of fetal nutritional intake, and current recommendations for nutritional support of VLBW newborns.

  2. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  3. Effects of Second Trimester Maternal Hemoglobin Levels on Birth Weight and Birth Time

    OpenAIRE

    DÜNDAR, Özgür; ÇİFTPINAR, Tolga; TÜTÜNCÜ, Levent; ERGÜR, Ali Rüştü; ATAY, Mehmet Vedat; MÜNGEN, Ercüment; YERGÖK, Yusuf Ziya

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of anemia at the second trimester on birth weight and birth time. Patients and Methods: The medical reports of 1116 pregnant women who attended and delivered at our clinic between January 2005 and October 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups as having <9 gr/dl hemoglobin or ≥9 gr/dl hemoglobin levels. The gestational and the perinatal outcomes of the normal a...

  4. Birth weight and altitude: a study in Peruvian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, J P; Frappell, P B; Aguero, L; Armstrong, K

    2000-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that at high altitude birth weight decreases once a critical barometric pressure (Pb) is reached. Birth weight data covering the 1-year period from November 1997 to October 1998 were collected in Peru from the data files of 15 community and mining centers between sea level and 4575 m altitude. These centers are scattered along the main road that joins Lima (on the Pacific shore) to Cerro de Pasco (4330 m) and surroundings. Above approximately 2000 m (ie, at Pb below approximately 590 mm Hg, inspired O(2) partial pressure of approximately 114 mm Hg) and up to approximately 4500 m altitude birth weight declined at an average of 65 g for every additional 500 m altitude (or 105 g for every additional 50 mm Hg drop in Pb). This pattern did not differ between sexes. Averages and modal distributions of the birth weight from 2 hospitals in Cerro de Pasco (4330 m) serving different social groups were similar. Body length at birth was similar at various altitudes, with the exception of the 2 highest locations above 4500 m, where it was slightly reduced. From these data, together with additional data collected in the North of Peru (Chacas, 3360 m) and with results from other ethnic groups previously published, we conclude that the drop in birth weight at altitude is (1) apparent once the critical Pb of approximately 590 mm Hg is reached, corresponding to an altitude of approximately 2000 m, (2) proportional to the increase in altitude between approximately 2000 m and 4500 m, and (3) independent from socioeconomic factors.

  5. Improving Maternal Healthcare Access and Neonatal Survival through a Birthing Home Model in Rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wickstrom

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available High neonatal mortality in Haiti is sustained by limited access to essential maternity services, particularly for Haiti’s rural population. We investigated the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to provide basic prenatal, delivery, and neonatal services for women with uncomplicated pregnancies while simultaneously providing triage and transport of women with pregnancy related complications. The model included consideration of the local context, including women’s perceptions of barriers to healthcare access and available resources to implement change. Evaluation methods included the performance of a baseline community census and collection of pregnancy histories from 791 women living in a defined area of rural Haiti. These retrospective data were compared with pregnancy outcome for 668 women subsequently receiving services at the birthing home. Of 764 reported most recent pregnancies in the baseline survey, 663(87% occurred at home with no assistance from skilled health staff. Of 668 women followed after opening of the birthing home, 514 (77% subsequently gave birth at the birthing home, 94 (14% were referred to a regional hospital for delivery, and only 60 (9% delivered at home or on the way to the birthing home. Other measures of clinical volume and patient satisfaction also indicated positive changes in health care seeking. After introduction of the birthing home, fewer neonates died than predicted by historical information or national statistics. The present experience points out the feasibility of a rural birthing home model to increase access to essential maternity services.

  6. What is the strongest predictor of birth weight: Gestational age, hbalc, maternal weight, weight gain, or birth weight of sibling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus

    Aim: To assess the effect of various maternal characteristics in diabetic pregnancies on birthweight (BW) taking into account birthweight of an elderly sibling.  Method: We identified all pregnant diabetic women in North Jutland County. Birthweight and certain maternal characteristics including H...... for various increments in each of the 9 variables are seen in the table. All significant values are in bold face.  Conclusion: Weight of sibling is a very strong predictor of birthweight attenuating the predictive power of all other variablesapart from gestational age....... adjusted for age and sex using a Danish reference. E.g. an observed sibling weight of 3800 g with expected BW 3400 g predicts 11.8% extra weight equal to 134 grams (114x11.8) and one extra gestational day predicts an additional weight of 27 grams.  Results: The effects in terms of additional grams in BW...

  7. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  8. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight.

  9. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille;

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India...

  10. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t

  11. Screening for Dysregulation among Toddlers Born Very Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne Woolsey; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for regulatory difficulties. However, identifying toddlers at risk has been impeded by a lack of screening measures appropriate for this population. Methods: We studied the nature of dysregulation in toddlers born VLBW (N = 32) using the Infant-Toddler Social and…

  12. Housing instability and birth weight among young urban mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Bianca V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Kershaw, Trace; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2015-02-01

    Housing instability is an understudied social condition that may be a severe stressor during pregnancy. Aims of this study are to identify correlates of housing instability and to explore the association between housing instability and birth weight among pregnant teens and young mothers. Participants included pregnant women ages 14-21 from seven community hospitals and health centers in New York City (N = 623). Data were collected via structured surveys during the second trimester of pregnancy (14 to 24 weeks gestation, M = 19.35, SD = 3.20). Birth weight was obtained through labor and delivery logs. Housing instability was operationalized as two or more moves within the past year. More than one in four (28.5 %) pregnant teens and young women in this sample reported housing instability. Women who reported housing instability were less likely to be enrolled in school, have parents as main source of financial support, live in a single-family home or apartment, or be food secure; they were more likely to smoke (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for important clinical, behavioral, and demographic factors typically associated with lower birth weight, housing instability remained a significant predictor of lower birth weight (B (SE) = -83.96(35.47), p = 0.018). Results highlight the importance of housing stability during pregnancy for infant health. Future interventions and policies should ensure that women are housing stable before, during, and after pregnancy.

  13. Low Birth Weight, Preschool Education, and School Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Arteaga, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Studies have documented a strong relationship between low birth-weight status and adverse child outcomes such as poor school performance and need for special education services. Following a cohort of more than 1,300 low-income and predominately African American children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, the authors investigate whether birth…

  14. IS LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ASSOCIATED WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Nalini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Daily we see lots of still birth cases and the agony associated with it after carrying the fetus for so many months with the negative outcome it is quite disheartening. Malnutrition is quite rampant in the country as far as the females are concerned and in the name of the religion and rituals, it complicates the issue further. If the mother is malnourished, the chance of low birth weight baby is high. OBJECTIVES To correlate the prevalence of cardiac anomalies in low birth weight fetuses. MATERIAL AND METHOD The study was carried out in 40 stillbirth fetuses with detailed account of nutritional status of the mother, consanguinity, history of previous pregnancies, miscarriages, socio-economic status and exposure to drugs/radiation. The number of cases with fetus having cardiac anomalies was quite significant. RESULTS Out of total 40 stillbirth fetuses, 29 (72.5% stillbirths were from less than 2.5kg and 11 (27.5% were from more than 2.5kg. Cardiac anomalies were present in 16 and 02 cases respectively. Fused heart-01, mesocardia-01, Dextrocardia with CORV-02, Interrupted aortic arch-02, Abnormal origin of right subclavian artery-01, Tetralogy of Fallot-01, VSD-07, ASD-01, transposition of great vessels-01, persistent truncus arteriosus with tricuspid atresia, elongated hypertrophied abnormally positioned Rt. Atrium, rudimentary Rt. Ventricle-01, mal-attachment of ductus arteriosus-03, double superior vena cava-01, dilated caval system-01. CONCLUSION Considering the high incidence of cardiac anomalies in fetuses of low birth weight, we must try to create awareness and support the expectant mothers to avoid the low birth weight babies and thus the congenital anomalies.

  15. Gestational Weight Gain and Fetal Birth Weight in Rural Regions of Rasht/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Panahandeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Proper nutrition during pregnancy is essential for optimal fetal growth. Investigation of the relation between pregnancy weight gain and birth weight in rural regions of Rasht, center of Guilan Province in Iran, was the purpose of this study. Methods: In this cohort study, prenatal data of 918 women who attended local health centers with singleton term pregnancies were recorded. Maternal demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, total pregnancy weight gain and birth weight were recorded by health workers. The women were stratified based on their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI into four groups: underweight women, women with normal weight, overweight women and obese women. The relation between weight gain and low birth weight (LBW, birth weight <2500 g and macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g was studied in these four groups. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals. Findings: More than 50% of underweight women and women with normal weight and almost 30% of overweight and obese women gained weight less than what is mentioned in the Institute of Medicine (IOM recommendations. The incidence rate of LBW was 7.1% and that of macrosomia was 5%. Mean weight gain of women with LBW was significantly less than mean weight gain of women who had an infant with a birth weight more than 2500 g (P=0.002. Women who gained weight less than the recommended range had higher rate of LBW in their infants (P=0.01 and the incidence of macrosomia in women with a weight gain above the recommended weight was higher than that in others (P=0.012. Pregnancy weight gain less than what is mentioned in the IOM guideline was the only predictor for LBW (OR=2.79, CI=1.16-6.73, P=0.02. Conclusion:Pregnancy weight gains less than what is mentioned in the IOM recommendation was a significant predictor of LBW, regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI.

  16. The 5-minute Apgar score: survival and short-term outcomes in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Ann Gibbons; Kirkby, Sharon; Dysart, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Apgar score is a standardized tool for evaluating newborns in the delivery room. Despite its long history and widespread use, debate remains over its reliability of predicting neonatal outcomes, especially in extremely low-birth-weight premature infants. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the 5-minute Apgar score of extremely low-birth-weight infants, as it relates to survival and morbidities associated with prematurity and length of hospital stay. A retrospective query of the Alere neonatal database from 2001 to 2011 examined all infants less than 32 weeks' gestation and less than 1000-g birth weight. The 5-minute Apgar score was divided into 2 groups, score of 4 or greater or less than 4. The study compared results of the 5-minute Apgar score and associated morbidities in surviving infants. Statistical analyses included chi-square, Fisher exact test, t test, and multivariate regression. The sample consisted of 3898 infants with an 86.4% (n = 3366) survival rate. Controlling for gestational age and birth weight, surviving infants with a 5-minute Apgar score of less than 4 were more likely to demonstrate nonintact survival. Infants with a low 5-minute Apgar score have greater risk for mortality and morbidities associated with prematurity.

  17. Differential effects of cigarette smoking on birth weight by maternal body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz-Partington, Sean; Condous, George; Mongelli, Max

    2016-07-01

    Links between low birth weight and tobacco exposure in utero are well established, as are associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight. This study further develops those relationships. In particular, this article analyses whether high maternal weight acts to dampen the previously established link between tobacco exposure and low birth weight. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken, reviewing the birth weights of 13,473 live singleton pregnancies born at a Sydney regional hospital between 1998 and 2003. Results demonstrated a statistically significant decline in reduced birth weight as BMI increased. That is, as body weight increases, tobacco use has a smaller effect on reducing birth weight. Inversely, the effect on reducing birth weight for each cigarette smoked by leaner women was greater. In effect, the adverse influence of tobacco use on birth weight appears to be modulated by increasing maternal BMI.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  19. Determination of nerve behavior of low birth weight and normal birth weight (NBNA) analysis%低出生体重与正常体重新生儿神经行为测定(NBNA)结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣波; 孙玉雪; 柴红; 曲华

    2014-01-01

    目的:评估低出生体重儿新生儿与正常出生体重新生儿相比较其神经行为能力(NBNA)是否受影响。方法:对65例低出生体重儿(BW<2500g)的新生儿分别于生后3-4天和25-28NBNA测评,并与78例正常出生体重儿进行比较。结果:在出生3-4天和出生25-28天测评NBNA时,低出生体重儿的NBNA各种测量值与对照组比较,差别有显著性(p均<0.001);出生后25-28天的低出生体重儿NBNA各项评分与总评分与出生后3-4天NBNA各项评分及总评分比较差异均有显著性(p均<0.001);结论:低出生体重儿NBNA值与正常出生体重儿NBNA值要低;随着新生儿的生长发育,其NBNA值会不断提高。%Objective: To evaluate the low birth weight neonates and normal birth weight newborns ,compared whether the nerve behavior ability (NBNA) is affected . Methods:the 65 cases of low birth weight (BW < 2500g) newborns do NBNA test after they were birth respectively 3-4 days and 25-28 days , and compared with 78 cases of normal birth weight infants .Results: To measure the NBNA after 3-4 days and 25-28 days they were born,al NBNA measurements of the low birth weight infants were significant difference compared with the control group(al P <0.001),the comparison of the NBNA scores and total score is significant difference between the low birth weight infants after they were born 3-4 days and 25-28 days(al P <0.001); conclusion: The NBNA value of low birth weight infants is lower than normal birth weight infants; with neonatal growth and development, the NBNA value wil continue to improve.

  20. Pharmacoeconomic impact of use of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low-birth-weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimaguila MAVT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Ann VT Dimaguila,1,2 Peter Gal,1,3,4 Tiffany Wilson,1 John E Wimmer Jr,1,2 McCrae Smith,1,2 Rita Q Carlos,1,2 Christie C Davanzo,1,2 J Laurence Ransom1,2 1Women's Hospital of Greensboro, Cone Health, Greensboro, NC, USA; 2Piedmont Neonatology, Greensboro, NC, USA; 3Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Greensboro Area Health Education Center, Greensboro, NC, USA Background: A recent study showed that use of Lactobacillus reuteri as probiotic prophylaxis decreased the necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC rate from 15.1% to 2.5% in neonates with birth weight below 1000 g. Given the controversies surrounding use of probiotics in neonatal intensive care units, we address one additional aspect of routine implementation of probiotics for NEC prophylaxis – the pharmacoeconomic impact. Methods: Using data from our initial published experience, and continuing data collection after instituting a higher dose of L. reuteri, we measured the reduction in NEC in neonates with birth weight below 1000 g. Cost savings from prior studies examining the cost and outcomes of medical and surgical NEC were used to calculate the financial impact of routine L. reuteri DSM 17938 prophylaxis. Results: Medical records for 354 neonates were reviewed, 232 in the years before introduction of L. reuteri prophylaxis and 79 who received L. reuteri prophylaxis dosed at 0.1 mL daily and 43 neonates given a total daily dose of 0.2 mL as one or two doses. The incidence of NEC was significantly lower in the neonates who received L. reuteri (two of 122 neonates [1.6%] versus 35 of 232 neonates [15.1%]. The expected benefits for our neonatal intensive care unit per 100 extremely low-birth-weight neonates treated were four fewer deaths, five fewer cases of medical NEC, eight fewer cases of surgical NEC, one less patient with short-bowel syndrome, and a cost saving of approximately $2.2 million. Conclusion: Prophylactic

  1. Neonatal skeletal fractures. Birth trauma or child abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, W A

    1979-03-01

    When a fracture is discovered in a newborn infant, it is important to decide whether it occurred at birth or after birth. Calcification around the fracture site gives a useful estimate of the age of the fracture. We reviewed films of 23 patients with fractures resulting from delivery. The fractures occurred at three different sites: the clavicle, the humerus, and the femur. Calcification could be seen as early as seven days after birth and was absent for as long as 11 days after birth. Six of seven femoral fractures occurred in infants with neuromuscular problems. Fracture at an unusual site or absence of calcification after 11 days should alert the radiologist to the possibility of abuse.

  2. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben;

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  3. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated....... These results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...

  4. [Does shift work cause spontaneous abortion, preterm birth or low birth weight?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Viskum, Sven; Omland, Øyvind; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2007-03-05

    In Denmark 30% of females in the reproductive age regularly have shift work. 22 epidemiological papers were studied looking at associations between shift work and abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth weight. No convincing associations were observed between rotating shift work or fixed nightshift and negative pregnancy outcome. Some epidemiological support was found for a relation between fixed nightshift and late abortions/stillbirth. If fixed night work for all pregnant women is avoided, seven late abortion/stillbirths a year can be prevented. Fixed night work for pregnant women should be avoided.

  5. Serum cortisol values, superior vena cava flow and illness severity scores in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that high cortisol concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Neonatal illness severity and mortality risk scores are reliable in predicting morbidity and mortality. The objectives were (i) to assess the correlation between serum cortisol levels and clinical assessment of multi-organ dysfunction\\/illness severity scores (CRIB II, SNAPPE-II and neonatal multiple organ dysfunction score (NEOMOD)) in first 24 h in VLBW infants and (ii) to assess the relationship between surrogates of end organ blood flow and serum cortisol levels. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight <1500 g were eligible for enrollment. Echocardiography evaluation of superior vena cava (SVC) flow was carried out in the first 24 h life. Cortisol levels were measured simultaneously and appropriate clinical scores were calculated. RESULT: A total of 54 VLBW neonates were enrolled following parental consent. Two patients were excluded because of congenital malformations. In 14 babies the cortisol value was not simultaneously obtained. The mean birth weight was 1.08 kg, mean gestational age was 27.8 weeks. There was a significant correlation between cortisol and NEOMOD score (P=0.006). There was no correlation between cortisol and CRIB II score (P=0.34), SVC flow (P=0.49) and mean arterial blood pressure respectively (P=0.35). CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between SVC flow and cortisol values or between cortisol and mean blood pressure values. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels and neonatal organ dysfunction score evaluated suggesting that stressed VLBW infants do mount a cortisol response.

  6. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth in low birthweight neonates. DESIGN: Randomised, placebo controlled, two by two factorial trial. SETTING: Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1717 low birthweight neonates born at the national hospital....... INTERVENTION: Neonates who weighed less than 2.5 kg were randomly assigned to 25 000 IU vitamin A or placebo, as well as to early BCG vaccine or the usual late BCG vaccine, and were followed until age 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Mortality, calculated as mortality rate ratios (MRRs), after follow-up to 12...... months of age for infants who received vitamin A supplementation compared with those who received placebo. RESULTS: No interaction was observed between vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccine allocation (P=0.73). Vitamin A supplementation at birth was not significantly associated with mortality...

  7. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  8. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Trumpff

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4–6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45–15 mIU/L. Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration—a surrogate marker for MID—was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10–15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  9. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Concentration at Birth in Belgian Neonates and Cognitive Development at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vanderpas, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-11-02

    The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of MID during late pregnancy, assessed by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration at neonatal screening, on cognitive development of preschool children. A retrospective cohort study including 311 Belgian preschool children of 4-6 years old was conducted. Children were selected at random from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009, and 2010 by the Brussels new-born screening center. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight, and/or prematurity were excluded from the selection. The selected children were stratified by gender and TSH-range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Cognitive abilities were assessed using Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-third edition. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental, and child confounding factors were assessed. Neonatal TSH concentration-a surrogate marker for MID-was not associated with Full Scale and Performance IQ scores in children. Lower Verbal IQ scores were found in children with neonatal TSH values comprised between 10-15 mIU/L compared to lower TSH levels in univariate analysis but these results did not hold when adjusting for confounding factors. Current levels of iodine deficiency among pregnant Belgian women may not be severe enough to affect the neurodevelopment of preschool children.

  10. Practices of rural Egyptian birth attendants during the antenatal, intrapartum and early neonatal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Hussein, Mohamed Hassan; Winch, Peter J; Haws, Rachel A; Gipson, Reginald; Santosham, Mathuram

    2008-03-01

    Neonatal deaths account for almost two-thirds of infant mortality worldwide; most deaths are preventable. Two-thirds of neonatal deaths occur during the first week of life, usually at home. While previous Egyptian studies have identified provider practices contributing to maternal mortality, none has focused on neonatal care. A survey of reported practices of birth attendants was administered. Chi-square tests were used for measuring the statistical significance of inter-regional differences. In total, 217 recently-delivered mothers in rural areas of three governorates were interviewed about antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care they received. This study identified antenatal advice of birth attendants to mothers about neonatal care and routine intrapartum and postpartum practices. While mothers usually received antenatal care from physicians, traditional birth attendants (dayas) conducted most deliveries. Advice was rare, except for breastfeeding. Routine practices included hand-washing by attendants, sterile cord-cutting, prompt wrapping of newborns, and postnatal home visits. Suboptimal practices included lack of disinfection of delivery instruments, unhygienic cord care, lack of weighing of newborns, and lack of administration of eye prophylaxis or vitamin K. One-third of complicated deliveries occurred at home, commonly attended by relatives, and the umbilical cord was frequently pulled to hasten delivery of the placenta. In facilities, mothers reported frequent use of forceps, and asphyxiated neonates were often hung upside-down during resuscitation. Consequently, high rates of birth injuries were reported. Priority areas for behaviour change and future research to improve neonatal health outcomes were identified, specific to type of provider (physician, nurse, or daya) and regional variations in practices.

  11. Placental Growth Measures in Relation to Birth Weight in a Latin American Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlos; Veiga, Angélica; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso, Viviane

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The placenta, translates how the fetus experiences the maternal environment and is a principal influence on birth weight (BW). Objective To explore the relationship between placental growth measures (PGMs) and BW in a public maternity hospital. Methods Observational retrospective study of 870 singleton live born infants at Hospital Maternidad Sardá, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, between January 2011 and August 2012 with complete data of PGMs. Details of history, clinical and obstetrical maternal data, labor and delivery and neonatal outcome data, including placental measures derived from the records, were evaluated. The following manual measurements of the placenta according to standard methods were performed: placental weight (PW, g), larger and smaller diameters (cm), eccentricity, width (cm), shape, area (cm(2)), BW/PW ratio (BPR) and PW/BW ratio (PBR), and efficiency. Associations between BW and PGMs were examined using multiple linear regression. Results Birth weight was correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.001), whereas gestational age was moderately correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.001). By gestational age, there was a positive trend for PW and BPR, but an inverse relationship with PBR (p < 0.001). Placental weight alone accounted for 49% of birth weight variability (p < 0,001), whereas all PGMs accounted for 52% (p < 0,001). Combined, PGMs, maternal characteristics (parity, pre-eclampsia, tobacco use), gestational age and gender explained 77.8% of BW variations (p < 0,001). Among preterm births, 59% of BW variances were accounted for by PGMs, compared with 44% at term. All placental measures except BPR were consistently higher in females than in males, which was also not significant. Indices of placental efficiency showed weakly clinical relevance. Conclusions Reliable measures of placental growth estimate 53.6% of BW variances and project this outcome to a

  12. Effects of maternal pregnancy intention, depressive symptoms and social support on risk of low birth weight: a prospective study from southwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Dibaba Wado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. METHODS: Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which women were followed from pregnancy through to delivery. Six hundred twenty two women were followed and 537 birth weights were measured within 72 hours. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to model the risk of low birth weight. RESULTS: The mean birth weight was 2989 grams (SD ± 504 grams, and the incidence of LBW was 17.88%. The mean birth weight of babies after unwanted pregnancy was 114 g lower compared to births from intended pregnancy. Similarly, mean birth weight for babies among women with symptoms of antenatal depression was 116 grams lower. Results of unadjusted log-binomial regression showed that unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support were associated with LBW. The relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms and LBW was mediated by the presence of social support, while the association between LBW and unwanted pregnancy remained after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: The incidence of low birth weight is high in the study area. Poverty, nonuse of antenatal care, low social support and unwanted pregnancy contribute to this high incidence of low birth weight. Hence, identifying women's pregnancy intention during antenatal care visits, and providing appropriate counseling and social support will help improve birth outcomes.

  13. Cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices as determinants of birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amegah Adeladza K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effect of indoor air pollution (IAP on birth weight remains largely unexplored but yet purported as the most important environmental exposure for pregnant women in developing countries due to the effects of second-hand smoke. We investigated the associations between the determinants of indoor air quality in households and birth weight. Methods A cross-sectional study of 592 mothers and their newborns using postnatal services at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital located in Accra, Ghana was conducted in 2010 to collect information on characteristics of indoor environment and other potential determinants of fetal growth. Birth weight was recorded from hospital records. Results Household cooking fuel choices and garbage burning practices were determinants of birth weight. Multivariate linear regression analysis adjusting for age, social class, marital status and gravidity of mothers, and sex of neonate resulted in a 243g (95% CI: 496, 11 and 178g (95% CI: 421, 65 reduction in birth weight for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. The estimated reductions in birth weight was not statistically significant. Applying the ordinal scale exposure parameter nonetheless revealed a significant exposure-response relationship between maternal exposures from charcoal use and garbage burning, and birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders resulted in a 41% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.41; 95% CI: 0.62, 3.23 and 195% (RR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.10, 7.92 increase in the risk of low birth weight (LBW for use of charcoal, and garbage burning respectively compared with use of LPG only. A combination of charcoal use and household garbage burning during pregnancy on fetal growth resulted in a 429g (95% CI: 259, 599 reduction in birth weight and 316% (RR=4.16; 95% CI: 2.02, 8.59 excess risk of LBW. Sensitivity analysis performed by restricting the analysis to term births produced similar results

  14. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW). Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor o...

  15. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S. D.; Zhang, M.G.; De, G.; Mathur, S.; Mina, T.H.; Reynolds, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EM...

  16. Intergenerational predictors of birth weight in the Philippines: correlations with mother's and father's birth weight and test of maternal constraint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Kuzawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth weight (BW predicts many health outcomes, but the relative contributions of genes and environmental factors to BW remain uncertain. Some studies report stronger mother-offspring than father-offspring BW correlations, with attenuated father-offspring BW correlations when the mother is stunted. These findings have been interpreted as evidence that maternal genetic or environmental factors play an important role in determining birth size, with small maternal size constraining paternal genetic contributions to offspring BW. Here we evaluate mother-offspring and father-offspring birth weight (BW associations and evaluate whether maternal stunting constrains genetic contributions to offspring birth size. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data include BW of offspring (n = 1,101 born to female members (n = 382 and spouses of male members (n = 275 of a birth cohort (born 1983-84 in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Regression was used to relate parental and offspring BW adjusting for confounders. Resampling testing was used to evaluate whether false paternity could explain any evidence for excess matrilineal inheritance. In a pooled model adjusting for maternal height and confounders, parental BW was a borderline-significantly stronger predictor of offspring BW in mothers compared to fathers (sex of parent interaction p = 0.068. In separate multivariate models, each kg in mother's and father's BW predicted a 271±53 g (p25% and likely 50% would be needed to explain these differences. There was no interaction between maternal stature and maternal BW (interaction p = 0.520 or paternal BW (p = 0.545. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Each kg change in mother's BW predicted twice the change in offspring BW as predicted by a change in father's BW, consistent with an intergenerational maternal effect on offspring BW. Evidence for excess matrilineal BW heritability at all levels of maternal stature points to indirect genetic

  17. Does Mother's IQ Explain the Association between Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J.; Der, Geoff; Shenkin, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    There is a significant association between birth weight and cognitive test scores in childhood, even among individuals born at term and with normal birth weight. The association is not explained by the child's social background. Here we examine whether mother's cognitive ability accounts for the birth weight-cognitive ability association. We…

  18. Adequacy of maternal pyridoxine supplementation during pregnancy in relation to the vitamin B6 status and growth of neonates at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S J

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate the adequacy of maternal pyridoxine supplementation during pregnancy for both maternal and neonatal status at birth, vitamin B6 status, assessed by plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), pyridoxal (PL) and total aldehyde vitamer (PLP + PL) concentrations, and the growth of neonates, including weight, length, head and chest circumferences, were examined for 209 neonates whose mothers were supplemented with 0, 1, 2 or 3 mg pyridoxine.HCl (PN.HCl)/d during pregnancy. Maternal PN.HCl supplementations were positively correlated to both maternal (r = 0.62) and cord (r = 0.78) plasma PLP concentrations (p neonates whose mothers had maternal and cord plasma PLP concentrations > or = 40 nM was revealed by the maternal supplementation of 2 mg PN.HCl/d during pregnancy. Thus, in healthy pregnant women, according to our study, a daily supplement of 2 mg PN.HCl provides the adequacy of maternal and neonatal vitamin B6 status and the satisfactory growth of neonates at birth.

  19. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight. DESIGN: Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors. RESULTS: Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7. INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  20. Birth-related mid-posterior rib fractures in neonates: a report of three cases (and a possible fourth case) and a review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Bilo, Rob A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Forensic Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robben, Simon G.F. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    Posterior rib fractures in young children have a high positive predictive value for non-accidental injury (NAI). Combined data of five studies on birth trauma (115,756 live births) showed no cases of rib fractures resulting from birth trauma. There have, however, been sporadic cases reported in the literature. We present three neonates with both posterior rib fractures and ipsilateral clavicular fractures resulting from birth trauma. A review of the literature is also presented. The common denominator and a possible mechanical aetiology are discussed. In total, 13 cases of definitive birth-related posterior rib fractures were identified. Nearly all (9/10) posterior rib fractures were (as far as reported in the original publications) in the midline. In 12 of the 13 children, birth weight was high and in 7 children birth was complicated by shoulder dystocia. An interesting finding was that in cases where a clavicular fracture was present, this was on the ipsilateral side. Radiologists, when presented with a neonate with posterior rib fractures, should be aware of this rare differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  2. Cord Blood Metabolome Is Highly Associated with Birth Weight, but Less Predictive for Later Weight Development

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    Christian Hellmuth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence. Methods: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA, polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform. Cord blood metabolites were related to growth factors by linear regression models adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Cord blood metabolites were highly associated with birth weight. Lysophosphatidylcholines C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C18:2, C20:4, C14:0, C16:0, C18:3, GPL-FA C20:3n-9, and GPL-FA C22:5n-6 were positively related to birth weight, while higher cord blood concentrations of NEFA C22:6, NEFA C20:5, GPL-FA C18:3n-3, and PCe C38:0 were associated with lower birth weight. Postnatal weight gain and BMI z-scores in adolescents were not significantly associated with cord blood metabolites after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: Potential long-term programming effects of the intrauterine environment and metabolism on later health cannot be predicted with profiling of the cord blood metabolome.

  3. Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Early Diagnosis of Neonatal Adrenoleukodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nuri Sener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A newborn baby girl developed seizures right after birth. On the fourth day, the baby was examined using diffusion sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diagnosed to have neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Laboratory findings confirmed the diagnosis. This is the first case of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD where diffusion MRI sequence helped in the diagnosis. We find association of NALD with seizures at birth is an extremely rare occurrence, and so far, only one case has been mentioned in the literature.

  4. CHARACTERISTICS AND THE OUTCOME OF VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT BORN IN SANGLAH HOSPITAL DENPASAR

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    Yoga Putra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight (VLBW infants is one of the most important medical problem especially in developing countries. This issue is due to its high morbidity and mortality rate. On the other hand, the long term impact of VLBW infants are poor growth and development including physical, emotional, intelectual (IQ, and disabilities, therefore it could decrease the quality of human resources and become a burden to their family. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome among VLBW infants born in the Sanglah Hospital. This was a retrospective study. Data were collected from medical record of all infants with VLBW delivered in Sanglah Hospital from January to Desember 2009. Uncompleted infants and mother medical records were excluded from this study. Of 64 VLBW infants enrolled into the study of which 54.7%  of this subjects was male, median of weight was 1300 g, mean gestational of age was 30.9 (SD 2.28 weeks, and mean lenght of stay was 30.9 (SD 19.7 days. The survival of VLBW infants in this study was 62.5%,  mortality in the early neonatal period was 70,8%. The percentage of VLBW infants who survive was still low and the major causes mortality were HMD (50% and sepsis (41.6%. The mortality of VLBW happened mostly in early neonatal periode.

  5. Birth weight, neonatal management and sow longevity potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    The furthest thing from most producers’ minds when a replacement gilt is born is how long she will remain in the herd producing pigs. Instead, the immediate task at hand is to get her to survive until weaning. Nevertheless, whether they realize it or not, much of the reproductive potential that she ...

  6. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

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    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  7. An audit of caesarean sections for very low birth weight babies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2012-02-01

    This study reviewed caesarean sections for very low birth weight babies in a tertiary referral maternity hospital. Maternal and neonatal complications were recorded and classified according to uterine incision type. We reviewed medical records of 89 women over a period of 2 years. The indication for the caesarean section influenced the type of uterine incision made (p = 0.004). Women who had antepartum haemorrhage were more likely to need a vertical incision. There was also a higher incidence of vertical incisions for gestations <28 weeks (p = 0.029). Surprisingly, when the computerised discharge summaries were reviewed retrospectively, all the vertical uterine incisions were recorded as lower segment caesarean sections. This would have a clinical impact on those women in future pregnancies, especially in a highly mobile population.

  8. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (BW) has been associated with poor bone health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BW and bone mass and metabolism in adult BW discordant monozygotic twins (MZ). METHODS: 153 BW extremely discordant MZ twin-pairs were...... individuals using regression analyses with or without adjustment for height, weight, age, sex, and intra-pair correlation. Within-pair differences were assessed using Student's T-test and fixed-regression models. RESULTS: BW was not associated with BTMs, LS-, TH-, FN- or WB-BMD, but BW was associated with WB......-BMC, and -WB-Area after adjustments. Compared to the co-twin, twins with the highest BW were heavier and taller in adulthood (Mean differences (SD): 3.0 (10.5) kg; 1.6 (2.6) cm, both p ...

  9. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas S. Azzeh

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. Objective: To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i Low Birth Weight (LBW infants (15012500 g birth weight, (ii Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW infants (1001-1500 g birth weight and (iii Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW infants ( 0.05 were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05 than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05 in ELBW group. Conclusion: Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups.

  10. Nutritional Status of Low Birth Weight Newborns with Different Gestational Age in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit%新生儿重症监护病房中不同胎龄低出生体质量儿营养状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝文英; 廖艳; 汪伟山; 李丽; 黄辉文

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察NICU中不同胎龄低出生体质量儿血生化指标,探讨临床早期评估低出生体质量儿营养状况的敏感指标.方法采用前瞻性研究方法观察不同胎龄低出生体质量儿[胎龄28~ 31周(G 28-31)组、胎龄32-36周(G 32-36)组和胎龄37~42周(G 37-42)组]在新生儿期第1天和肠内营养达到推荐摄入标准(RDIs)后第1天血清清蛋白(ALB)、血糖(Glu)、总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、载脂蛋白A(ApoA)、载脂蛋白B(ApoB)水平变化.结果 在新生儿期第1天,胎龄越小,血ALB水平越低,3组ALB水平比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).G 37-42组在新生儿期第1天TC、LDL-C、ApoB明显低于G28-31组和G32-36组,而在肠内营养达到RDIs后第1天,其TG、LDL-C、ApoB上升趋势明显高于G28-31组和G32-36组,差异均有统计学意义.结论 血ALB是临床早期评估不同胎龄低出生体质量儿营养状况的敏感指标之一,定期监测血脂中LDL-C、ApoB水平变化,可为新生儿早期营养干预提供合理指导,避免在追赶式生长过程中不适当地补充营养,导致代谢紊乱,产生远期不良后果.%To investigate the early assessment index of nutrition of low birth weight newborns with different gestational age in neonatal intensive care unit. Methods Prospective study was carried in low birth weight newboms divided by different gestational age[gestational age 28 - 31 weeks (G28 -31) group, gestational age 32 - 36 weeks (G32 - 36) group and gestational age 37 - 42 weeks (G37 - 42 ) group]. Serum index including serum albumin (ALB) , glucose (Glu) , total cholesterol (TC) , triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ,low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) , apolipoprotein A (ApoA) , apolipoprotein B (ApoB) were tested at the first day and enteral nutrition reached to recommended diet intakes( RDIs). Results Serum ALB increased obviously

  11. Positive Effect of Human Milk Feeding during NICU Hospitalization on 24 Month Neurodevelopment of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Italian Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dino Gibertoni; Luigi Corvaglia; Silvia Vandini; Paola Rucci; Silvia Savini; Rosina Alessandroni; Alessandra Sansavini; Maria Pia Fantini; Giacomo Faldella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths ...

  12. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  13. The Effect of Meperidine on Peripartum Breastfeeding and Neonatal Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Mahboobeh; Rahimi, Fateme; Hoseinzade, Mohammad Javad; Tanha, Fatemeh Davari; Barkhordari, Khosro; Yasseri, Ali Mohammad Fakhre

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Meperidine, commonly administered for labor analgesia, on newborn weight and peripartum breastfeeding during two months after delivery. Materials and methods This pilot cohort study was conducted between October 2010 and October 2011 at the Women Hospital of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. In this study, we examined the effects of meperidine on breastfeeding and neonatal weight. A total number of 184 full term pregnant women, planned to deliver at this center (normal vaginally delivery or cesarean), participated in this study. The study group included the women who received meperidine in peripartum time to be compared with a control group who did not receive any opioid. Meperidine was administrated to them based on their peripartum breastfeeding behaviour and baby weight, two month after delivery. Results Of the 184 woman recruited to the trial, 38 women had normal vaginal delivery and 146 had ccesarean. Within the first two-month, 4% of mothers in control group and 11% of meperidine group used formula. However, this differences were not statistically significant (p value= 0.07). Furthermore, baby weight distribution was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusion The inhibitory effect of using Meperidine on peripartum breastfeeding and weight of newborn in the first two months was not statistically significant in this study. More research is needed to clarify the association between meperidine and peripartum breastfeeding. PMID:24971099

  14. Children born with very low birth weight show difficulties with sustained attention but not response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Healy, Elaine; Dooley, Barbara; Kelly, Simon P; McNicholas, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight perform poorly on executive function and attention measures. Any difficulties with sustained attention may underpin impairments in performance on tasks measuring higher order cognitive control. Previous sustained attention research in very low birth weight cohorts has used tasks that involve arousing stimuli, potentially spoiling the measure of sustained attention. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of very low birth weight and normal birth weight children on a well-controlled task of sustained attention. The Fixed and Random versions of the Sustained Attention to Response Task were given to 17 very low birth weight and 18 normal birth weight children. The very low birth weight group performed the Fixed and Random Sustained Attention to Response Tasks in a similar manner as the normal birth weight group on all measures except for the omission error and Slow Frequency Area under the Spectra variables on the Fixed Sustained Attention to Response Task. These measures index lapses in sustained attention that may be underpinned by declining arousal. The very low birth weight group showed no response inhibition deficits. Omission errors and slow-timescale response-time variability on predictable tasks may thus present sensitive indices of difficulties with sustained attention and arousal associated with premature birth and low birth weight.

  15. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. Methods The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500–4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother’s Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother’s job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother’s poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. Results The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother’s job style had the most adverse effect (B=−0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother’s level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother’s job style and household income (B=−0.17). Conclusion According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother’s job situation in order to

  16. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    -for-gestational age (LGA) or small-for-gestational age and postpartum weight retention (PPWR). Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996–2002), including data on gestational and lifestyle factors in pregnancy and 18 months postpartum. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Information...

  17. Epidemiology of external birth defects in neonates in South western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare T.I.B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on the prevalence of birth defects in Nigeria, particularly in our setting. This study determined the epidemiology of external congenital anomalies in Southwest Nigerian children. Patients and Methods: This was a stratified, randomized study of neonates presenting with external birth defects in Ife-Ijesha in Southwestern Nigeria, from August 2003 to July 2004. The neonates were screened for obvious congenital malformations by thorough physical examination. Results: A total of 624 neonates were screened, 43 (6.9% of whom had external birth defects (prevalence: 3.7 ± 0.8% SD. There was a slight male preponderance (M: F= 1.4: 0.9. The overall prevalence rates of external congenital and major anomalies in Ife-Ijesa are 6.9 and 3.7% respectively. A higher prevalence for major malformations, 6.3%, was also found within the minority ethnic groups in these communities compared to the native majority. Musculoskeletal abnormalities are the most common anomaly, followed by those of abnormal external genitalia and head defects. Conclusion: Major malformations are more common amongst the minority settlers in this study, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were the most prevalent.

  18. The influence of high birth weight on the blood pressure during childhood-a cohort study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of high birth weight(HBW) on blood pressure(BP) during childhood. Meth-ods A total of 1 435 couples with high or normal birth weight were selected from a birth cohort who were born between 1993 and 1995 in Wuxi,China and,followed between 2005 and 2007. A questionnaire survey was

  19. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS

  20. Right ventricular outflow tract stenting in a low birth weight infant born with tetralogy of fallot and prostaglandin e1 dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Sunhee; Ko, Hong Ki; Yu, Jeong Jin; Han, Myung-Ki; Kim, Young-Hwue; Ko, Jae-Kon; Park, In-Sook

    2011-12-01

    Surgical skill and strategy for the correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) have improved and resulted in satisfactory outcomes. However, prematurity and low birth weight continue to remain risk factors for poor outcomes. We present a case of a 2,150 g neonate born with TOF, in whom palliation was achieved with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) stenting. Seventy-seven days after the procedure, stenosis of RVOT below the stent was identified. At that time his body weight was 4.9 kg and total corrective surgery was deemed feasible. Eight months following surgical repair, the patient remained well without medical intervention. RVOT stenting may be a viable interim procedure while waiting for a low birth weight neonate born with TOF and prostaglandin E1 dependency to reach optimal weight to undergo corrective surgery.

  1. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

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    Lopez Paulina O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (% of preterm births ( Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend  The overall rate of low birth weight infants ( Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid basis for planning interventions to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes. This epidemiological information also showed the need to assess several factors that could contribute to explain these trends, as the demographics changes, medical interventions and the increasing probability of survival of extremely and very preterm child.

  2. 孕前体重和孕期增重对新生儿出生结局及孕产妇围产结局的影响%A cohort study on the impacts of pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index,gestational weight gain on neonate birth status and perinatal outcomes in Fujian province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳华; 郑翠仙; 林娟; 陈小梅; 陈水仙; 吴江南; 卓秀云; 郑巧玲; 危秀青; 张蓉华; 黄慧卿

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the impacts of pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and gestational weight gain(GWG)on pregnancy outcomes. Methods We adopted a prospective cohort study with cluster sampling in single pregnant women,who were not with hypertension,diabetes,hyperlipidemia or other diseases in the previous history,neither did they have diseases of heart,liver,kidney,thyroid etc. related to current pregnancy. Those pregnant women who visited the prenatal nutrition clinic under‘informed consent’were surveyed with questionnaire to track their peri-natal complications,delivery mode and neonate birth outcomes etc. Pearson and partial correlations,chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to study the association between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI,GWG and pregnancy outcomes. Results A total of 623 pregnant women were recruited in the cohort,with 592(95%)of them eligible for analysis. Results from the Multivariate Logistic Regression analysis indicated that,after controlling the potential confounding factors,when compared to women with pre-pregnancy BMI between 18.5 and 24.0,the odds ratios(ORs)for low birth ponderal index(PI) were 2.34[95%confidence interval(CI),1.24-4.42)]among those with BMI24.0. Similarly,when compared to pregnant women with normal GWG(defined as weight gain range from P15 to P85 by stratification of pre-pregnancy BMI),low GWG(P85)appeared the risk factor for high birth weight,high birth PI,and gestational diabetes mellitus,with ORs as 3.83(1.74-8.44),2.39(1.14-5.01) and 2.21(1.07-4.55),respectively. Conclusion Low or high pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and GWG were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.%目的:探讨孕前体重和孕期增重对妊娠结局的影响。方法采用前瞻性队列研究和整群抽样,对福建省妇幼保健院围产营养门诊既往无高血压、糖尿病、血脂异常等病史,且本次妊娠未发现心脏、肝脏、肾脏、甲状腺等器官疾病的单胎妊娠孕妇进行问卷调查,追

  3. Trends in Infant mortality rate and mortality for neonates born at less than 32 weeks and with very low birth weight Tendencia de la mortalidad infantil y de neonatos menores de 32 semanas y de muy bajo peso Tendência da mortalidade infantil e dos neonatos menores de 32 semanas e de muito baixo peso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Mauricio Barría-Pailaquilén

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the trend of the infant mortality rate between 1990-2004 and the neonatal mortality between 2000-2005 in infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age or with very low birth-weight. Based on secondary data, infant mortality rate and by its component for Valdivia city were compared with national indicators. Mortality at Para evaluar la tendencia de la mortalidad infantil entre 1990-2004 y la mortalidad de prematuros menores de 32 semanas de edad de gestación y niños de muy bajo peso al nacer, entre 2000-2005, se compararon los datos secundarios globales por componentes del Servicio de Salud Valdivia con los totales del país, en Chile. Se calculó la mortalidad específica, por mil nacidos vivos, para los Para avaliar a tendência da mortalidade infantil, entre 1990 e 2004, a mortalidade de prematuros <32 semanas de idade gestacional e crianças de muito baixo peso ao nascer, entre 2000 e 2005, compararam-se dados secundários globais e por componentes do Serviço de Saúde Valdivia, e do total do país (Chile. Calculou-se a mortalidade específica em <32 semanas e <1.500g, por mil nascidos vivos, estabelecendo causas de óbito e avaliando sua relação com intervenções específicas, como uso de surfactante e corticoides pré-natais. A mortalidade infantil deteve sua queda a partir do ano 2000, com referência à década precedente, e a brecha que existia, entre os valores nacionais e locais antes de 2000, reduziu drasticamente. A mortalidade em <32 semanas e <1.500g variou entre 88 e 200‰ nascidos vivos, destacando a síndrome da angústia respiratória como principal causa de morte. O uso de corticoides e surfactante coincidiu com reduções da mortalidade.

  4. Maternal education, birth weight, and infant mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Timothy B; Fang, Fu; O'Neill, Erin; Dirienzo, Greg

    2013-04-01

    This research determines whether the observed decline in infant mortality with socioeconomic level, operationalized as maternal education (dichotomized as college or more, versus high school or less), is due to its "indirect" effect (operating through birth weight) and/or to its "direct" effect (independent of birth weight). The data used are the 2001 U.S. national African American, Mexican American, and European American birth cohorts by sex. The analysis explores the birth outcomes of infants undergoing normal and compromised fetal development separately by using covariate density defined mixture of logistic regressions (CDDmlr). Among normal births, mean birth weight increases significantly (by 27-108 g) with higher maternal education. Mortality declines significantly (by a factor of 0.40-0.96) through the direct effect of education. The indirect effect of education among normal births is small but significant in three cohorts. Furthermore, the indirect effect of maternal education tends to increase mortality despite improved birth weight. Among compromised births, education has small and inconsistent effects on birth weight and infant mortality. Overall, our results are consistent with the view that the decrease in infant death by socioeconomic level is not mediated by improved birth weight. Interventions targeting birth weight may not result in lower infant mortality.

  5. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants....... METHODS: Two-thousand three hundred forty-three LBW infants were randomly allocated 1:1 to "early BCG" (intervention group) or "late BCG" (current practice). Furthermore, a subgroup (N = 1717) were included in a two-by-two randomised trial in which they were additionally randomised 1:1 to vitamin...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...

  6. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoliina Wehkalampi

    Full Text Available People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development.We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2 locus (IGF2/H19 in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We studied 158 VLBW and 161 control subjects aged 18 to 27 years from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Methylation fraction at two IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs - IGF2 antisense transcript (IGF2AS, also known as IGF2 DMR0 and last exon of IGF2 (IGF2_05, also known as IGF2 DMR2 - were measured with Sequenom Epityper. We used linear regression and adjustment for covariates to compare methylation fractions at these DMRs between VLBW and control subjects.At one IGF2AS CpG site, methylation was significantly lower in VLBW than in control subjects, mean difference -0.017 (95% CI; -0.028, -0.005, P = 0.004. Methylation at IGF2_05 was not different between the groups.Methylation of IGF2AS is altered 20 years after preterm birth at VLBW. Altered methylation may be a mechanism of later increased disease risk but more data are needed to indicate causality.

  7. Birth weight pattern in the only referral teaching hospital in Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoijam, B S; Thangjam, N D; Singh, K T; Devi, S R; Devi, R K P

    2006-01-01

    Birth weight is an important determinant for child development and survival. Birth weight has been reported to be increasing with the passing years. There is no such accurate documentation from the state of Manipur. This cross sectional study has been attempted to see the birth weight pattern in the largest referral hospital in Manipur. Birth weights of four reference years in the last 15 years have been extracted from the records and analysed. There were 19478 singleton deliveries in the four reference years. The mean birth weight showed a gradual increase in these years. There was a gain of 88.9 g in 2000 since 1986 in term deliveries. There were significant differences in the mean birth weights among the four years, even after stratifying for gestation. However, there was no significant decrease in the percentage of low birth weight babies in these years. Low birth weight showed significant association with parity, age of the mother, booking status, haemoglobin level, and literacy of the mother. Since there was no significant decrease in low birth weight babies in spite of increasing birth weight, there is a need for continued and committed effort to realize the goals of RCH.

  8. Seasonal effects on gestation length and birth weight in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G H; Dodds, K G; Moore, G H; Bruce, G D

    1997-04-01

    Gestation lengths and birth weights were measured in 162 pregnancies in alpacas (Lama pacos) farmed in the high country of the South Island of New Zealand. A comparison of pregnancies from spring (mid-October to mid-December) and autumn (mid-February to late April) matings showed that gestation lengths were 12.5 days longer in spring (348.9 +/- 1.4 days vs. 336.4 +/- 1.2 days; P gestation length of 0.11 days (P gestation length. After adjustment for gestation length, crias born in autumn weighed 1.0 kg more than those born in spring (8.8 +/- 0.15 kg vs. 7.8 +/- 0.18 kg: P < 0.001). Female crias weighed 0.4 kg less than males at birth (P < 0.05). The results suggest that in this environment it will be difficult to maintain spring-mated females in a 12 month breeding cycle.

  9. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, S D; Zhang, M G; Der, G; Mathur, S; Mina, T H; Reynolds, R M

    2017-04-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range -86-129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI -4.0-6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57-103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.

  10. Changes in Perinatal Care and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mortality of very low birth weight premature infants is of great public health concern. To better guide local intervention program, it is essential that current and reliable statistics be collected to understand the factors associated with mortality of these infants.Methods: Data of very low birth weight premature infants admitted to a neonatal unit during 2002-2009 was retrospectively collected. Changes in perinatal care between two halves of the study period (2002-2005 and 2006-2009 were identified. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were found by logistic regression and a predictive score model was established.Findings: A total of 475 cases were enrolled. In-hospital mortality decreased from 29.8% in 2002-2005 to 28.1% in 2006-2009 (P>0.05. More infants born<28 gestational weeks survived to discharge in the latter epoch (38.1% vs 8.3%, P<0.05. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, pulmonary hemorrhage,birth weight <000 grams, gestational age <33 weeks, feeding before 3 postnatal days and enteral feeding were found predictors of in-hospital mortality by logistic regression. The discriminating ability of the predictivemodel was 82.4% and the cutoff point was -0.56.Conclusion: Survival of very low birth weight premature neonates was not significantly improved in 2006-2009 than 2002-2005. Infants with a score higher than -0.56 were assessed to be at high risk of in-hospital mortality. Multi-center studies of planned follow-up are needed to develop a comprehensive and applicable score system.

  11. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-03-22

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation.

  12. [Intermediate neurological development of 60 neonates weighing 1500 grams or less at birth. Predictive value of initial findings (clinical aspects, electroencephalograms and brain imaging)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannot, E; Fessard, C; Parain, D; Ensel, P; Le Dosseur, P; Brossard, V; Pierre, G; Devaux, A M; Thiebot, J

    1986-06-01

    60 low birthweight (less than or equal to 1,500 g) are distributed according to existence or not, and intensity of brain disturbances, during the neonatal period; appreciated by neurological examinations, early EEG and brain imaging during the second month of life. At 18 months, at least, neurological outcome is normal for 46 children (but 6 had transient neuromotor anomalies), 14 have sequelae (7 mild, 7 major). All children with clinical neurological examination carried out during the neonatal period are normal at follow up. It is true also for the children without EEG anomaly and normal brain imaging. The early prediction of neurological outcome can be made easily with consideration of these three data. Standardised test are proposed, during the neonatal period, for these low birth weight infants.

  13. Outcomes and milestone achievement differences for very low-birth-weight multiples compared with singleton infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Sharon; Genen, Linda; Turenne, Wendy; Dysart, Kevin

    2010-06-01

    We examined if very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants of multiple gestation pregnancies experience more complications and take longer to achieve clinical milestones compared with similar singletons. We performed a retrospective analysis of all infants less than 1500 g at birth in a large neonatal database. Singletons were compared with twins and higher-order multiples for demographic, morbidities, and process milestones including feeding, respiratory, thermoregulation, and length of stay. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounding variables. A total of 5507 infants were included: 3792 singletons, 1391 twins, and 324 higher-order multiples. There were no differences in Apgar scores, small for gestational age status, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, severe retinopathy of prematurity, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or the need for surgery. Multiples had higher rates of apnea and patent ductus arteriosus than singletons. VLBW multiples achieved milestones at similar rates in most areas compared with singletons except for the achievement of full oral feedings. Length of stay, after controlling for confounding variables, did not differ between the groups. Compared with singletons, VLBW multiples had similar morbidity and achieved most feeding and thermoregulation milestones at similar rates.

  14. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pul, Carola van [Maxima Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  15. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).

  16. Stress and health-related well-being among mothers with a low birth weight infant: The role of sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hui-Chin

    2012-01-01

    This U.S.A.-based study examined the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sleep, as well as the role of sleep, in the association of stress with depression, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (H-QOL) among mothers with a low-birth-weight, preterm infant in the neonatal intensive care unit at early postpartum. Fifty-five first-time mothers kept a sleep diary and filled out a battery of questionnaires. The wrist actigraphy method was also applied to collect information on ma...

  17. Trisomy 21 in one of extremely low birth weight twins

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Benjamin D.; Balachandar, Divya; Perry, Karen; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Markello, Thomas C.; Rais-Bahrami, Khodayar

    2008-01-01

    Prematurity is frequently seen in the neonatal intensive care unit, and trisomy 21 is an often diagnosed neonatal disorder. We report a unique case of extremely premature twins, one of whom was ultimately diagnosed with trisomy 21. We were able to examine the neonatal courses and outcomes of these twins, which were similar despite the presence of trisomy 21 in one twin. This is the first report comparing the neonatal course of an infant with trisomy 21 to an unaffected twin in patients born s...

  18. Aorta Structural Alterations in Term Neonates: The Role of Birth and Maternal Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the influence of selected maternal and neonatal characteristics on aorta walls in term, appropriately grown-for-gestational age newborns. Methods. Age, parity, previous abortions, weight, height, body mass index before and after delivery, smoking, and history of hypertension, of diabetes, of cardiovascular diseases, and of dyslipidemia were all assessed in seventy mothers. They delivered 34 males and 36 females healthy term newborns who underwent ultrasound evaluation of the anteroposterior infrarenal abdominal aorta diameter (APAO, biochemical profile (glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, and D-dimers homeostasis model assessment [HOMAIR]index, and biometric parameters. Results. APAO was related to newborn length (r=+0.36; P=0.001, head circumference (r=+0.37; P=0.001, gestational age (r=+0.40, P=0.0005, HOMA index (r=+0.24; P=0.04, and D-dimers (r=+0.33, P=0.004. Smoke influenced APAO values (odds ratio: 1.80; confidence interval 95%: 1.05–3.30, as well as diabetes during pregnancy (r=+0.42, P=0.0002. Maternal height influenced neonatal APAO (r=+0.47, P=0.00003. Multiple regression analysis outlined neonatal D-dimers as still significantly related to neonatal APAO values. Conclusions. Many maternal and neonatal characteristics could influence aorta structures. Neonatal D-dimers are independently related to APAO.

  19. Potential role of traditional birth attendants in neonatal healthcare in rural southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falle, Tina Y; Mullany, Luke C; Thatte, Nandita; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M

    2009-02-01

    The potential for traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to improve neonatal health outcomes has largely been overlooked during the current debate regarding the role of TBAs in improving maternal health. Randomly-selected TBAs (n=93) were interviewed to gain a more thorough understanding of their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding maternal and newborn care. Practices, such as using a clean cord-cutting instrument (89%) and hand-washing before delivery (74%), were common. Other beneficial practices, such as thermal care, were low. Trained TBAs were more likely to wash hands with soap before delivery, use a clean delivery-kit, and advise feeding colostrum. Although mustard oil massage was a universal practice, 52% of the TBAs indicated their willingness to consider alternative oils. Low-cost, evidence-based interventions for improving neonatal outcomes might be implemented by TBAs in this setting where most births take place in the home and neonatal mortality risk is high. Continuing efforts to define the role of TBAs may benefit from an emphasis on their potential as active promoters of essential newborn care.

  20. Autonomic Functioning in Young Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Karen J. Mathewson PhD; Ryan J. Van Lieshout MD, PhD; Saroj Saigal MD; Katherine M. Morrison MD; Michael H. Boyle PhD; Louis A. Schmidt PhD

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic functioning is altered in infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2500 g). HF in the smallest-born ELBW participants was significantly lower than in NBW controls. In both groups, greater birth weight was associated with higher HF. Among ELBW survivors, lower birth weight predicted faster heart rate and higher DBP, but neither heart rate nor DBP appeared to be well-coordinated with baroreflex activity (LF), the principal mechanism for short-term blood pressure regulation. A...

  1. Early versus Late Trophic Feeding in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Satarzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improved survival of preterm infants, beneficial effects of trophic feeding and limited data on timing management of enteral feeding for very low birth weight preterm infants requires more researches to determine the exact starting time and increased volumes. This study aims to compare early (72h trophic feeding with respect to important neonatal outcomes.Methods: In a cohort study from September 2007 to October 2008, a total of 170 preterm infants (1000-1500gram, 26-31 weeks consisting of 125 who received trophic feeding enterally within the first 48 hours of birth(early group and 45 fed enterally after 72 h0urs (late group, without major congenital birth defects and severe asphyxia entered the study. Bolus feeding was started in both groups at 1-2 cc/kg every 4-6 hours of human milk or preterm infant formula and was advanced 1-2 cc/kg/day if tolerated along with parenteralnutrition. Feeding intolerance, possibility of necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC, episodes of sepsis, body weight,length of NICU stay, and duration of parenteral nutrition were assessed serially.Findings: There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical and maternal characteristics ofinfants in the two groups. The time to gain birth weight (13.75±5.21 vs 20.53±6.31 (P<0.001, duration of parenteral nutrition (9.26±4.572 days vs 14.11±6.415 days (P<0.001, hospital stay (12.14±8.612 vs 21.11±1.156 (P<0.001 were significantly shorter in early compared to late feeding group; none of the twogroups experienced a high incidence of late onset sepsis (P=0.73. There was 1 case of confirmed NEC in every group.Conclusion: The benefits of early trophic feeding shown by this study strongly support its use for the preterm infants without adding to complications.

  2. Cerebral tissue oxygenation index and superior vena cava blood flow in the very low birth weight infant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Superior vena cava (SVC) flow assesses blood flow from the upper body, including the brain. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides information on brain perfusion and oxygenation. AIM: To assess the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) and cardiac output measures in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant in the first day of life. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight less than 1500 g (VLBW) were eligible for enrollment. Newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital malformations and greater than Papile grade1 Intraventricular Haemorrhage on day 1 of life were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Low SVC flow states were defined as a flow less than 40 mL\\/kg\\/min. cTOI was measured using NIRO 200 Hamamatsu. RESULTS: Twenty-seven VLBW neonates had both echocardiography and NIRS performed. The median (range) gestation was 29\\/40 (25 + 3 to 31 + 5 weeks) and median birth weight was 1.2 kg (0.57-1.48 kg). The mean (SD) TOI was 68.1 (7.9)%. The mean (SD) SVC flow was 70.36(39.5) mLs\\/kg\\/min. The correlation coefficient of cerebral tissue oxygenation and SVC flow was r = 0.53, p-value 0.005. There was a poor correlation between right and left ventricular output and cTOI which is not surprising considering the influence of intra- and extracardiac shunts. CONCLUSION: There is a positive relationship between cerebral TOI values and SVC flow in the very low birth infant on day one of life.

  3. Birth Weight and Risk of Adiposity among Adult Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille Falberg; Smith, Lærke Steenberg; Andersen, Gregers Stig

    2014-01-01

    circumference, FMI, FFMI and SAT with generally weaker associations among women compared to men. Birth weight was only associated with VAT after additional adjustment for waist circumference and appeared to be specific and inverse for men only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher birth weight among Inuit was associated...... splines. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, birthplace, ancestry and family history of obesity. RESULTS: Spline analyses showed linear relations between birth weight and adult adiposity. In multiple regression analyses, birth weight was positively associated with BMI, waist...

  4. Regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in adulthood is not related to birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Petersen, Inge; Hegedüs, Laszlo;

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults.......Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults....

  5. Serious adverse neonatal outcomes such as 5-minute Apgar score of zero and seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction are increased in planned home births after cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A

    2017-01-01

    The United States is with 37,451 home births in 2014 the country with the largest absolute number of home births among all developed countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence and risks of a 5-minute Apgar score of zero and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in women with a history of prior cesarean delivery for planned home vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), compared to hospital VBAC and hospital birth cesarean deliveries for term normal weight infants in the United States from 2007-2014. We report in this study outcomes of women who had one or more prior cesarean deliveries and included women who had a successful vaginal birth after a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) at home and in the hospital, and a repeat cesarean delivery in the hospital. We excluded preterm births (Apgar score of 0 of 1 in 890 (11.24/10,000, relative risk 9.04, 95% confidence interval 4-20.39, p<.0001) and an incidence of neonatal seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction of 1 in 814 (Incidence: 12.27/10,000, relative risk 11.19, 95% confidence interval 5.13-24.29, p<.0001). Because of the significantly increased neonatal risks, obstetric providers should therefore not offer or perform planned home TOLACs and for those desiring a VBAC should strongly recommend a planned TOLAC in the appropriate hospital setting. We emphasize that this stance should be accompanied by effective efforts to make TOLAC available in the appropriate hospital setting.

  6. Ponderal index (PI) vs birth weight centiles in the low-risk primigravid population: which is the better predictor of fetal wellbeing?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, S M

    2012-07-01

    Our objective was to compare Ponderal index (PI) with birth weight centiles as predictors of perinatal morbidity and to determine which best reflects the presence of placental disease. We prospectively recruited 1,011 low-risk primigravidas and calculated PI and birth weight centiles following delivery. Perinatal morbidity was defined as: pre-term birth (PTB); fetal acidosis; an Apgar score <7 at 5 min or neonatal resuscitation. Placental disease was defined as chronic uteroplacental insufficiency (CUPI); villous dysmaturity; infection or vascular pathology. Ponderal index was statistically reduced (25.33 vs 27.79 p =0.001) and the incidence of infant birth weight <9th centile was statistically higher (11.1% vs 5.1%; p =0.004) in cases with PTB and in CUPI (26.23 vs 27.84; p =0.001 and 28.2.1% vs 10.4%; p =0.002). Both PI and infant birth weight centile <9th centile for gestational age correlate with PTB, however overall, both are poor predictors of neonatal and placental disease.

  7. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  8. Unreported births and deaths, a severe obstacle for improved neonatal survival in low-income countries; a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin Lars

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve child survival there is a need to target neonatal mortality. In this pursuit, valid local and national statistics on child health are essential. We analyze to what extent births and neonatal deaths are unreported in a low-income country and discuss the consequences at local and international levels for efforts to save newborn lives. Methods Information on all births and neonatal deaths in Quang Ninh province in Northern Vietnam in 2005 was ascertained by systematic inventory through group interviews with key informants, questionnaires and examination of health facility records. Health care staff at 187 Community Health Centers (CHC and 18 hospitals, in addition to 1372 Village Health Workers (VHW, were included in the study. Results were compared with the official reports of the Provincial Health Bureau. Results The neonatal mortality rate (NMR was 16/1000 (284 neonatal deaths/17 519 births, as compared to the official rate of 4.2/1000. The NMR varied between 44/1000 and 10/1000 in the different districts of the province. The under-reporting was mainly attributable to a dysfunctional reporting system and the fact that families, not the health system, were made responsible to register births and deaths. This under-reporting has severe consequences at local, national and international levels. At a local level, it results in a lack of awareness of the magnitude and differentials in NMR, leading to an indifference towards the problem. At a national and international level the perceived low mortality rate is manifested in a lack of investments in perinatal health programs. Conclusion This example of a faulty health information system is reportedly not unique in low and middle income countries where needs for neonatal health reforms are greatest. Improving reporting systems on births and neonatal deaths is a matter of human rights and a prerequisite for reducing neonatal mortality in order to reach the fourth

  9. Executive functions, social information processing, and social adjustment in young children born with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kelly R; Vannatta, Kathryn; Nelin, Mary Ann; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk for neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae. Although VLBW infants are at higher risk for deficits in executive functions (EFs) and social functioning during school-age years, few studies have investigated those sequelae or their association in young children born VLBW. We examined the associations between EFs and social functioning in preterm, VLBW children age 4-6 years (n = 20) and matched, term-born, normal birth weight controls admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after birth (n = 18). The groups did not differ significantly on measures of EFs, social information processing, or parent-reported social adjustment. The VLBW group had lower IQs than controls, though both group means were in the average range. Within the VLBW group, medical predictors of better EFs included older gestational age at birth and no history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Across groups, EFs and social information processing were positively correlated. Deficits in EFs and social functioning may emerge after the preschool years in VLBW children, or improved care of children born VLBW may be reducing the cognitive and psychosocial sequelae observed in earlier cohorts. Among children born VLBW, early EFs may be directly related to social information processing.

  10. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  11. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  12. Developmental Outcomes of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prematurity is the most common cause of death and disability And Preterm infants, are prone to developmental complications. For this reason this study was designed for follow up of these babies until 2 years by modified DDST-2. Methods: This study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study from March 2009 to March 2011 in clinic of sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals, mashhad, Iran. Sample size with Confidence coefficient of 95% and power 80%, was determined 100 hundred babies. Infants were seen by a pediatrician at a follow up clinic at 1, 3, 6, 9,12,15,18, 24, months.The developmental assessment was done using Denver-2 Developmental Screening Test. Results: mean age for smiling was 4/6 ± 2/1  months which significantly differed with appropriate age (p = 0.000, mean age for telling two syllables words 11/7±  1/9 months, without significant difference of appropriate age.(p = 0.139. Average age for understanding NO was 10/4±  2/0 months that significantly differed with appropriate age(p = 0.000. The average age for telling 6 word was 17/8±  3/0, without significant difference with appropriate age (p = 0.510. Conclusion: Children with history of prematurity and low birth weight have more disability and developmental delay so they need to developmental screening tests.

  13. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  14. Blood Culture Proven Early Onset Sepsis and Late Onset Sepsis in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Chang, Meayoung; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal sepsis remains one of the most important causes of death and co-morbidity in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to determine the current incidences of early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS), the distribution of pathogens, and the impact of infection on co-morbidities in VLBW infants. We analyzed the data including sepsis episode from 2,386 VLBW infants enrolled in Korean Neonatal Network from January 2013 to June 2014. We defined EOS as a positive blood culture occurring between birth and 7 days of life and LOS after 7 days of life. Sepsis was found in 21.1% of VLBW infants. The risk of sepsis was inversely related to birth weight and gestational age. EOS was found in only 3.6% of VLBW infants, however the mortality rate was as high as 34.1%. EOS was associated with the increased odds for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrhage. The vast majority of EOS was caused by Gram-positive organisms, particularly coagulase-negative staphylococci (30.6%). LOS developed in 19.4% of VLBW infants with a 16.1% mortality rate. Pathogens in LOS were dominated by coagulase-negative staphylococci (38.3%). Twenty-five percent and fifty percent of first LOS episode occurred after 12 days and 20 days from birth, respectively. Younger and smaller VLBW infants showed the earlier occurrence day for the 25% of first LOS episode. This study provides a recent nationwide epidemiology of sepsis in VLBW infants in Korea. Based on this study, successful strategies to reduce infections would improve survival and reduce morbidity.

  15. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  16. Birth weight relates to blood pressure and microvascular function in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Objective The relationship between low birth weight and elevated blood pressure in adult life is well established but presently unexplained. Both microvascular dysfunction and insulin resistance have been proposed as a possible explanation. We have examined the relation between birth weight and bloo

  17. Association between maternal work activity on birth weight and gestational age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OmidAminian; SeyedAliAkbarSharifian; NazaninIzadi; KhosroSadeghniiat; AnahitaRashedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of maternal employment on birth weight and gestational age. Methods:In this project,1272 pregnant women were recruited from whom referred toTehran hospitals during1 year via randomized sampling.Data were gathered through history taking and medical records.In this study,564 employed women were classified as exposure group and708 housekeepers were as the control group.Chisquare test,t-test,One-wayANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze data. Results:In this study, mean mother age was25.01 years and mean birth weight was(2884±684) g.The mean birth weight in housekeepers was significantly higher (2991±457 g) than employees(2726±476 g)(P=0.002).The infants’ mean birth weights in farmer were the lowest and in office workers(2831±526 g) was the highest(P<0.01).Gestational age less than37 weeks was more common among employees.The mean birth weight decreased when the working hours increased(P<0.01).In those mothers who were working less than3 months there were a higher mean birth weight(P<0.01).Also the mean birth weight decreased due to the hours of standing during a day.Conclusion:Women employment during pregnancy has an important role in low birth weight and preterm labor compared to those who do not work.

  18. Smoking and low birth weight: absence of influence by carbon monoxide?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, EJ; Jong, PA de; Cornelissen, PJ; Kurver, PH; Oel, WC; Woensel, van

    1987-01-01

    Fetal outcome in 77 uneventful pregnancies was examined and related to venous cord carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) levels. 30 women were smokers, 47 were non-smokers. Birth weight and birth weight centiles were found to be substantially reduced in children of mothers who smoked. HbCO levels were significa

  19. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants Discharged from NICU

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    Sina Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease of the eye caused by disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels resulting in scarring and retinal detachment. All preterm babies are at high risk for ROP, and very low birth weight is an additional risk factor. An increased incidence of ROP is expected in Iran because of improved survival of low birth weight and premature babies, and it is obvious that pediatricians and ophthalmologists are concerned about prevention and timely treatment of ROP in these children. To asses the real situation of ROP in our NICU we studied its prevalence and risk factors. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of premature infants with birth weight of ≤1500 grams or gestational age of ≤32 weeks, admitted April 1, 2005 to March 28, 2006, to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Qaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The collected data of 47 cases in this cross-sectional study are analyzed by SPSS (Mann_Whitney, t-Student. Findings: Forty five infants were included in the study. Out of these, 4 (8.5% developed ROP (inclusive all stages. Our analysis revealed that low gestational age, sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome were independent predictors for the development of ROP. Conclusion:The frequency of ROP in our hospital was lower than the range reported in developed countries, and our risk factors were a little different.

  20. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

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    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  1. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...... Children's Accelerometry Database. Birth weight was measured in hospitals or maternally reported, sedentary time was assessed by using accelerometry (

  2. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 children......, born from 1936 to 1972, from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register were followed prospectively in Danish health registers. Colon and rectal cancer cases were defined using the International Classification of Disease version 10 (colon: C18.0-18.9, rectal: 19.9 and 20.9). Only cancers classified....... No significant sex differences were observed; therefore combined results are presented. Birth weight was positively associated with colon cancers with a HR of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26) per kilogram of birth weight. For rectal cancer a significant association was not observed for birth weights below 3.5kg. Above 3...

  3. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine;

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in ad...

  4. Genomic Imbalances in Neonates With Birth Defects: High Detection Rates by Using Chromosomal Microarray Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin-Yan; Phung, Mai T.; Shaw, Chad A.; Pham, Kim; Neil, Sarah E.; Patel, Ankita; Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lee Kang, Sung-Hae; Lalani, Seema; Chinault, A. Craig; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau W.; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Our aim was to determine the frequency of genomic imbalances in neonates with birth defects by using targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, also known as chromosomal microarray analysis. METHODS Between March 2006 and September 2007, 638 neonates with various birth defects were referred for chromosomal microarray analysis. Three consecutive chromosomal microarray analysis versions were used: bacterial artificial chromosome-based versions V5 and V6 and bacterial artificial chromosome emulated oligonucleotide-based version V6 Oligo. Each version had targeted but increasingly extensive genomic coverage and interrogated >150 disease loci with enhanced coverage in genomic rearrangement-prone pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions. RESULTS Overall, 109 (17.1%) patients were identified with clinically significant abnormalities with detection rates of 13.7%, 16.6%, and 19.9% on V5, V6, and V6 Oligo, respectively. The majority of these abnormalities would not be defined by using karyotype analysis. The clinically significant detection rates by use of chromosomal microarray analysis for various clinical indications were 66.7% for “possible chromosomal abnormality” ± “others” (other clinical indications), 33.3% for ambiguous genitalia ± others, 27.1% for dysmorphic features + multiple congenital anomalies ± others, 24.6% for dysmorphic features ± others, 21.8% for congenital heart disease ± others, 17.9% for multiple congenital anomalies ± others, and 9.5% for the patients referred for others that were different from the groups defined. In all, 16 (2.5%) patients had chromosomal aneuploidies, and 81 (12.7%) patients had segmental aneusomies including common microdeletion or microduplication syndromes and other genomic disorders. Chromosomal mosaicism was found in 12 (1.9%) neonates. CONCLUSIONS Chromosomal microarray analysis is a valuable clinical diagnostic tool that allows precise and rapid identification of genomic imbalances

  5. Correlação entre peso fetal estimado por ultrassonografia e peso neonatal Correlation between estimated fetal weight by ultrasound and neonatal weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a correlação entre o peso fetal estimado (PFE por ultrassonografia e o peso neonatal (PN, bem como a capacidade do PFE predizer as alterações do PN entre gestantes de João Pessoa (PB. MÉTODOS: estudo de validação diagnóstica incluindo 122 gestantes que tiveram o PFE calculado por ultrassonografia até sete dias antes do parto e o PN determinado imediatamente após o nascimento, com balança específica para recém-nascidos. A correlação entre o PFE e o PN foi avaliada pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson entre as duas medidas e pela média das diferenças entre elas. O PFE e o PN foram classificados em: pequeno para idade gestacional (PIG, adequado para a idade gestacional (AIG e grande para a idade gestacional (GIG, de acordo com os percentis 10 e 90 das respectivas curvas de referência. O diagnóstico de desvios do PFE foi validado utilizando a curva de valores de referência de peso neonatal de Alexander como padrão-ouro, estimando-se a sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo. RESULTADOS: houve uma elevada correlação linear entre o PFE e o PN (R=0,96 e a diferença entre eles variou entre -474 g e +480 g, com média de +3 g. A maioria das máximas variações percentuais da estimativa de peso esteve entre 10 e 15%. O PFE teve sensibilidade de 85,7% e especificidade de 100% para detecção de PIG, e de 100 e 77,2%, respectivamente, para GIG. CONCLUSÕES: o PFE é capaz de predizer adequadamente o PN, e a curva de PFE de referência testada teve bom desempenho no rastreamento dos desvios do crescimento fetal, quando utilizada nessa população.PURPOSE: to evaluate the correlation between the estimated fetal weight (EFW by ultrasonography and the neonatal weight (NW, as well as the EFW's capacity to predict changes in NW among pregnant women in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. METHODS: a diagnostic validation study, including 122 pregnant women who have had the EFW calculated

  6. Examining the relationship between temperature, rainfall and low birth weight in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kathryn; Davenport, Frank; Hanson, Heidi; Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shradhanand

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between birth weight, precipitation, and temperature in 19 African countries. We matched recorded birth weights from Demographic and Health Surveys covering 1986 through 2010 with gridded monthly precipitation and temperature data derived from satellite and ground-based weather stations. Observed weather patterns during various stages of pregnancy were also used to examine the effect of temperature and precipitation on birth weight outcomes. In our empirical model we allowed the effect of weather factors to vary by the dominant food production strategy (livelihood zone) in a given region as well as by household wealth, mother's education and birth season. This allowed us to determine if certain populations are more or less vulnerable to unexpected weather changes after adjusting for known covariates. Finally we measured effect size by observing differences in birth weight outcomes in women who have one low birth weight experience and at least one healthy birth weight baby. The results indicated that climate does indeed impact birth weight and at a level comparable, in some cases, to the impact of increasing women's education or household electricity status.

  7. KIR and HLA-C: Immunogenetic regulation of human birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia E. Farrell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancies resulting in very small or very large babies are at higher risk of obstetric complications with increased morbidity for both mother and baby. Using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we have shown how human birth weight is still subject to stabilizing selection. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune genes have been implicated in pregnancies resulting in a low birth weight baby (<5th birth weight centile. More specifically, an inhibitory maternal KIRAA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. At the other end of the birth weight spectrum the presence of an activating maternal KIR2DS1 gene is associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p=0.005, OR=2.65. Thus, inhibitory maternal KIR combined with fetal HLA-C2 is more frequently associated with low birth weight, whereas activating maternal KIR with fetal HLA-C2 ligand is associated with increasing birth weight. Our findings using the MoBa cohort have replicated the association of KIR and HLA-C seen in poor placentation, and confirm the importance of maternal/fetal immune gene interactions in determining the outcome of pregnancy.

  8. Effect of litter size on the variation in birth and weaning weights of Landrace piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Duarte Prazeres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the size class of the litter at birth on the variation in birth and weaning weights and on the survival rate of piglets from birth to weaning. For this purpose, records of individual weight at birth and weaning of piglets obtained from a database of 295 Landrace litters born between 2000 and 2010 on a pig farm in the western region of the State of Paraná were used. The litters were classified as small (up to 7 piglets, medium (8 to 13 piglets, and large (> 14 piglets according to the total number of piglets born. The data were analyzed considering the effects of the year of sow mating and size class of the litter at birth. The correlations between mean weight and variance in litter weight and size were higher for medium and large litters. The size class of the litter significantly influenced the mean weight of piglets at birth and weaning and the variance in birth weight. Piglets born in medium and large litters weighed less and exhibited greater birth weight variation and a lower survival rate until weaning than piglets born in small litters.

  9. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Taylor F; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Garrett, Melanie E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Oades, Robert D; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Kollins, Scott H; Faraone, Stephen V; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP × birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD.

  10. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  11. The Status at Two Years of Low-Birth-Weight Infants Born in 1974 with Birth Weights of Less Than 1,001 gm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, K. E.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    For availibility see EC 103 548 Among findings of a 2-year followup study of 43 infants of birth weight less than 1000 grams were the following: average height at age 2 years was between the tenth and twenty-fifth percentiles; average weight was between the third and tenth percentiles; 15 Ss developed lower respiratory tract infections during the…

  12. Trial gain of weight and hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm infant in assistance for kangaroo mother care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Giacomini Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC interferes in the gain of weight and in the hospital length stay of the low birth weight preterm newborn (LWBPTN. For this, it was realized an analytic retrospective study, through the evaluation of the medical records of 60 LWBPTN with born weight less than 2000 g that received assistance by KMC, for a period of 2 hours per day and, 60 LWBPTN that received assistance by the Traditional Method of Care (TMC, admitted in the unity of neonatal intensive care and unity of premature of a private maternity in the city of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, comparing the gain of weight and the hospital length stay. We did not find differences statistically significant in relation to the gain of weight of the LWBPTN assisted by KMC, in relation to LWBPTN assisted by the TMC, 15,8 and 14,9 g/per day, respectively. In relation to the time of admission, we also did not find differences statistically significant, 27,3 and 26,2 days, for the LWBPTN in the KMC and TMC, respectively, although in the stratification of the sample, the LBWPTN with pregnancy age < 30 weeks or birth weight < 1500 g left the hospital 3 days earlier in the KMC. It was concluded that the KMC, in the conditions of this study, it seems not to interfere significatively in the gain of weight and in the time of admission of LWBPTN. We emphasize that the utilization of KMC in the assistance to the LWBPTN of low weight is a viable model, even for the private health institution.

  13. Weight gain restriction during pregnancy is safe for both the mother and neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Ing-Marie; Brynhildsen, Jan; Cedergren, Marie; Jeppsson, Annika; Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcome among obese pregnant women who took part in an intervention study for weight restriction differed from a group of obese pregnant women attending regular antenatal care. The intervention group consisted of 155 obese pregnant women and 193 obese pregnant women who formed a control group. We found that a weight gain restriction of less than 7 kg during pregnancy is safe for both the mother and the neonate.

  14. Arthritis, osteomyelitis, septicemia and meningitis caused by Klebsiella in a low-birth-weight newborn: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorashi Sona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Klebsiella pneumoniae is in most cases a hospital-acquired infection and presents as pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis in patients with some predisposing factors, including prematurity, intravenous catheter, history of antibiotic therapy and intravenous nutrients. Case presentation A low-birth-weight, 33-day-old Caucasian girl with respiratory distress syndrome was admitted to our hospital. She developed septicemia, meningitis, polyarticular arthritis and osteomyelitis by nosocomial K. pneumoniae which was resistant to most antibiotics except ciprofloxacin. She was therefore treated with ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole for eight weeks. After completion of the treatment course, she completely improved with excellent weight gain and without any adverse effects during three years of follow-up. Conclusion In the resistant strain of K. pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin could be considered as a therapeutic option with the prospect of a good outcome, even in neonates and infants.

  15. Birth Weight, Physical Morbidity, and Mortality: A Population-based Sibling-Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Rickert, Martin E.; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Associations between low birth weight (≤2,500 g) and increased risk of mortality and morbidity provided the foundation for the “developmental origins of health and disease” hypothesis. Previous between-family studies could not control for unmeasured confounders. Therefore, we compared differentially exposed siblings to estimate the extent to which the associations were due to uncontrolled factors. Our population cohort included 3,291,773 persons born in Sweden from 1973 to 2008. Analyses controlled for gestational age, among other covariates, and considered birth weight as both an ordinal and a continuous variable. Outcomes included mortality after 1 year, cardiac-related death, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation problems, stroke, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. We fitted fixed-effects models to compare siblings and conducted sensitivity analyses to test alternative explanations. Across the population, the lower the birth weight, the greater the risk of mortality (e.g., cardiac-related death (low birth weight hazard ratio = 2.69, 95% confidence interval: 2.05, 3.53)) and morbidity (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus (low birth weight hazard ratio = 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 2.14)) outcomes in comparison with normal birth weight. All associations were independent of shared familial confounders and measured covariates. Results emphasize the importance of birth weight as a risk factor for subsequent mortality and morbidity. PMID:24355331

  16. Sex, birth weight, and the risk of stillbirth in Scotland, 1980-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G C

    2000-03-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of stillbirth associated with male fetal sex was modified by fetal growth. The study group consisted of all singleton first births weighing greater than 500 g delivered between 28 and 43 weeks gestation in Scotland in 1980-1996 (n = 469,152). Overall, male fetuses were at an increased risk of stillbirth (relative risk = 1.19, 95 percent confidence interval: 1.10, 1.29). There was a significant negative interaction between male sex and increasing birth weight quintile in term, but not preterm, births. The interaction was virtually identical when calculated independently for births in the periods 1980-1987 and 1988-1996. There were linear decreases in the proportion of stillbirths and the proportion of birth weights in the lowest quintile over the period 1980-1996. Adjustment for year of birth did not affect the relation between male sex and stillbirth. However, adjustment for birth weight resulted in a loss of the association between year of birth and risk of stillbirth. The authors concluded that 1) the association between male sex and stillbirth diminishes with increasing birth weight quintile, and 2) there was a fall in the proportion of stillbirths in Scotland between 1980 and 1996, which may have been due to a fall in the proportion of small babies over the same period.

  17. From infancy to pregnancy: birth weight, body mass index, and the risk of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Cnattingius, Sven; Granath, Fredrik; Hanson, Ulf; Wikström, Anna-Karin

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for gestational diabetes, whereas the role of the mother's birth weight is more uncertain. We aimed to investigate the combined effect of mothers' birth-weight-for-gestational-age and early pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI) in relation to risk of gestational diabetes. Between 1973 and 2006, we identified a cohort of 323,083 women included in the Swedish Medical Birth Register both as infants and as mothers. Main exposures were mothers' birth-weight-for-gestational-age (categorized into five groups according to deviation from national mean birth weight) and early pregnancy BMI (classified according to WHO). Rates of gestational diabetes increased with adult BMI, independently of birth-weight-for-gestational-age. However, compared to women with appropriate birth-weight-for-gestational-age [appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA); -1 to +1 SD] and BMI (born small-for-gestational-age [small for gestational age (SGA); born large-for-gestational-age [large-for-gestational-age (LGA); >2SD], and OR = 10.4 (95 % CI 8.4-13.0) if born AGA. Risk of gestational diabetes is not only increased among obese women, but also among women born SGA and LGA. Severely obese women born with a low or a high birth-weight-for-gestational-age seem more vulnerable to the development of gestational diabetes compared to normal weight women. Normal pre-pregnancy BMI diminishes the increased risk birth size may confer in terms of gestational diabetes. Therefore, the importance of keeping a healthy weight cannot be overemphasized.

  18. Neonatal sulfur amino acid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Riedijk (Maaike)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAt birth, infants can be classified either by gestational age (GA) or by weight. Neonates born < 37 weeks are classified as preterm, < 28 weeks as very preterm and < 26 weeks as extremely preterm infants. Prematurely born infants can also be classified by birth weight as follows (1): - L

  19. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    with mandatory fortification of margarine during 1961-1985 and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk between 1972 and 1976. The influence of prenatal vitamin D exposure on birth weight was investigated among 51 883 Danish children, by comparing birth weight among individuals born during 2 years before or after......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... than non-exposed children (margarine initiation 27·4 (95 % CI 10·8, 44·0) g). No differences in the odds of high (>4000 g) or low ( weight were observed between the children exposed and non-exposed to vitamin D fortification prenatally. Prenatal exposure to vitamin D from fortified...

  20. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part I: From Birth to Expansion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…

  1. The effect of changing patterns of obstetric care in Scotland (1980-2004 on rates of preterm birth and its neonatal consequences: perinatal database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane E Norman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rates of preterm birth are rising worldwide. Studies from the United States and Latin America suggest that much of this rise relates to increased rates of medically indicated preterm birth. In contrast, European and Australian data suggest that increases in spontaneous preterm labour also play a role. We aimed, in a population-based database of 5 million people, to determine the temporal trends and obstetric antecedents of singleton preterm birth and its associated neonatal mortality and morbidity for the period 1980-2004. METHODS AND FINDINGS: There were 1.49 million births in Scotland over the study period, of which 5.8% were preterm. We found a percentage increase in crude rates of both spontaneous preterm birth per 1,000 singleton births (10.7%, p<0.01 and medically indicated preterm births (41.2%, p<0.01, which persisted when adjusted for maternal age at delivery. The greater proportion of spontaneous preterm births meant that the absolute increase in rates of preterm birth in each category were similar. Of specific maternal complications, essential and pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and placenta praevia played a decreasing role in preterm birth over the study period, with gestational and pre-existing diabetes playing an increasing role. There was a decline in stillbirth, neonatal, and extended perinatal mortality associated with preterm birth at all gestation over the study period but an increase in the rate of prolonged hospital stay for the neonate. Neonatal mortality improved in all subgroups, regardless of obstetric antecedent of preterm birth or gestational age. In the 28 wk and greater gestational groups we found a reduction in stillbirths and extended perinatal mortality for medically induced but not spontaneous preterm births (in the absence of maternal complications although at the expense of a longer stay in neonatal intensive care. This improvement in stillbirth and neonatal mortality supports the

  2. Sex Differences in the Association Between Birth Weight and Adult Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.;

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but the risk at high birth weight levels remains uncertain. Potential sex differences in the associations are unexplored. We investigated whether sex influences the association of birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes, using....... Future search for sex-specific causal mechanisms may provide new insights into the early origins of type 2 diabetes.......Low birth weight is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but the risk at high birth weight levels remains uncertain. Potential sex differences in the associations are unexplored. We investigated whether sex influences the association of birth weight and adult type 2 diabetes, using...... a cohort of 113,801 men and 109,298 women, born 1936-1983, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, Denmark. During 5.6 million person-years of follow-up, 7,750 men and 4,736 women had a diagnosis of adult type 2 diabetes (30 years of age or older) obtained from national registers. When birth...

  3. High Birth Weight Is a Risk Factor of Dental Caries Increment during Adolescence in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Julihn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether birth weight is associated with dental caries during the teenage period. In this register-based cohort study, all children of 13 years of age (n = 18,142 who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, were included. The cohort was followed until individuals were 19 years of age. Information regarding dental caries was collected from the Public Health Care Administration in Stockholm. Data concerning prenatal and perinatal factors and parental socio-demographic determinants were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and National Registers at Statistics Sweden. The final logistic regression model showed that birth weight ≥4000 g, adjusted for potential confounders, was significantly associated with caries increment (DMFT ≥ 1 (D = decayed, M = missing, F = filled, T = teeth between 13 and 19 age (OR, 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09–1.36. The relatively enhanced risk OR was further increased from 1.22 to 1.43 in subjects with birth weight ≥4600 g. On the contrary, subjects with birth weight <2500 g exhibited a significantly lower risk (OR, 0.67; 95% CI = 0.50–0.89 for exhibiting caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4 at 19 years of age. In conclusion, high birth weight can be regarded as a predictor for dental caries, and especially, birth weight ≥4500 g is a risk factor for caries increment during adolescence.

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight. Cienfuegos Municipality. 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Villafuerte Reinante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: reducing low birth weight is a priority in Cuba’s health policy since it is critical to reduce infant mortality. Objective: to identify the major risk factors associated with low birth weight in Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving all women who gave birth to low-birth-weight infants was conducted in Cienfuegos municipality from January 2010 through December 2014. Maternal age, maternal medical history, weight gain during pregnancy, nutritional assessment in early pregnancy, interpregnancy interval, gestational age at birth and pregnancy-related conditions were analyzed. Results: Four hundred fifty low-birth-weight infants were born. Hypertension as major illness in the maternal medical history was the main cause of maternal morbidity. In the obstetric history, an interpregnancy interval less than 2 years was frequently observed. It was demonstrated that the conditions mostly associated with pregnancy were vaginal infection, anemia and hypertension. Preterm infants predominated. Conclusions: the modification of these risk factors would have a favorable impact on the reduction of low birth weight.

  5. Association between birth weight and blood pressure is robust, amplifies with age, and may be underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anna A; Smith, George Davey; May, Margaret T; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2006-09-01

    Data on the early life origins of adult hypertension have been widely reported: however, recent research shows that the strength of association between small size at birth and higher blood pressure weakens as study size increases. In this article, we retest the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in a large cohort, examine whether age interacts with birth weight to predict blood pressure, and explore reasons why birth weight-blood pressure associations tend to weaken with increasing study size. Measurements from 25874 employees of a large United Kingdom company (mean [SD] age: 38.0 [7.9] years), undertaking voluntary occupational health screening, were available. Using linear regression analysis, we observed that systolic blood pressure changed -0.8 (95% CI: -1.1 to -0.5) mmHg per 1-kg increase in birth weight (P<0.001) adjusted for age and sex and -1.1 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.8) mmHg/kg (P<0.001) after further adjustment for body size. This inverse association amplified with age (age/birth weight interaction term P<0.001). In participants reporting birth weight from hospital records (n=744), systolic blood pressure changed -1.4 (95% CI: -3.1 to 0.2) mmHg/kg compared with -0.8 (95% CI: -1.0 to -0.5) mmHg/kg in all of the other participants. Finally, the data show evidence of "fixed-category blood pressure allocation," where participants are allocated certain blood pressure values, such as 120/80 mmHg, independent of actual blood pressure. Although the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure was weaker than observed in smaller studies, recalled birth weight and fixed blood pressure measurement error may generate a trend toward weaker associations in larger studies.

  6. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy

  7. Air pollution and the birth weight - are they correlated?

    OpenAIRE

    Zisovska, Elizabeta; Lazarevska, Liljana; Arsenova, Jagoda

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution has harmful effects to fetuses. Pregnant women have to be protected from a dirty air environment and smoking. The birthweight is a determinant of neonatal well being, and recently published studies potentiated air pollution as a potential factor for low birthweight, and that was investigated in our study. The results showed more Small-for-gestational age babies in the central city district (highly polluted) compared to the eastern rural area, and because we exclu...

  8. Vitamin D supplementation, cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2017-01-01

    prospective population-based cohort, who gave birth to singletons and donated a blood sample for s-25(OH)D measurements were included (n = 2082). RESULTS: The prevalence of cord vitamin D deficiency was 16.7% and 41.0% for insufficiency. White skin, winter season at birth, maternal supplementation dose of ... μg/day, non-western ethnicity and high body mass index (BMI) were identified as independent risk factors of both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency. Adherence to the recommended vitamin D supplementation dose (10 μg/day) was reported by 87% (primipara 91% vs. multipara 81%, p

  9. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  10. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To id

  11. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476 Dutc

  12. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  13. Is low back pain in youth associated with weight at birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    they are still largely unaffected by the influence of working life. Possible associations between low back pain, birth weight, birth length, ponderal index, gestational age and Apgar scores are investigated by the use of logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio for the lifetime prevalence of low...

  14. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  15. Normal birth weight piglets with impaired preweaning growth utilize alternative metabolic pathways in the liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine if normal weight pigs that grow poorly during the pre-weaning period have altered hepatic metabolism, as reported for intrauterine growth retarded pigs. Eight pairs of average birth weight pigs (1.57 +/- 0.05 kg) were identified that diverged in weight by...

  16. Effects of gestational weight gain on the birth weight of offspring%孕期孕妇体质量增加对新生儿出生体质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚春燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨孕妇孕期体质量增加对新生儿出生体质量及分娩结局的影响,以为临床围产期的保健研究提供依据。方法选取我院2014年1月至12月收治的420名健康孕妇为研究对象,分析孕妇孕前体质量指数(BM I)、孕期体质量增长等情况,并比较孕妇孕期体质量增加对分娩结局及新生儿出生体质量的影响。结果孕前超重组孕期体质量增加明显低于孕前低体质量组及正常体质量组( P <0.05);孕前超重组巨大儿的发生率高于其他2组;孕期体质量增加过多孕妇新生儿出生体质量、巨大儿出生率及剖宫产率明显高于体质量增加适宜组及过少组,体质量增加适宜孕妇明显高于体质量增加过少孕妇( P <0.05);孕期体质量增加过少孕妇低体质量新生儿出生率明显高于体质量增加适宜及过多孕妇(P <0.05),孕妇最佳体质量增长区间为16.0kg。结论适宜的孕期体质量增加对于孕妇改善分娩结局,控制新生儿状况具有积极的临床意义。%Objective To investigate the effects of gestational weight gain on the birth weight of offspring and birth outcomes of pregnancy ,and to provide reference for studying clinical perinatal health care.Methods A total of 420 pregnant women who delivered were chosen .To analyze maternal pregestational body mass index (BMI) and body weight gain during pregnancy ;and to compare the impacts of gestational weight gain on pregnan‐cy outcomes and neonatal birth weight.Results Body weight gain during pregnancy in pregnant women with pre‐gestational overweight was statistically significantly lower than those in pregnant women with pregestational low and normal weight( P <0 .05) ,birth rate of macrosomia and pregestational body weight of pregnant women ,neo‐natal birth weight and birth rate of macrosomia in pregnant women with pregestational overweight were statistical‐ly significantly

  17. Exclusive Breastfeeding among Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants at One Month Follow-up after Hospital Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Jahan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding in preterm low birth weight (PT LBW neonates after discharge from hospital is challenging and may be affected by multiple factors. We designed this study to find out the association of these factors with breastfeeding in our population. Objectives: To observe the rate of exclusive breasrfeeding (EBF among the PT LBW neonates at one month follow up and to identify the factors that are related with the maintenance of EBF. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted during the period from July 2009 to October 2011 in Enam Medical College Hospital (EMCH. Preterm infants ≤ 34 wks gestation, stayed in the NICU for >3 days and discharged home were eligible. Mothers were interviewed at one month follow-up after discharge. Infants who were given only breast milk up to 4 weeks were termed as “Exclusively breastfed (EBF” and who were given formula milk in addition were labeled as “Nonexclusively breastfed (NEBF”. Baseline information regarding maternal demography, delivery of the baby, feeding during discharge was taken from database of neonatal ward. Results: Among 89 infants, 37 (42% were female and 52 (58% were male, including 5 twins. Gestational age ranged from 29 to 34 weeks (mean 32±2, and birth weight ranged from 1100 to 2200 grams (mean 1763±20 g. At one month follow up visit 19% (17/89 were found to be NEBF and 81% were EBF. Factors significantly associated with EBF were shorter duration of hospital stay (p=0.001, method of feeding at discharge (p=0.001, mode of delivery (p=0.004, below average socio-economic status (p=0.03, maternal education (p=0.02, number of antenatal visits (p=0.02 and larger birth weight (p=0.038. Conclusion: A variety of factors may affect EBF in PT LBW babies. Extensive counseling of the mothers during antenatal visits, counseling of the family members regarding the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding is necessary. Support should be

  18. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Taal, H. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Charoen, Pimphen; Kaakinen, Marika; Cousminer, Diana L.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Warrington, Nicole M.; Bustamante, Mariona; Feenstra, Bjarke; Berry, Diane J.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pfab, Thiemo; Barton, Sheila J.; Shields, Beverley M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; van Leeuwen, Elisa; Fulford, Anthony J.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Zhao, Jing Hua; den Hoed, Marcel; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindi, Virpi; Goh, Liang-Kee; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wu, Ying; Raitakari, Olli T.; Harder, Marie N.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Ntalla, Ioanna; Salem, Rany M.; Jameson, Karen A.; Zhou, Kaixin; Monies, Dorota M.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Kirin, Mirna; Heikkinen, Jani; Adair, Linda S.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Al-Odaib, Ali; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Estivill, Xavier; Flexeder, Claudia; Froguel, Philippe; Geller, Frank; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gottrand, Frederic; Groves, Christopher J.; Hansen, Torben; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Inskip, Hazel M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Jorgensen, Torben; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kemp, John P.; Kiess, Wieland; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Knight, Bridget A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McMahon, George; Newnham, John P.; Niinikoski, Harri; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Louise; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Simell, Olli; Slowinski, Torsten; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Toenjes, Anke; Vaag, Allan; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Stumvoll, Michael; Prentice, Andrew M.; Meyer, Brian F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Boreham, Colin A. G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gillman, Matthew W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Moreno, Luis A.; Pedersen, Oluf; Saarinen, Maiju; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lakka, Timo A.; Koerner, Antje; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ong, Ken K.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Holloway, John W.; Hocher, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Power, Chris; Melbye, Mads; Guxens, Monica; Pennell, Craig E.; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Pouta, Anneli; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Freathy, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood(1). Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type

  19. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type...

  20. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  1. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. Methods We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Results Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Conclusion Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to

  2. Prediction of height achievement at five years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight : Continuation of catch-up growth after two years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qvigstad, E.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Ens-Dokkum, M.H.; Schreuder, A.M.; Veen, S.; Brand, R.; Oostdijk, W.; Ruys, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    To predict height at five years in a cohort of 565 very preterm and/or very low-birth-weight children, hypothesized growth determinants were subjected to discriminant analysis. Many neonatal parameters were not significantly associated with short stature at five years of age. A correct classificatio

  3. 陕西省育龄妇女围孕期增补叶酸对新生儿出生体重的影响%Effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on neonate birth weight in Shaanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳媚; 屈鹏飞; 党少农; 李姗姗; 柏如海; 秦博文; 颜虹

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on the birth weight of newborns in Shaanxi province.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted among the childbearing aged women selected through multistage stratified random sampling in Shaanxi during 2010-2013,all of these childbearing aged women were in pregnancy or had definite pregnancy outcomes.The birth weight of newborns and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were used as the dependent variables and independent variables respectively in multiple linear regression model and quantile regression model and confounding factors were controlled.Results Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the birth weight of newborns whose mothers had folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were significantly higher than those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation during pregnancy,an average increase of 29.56 g (B=29.56,t=4.69 and P<0.01).Quantile regression analysis showed from very low to higher percentiles (q=0-0.55,q=0.65,q=0.75-0.80),the birth weights of newborns whose mothers supplemented folic acid were higher than those whose mother did not supplement folic acid,the difference was significant,but the increase varied.As the increase of the percentiles of birth weight,the body weight increase declined gradually in those whose mothers had folic acid supplementation compared with those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation.Conclusion Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy can increase the birth weight of newborns,the influence was greater in newborns with lower body weight than in newborns with higher body weight.%目的 探讨陕西省育龄妇女围孕期增补叶酸对新生儿出生体重的影响.方法 采用分层多阶段随机抽样方法,以问卷调查方式收集2010-2013年陕西省怀孕且结局明确的育龄妇女及其子女的相关信息.将新生儿出生体重和母亲围孕期是否增补叶

  4. 极低及超低出生体重儿的预后因素分析%Prognostic factors in very low birth weight infants and extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恋; 李娟; 毛健; 张静; 陈丹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical data of very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) (birth weight≤1 200 g) and to provide prewarning indicators for prognostic evaluation and clinical intervention. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 108 VLBWIs and ELBWIs to investigate the maternal history of diseases during pregnancy, neonatal birth status, the process of diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine prognostic factors. Results Of the 108 preterm infants, 15 had a birth weight of<800 g, 29 had a birth weight of 800-999 g, and 64 had a birth weight of 1000-1200 g. The mortality was 33.3%(36/108). Placenta previa and Apgar score≤3 at 5 minutes were the main risk factors for death within 24 hours of birth;premature rupture of membrane, Apgar score≤3 at 5 minutes, and pulmonary hemorrhage were the main risk factors for death between 24 hours and 7 days after birth;late-onset sepsis caused by invasive fungal infection was an independent risk factor for death over 7 days after birth, while pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome was a protective factor. Conclusions The mortality in VLBWIs and ELBWIs is relatively high, and the prognostic factors vary between preterm infants of different ages. Clinicians should discuss management options for the infants on the basis of these ifndings to increase the survival of preterm infants.%目的:分析极低及超低出生体重儿(出生体重≤1200 g)的临床资料,为其预后及临床干预提供预警指标。方法回顾性分析108例极低及超低出生体重儿的母孕期病史、新生儿出生时情况、诊治经过及预后,采用非条件logistic回归分析筛选预后的影响因素。结果108例极低及超低出生体重儿,出生体重范围在<800 g,800~999 g和1000~1200 g的早产儿分别为15例、29例和64例。存活72例,死亡36

  5. Invited commentary: Interpreting associations between high birth weight and later health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy

    2014-11-01

    High birth weight (>4.0 kg) has been associated with a wide range of health problems later in life. The interpretation of these statistical associations may be difficult, however. These difficulties are closely linked to methodological challenges in this research, such as filtering out confounding from family factors, disentangling associations with prenatal processes from associations with postnatal processes, and uncovering what birth weight actually represents. The well-conducted study by Kristensen et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180(9):876-884), presented in this issue of the Journal, offers an interesting example of how one can filter out confounding from family factors. In an elegant series of analyses, the authors show how an apparent inverse association between birth weight and later intelligence among those in the highest range of the birth weight scale became a positive association when proper adjustment for family factors was made. Sibling comparisons were important here.

  6. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  7. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua;

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) can have an impact on health outcomes in later life, especially in relation to pre-disposition to metabolic disease. Several studies suggest that LBW resulting from restricted intrauterine growth leaves a footprint on DNA methylation in utero, and this influence likely...... persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg...... was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent...

  8. Fat-free mass mediates the association between birth weight and aerobic fitness in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, C L; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Anderssen, S

    2011-01-01

    test. Physical activity was collected in a subset (n = 1 505) using a hip-worn accelerometer and defined as total activity counts/wear time, all children with >600 minutes/day for ≥3 days of wear were included. Results. Lower birth weight was associated with lower aerobic fitness, after adjusting.......7). Birth weight was also significantly associated with fat-free mass (ß = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8, p physical activity did not alter the findings. Conclusion. Birth weight...... for sex, age group, country, sexual maturity and socio-economic status (ß = 5.4; 95% CI: 3.5, 7.3 W per 1 kg increase in birth weight, p

  9. Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alyssa J; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-12-20

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  10. Maternal obesity and neonatal mortality according to subtypes of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Vaeth, Michael; Bech, Bodil H

    2007-01-01

    : Compared with infants of mothers who were at a normal weight before pregnancy (BMI of 18.5 or more but less than 25), neonatal mortality was increased in infants of mothers who were overweight (BMI of 25 or more but less than 30) or obese (BMI of 30 or more) (adjusted hazard ratios 1.7, CI 1.2-2.5, and 1......-2002) who were interviewed during the second trimester. Information about pregnancy outcomes and neonatal deaths (n=230) was obtained from national registers. The association was estimated by Cox regression analyses and results were presented as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS.......6, CI 1.0-2.4, respectively). For preterm infants (n=3,934, 136 deaths), neonatal mortality in infants born after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) was significantly increased if they were born to an overweight or obese mother (adjusted hazard ratios 3.5, CI 1.4-8.7, and 5.7, CI 2...

  11. Sepsis-Related Mortality of Very Low Birth Weight Brazilian Infants: The Role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sylvia Maria Porto; de Almeida Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral; Figuexeds, Ana Lucia; Mattos, Haroldo; Rozembaum, Ronaldo; Ferreira, Vanessa Isidoro; Portinho, Maria Antonieta; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; da Costa, Elaine Sobral

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for sepsis-related mortality in low birth weight (1000 g), five-minute Apgar ≤7, gram-negative sepsis, mechanical ventilation (6.7 times higher than no use), and intravascular catheter. Sepsis-related mortality was due, mainly, to Pseudomonas aeruginosa; birth weight ≤1000 g and mechanical ventilation were strong sepsis-related mortality predictors. PMID:20182631

  12. Indicators of problems evaluated by parents and children stratified by birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES-PALUCCI,Claudia Mazzer; Loureiro,Sonia Regina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Studies on the impact of birth weight on child development require the participation of children as informants. The objective of this study was to compare the indicators of behavioral problems and depression in a cohort of school-age children stratified by birth weight and to investigate possible associations between the indicators of behavioral problems, evaluated by the parents, and depression, evaluated by the children. A total of 665 children, aged 10-11 years, distributed into f...

  13. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Secher, N.J.;

    1995-01-01

    between n- 3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....

  14. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Secher, N.J.;

    1995-01-01

    between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....

  15. Low birth weight in perinatally HIV-exposed uninfected infants: observations in urban settings in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casimir Ledoux Sofeu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consequences of maternal HIV infection for fetal growth are controversial. Here, we estimated the frequency of small for gestational age and gender (SGAG among neonates born to HIV-infected or uninfected mothers and assessed the contribution, if any, of maternal HIV to the risk of SGAG. METHODS: The data used were obtained from the ANRS-Pediacam cohort in Cameroon. Pairs of newborns, one to a HIV-infected mother and the other to an uninfected mother, were identified during the first week of life, and matched on gender and recruitment site from 2007-2010. SGAG was defined in line with international recommendations as a birth weight Z-score adjusted for gestational age at delivery and gender more than two standard deviations below the mean (-2SD. Considering the matched design, logistic regression modeling was adjusted on site and gender to explore the effect of perinatal HIV exposure on SGAG. RESULTS: Among the 4104 mother-infant pairs originally enrolled, no data on birth weight and/or gestational age were available for 108; also, 259 were twins and were excluded. Of the remaining 3737 mother-infant pairs, the frequency of SGAG was 5.3% (95%CI: 4.6-6.0, and was significantly higher among HIV-infected infants (22.4% vs. 6.3%; p<.001 and lower among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (3.5% vs. 6.3%; p<.001 than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Similarly, SGAG was significantly more frequent among HIV-infected infants (aOR: 4.1; 2.0-8.1 and less frequent among HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (aOR: 0.5; 0.4-0.8 than among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. Primiparity (aOR: 1.9; 1.3-2.7 and the presence of any disease during pregnancy (aOR: 1.4; 1.0-2.0 were identified as other contributors to SGAG. CONCLUSION: Maternal HIV infection was independently associated with SGAG for HIV-exposed uninfected infants. This provides further evidence of the need for adapted monitoring of pregnancy in HIV-infected women, especially if they are

  16. Maternal KIR in combination with paternal HLA-C2 regulate human birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Susan E; Apps, Richard; Chazara, Olympe; Farrell, Lydia E; Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill; Gjessing, Håkon K; Carrington, Mary; Moffett, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Human birth weight is subject to stabilizing selection; babies born too small or too large are less likely to survive. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune system genes are associated with pregnancies where the babies are ≤ 5th birth weight centile, specifically an inhibitory maternal KIR AA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. We have now analyzed maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C combinations at the opposite end of the birth weight spectrum. Mother/baby pairs (n = 1316) were genotyped for maternal KIR as well as fetal and maternal HLA-C. Presence of a maternal-activating KIR2DS1 gene was associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p = 0.005, n = 1316). Effect of KIR2DS1 was most significant in pregnancies where its ligand, HLA-C2, was paternally but not maternally inherited by a fetus (p = 0.005, odds ratio = 2.65). Thus, maternal KIR are more frequently inhibitory with small babies but activating with big babies. At both extremes of birth weight, the KIR associations occur when their HLA-C2 ligand is paternally inherited by a fetus. We conclude that the two polymorphic immune gene systems, KIR and HLA-C, contribute to successful reproduction by maintaining birth weight between two extremes with a clear role for paternal HLA.

  17. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  18. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124......,615 girls and 128,346 boys (ages 6 to 13 years), born between 1936 and 1983, were studied. Birth weight and annual measurements of height and weight were obtained from school health records. Overweight was defined by BMI in relation to internationally accepted criteria. The relative risk of being overweight...... by birth weight was calculated separately for each age, sex, and time period. RESULTS: The birth weight distribution remained relatively stable over time. Compared with children with a birth weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg, the risk of overweight increased consistently with each increase in birth weight category...

  19. Neonatal morbidity associated with late preterm and early term birth: the roles of gestational age and biological determinants of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hilary K; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Macnab, Jennifer; Natale, Renato; Campbell, M Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of gestational age in determining the risk of neonatal morbidity among infants born late preterm (34–36 weeks) and early term (37–38 weeks) compared with those born full term (39–41 weeks) by examining the contribution of gestational age within the context of biological determinants of preterm birth. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. The sample included singleton live births with no major congenital anomalies, delivered at 34–41 weeks of gestation to London-Middlesex (Canada) mothers in 2002–11. Data from a city-wide perinatal database were linked with discharge abstract data. Multivariable models used modified Poisson regression to directly estimate adjusted relative risks (aRRs). The roles of gestational age and biological determinants of preterm birth were further examined using mediation and moderation analyses. Results Compared with infants born full term, infants born late preterm and early term were at increased risk for neonatal intensive care unit triage/admission [late preterm aRR = 6.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.63, 6.71; early term aRR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.41, 1.68] and neonatal respiratory morbidity (late preterm aRR = 6.16, 95% CI 5.39, 7.03; early term aRR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.29, 1.65). The effect of gestational age was partially explained by biological determinants of preterm birth acting through gestational age. Moreover, placental ischaemia and other hypoxia exacerbated the effect of gestational age on poor outcomes. Conclusions Poor outcomes among infants born late preterm and early term are not only due to physiological immaturity but also to biological determinants of preterm birth acting through and with gestational age to produce poor outcomes. PMID:24374829

  20. Senecavirus A infection in sows, neonates, and market weight gilts with subsequent protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize SVA infection late-gestation sows, neonates, and market weight gilts and 2) examine protective immunity in late-gestation gilts Methods: For Part 1, 15 market weight gilts were inoculated with SVA, bled regularly, and clinical observat...

  1. Bayesian analysis of selection for greater weaning weight while maintaining birth weight in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melucci, L M; Birchmeier, A N; Cappa, E P; Cantet, R J C

    2009-10-01

    An experimental Hereford herd established in 1960 was used from 1986 to 2006 to select for increased weaning weight (W) without increasing birth weight (B). Data were B and W collected over the 47 yr from 2,124 calves. Including ancestors, the pedigree file had 2,369 animals. Selection was practiced only in males. In the first stage (1986 to 1993), mass-selected bulls were chosen with the index I = B + 9374.76 RDG (relative daily gain). From 1994 to 2006, the selection criterion for bull i was I(i) = BLUP(i)(WD) - 2.33 BLUP(i)(BD), where the BLUP were for the direct BV of B (BD) and W (WD), respectively. Predictions were obtained from a 2-trait animal model with B having only BD, and W with WD and WM (maternal additive effects). Selection response was estimated using a Bayesian approach by means of the Gibbs sampler for a 2-trait animal model including BD, BM (maternal BV for B), WD, and WM. Estimated heritabilities for BD, BM, WD, and WM were 0.40, 0.23, 0.05, and 0.23, respectively. The correlation between BD and BM was close to zero (0.01), and between WD and WM was positive (0.37). The correlation between BD and WD was 0.07, and between BM and WM was 0.58. The 2 methods used to estimate selection response gave similar results. In both periods BD decreased, whereas BM increased. The reduction of BD due to selection was slightly larger in the second period than in the first one. The regression of BV for W increased due to selection in both stages, but selection response was 21.6% larger from 1986 to 1992 than from 1993 to 2006. The maternal effect, WM increased more than 3 times compared with WD in the first period, but ended up being almost the same value as WD in period 2. The Bulmer effect was manifested by the decrease in magnitude of all (co)variance components during selection. It is concluded that selection to increase BW at weaning in beef cattle, although not increasing BW at birth, was moderately effective.

  2. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ladinig

    Full Text Available The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1 were necropsied along with their fetuses 21 days later. Ovulation rates and litter size did not differ between groups, but fetuses from low birth weight gilts were shorter, lighter and demonstrated evidence of asymmetric growth with large brain:organ weight ratios (i.e. brain sparing. The number of intrauterine growth retarded fetuses, defined by brain:organ weight ratios greater than 1 standard deviation from the mean, was significantly greater in low, compared to high, birth weight gilts. Although γδ T cells significantly decreased over time in high compared to low birth weight gilts, viral load in serum and tissues, gilt serum cytokine levels, and litter outcome, including the percent dead fetuses per litter, did not differ by birth weight group. Thus, this study provided no substantive evidence that the severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome is affected by dam birth weight. However, intrauterine growth retarded fetuses had lower viral loads in both fetal thymus and in endometrium adjacent to the umbilical stump. Crown rump length did not significantly differ between fetuses that survived and those that died at least one week prior to termination. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that birth weight is a transgenerational trait in pigs, and provides evidence that larger fetuses are more susceptible to transplacental PRRSv infection.

  3. The effect of low birth weight on height, weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run. While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive outcomes have found effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthood, others have found a diminishing negative effect over time. The purpose of this paper was to bring new evidence to this issue by analyzing the medium run effects of low birth weight on child behavioral outcomes as well as physical growth at ages 6 months, 3, 7 and 11 years using data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time enabled us to chart the evolution of anthropometric and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helped understanding the nature and timing of interventions.

  4. Effect of environmental factors and fetal and maternal genotype on gestation length and birth weight of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, L J; Williams, C J

    1978-10-01

    Records of gestation length and birth weight on 1522 live single births (from 1958 to 1976) of Holstein calves were from 81 sires and 552 dams. Average gestation length was 282.3 days, and average birth weight was 42.9 kg. Male calves were carried 1.7 days longer than female calves and weighed 2.9 kg more at birth. Both gestation length and birth weight increased with parity. Calves born in spring and summer were carried shorter times and weighed less than those born in fall and winter. Heritabilities of gestation length and birth weight as progeny traits were .73 and .51 and as maternal traits were .19 and .26. Genetic correlations between gestation length and birth weight were .46 as a progeny trait and .35 as a maternal trait. Genetic correlations between progeny traits and maternal traits were negative. The phenotypic correlation between gestation length and birth weight was .37, and environmental correlation was .30.

  5. Assessing fetal growth impairments based on family data as a tool for identifying high-risk babies. An example with neonatal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Jørn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity, as well as with other adverse conditions later in life. Since the birth weight-specific mortality of a second child depends on the birth weight of an older sibling, a failure to achieve the biologically intended size appears to increase the risk of adverse outcome even in babies who are not classified as small for gestation. In this study, we aimed at quantifying the risk of neonatal death as a function of a baby's failure to fulfil its biologic growth potential across the whole distribution of birth weight. Methods We predicted the birth weight of 411,957 second babies born in Denmark (1979–2002, given the birth weight of the first, and examined how the ratio of achieved birth weight to predicted birth weight performed in predicting neonatal mortality. Results For any achieved birth weight category, the risk of neonatal death increased with decreasing birth weight ratio. However, the risk of neonatal death increased with decreasing birth weight, even among babies who achieved their predicted birth weight. Conclusion While a low achieved birth weight was a stronger predictor of mortality, a failure to achieve the predicted birth weight was associated with increased mortality at virtually all birth weights. Use of family data may allow identification of children at risk of adverse health outcomes, especially among babies with apparently "normal" growth.

  6. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  7. [The use of caspofungin in extremely low birth weight preterm infants based on clinical trials and reports considering the own experience (case report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Walas, Wojciech; Gregorek-Pełka, Edyta; Kamińska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, despite of significant progress in the treatment of premature infants with extremely low body weight, still a significant problem remains severe, treatment-resistant generalized infections among which the percentage of fungal infections is increasing. The invasive candidiasis, especially caused by non-albicans species of Candida, are of particular importance. In the case of resistance on fluconazole and amphotericin B the use of echinocandin drug may be a useful choice. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in neonates and children, as well as the case reports and clinical trials on the use of caspofungin in neonates, including the premature infants. We describe also the premature neonate with low birth weight and a generalized infection caused by Candida glabrata, where, despite of the treatment based on the sensitivity of the fungus it did not achieve clinical improvement and sterilization of cultures. It was not until the lead-in of caspofungin in dose 2 mg/kg/day allowed to cure the patient. There was a transient increase in the activity of aminotransferases and level of bilirubin as a complication of treatment. At the end of application of caspofungin the liver functions have been slowly normalized. Caspofungin appeared to be effective in the treatment of systemic fungal C. glabrata in premature neonate with extremely low birth weight. Echinocandins, including caspofungin, appear to be a promising alternative to previously used agents in the treatment of invasive Candida infections in newborns. However, the further randomized trials on the use of caspofungin in preterm neonates, regarding long term follow-up, should be undertaken.

  8. Rerouting surgery of cardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous return in a premature newborn with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, En-Ting; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Chang, Chung-I

    2007-02-01

    Intracardiac repair for complex congenital heart defects in premature neonates with very low birth weight (VLBW) is still a challenge to pediatric cardiac surgeons. We report the successful rerouting of cardiac type total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) in a premature newborn (36th gestational week) with VLBW (1250 g). She had severe hypoxemia and low cardiac output despite medical treatment. Rerouting surgery of TAPVR was performed under deep hypothermia circulatory arrest at the age of 20 days. The sternum was left open and approximated 2 days later. Follow-up echocardiography showed good ventricular function without pulmonary venous obstruction. The endotracheal tube was removed 7 days postoperatively. She was then discharged without complication. In conclusion, with improved cardiopulmonary bypass technique and perioperative care, open heart surgery can be performed in premature newborns with VLBW.

  9. Bacterial nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care unit, Zagazig University Hospital, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: High incidence rate of NI in neonates admitted to NICU was documented, particularly premature and low birth weight neonates. Early identification of NI and its risk factors remain the keys to successful management of this condition.

  10. The Study of Mothers’ Periodontal Status and Newborn’s Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirinzad

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recent studies have presented evidence that periodontal disease in pregnant women may be a determining factor for newborn’s low birth weight. The present investigation was carried out to verify whether there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight of newborns.Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 330 women, containing 110 mothers having live newborns with weight 2500 g (control group. The existence of an association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight was evaluated by means of analytic statistics that considered other risk factors for low weight. The two groups were compared with regard to urinary infection, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membrane, placenta previa, primiparous, smoking, age, height, socioeconomic status and periodontal disease.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups for any of the covariables (P>0.05, but there was significant differences for principal independent variable (periodontal disease P<0.05.Conclusion: Results indicated a positive association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight. Thus periodontal disease is a possible risk factor for low birth weight.

  11. Neonatal outcomes among multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestational age: Does mode of conception have an impact? A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Woojin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies comparing perinatal outcomes in multiples conceived following the use of artificial reproductive technologies (ART vs. spontaneous conception (SC have reported conflicting results in terms of mortality and morbidity. Therefore, the objective of our study was to compare composite outcome of mortality and severe neonatal morbidities amongst preterm multiple births ≤ 32 weeks gestation infant born following ART vs. SC. Methods We conducted a single center cohort study at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Data on all preterm multiple births (≤ 32 weeks GA discharged between July 2005 and June 2008 were retrospectively collected from a prospective database at our centre. Details regarding mode of conception were collected retrospectively from maternal health records. Preterm multiple births were categorized into those born following ART vs. SC. Composite outcome was defined as combination of death or any of the three neonatal morbidities (grade 3/4 intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia; retinopathy of prematurity > stage 2 or chronic lung disease. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were preformed after adjustment of confounders (maternal age, parity, triplets, gestational age, sex, and small for gestational age. Results One hundred and thirty seven neonates were born following use of ART and 233 following SC. The unadjusted composite outcome rate was significantly higher in preterm multiples born following ART vs. SC [43.1% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.001; OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.13, 3.45]; however, when adjusted for confounders the difference between groups was not statistically significant [OR 1.39, 95% CI 0.67, 2.89]. Conclusion In our population of preterm multiple births, the mode of conception had no detectable effect on the adjusted composite neonatal outcome of mortality and/or three neonatal morbidities.

  12. Birth weight as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the U-shaped curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, D J; Jovanovic, L

    2001-08-01

    Recent findings have sparked intense interest in birth weight as a predictor of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In some populations, there is an inverse association between birth size and disease; however, in the Pima Indians, a population with very high rates of gestational diabetes, high birth weight and low birth weight are associated with diabetes. This results in a U-shaped curve with higher diabetes rates in both tails of the distribution. Similarly, there are reports of an inverse association between stature and prevalence of gestational diabetes, but, in California Latina women with gestational diabetes, there is a positive association between stature and glucose concentration. Could these disparate findings also represent the two ends of a U-shaped curve? The disparities are likely due to differences in the environment, both in utero and postnatally, that different groups experience.

  13. Low birth weight and risk of albuminuria in living kidney donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, D; MacDonald, D; Jackson, S; Spong, R; Issa, N; Kukla, A; Reule, S; Weber, M; Matas, AJ; Ibrahim, HN

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is linked to hypertension, chronic kidney disease and even end stage renal disease. We hypothesized that living kidney donors born with lower birth weight may be at increased risk of hypertension, albuminuria or reduced GFR beyond what is typical following uninephrectomy. 257 living kidney donors who donated at the University of Minnesota between 1967 and 2005 underwent iohexol GFR and urinary albumin excretion measurements. Predictors of iohexol GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, albuminuria and hypertension were examined using logistic regression. Predictors examined include age at GFR measurement, time since donation, BMI, gender, serum creatinine level (at donation and GFR measurement), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, race, and birth weight. The latter was obtained through self-report and verified through birth certificates and family members. Older age, higher BMI, and time from donation were associated with reduced GFR. Older age and higher BMI were also associated with hypertension. Birth weight was not associated with GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2: OR=0.70, 95% CI (0.28, 1.74, p=0.45) or hypertension: OR=0.92, 95% CI (0.46, 1.84), p=0.82 but was associated with albuminuria: OR=0.37, 95% CI (0.15, 0.92), p=0.03. This data further strengthens the link between low birth weight and potential adverse renal outcomes. PMID:24547690

  14. Long-term effects of birth weight and breastfeeding duration on inflammation in early adulthood.

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    McDade, Thomas W; Metzger, Molly W; Chyu, Laura; Duncan, Greg J; Garfield, Craig; Adam, Emma K

    2014-06-07

    Chronic inflammation is a potentially important physiological mechanism linking early life environments and health in adulthood. Elevated concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP)--a key biomarker of inflammation--predict increased cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk in adulthood, but the developmental factors that shape the regulation of inflammation are not known. We investigated birth weight and breastfeeding duration in infancy as predictors of CRP in young adulthood in a large representative cohort study (n = 6951). Birth weight was significantly associated with CRP in young adulthood, with a negative association for birth weights 2.8 kg and higher. Compared with individuals not breastfed, CRP concentrations were 20.1%, 26.7%, 29.6% and 29.8% lower among individuals breastfed for less than three months, three to six months, 6-12 months and greater than 12 months, respectively. In sibling comparison models, higher birth weight was associated with lower CRP for birth weights above 2.5 kg, and breastfeeding greater than or equal to three months was significantly associated with lower CRP. Efforts to promote breastfeeding and improve birth outcomes may have clinically relevant effects on reducing chronic inflammation and lowering risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adulthood.

  15. Birth weight and risk of asthma in 3-9-year-old twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindlund, Karin; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relationship between birth weight and risk of asthma in a population of twins. METHODS: Birth weight of all live twins (8280 pairs) born in Denmark between 1994 and 2000 was linked to information on asthma obtained from parent-completed questionnaires at age 3-9 years...... weight, OR (per 100 g) 1.04 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.05), ptwin pairs, the lower birthweight twin had a significantly increased risk of asthma compared with the heavier co-twin (11.3% vs 9.9%), OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.54), p=0.002. The result remained significant after adjusting for sex, birth...... length and Apgar score, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.65), p=0.027. The risk tended to be higher in monozygotic co-twins compared with dizygotic co-twins, especially for high birth weight differences. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight is a risk factor for asthma independently of gestational age, sex, birth...

  16. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Shi, Li-Ping; Pan, Jia-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Yi, Bing; Liu, Ling; Chen, Yun-Bing; Wei, Qiu-Fen; Wu, Hui-Qing; Li, Mei; Liu, Cui-Qing; Gao, Xi-Rong; Xia, Shi-Wen; Li, Wen-Bin; Yan, Chao-Ying; He, Ling; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Han, Shu-Ping; Lyu, Qin; Qiu, Yin-Ping; Li, Wen; Chen, Dong-Mei; Lu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Hong; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Xiong, Hong; Yue, Shao-Jie; Zhuang, Si-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019). BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed

  17. Could elective cesarean sections influence the birth weight of full-term infants?

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    Eddie Fernando Candido Murta

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There are no studies on birth weights among full-term infants born by means of elective cesarean section. We aimed to study this in private and public hospitals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study at Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil. METHODS: Data were collected from the municipal medical birth register of Uberaba from January to December 2000. The data obtained (maternal age, type of delivery, number of prenatal care visits and birth weight, from full-term pregnancy from the university hospital (UH, which is a tertiary hospital that only attends patients within the National Health System (SUS, were compared with data from four private hospitals (PHs that attend health insurance plans and private patients. Student's t test, chi2 test and multiple logistic regression were used for statistical analysis, with the significance level set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: In the PHs, 1,100 out of 1,354 births (81.2% were by cesarean section and in the UH, 373 out of 1,332 (28%. Birth weight increased significantly in association with increasing numbers of prenatal care visits, except for cesarean section cases in PHs. Birth weights among vaginal delivery cases in PHs were greater than in the UH (p < 0.05, but this was not observed among cesarean section cases. Multiple logistic regression showed that there was greater risk of low birth weight in PHs (odds ratio: 2.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.19 to 4.55. CONCLUSION: Elective cesarean section performed in PHs may be associated with low birth weight among full-term infants.

  18. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

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    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  19. Impact of maternal diabetes mellitus on mortality and morbidity of very low birth weight infants: a multicenter Latin America study

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    Carlos Grandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI born to women with and without diabetes mellitus (DM. METHODS: This was a cohort study with retrospective data collection (2001-2010, n = 11.991 from the NEOCOSUR network. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the outcome of neonatal mortality and morbidity as a function of maternal DM. Women with no DM served as the reference group. RESULTS: The rate of maternal DM was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1, but a significant (p = 0.019 increase was observed between 2001-2005 (2.4%, 2.1-2.8 and 2006-2010 (3.2%, 2.8-3.6. Mothers with DM were more likely to have received a complete course of prenatal steroids than those without DM. Infants of diabetic mothers had a slightly higher gestational age and birth weight than infants of born to non-DM mothers. Distribution of mean birth weight Z-scores, small for gestational age status, and Apgar scores were similar. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and patent ductus arteriosus. Delivery room mortality, total mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, and early-onset sepsis rates were significantly lower in the diabetic group, whereas necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC was significantly higher in infants born to DM mothers. In the logistic regression analysis, NEC grades 2-3 was the only condition independently associated with DM (adjusted OR: 1.65 [95% CI: 1.2 -2.27]. CONCLUSIONS: VLBWI born to DM mothers do not appear to be at an excess risk of mortality or early morbidity, except for NEC.

  20. Making a diagnosis of hypertension and defining treatment threshold in very low birth weight infants’ need revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sreekanth; Kumar, Deepak; Sykes, Craig; Olbrych, Stephanie; Patel, Nishant; Super, Dennis M.; Darusz, Jessica; Raina, Rupesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that preterm birth is a possible risk factor for high blood pressure (BP) in later life. The most widely quoted blood pressure centiles for very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500 g birth weight) infants at corrected term gestation is based on a cohort with mostly late preterm or term infants (Zubrow curves). Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of the Zubrow curves in diagnosis of hypertension in VLBW infants at their term corrected gestational age (CGA). Patients and Methods: In a case-control study, we compared BP in 75 VLBW infants at 40 weeks CGA (cases) to 69 full term infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (controls). Results: In spite of having lower weights, VLBW infants compared to term infants (2612.8 ± 546 vs. 3308.2 ± 373 g, P ≤ 0.001) had higher average systolic (88.8 ± 7.6 vs. 82.33 ± 8.5 mm Hg; P ≤ 0.001) and mean BP (61.2 ± 6.6 vs. 57.61 ± 6.9, P = 0.01). Although 41% (31/75) VLBW infants would have met the criteria for hypertension according to Zubrow curves only 4% (3/75) were diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: Since Zubrow BP centiles were based on a heterogeneous population of infants including preterm and term infants, new BP centiles based on chronological data from VLBW infants would allow a better definition of hypertension in these infants and identify the threshold BP for initiating treatment. PMID:27471735

  1. Effects of high carnitine supplementation on substrate utilization in low-birth-weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkers, E J; Lafeber, H N; Degenhart, H J; Przyrembel, H; Schlotzer, E; Sauer, P J

    1990-11-01

    Parenterally fed preterm neonates are known to be at risk for carnitine deficiency. We studied substrate utilization in low-birth-weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with (A) and without (B) supplementation of 48 mg carnitine.kg-1.d-1 on days 4-7 (birth weights 1334 +/- 282 vs 1318 +/- 248 g, gestational age 32 +/- 2 vs 32 +/- 2 wk, A vs B, respectively). TPN consisted of 11 g glucose.kg-1.d-1 and 2.4 g.kg-1.d-1 of both protein and fat. Plasma carnitine concentrations at day 7 were for free carnitine 11.8 +/- 5.0 vs 164 +/- 56 mumol/L and for acyl carnitine 3.8 +/- 2.0 vs 33.9 +/- 15.4 mumol/L, respectively. Indirect calorimetry at day 7 showed a higher fat oxidation (0.21, -0.31 to +0.60 vs 1.18, 0.70 to 1.95 g. kg-1.d-1, respectively, P less than 0.02, median and interquartile range) in group B and a higher protein oxidation (0.37, 0.30-0.43 vs 0.63, 0.53-0.88 g.kg-1.d-1, P less than 0.001). The time to regain birth weight was also higher in group B (7, 5.5-9 vs 9, 7-14 d, P less than 0.05). Carnitine supplementation and calorie intake were the best explanatory variables for metabolic rate (R2 = 0.45, P less than 0.002). We conclude that carnitine supplementation of TPN in this dosage does not seem advisable.

  2. Preeclampsia and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Population-Based Study.

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    Hsin-Chung Huang

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are associated with impaired angiogenesis. Previous studies on the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP have produced conflicting results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal preeclampsia and ROP using a large population-based cohort of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants from 21 neonatal departments registered in the database of the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for preeclampsia with reference to ROP and severe ROP. A total of 5,718 VLBW infants (844 cases with maternal preeclampsia were included for analysis. The overall incidences of mild and severe ROP were 36.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Univariable analysis showed lower GA and lower birth weight, vaginal delivery, non-SGA, RDS, PDA, sepsis, transfusion, and absence of maternal preeclampsia to be associated with mild and severe ROP development. However, OR (95% CI adjusted for the variables that were significant according to univariable analysis showed the risks of developing any-stage ROP and severe ROP for maternal preeclampsia to be 1.00 (0.84-1.20 and 0.89 (0.63-1.25, respectively. The results remained unchanged in stratified analyses according to SGA status. Our data showed that maternal preeclampsia was not associated with the subsequent development of any stage or severe ROP in VLBW infants.

  3. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  4. Low Birth Weight, Renal Morphometry and Blood Pressure in Adolescent Females

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    Ninive Núñez López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: nowadays, hypertension is a health problem directly causing disability and death. Epidemiological data suggest that pre- and postnatal nutrition can be an important factor in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. Objective: to evaluate the effects of low birth weight on blood pressure and kidney size in adolescent females. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 adolescent females from Marianao, Havana. The following variables were measured: weight, height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, birth weight and length and body mass index. Kidney length, width, parenchyma and volume were measured by ultrasound. Results: differences in blood pressure related to weight and length at birth were nonsignificant. Renal variables did not show significant changes in the classification by birth weight. An important relationship between systolic blood pressure and two indicators of the relative kidney size was found. Conclusion: results did not show an association between low birth weight and high blood pressure. It is demonstrated that blood pressure values are positively related to body adiposity and small kidney size.

  5. Costs and cost-effectiveness of training traditional birth attendants to reduce neonatal mortality in the Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival study (LUNESP.

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    Lora L Sabin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project ("LUNESP" was a cluster randomized, controlled trial that showed that training traditional birth attendants (TBAs to perform interventions targeting birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and neonatal sepsis reduced all-cause neonatal mortality by 45%. This companion analysis was undertaken to analyze intervention costs and cost-effectiveness, and factors that might improve cost-effectiveness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We calculated LUNESP's financial and economic costs and the economic cost of implementation for a forecasted ten-year program (2011-2020. In each case, we calculated the incremental cost per death avoided and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted in real 2011 US dollars. The forecasted 10-year program analysis included a base case as well as 'conservative' and 'optimistic' scenarios. Uncertainty was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The estimated financial and economic costs of LUNESP were $118,574 and $127,756, respectively, or $49,469 and $53,550 per year. Fixed costs accounted for nearly 90% of total costs. For the 10-year program, discounted total and annual program costs were $256,455 and $26,834 respectively; for the base case, optimistic, and conservative scenarios, the estimated cost per death avoided was $1,866, $591, and $3,024, and cost per DALY averted was $74, $24, and $120, respectively. Outcomes were robust to variations in local costs, but sensitive to variations in intervention effect size, number of births attended by TBAs, and the extent of foreign consultants' participation. CONCLUSIONS: Based on established guidelines, the strategy of using trained TBAs to reduce neonatal mortality was 'highly cost effective'. We strongly recommend consideration of this approach for other remote rural populations with limited access to health care.

  6. Midwifery students receiving the newborn at birth: A pilot study of the impact of structured training in neonatal resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Angela; Sweet, Linda

    2015-09-01

    The experience of midwifery students in receiving the newborn at birth, before and after structured training in neonatal resuscitation: A pilot study. The practice of receiving the newborn, including neonatal resuscitation is an essential component of midwifery. Anecdotal evidence suggests preparation for the task is ad hoc within midwifery curricula, leading to student's anxiety. This paper reports impacts of neonatal resuscitation training upon levels of knowledge, preparedness, and anxiety for midwifery students receiving the newborn. Midwifery students participated in an online questionnaire before and after neonatal resuscitation training. The responses collected were subjected to descriptive analysis. Of 10 students invited, 6 completed the pre and post course questionnaires. Knowledge of the responsibility in receiving the newborn and instigation of resuscitation increased after attending the course. Steps to prepare to receive the newborn and clinical signs for initial assessment remained static. Students felt more prepared to receive the newborn after the course but did not improve in their preparation to initiate resuscitation. Anxiety levels remained static. Structured neonatal resuscitation training and strategies to ensure application of skills learnt should be embedded into midwifery curricula. Midwifery students' experience in receiving the newborn and neonatal resuscitation is worthy of further study.

  7. The Regional Centralization of Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring and Its Impact on Neonatal Acidemia and the Cesarean Birth Rate

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    Kaori Michikata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The improvement of the accuracy of fetal heart rate (FHR pattern interpretation to improve perinatal outcomes remains an elusive challenge. We examined the impact of an FHR centralization system on the incidence of neonatal acidemia and cesarean births. Methods. We performed a regional, population-based, before-and-after study of 9,139 deliveries over a 3-year period. The chi-squared test was used for the statistical analysis. Results. The before-and-after study showed no difference in the rates of acidemia, cesarean births, or perinatal death in the whole population. A subgroup analysis using the 4 hospitals in which an FHR centralization system was continuously connected (compliant group and 3 hospitals in which the FHR centralization system was connected on demand (noncompliant group showed that the incidence acidemia was significantly decreased (from 0.47% to 0.11% without a corresponding increase in the cesarean birth rate due to nonreassuring FHR patterns in the compliant group. Although there was no difference in the incidence of nonreassuring FHR patterns in the noncompliant group, the total cesarean birth rate was significantly higher than that in the compliant group. Conclusion. The continuous FHR centralization system, in which specialists help to interpret results and decide clinical actions, was beneficial in reducing the incidence of neonatal acidemia (pH < 7.1 without increasing the cesarean birth rate due to nonreassuring FHR patterns.

  8. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence.

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    Signe Fabricius-Bjerre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and to study if the effect differed between adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA vs. appropriate for gestational age (AGA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from 30 SGA and 57 AGA healthy young Danish adolescents were analysed. They had a mean age of 17.6 years and all were born at term. Data on early infant weight gain from birth to three months as well as from birth to one year were available in the majority of subjects. In adolescence, glucose metabolism was assessed by a simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test and body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood pressures as well as plasma concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Early infant weight gain from birth to three months was positively associated with the fasting insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, basal lipid levels and systolic blood pressure at 17 years. There was a differential effect of postnatal weight gain on HOMA-IR in AGA and SGA participants (P for interaction = 0.03. No significant associations were seen between postnatal weight gain and body composition or parameters of glucose metabolism assessed by the simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test. In subgroup analysis, all associations with early infant weight gain were absent in the AGA group, but the associations with basal insulin and HOMA-IR were still present in the SGA group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that accelerated growth during the first three months of life may confer an increased risk of later metabolic disturbances--particularly of glucose metabolism--in individuals born SGA.

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL Analysis for Production Traits of Birth Weight and Weight 360 days in Backcross Sheep

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    ENDANG TRI MARGAWATI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Four half-sib families (n = 382 consisting predominantly of ITT x Merino x Merino backcross progeny, including some F2 progeny were used to analyze QTL for two production traits (Birth weight = BW1 and Body weight at 360 days = BW360. The study exploited differences in weight performance between the Merino and ITT sheep. A total of 141 informative microsatellite markers were used in a genome-wide scan covering the 26 autosomal sheep chromosomes. QTL analysis was conducted online using QTL Express. This study reports the effect of QTL for birth weight on Chromosomes 5 (p < 0.05 at 112cM (0cM-128cM. Location of candidate genes for birth weight was predicted at the region of flanking markers MCM527-BMS1247. A QTL for BW360 days existed on Chromosome 18 (p < 0.01 at 104cM (25.0-125cM. Location of candidate genes related to production traits for body weight 360 days was predicted at the segment of flanking markers of CSSM018-TMR1. Only the QTL on Chromosome 18 retained significance (p < 0.01 under experiment-wide significance testing. This QTL region is being examined for candidate genes by investigating to the homologous human chromosomal segments.

  10. Intrauterine nicotine exposure, birth weight, gestational age and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Preterm and growth restricted infants may have developmental delays or deviant organ function related to the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Since both organ systems are hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of infantile colic, a condition characterized...... by excessive crying during the first months of life, impaired fetal growth and preterm birth may be risk factors for infantile colic. Objectives To investigate the association between gestational age, birth weight, and infantile colic. Methods We used maternal interviews from the Danish National Birth Cohort...... (1996 to 2002) conducted at gestational week 17 and at six months post partum. We included 62 761 live-born singletons with complete information on birth weight, gestational age, and crying symptoms recorded at six months of age. Infantile colic was defined according to Wessel's modified criteria...

  11. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery?

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    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population.

  12. Executive functions of six-year-old boys with normal birth weight and gestational age.

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    Desiree Yee-Ling Phua

    Full Text Available Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g and gestational age (37-41 weeks within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions.

  13. A prospective study of effects of psychological factors and sleep on obstetric interventions, mode of birth, and neonatal outcomes among low-risk British Columbian women

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    Hall Wendy A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetrical interventions, including caesarean sections, are increasing in Canada. Canadian women’s psychological states, fatigue, and sleep have not been examined prospectively for contributions to obstetric interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes. Context and purpose of the study: The prospective study was conducted in British Columbia (BC, Canada with 650 low-risk pregnant women. Of those women, 624 were included in this study. Women were recruited through providers’ offices, media, posters, and pregnancy fairs. We examined associations between pregnant women’s fatigue, sleep deprivation, and psychological states (anxiety and childbirth fear and women’s exposure to obstetrical interventions and adverse neonatal outcomes (preterm, admission to NICU, low APGARS, and low birth weight. Methods Data from our cross-sectional survey were linked, using women’s personal health numbers, to birth outcomes from the Perinatal Services BC database. After stratifying for parity, we used Pearson’s Chi-square to examine associations between psychological states, fatigue, sleep deprivation and maternal characteristics. We used hierarchical logistic regression modeling to test 9 hypotheses comparing women with high and low childbirth fear and anxiety on likelihood of having epidural anaesthetic, a caesarean section (stratified for parity, assisted vaginal delivery, and adverse neonatal outcomes and women with and without sleep deprivation and high levels of fatigue on likelihood of giving birth by caesarean section, while controlling for maternal, obstetrical (e.g., infant macrosomia, and psychological variables. Results Significantly higher proportions of multiparas, reporting difficult and upsetting labours and births, expectations of childbirth interventions, and health stressors, reported high levels of childbirth fear. Women who reported antenatal relationship, housing, financial, and health stressors and multiparas

  14. SECULAR CHANGES IN BIRTH WEIGHTS AND WOMEN'S BODY SIZE IN KRAKÓW AND POZNAŃ (POLAND) DURING THE LAST CENTURY.

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    Kryst, Łukasz; Bilińska, Inez

    2016-06-22

    Changing socioeconomic conditions over the last century have left their mark on neonatal size and final body size of individuals born in those days. The main aim of this study was to investigate how the historical, political and economic changes occurring from the late 19th century to the 2000s have affected the birth weight of newborns. Additionally, changes in weight and body height in the case of young women (potential mothers) were analysed. Data were from two cities in Poland (Kraków and Poznań) covering 15,884 newborns and 3612 women aged 18 years, derived from 1900 to 2010. Despite short-term fluctuations, the results showed significant increasing trends in all studied features. Changes in birth weight were similar in both cities: in Kraków it increased by 184 g (males) and 206 g (females), and in Poznań by 216 g (males) and 120 g (females). Changes in women's body size were also significant, but the level was different depending on place of residence. In the last century, women's body height increased by 8.2 cm in Kraków and by 10.2 cm in Poznań, and their body weight increased by 1 kg and 5 kg respectively. The considered period covered the years of socioeconomic change that occurred as a result of the political system transformation. Crises, periods of prosperity and other factors that determine standard of living and health care have influenced the development of the Polish population's physical features.

  15. Comparison of primary dentition caries experience in pre-term low birth-weight and full-term normal birth-weight children aged one to six years

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    Sowmya Anaberu Rajshekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the study were to determine and compare the primary dentition caries experience and the variables that may influence the occurrence of caries, in preterm low birth weight and full term normal birth weight children aged one to six years. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 250 full term normal birth weight (FTNBW and 250 preterm low birth weight (PTLBW children one to six years, born in the two hospitals in Davangere: Bapuji Hospital and Chigatere Hospital. A purposive sampling was used to select the study group. Materials and Methods: Required and relevant information regarding demographic characteristics, feeding practices and oral hygiene practices were obtained. Dentition status and treatment need index (World Health Organization 1997 was used to record dental caries. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test, Student′s t-test and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference was observed in caries prevalence between PTLBW and FTNBW groups (P<0.05, however, the difference in mean Decayed, missing and filled teeth index (dmft was not statistically significant (P=0.30. Statistically significant differences were observed in caries experience between the two groups in relation to exclusive breast feeding for longer duration, i.e 7-12 months (P<0.05, bottle feeding habits (P<0.05 and sticky food consumption (P<0.01. Conclusions: A significant relationship was found between caries and PTLBW status though the difference in caries experience between the groups was not statistically significant, thus illustrating the higher caries risk in PTLBW children compared to FTNBW children.

  16. Neonatal care in the home in northern rural Honduras: a qualitative study of the role of traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Emma; Bailey, Joanne Motiño; Robles, Chayla; Low, Lisa Kane

    2013-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have limited ability to reduce maternal mortality, but may be able to have a significant impact on neonatal survival. This qualitative study explores TBAs' (possessive) experience with neonatal care in a rural Honduran community. In 6 semistructured focus groups, TBAs described services they routinely provide to newborns. Using Atlas.ti, Version 6.0. (ATLAS.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, University of Berlin), transcripts were coded by bilingual researchers and analyzed by thematic content. TBAs demonstrated limited knowledge of newborn physiology, yet were aware of many internationally recommended practices. Despite attempts to follow recommendations, all TBAs expressed difficulty due to resource constraints. TBAs were strong advocates of immediate breast-feeding and skin-to-skin care, but they did not demonstrate knowledge regarding delayed bathing and thermal care. Most TBAs stated that a sick neonate could be identified immediately at birth; thus, infections or other illnesses developed in later days may be missed. TBAs did not believe they could have averted neonatal complications or deaths that had occurred under their care. For most healthy newborns, TBAs are the primary providers until the 2-month vaccine visit at the healthcare clinic. Improved TBA training focused on infection symptomotology, physiology, and thermoregulation for newborns may increase opportunities for improved health and timely referrals to healthcare facilities.

  17. Incidental intracranial hemorrhage after uncomplicated birth: MRI before and after neonatal heart surgery

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    Tavani, F.; Zimmerman, R.A. [Neuroradiology Dept., The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Clancy, R.R.; Licht, D.J. [Dept. of Neurology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mahle, W.T. [Children' s Heart Hospital, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) before and after neonatal heart surgery. We carried out pre- and postoperative MRI looking for brain lesions in 24 full-term new-borns with known congenital heart disease. They underwent heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), usually with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). The first MRI was 1-22 days after birth. There were 21 children born after uncomplicated vaginal delivery and three delivered by cesarean section (CS). ICH was seen in 13 (62%) of the vaginal delivery group but in none of the CS group. We saw subdural bleeding along the inferior surface of the tentorium in 11 (52%) and supratentorially in six (29%) of the 21 children with ICH. Small hemorrhages were present in the choroid plexus in seven (33%), in the parenchyma in one (5%) and in the occipital horn in one (5%). There were 26 foci of bleeding in these 21 patients (1.2 per patient). None was judged by formal neurologic examination to be symptomatic from the hemorrhage. Follow-up MRI after cardiac surgery was obtained in 23 children, showing 37 foci of ICH (1.6 per patient), but all appeared asymptomatic. Postoperatively, ICH had increased in 10 children (43%), was unchanged in seven (30%) and was less extensive in six (26%). (orig.)

  18. Intestinal Microbiota and Weight-Gain in Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleya, Silvia; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Solís, Gonzalo; Suárez, Marta; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months. The statistical analyses performed indicate an influence of the intestinal microbiota in weight-gain, with the levels of some microorganisms showing a significant association with the weight-gain of the infant. The levels of specific microbial groups during the first days of life were found to affect weight gain by the age of 1 month. Moreover, clustering of the infants on the basis of the microbiota composition at 1 month of age rendered groups which showed differences in weight z-scores. Our results suggest an association between the gut microbiota composition and weight-gain in preterm infants at early life and point out potential microbial targets for favoring growth and maturation in these infants. PMID:28228752

  19. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka;

    2008-01-01

    of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...... of later-born boys by 29 g (p = 0.0001) and 38 g (p = 0.0001) and later-born girls by 17 g (p = 0.0001) and 21 g (p = 0.0001) compared with later-born siblings with no brothers. Part of this association was due to a shorter gestation among later-born siblings with brothers. An explanation for these results...

  20. Avaliação de preditores do óbito neonatal em uma série histórica de nascidos vivos no Nordeste brasileiro An evaluation of the predictors of neonatal death in a time series of live births in the Northeast Region of Brazil

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    Lygia Carmen de Moraes Vanderlei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar tendência dos preditores do óbito neonatal entre os nascidos vivos e qualidade do preenchimento do Sistema de Informações para Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc institucional. MÉTODOS: série histórica do Sinasc do Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1995-2006 em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram avaliadas: completitude de preenchimento das variáveis e tendência dos indicadores de risco para mortalidade infantil (baixo peso ao nascer; anóxia; prematuridade; cesariana; ausência de pré-natal; mãe adolescente; analfabetismo e nenhum filho nascido vivo e morto. Significância estatística para teste t de Student foi de 5% em um modelo de regressão linear. RESULTADOS: 58.689 nascidos vivos com contínuo incremento a partir de 2002; baixo peso ao nascer, 22,8%; Apgar OBJECTVES: to evaluate predictors of neonatal death among live births and the quality of use of the institutional Live Birth Information System register (Sinasc. METHODS: a time serie based on data from the Sinasc of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1995-2006 in the city Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The following were evaluated: the completeness of the forms and the tendency regarding risk factors for infant mortality (low birth weight; anoxia; premature birth; caesarian birth; lack of prenatal care; adolescent pregnancy; illiteracy; and having had no live or still born child. Statistical significance was tested using Student's t test with p<0.05 in a linear regression model. RESULTS: 58,689 live births occurred with a continued rise from 2002 onwards; low birth weight, 22.8%; Apgar <7 1º minute 15.3%; premature 22.4%; Caesarian birth 38,2%; adolescent mothers 27.2%; illiteracy 2.7% and 89% with no live or still born child. One percent of variables were not recorded. The following variables increased (p<0.05: Apgar in the 1st minute, low birth weight, premature birth and caesarian birth; and the following decreased (p<0

  1. Low birth weight is associated with NIDDM in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, P; Vaag, Allan; Kyvik, K O;

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low weight at birth and risk of later development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is not known whether this association is due to an impact of intrauterine malnutrition per se, or whether it is due to a coincidence....... Furthermore, monozygotic (MZ) twins have identical genotypes. Original midwife birth weight record determinations were traced in MZ and dizygotic (DZ) twins discordant for NIDDM. Birth weights were lower in the NIDDM twins (n = 2 x 14) compared with both their identical (MZ; n = 14) and non-identical (DZ; n...... = 14) non-diabetic co-twins, respectively (MZ: mean +/- SEM 2634 +/- 135 vs 2829 +/- 131 g, p

  2. PPARGC1A DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in low birth weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillberg, Linn; Jacobsen, Stine; Rönn, Tina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased DNA methylation of the metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) has been reported in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects and from low birth weight (LBW) subjects with an increased risk of T2D. High-fat...... overfeeding increases PPARGC1A DNA methylation in muscle in a birth weight dependent manner. However, PPARGC1A DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in LBW subjects has not previously been investigated. Our objective was to determine PPARGC1A DNA methylation and mRNA expression in basal...... and insulin-stimulated SAT from LBW and matched normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during control and high-fat overfeeding. MATERIALS/METHODS: Nineteen young healthy men with LBW and 26 NBW controls were studied after both a 5-day high-fat overfeeding and a control diet in a randomized crossover setting. DNA...

  3. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M;

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... in glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR...... and experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  4. Post-neonatal mortality, morbidity, and developmental outcome after ultrasound-dated preterm birth in rural Malawi: a community-based cohort study.

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    Melissa Gladstone

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is considered to be associated with an estimated 27% of neonatal deaths, the majority in resource-poor countries where rates of prematurity are high. There is no information on medium term outcomes after accurately determined preterm birth in such settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This community-based stratified cohort study conducted between May-December 2006 in Southern Malawi followed up 840 post-neonatal infants born to mothers who had received antenatal antibiotic prophylaxis/placebo in an attempt to reduce rates of preterm birth (APPLe trial ISRCTN84023116. Gestational age at delivery was based on ultrasound measurement of fetal bi-parietal diameter in early-mid pregnancy. 247 infants born before 37 wk gestation and 593 term infants were assessed at 12, 18, or 24 months. We assessed survival (death, morbidity (reported by carer, admissions, out-patient attendance, growth (weight and height, and development (Ten Question Questionnaire [TQQ] and Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool [MDAT]. Preterm infants were at significantly greater risk of death (hazard ratio 1.79, 95% CI 1.09-2.95. Surviving preterm infants were more likely to be underweight (weight-for-age z score; p<0.001 or wasted (weight-for-length z score; p<0.01 with no effect of gestational age at delivery. Preterm infants more often screened positively for disability on the Ten Question Questionnaire (p = 0.002. They also had higher rates of developmental delay on the MDAT at 18 months (p = 0.009, with gestational age at delivery (p = 0.01 increasing this likelihood. Morbidity-visits to a health centre (93% and admissions to hospital (22%-was similar for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 years of life, infants who are born preterm in resource poor countries, continue to be at a disadvantage in terms of mortality, growth, and development. In addition to interventions in the immediate neonatal period, a refocus on early childhood is

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

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    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  6. Placental Malaria is associated with reduced early life weight development of affected children independent of low birth weight

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    Palmero Melba S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy contributes substantially to the disease burden in both mothers and offspring. Placental malaria may lead to intrauterine growth restriction or preterm delivery resulting in low birth weight (LBW, which, in general, is associated with increased infant morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the possible direct impact of the specific disease processes occurring in PM on longer term outcomes such as subsequent retarded growth development independent of LBW. Methods In an existing West-African cohort, 783 healthy infants with a birth weight of at least 2,000 g were followed up during their first year of life. The aim of the study was to investigate if Plasmodium falciparum infection of the placenta, assessed by placental histology, has an impact on several anthropometric parameters, measured at birth and after three, six and 12 months using generalized estimating equations models adjusting for moderate low birth weight. Results Independent of LBW, first to third born infants who were exposed to either past, chronic or acute placental malaria during pregnancy had significantly lower weight-for-age (-0.43, 95% CI: -0.80;-0.07, weight-for-length (-0.47, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 and BMI-for-age z-scores (-0.57, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 compared to infants born to mothers who were not diagnosed with placental malaria (p = 0.019, 0.013, and 0.012, respectively. Interestingly, the longitudinal data on histology-based diagnosis of PM also document a sharp decline of PM prevalence in the Sukuta cohort from 16.5% in 2002 to 5.4% in 2004. Conclusions It was demonstrated that PM has a negative impact on the infant's subsequent weight development that is independent of LBW, suggesting that the longer term effects of PM have been underestimated, even in areas where malaria transmission is declining.

  7. Senecavirus A infection in market weight gilts, sows and neonates with subsequent protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize SVA infection in market weight pigs, late-gestation sows, and neonates and 2) examine protective immunity in late-gestation gilts Materials and Methods: For Part 1 of the study 15 gilts were inoculated with SVA, bled regularly for 2 we...

  8. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W

    1992-08-01

    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The impact of birth weight and gestational age on the management of juvenile essential hypertension

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    Hogas Mihai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential hypertension in children is a very important biological aspect in child pathology, caused by the synergic action of multiple risk factors, with an increasing prevalence. Since there is not much knowledge about juvenile essential hypertension in childhood, in this paper we will clarify the existing data about this pathology and its management, mainly by referring to the correlations during different stages. We found significant correlations between hypertension and the individual values of birth weight and gestational age, which suggest that there is an important relationship between birth weight and gestational age, as important biological markers vs. the different stages of essential hypertension.

  10. Assessment of clinical methods and ultrasound in predicting fetal birth weight in term pregnant women

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    Ruby Yadav

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Clinical estimation of birth weight clearly has a role in management of labour and delivery in a term pregnancy. Clinical estimation especially by SFH and times;AG method is as accurate as routine USG estimated in average birth weight. SFH and times; AG clinical formula can be of great value in developing countries like ours, where ultrasound is not available at many health care centers especially in a rural area. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2775-2779

  11. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects. METHODS: Twenty LBW and 20 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects were investigated using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp with excision of skeletal muscle...... is not explained by impaired muscle insulin or AMPK signaling in subjects with or without LBW. Lower muscle insulin signaling in LBW subjects post bed rest despite similar degree of insulin resistance as seen in controls may to some extent support the idea that LBW subjects are at higher risk of developing type 2...

  12. Epigenome-wide association study on identical twins discordant for birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Christiansen, Lene

    induces persistent epigenetic modification detectable at adult ages, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in peripheral blood of 150 pairs of identical Danish twins discordant for birth weight using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip featuring 485,000 CpG sites across...... the genome. After quality control and data preprocessing using free R package minfi, data were analysed by a mixed effects model including fixed effect variables such as birth weight difference, age and sex of twin pairs; random effect variables such as batch, well, and sample position on the array, etc....... Statistical analysis revealed 12 probes with p valuetwins is not associated...

  13. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

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    Lund Line K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods I