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Sample records for birth weight infants

  1. Motor Developmental Status of Moderately Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    TAVASOLI, Azita; Aliabadi, Faranak; Eftekhari, Rooholah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Motor development is frequently reported to be impaired in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, but little is known about the moderately low birth weight (MLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MLBW preterm infants present developmental delay. Methods: In a historical cohort study, 18±2 month-old infants with a history of low birth weight (LBW) were identified. All infants with complications of LBW with negative effects on development were excluded. Health...

  2. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  3. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...... age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P children with normal...... infant weight gain, we observed the highest risks of school-age asthma in children born preterm with high infant weight gain (odds ratio [OR], 4.47; 95% CI, 2.58-7.76). Preterm birth was positively associated with an increased risk of preschool wheezing (pooled odds ratio [pOR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1...

  4. Hearing loss in low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, D; Petmezakis, J; Papazissis, G; Messaritakis, J; Matsaniotis, N

    1982-07-01

    The hearing of 98 perinatal intensive care survivors with a mean birth weight of 1,540 g was assessed at a mean age of 6 1/2 years. They represented 73% of the long-term survivors with birth weights of 1,800 g or less who had been cared for in our neonatal unit during the three-year period 1971 through 1973. Nine of the 98 infants had sensorineural hearing loss, and 14 had exudative otitis media. During their neonatal period, the infants with hearing loss experienced more frequent apneic attacks, hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin level, greater than 14 mg/dL), and hypothermia compared with their healthy counterparts. There was no evidence that the duration of stay in the incubator or the use of stay in the incubator or the use of ototoxic drugs had affected the hearing of these low-birth-weight infants.

  5. Prediction of low birth weight infants from ultrasound measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to help to predict low birth weight infants by measuring placental diameter and thickness. A prospective study was conducted of 70 consecutive singleton pregnancies to evaluate placental diameter and thickness by ultrasonographic measurement at 36 weeks gestation. The individual data were fitted to a logistic regression analysis. A warning limit of a placental diameter of 18 cm and placental thickness of 2 cm at 36 weeks gestation were calculated to predict low birth weight infants. Ultrasonograhic placental diameter and thickness measurements appear to be of prognostic value in identifying the subsequent occurrence of fetal growth retardation. (author)

  6. Ventilatory management in extremely low birth weight infants

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Shaun; Choong, Karen

    2006-01-01

    The improvement in survival in premature infants associated with the evolution of mechanical ventilation has been accompanied by an increase in ventilator induced lung injury. High frequency ventilation has been shown to reduce the incidence of ventilator induced lung injury and hence chronic lung disease in the very low birth weight infant. The evolution in understanding how to best use high frequency ventilation in this population has prompted us to ask whether similar strategies to optimiz...

  7. Evaluation of aldosterone excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Mohsen, Abdel Hakeem; Taha, Gamal; Kamel, Bothina A; Maksood, Mohamed Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Data about aldosterone production and excretion in the neonatal period are still few and controversial. Our objectives are to assess urinary aldosterone excretion (UAE) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and to identify clinical and biochemical variables that may influence this excretion. Thirty VLBW infants (14 males and 16 females), their gestational age value was 0.176 ± 0.05 μg/24 h and the mean absolute UAE was 1906 ± 271 pg/mL. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between UAE and gestational age and birth weight; also, infants with respiratory distress syndrome had higher urinary aldosterone levels than infants without respiratory distress. Only plasma sodium was a significant independent factor that negatively influenced UAE on linear regression analysis. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of VLBW infants seems to be able, even immediately after birth, to respond to variations of plasma sodium concentrations; measurement of UAE constitutes an interesting method to determine aldosterone production in VLBW infants. PMID:27424689

  8. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill;

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  9. Correlation between gestational weight gain and birth weight of the infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, I; Sunuwar, L; Bhandary, S; Sharma, P

    2010-06-01

    Birth weight is an important determinant of infant's well being as low birth weight is known to increase the risk adult onset of diseases like type-2 diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Maternal weight gain is one of the most important independent predictors of infant birth weight. Institute of Medicine of the National Academics, USA has recommended that total weight gain of mothers should be according to their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). Therefore, this study was conducted to observe the total weight gained by the pregnant women and the correlation between the weights gained by them with the birth weight of their infants. 98 women who delivered full term single baby at Patan hospital were included after taking their verbal consent. The details of the newborn and the history of the pregnant women were taken from the hospital records. The information about the family income, dietary habit, birth spacing and the type of work done by the pregnant women was obtained from the women themselves. The mean weight gain of the mothers was 9.48 (SD = 3.41) kilograms and the mean birth weight of the infants was found to be 2965.66 (SD = 364.37) grams. Multiple Liner Regression Models showed the effect of Gestational weight gain (GWG), Age and Parity on birth weight of the infant. Step-wise multiple regressions gave rise to models that showed effect of GWG and age on birth weight of the infants. This study concluded that gestational weight gain has positive linear relationship (correlation) with the birth weight of infants. PMID:21222408

  10. Developmental Outcome of Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    F Solimani

    2007-01-01

    Fetal and extrauterine life form a continuum during which human growth and development are affected by genetic, environmental, and social factors. Perinatal mortality is influenced by prenatal, maternal, and fetal conditions and by circumstances surrounding delivery. The majority of infants deaths and developmental disorders are due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight (LBW), as well as maternal complications of pregnancy and congenital malformations (chromoso...

  11. Birth Weight Ratio as an Alternative to Birth Weight Percentile to Express Infant Weight in Research and Clinical Practice: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P  0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283

  12. Maternal factors influencing infant abdominal circumference and birth weight - a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Objective: 1) To examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on infant abdominal circumference (AC) and birth weight. 2) To define reference curves for AC and birth weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Design: Population-based study...... outcome measures: Birth AC and weight in relation to pregestational maternal BMI, maternal smoking and medical conditions (any). Results: Infant AC and birth weight increased significantly (p

  13. Non-Oliguric Hyperkalemia in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Jae Ryoung; Gwon, Myounghoon; Lee, Jang Hoon; Park, Moon Sung; Kim, Sung Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It is to examine clinical manifestations, early biochemical indicators, and risk factors for non-oliguric hyperkalemia (NOHK) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). Materials and Methods We collected clinical and biochemical data from 75 ELBWI admitted to Ajou University Hospital between Jan. 2008 and Jun. 2011 by reviewing medical records retrospectively. NOHK was defined as serum potassium ≥7 mmol/L during the first 72 hours of life with urine output ≥1 mL/kg/h. Results NOHK...

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants of birth weight > 2000 g after haemorrhagic shock at birth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jandeck, C; Kellner, U.; Kössel, H; Bartsch, M.; Versmold, H T; Foerster, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is associated with low birth weight and low gestational age. For ROP screening examination is recommended in infants weighing 1500 g (n = 149) and who required additional oxygen supplementation or underwent surgery with general anaesthesia ...

  15. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  16. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part I: From Birth to Expansion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…

  17. Maternal education, birth weight, and infant mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Timothy B; Fang, Fu; O'Neill, Erin; Dirienzo, Greg

    2013-04-01

    This research determines whether the observed decline in infant mortality with socioeconomic level, operationalized as maternal education (dichotomized as college or more, versus high school or less), is due to its "indirect" effect (operating through birth weight) and/or to its "direct" effect (independent of birth weight). The data used are the 2001 U.S. national African American, Mexican American, and European American birth cohorts by sex. The analysis explores the birth outcomes of infants undergoing normal and compromised fetal development separately by using covariate density defined mixture of logistic regressions (CDDmlr). Among normal births, mean birth weight increases significantly (by 27-108 g) with higher maternal education. Mortality declines significantly (by a factor of 0.40-0.96) through the direct effect of education. The indirect effect of education among normal births is small but significant in three cohorts. Furthermore, the indirect effect of maternal education tends to increase mortality despite improved birth weight. Among compromised births, education has small and inconsistent effects on birth weight and infant mortality. Overall, our results are consistent with the view that the decrease in infant death by socioeconomic level is not mediated by improved birth weight. Interventions targeting birth weight may not result in lower infant mortality.

  18. First Trimester Phthalate Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in the Infant Development and Environment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby; Redmon, Bruce; Haaland, Wren; Swan, Shanna H.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is widespread among pregnant women but whether it is related to fetal growth and birth weight remains to be determined. We examined whether first trimester prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with birth weight in a pregnancy cohort study. We recruited first trimester pregnant women from 2010–2012 from four centers and analyzed mother/infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth record data (N = 753). We conducted multiple linear regression to examine if prenatal log specific gravity adjusted urinary phthalate exposure was related to birthweight in term and preterm (≤37 weeks) infants, stratified by sex. We observed a significant association between mono carboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCOP) exposure and increased birthweight in term males, 0.13 kg (95% CI 0.03, 0.23). In preterm infants, we observed a 0.49 kg (95% CI 0.09, 0.89) increase in birthweight in relation to a one log unit change in the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations in females (N = 33). In summary, we observed few associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and birthweight. Positive associations may be attributable to unresolved confounding in term infants and limited sample size in preterm infants. PMID:27669283

  19. Retinopathy of Prematurity Among 1000-2000 Gram Birth Weight Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamali Fatahi Bayat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to identify the risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in neonatal intensive care unit in preterm infants born with birth weight 1000-2000g or at gestational age less than 34 weeks. Material & Methods: From August 2000 to December 2001, 50 preterm newborn infants with birth weights less than 2000 g or gestational age less than 34 weeks admitted to the NICU were studied. Newborn infants with birth weight between 1200-2000g who received more than 6 hours oxygen and newborn infants with birth weight 1000-1200 g regardless of oxygen therapy, who survived until 4 weeks postnatal, were enrolled and followed. Patients underwent indirect ophthalmologic examination by two ophthalmologists between 4-8 weeks post partum. The newborn infants who had ROP were assigned to case group and those without ROP to control group, both groups were reexamined every 2-4 weeks or according to international classification of retinopathy of prematurity (ICROP advice. Findings: Fifty newborn infants, 36 (72% in control group, 14 (28% in case group, were studied. Gestational age and birth weight of the patients with ROP were significantly lower than those of control group. Duration of oxygen therapy, hyperoxia, acidosis, hypercarbia, hypocarbia and phototherapy are suggested as risk factors contributing to ROP. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that the ROP frequency remains elevated among premature and very low birth weight infants. Infants at risk for ROP should have screening eye examinations and proper treatment.

  20. Retinopathy of Prematurity Among 1000-2000 Gram Birth Weight Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamali Fatahi Bayat; Azizollah Yousefi; Seyedeh Fatemeh Khatami; Gholamali Mamuri

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify the risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in neonatal intensive care unit in preterm infants born with birth weight 1000-2000g or at gestational age less than 34 weeks. Material & Methods: From August 2000 to December 2001, 50 preterm newborn infants with birth weights less than 2000 g or gestational age less than 34 weeks admitted to the NICU were studied. Newborn infants with birth weight between 1200-2000g who received more t...

  1. Maternal Characteristics of a Cohort of Preterm Infants with a Birth Weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claas, Marieke J.; de Vries, Linda S.; Bruinse, Hein W.

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives were to describe the obstetric complications of women who delivered an extremely low-birth-weight infant by comparing two consecutive 5-year periods and infants appropriate for gestational age (AGA) versus infants small for gestational age (SGA). This descriptive study included women

  2. Maternal Education, Birth Weight, and Infant Mortality in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, Timothy B.; Fang, Fu; O’Neill, Erin; DiRienzo, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This research determines whether the observed decline in infant mortality with socioeconomic level, operationalized as maternal education (dichotomized as college or more, versus high school or less), is due to its “indirect” effect (operating through birth weight) and/or to its “direct” effect (independent of birth weight). The data used are the 2001 U.S. national African American, Mexican American, and European American birth cohorts by sex. The analysis explores the birth outcomes of infan...

  3. Candida Colonization in Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Sanami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Candida colonization is a major risk factor for invasive candidiasis in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the rate, risk factors, and sources of colonization in low birth weight (LBW and very low birth weight (VLBW infants in an NICU. Patients and Methods All cases were classified in to 1 of 2 groups: LBW and VLBW. A questionnaire that collected demographic data was completed for each case. Swabs were obtained from the ear, umbilicus, and rectum, as well as catheters, tracheal tubes, and nasogastric tubes. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 102 cases were examined in this study. The mean weight of the infants was 1720 ± 474 gr (range 850 - 2500 gr. Positive Candida cultures were isolated in 19 (31.7% cases in the LBW group and 20 (47.6% cases in the VLBW group. In addition, 36 (35.3% cases showed signs of sepsis. The mortality rate was 1.7% (n = 1. The umbilicus and rectum were the most common sites for Candida colonization in both groups. The analysis also indicated that the duration of hospitalization, prolonged use of corticosteroids, central venous catheters, total parenteral nutrition, and mechanical ventilation were associated with candidiasis infection in VLBW infants while prolonged use of corticosteroids and central venous catheters were major risk factors associated with candidiasis infection in LBW infants. Conclusions These results show that maturity and birth weight are related to a decrease in the risk of developing a candidiasis infection.

  4. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

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    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  5. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Adriana C; Murtha, Amy P; Murphy, Susan K; Fortner, Kimberly; Overcash, Francine; Henry, Nikki; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Forman, Michele R; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Jirtle, Randy; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation) were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile), those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile) were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient = 230, se = 58.0, P = 0.0001), after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2); the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0004). Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity. PMID:23861689

  6. Evaluation of very low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Arzu Gebeşçe; Haşim Uslu; Esengül Keleş; Mehmet Demirdöven; Alparslan Tonbul; Bülent Baştürk; Hamza Yazgan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Neonates with birth weights below 1500 g who were cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit of Fatih University Hospital were retrospectively examined in order to define their rates of morbidity and mortality.Methods: This study was conducted on 72 premature infants divided into two groups: those with birth weights below 1000 g(31 infants) and those above 1001 g(41 infants). Data on these infants were recorded and statistically evaluated. Birth weights ranged from 670 g to 1500...

  7. Cytokine responses in very low birth weight infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van den Berg; R.M. van Elburg; L. Vermeij; A. van Zwol; G.R. van den Brink; J.W.R. Twisk; E.E.S. Nieuwenhuis; W.P.F. Fetter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may present with a lower infection rate, which may result from enhanced antimicrobial innate or Th1 cytokine responses. We investigated whether glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in VLBW infants increase

  8. Survival Analysis of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  9. Survival Analysis of very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  10. Surfactant substitution in ventilated very low birth weight infants: factors related to response types

    OpenAIRE

    Segerer, Hugo; Stevens, P; Schadow, B.; Maier, R.; Kattner, E; Schwarz, H.; Curstedt, T.; Robertson, B.; Obladen, Michael

    1991-01-01

    We investigated factors than may influence the response to surfactant substitution. Thirty-five very low birth weight infants with respiratory distress syndrome were treated with Curosurf at 3-12 h of age. From the changes in oxygenation, the therapeutic response was categorized as rapid and sustained, rapid with relapse, or poor. Phospholipids and surfactant protein A were quantified in gastric aspirate samples obtained immediately after birth. They showed that 16 infants had accelerated lun...

  11. Hepatitis B Postexposure Prophylaxis in Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants

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    Markus Waitz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Recommendations for immunoprophylaxis in low-birth-weight (LBW infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-positive mothers vary. We successfully immunized an HBsAg-exposed infant (birth weight: 400 g and performed a literature review on the outcome of postexposure immunoprophylaxis in HBsAg-exposed preterm and LBW infants. Methods - By use of PubMed we identified articles relevant to the topic. Studies were included if the intended vaccine schedule was completed and follow-up data were reported. Results - Antibody response was reported in 31 LBW infants (birth weight < 2,500 g and 49 infants with gestational age of < 38 weeks. Low anti-HBs antibody levels (< 100 IU/L were found in 9 (29% of the 31 LBW infants. Overall, 2 of 20 (10% preterm infants and 2 of 17 (12% LBW were HBsAg-positive on follow-up. In one study, none of the 26 exposed very LBW infants became infected. Conclusion - Due to heterogeneity in immunization schedules, lack of information on transmission rates, and the small number of included subjects, no firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the optimal postexposure prophylaxis in LBW infants. We propose that active and passive immunization at birth should be completed by three further active doses (0–1–2–12 month schedule until further prospective studies are available.

  12. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Badiee; Salar Faramarzi; Tahereh MiriZadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Pre...

  13. The temperament of pre-term, low birth weight infants and its potential biological substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sandra J; Jonn-Seed, Mary St; Wilson, Peggy

    2004-12-01

    Temperament profiles of pre-term, low birth weight (LBW) infants were assessed at 6 months of age using standardized norms from the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (RITQ). The contributions of perinatal risk, ethnicity, and gender to various temperament dimensions were examined. The sample included 152 infants with a mean birth weight of 1687 g and a mean gestational age of 31 weeks. Eighty percent of the infants were classified as having temperaments that were difficult to manage. Irregularity of the infants' biorhythms, slowness in their ability to adapt to changes, and distractibility were the most problematic. Birth weight, gestational age, and gender were not associated with temperament. Perinatal morbidity was related to the temperament dimension of infant persistence, with implications for the infant's attention span and task performance. Euro American infants were rated as more persistent and less intense in emotional expression than were infants of other ethnic groups. Results suggest the need for a more direct assessment of the effects of neurobiological processes on development of temperament phenotypes and for measurement of temperament that is socioculturally appropriate. PMID:15514956

  14. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine;

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in ad...

  15. Contributing death factors in very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal deaths account for 40% of deaths under the age of 5 years worldwide. Therefore, efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing childhood mortality by two-thirds by 2015 are focused on reducing neonatal deaths in high-mortality countries. The aim of present study was to determine death factors among very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, medical records of 2,135 infants admitted between years 2008 and 2010 in neonatal intense care unit of Alzahra Educational-Medical centre (Tabriz, Iran were analysed by path method using statistical software SPSS 18. Results: Variables such as duration of hospitalisation, birth weight, gestational age have negative effect on infant mortality, and gestational blood pressure has positive direct effect on infant mortality that at whole represented 66.5% of infant mortality variance (F = 1018, P < 0.001. Gestational age termination in the positive form through birth weight, and also gestational blood pressure in negative form through hospitalisation period had indirect effect on infant mortality. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the duration of low-birth-weight infant′s hospitalisation is also associated with infant′s mortality (coefficient -0.7; P < 0.001. This study revealed that among the maternal factors only gestational blood pressure was in relationship with infants′ mortality.

  16. Predictors of Low Birth Weight Infants in the North West Province of Iran: a Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Karamzad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ninety-five percent of low birth weight infants are born in developing countries. This study was aimed to assess the predictors of low birth in East Azerbaijan, North-west province of Iran. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through a hospital based case–control design involving 49 women delivering low birth weight infants and 98 delivering normal weight infants. The data analysis was using SPSS-13 software with bivariate and multivariate methods. Results: There was a significant positive association between maternal chronological and marriage ages with low birth weight infants (P

  17. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    OpenAIRE

    Dudink, Jeroen; Lequin, Maarten; Pul, van, W.A.J.; Buijs, Jan; Conneman, Nikk; van Goudoever, Johannes; Govaert, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Background Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. Objective To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. Materials and meth...

  18. Increased levels of phthalates in very low birth weight infants with septicemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strømmen, Kenneth; Lyche, Jan Ludvig; Blakstad, Elin Wahl; Moltu, Sissel Jennifer; Veierød, Marit Bragelien; Almaas, Astrid Nylander; Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Thomsen, Cathrine; Nakstad, Britt; Brække, Kristin; Rønnestad, Arild Erlend; Drevon, Christian André; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-01-01

    Very low birth weight infants (VLBW; birth weightphthalates from medical devices during their hospital stay. We measured urinary phthalate concentrations among hospitalized VLBW infants participating in a nutritional study. Possible associations between different phthalates and birth weight (BW), septicemia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were evaluated. Forty-six VLBW infants were enrolled in this randomized controlled nutritional study. The intervention group (n=24) received increased quantities of energy, protein, fat, essential fatty acids and vitamin A, as compared to the control group (n=22). The concentrations of 12 urinary phthalate metabolites were measured, using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, at 3 time points during the first 5weeks of life. During this study, the levels of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites decreased, whereas an increasing trend was seen regarding metabolites of di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP). Significantly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were seen in infants with lower BW and those diagnosed with late onset septicemia or BPD. A significant positive correlation between the duration of respiratory support and DEHP metabolites was observed (p≤0.01) at 2.9weeks of age. Birth weight was negatively associated with urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. Infants with lower BW and those diagnosed with septicemia or BPD experienced prolonged exposure from medical equipment containing phthalates, with subsequent higher levels of phthalate metabolites detected. Clinical Trial Registration no.: NCT01103219. PMID:26922148

  19. Low birth-weight infants: the continuing ethnic disparity and the interaction of biology and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, K E

    2000-01-01

    African-American infants weigh on average 200-300 grams less at birth than do European-American infants, leading to a two-fold higher rate of low birth-weight (LBW) infants. This birth weight disparity has not changed significantly over the past 95 years. Numerous research studies have been undertaken to elucidate this disparity. While various factors have been found to be associated with increased risk for having a LBW infant, including maternal anthropometrics, health and age, prenatal care, and socioeconomic status, none have been found to entirely and adequately explain the continued birth-weight differential. Researchers have concluded that there is something different in the environment and/or genetics of African-American women compared to European-American women, but are at a loss to clearly define the factor other than to say it must relate to the racism suffered by African-American women leading to more stress during pregnancy. While racism is probably an additional factor, one genetic/environmental variable, which has been overlooked, is the interaction of heavy pigmentation with degree of latitude. Heavy pigmentation blocks ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. At high latitudes, such as in the US region, inadequate exposure to UVB radiation prevents the conversion of the prohormone to the hormonal form of vitamin D. The resulting low levels of serum vitamin D in the pregnant woman disrupt calcium homeostasis leading to intrauterine growth retardation, premature labor, and hypertension: all risk factors for LBW infants. PMID:11110360

  20. Fosfluconazole for Antifungal Prophylaxis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective case series study to evaluate the safety of fosfluconazole prophylaxis for preventing invasive fungal infection in VLBW infants with a central vascular access. Fosfluconazole was administered intravenously at a dose of 6 mg/kg everyday during which time a central venous catheter was placed. A total of 23 infants met the criteria for enrollment in our study. No cases of fungal infection were detected during the central venous catheter placement in the group. None of the infants had an elevated β-D-glucan, and all of them were still alive at discharge. Regarding the liver and renal function, no statistically significant differences were observed before and at the end of fosfluconazole prophylaxis. The results of this study demonstrate that fosfluconazole prophylaxis in preventing invasive fungal infection was well tolerated by VLBW infants. This is a first report to describe antifungal prophylaxis using fosfluconazole for VLBW infants.

  1. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Lindenmeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight <1,500 g and gestational age <32 weeks admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7 ± 1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7 ± 222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.0035. The mean intraocular pressure (P10-P90 decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.5222.16 at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28-18.92 at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased.

  2. Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.

  3. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1998-01-01

    We correlated arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status with anthropometric measures and growth rates in a group of low birth weight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g; gestational ages 30-41 weeks; n = 143). AA and DHA status were measured in erythrocytes (RBC) and plasma chole

  4. Gluconeogenesis is Not Regulated by Either Glucose or Insulin in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Ordonez, Jorge; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Study design Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 1

  5. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-10-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birth, chest compression was performed on only 104 infants (5.4%) and epinephrine was administered to 80 infants (4.1%). Infants who received cardiac compression and/or epinephrine administration at birth (DR-CPR) were significantly more acidotic (P periventricular leukomalacia (OR, 2.94; 95% CI 1.72-5.01), and necrotizing enterocolitis (OR, 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.91) compared with those infants who needed only PPV. Meticulous and aggressive management of infants who needed DR-CPR at birth and quality improvement of the delivery room management will result in reduced morbidities and early death for the vulnerable VLBWI. PMID:26566357

  6. Risk Factors for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Larijani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors which predispose to the development of high grade IVH (grade 3 and 4 in very low birth weight infants. Material & Methods: In a retrospective case control clinical study files of all premature infants with birth weights less than 1500 grams admitted between April 2004 and Oct 2005 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Akbar Abadi hospital in Tehran were reviewed. 39 infants with IVH grade 3 and 4 were identified. A control group of 82 VLBW infants matched for gestational age and birth weight were selected. Prenatal data, delivery characteristics, neonatal course data and reports of cranial ultrasonography were carefully collected for both groups. Those variables that achieved significance (p<0.05 in univariate analysis entered to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Findings: A total of 325 VLBW infants were evaluated. Mortality rate was 21.5%. Of the remaining the incidence of high grade IVH was 15.5%. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that following factors are associated with greater risk of high grade IVH occurrence: Low gestational age (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low birth weight (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low Apgar score at 5 minute (OR:1.58; 95% CI:1.59-6.32, hyaline membrane disease (HMD, OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.42-7.45 and maternal tocolytic therapy with magnesium sulfate (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 1.10-24.5. Conclusion: Our results showed that maternal tocolytic therapy, mechanical ventilation, low gestational age, low birth weight, apnea, and low 5 minute Apgar score increased the risk of major IVH.

  7. Benefits of Iron supplementation for low birth weight infants: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Hui

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have reported on the effects of iron supplementation in low birth weight infants; however, no systematic review of the available evidence has been conducted to date. Hence, we performed a systematic review of the literature to examine the effects of iron supplementation on hematologic iron status, growth, neurodevelopment, and adverse effects in low birth weight/premature infants. Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, Medline, and PubMed for articles reporting on the effects of iron supplementation in low weight infants. The following search terms were used: “preterm born infant(s/children”; “preterm infants”; “prematurely born children” “weight less than 1500 g at birth”; “born prematurely”; “low birth weight infant(s”; “infants born preterm”; “prematurity”; “small-for-gestational age”; “very small gestational age infants”; “iron supplementation”; “iron intake”; “iron supplements”; “ferric and/or ferrous compounds”; and “ferrous sulphate/fumarate/sulfate”. Results A total of 15 studies were identified and included in the systematic review. Supplemental iron was given orally or as an iron-fortified formula in 14/15 studies. The duration of treatment ranged from 1 week to 18 months. Iron supplementation significantly increased hematologic measures of iron status (including hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin relative to placebo or over time in most studies. All controlled studies that examined iron-deficiency anemia (IDA/ID reported a decreased prevalence of IDA/ID with iron supplementation. Dose dependent decreases in the prevalence of IDA/ID were reported in several studies. Of the 5 studies reporting on growth, none found any significant effect on growth-related parameters (length, height, weight, and head circumference. Only 2 studies reported on neurodevelopment; no marked effects were reported. There were no consistently reported

  8. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity in infants ≥1500 g birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Sanghi; Dogra, Mangat R; Deeksha Katoch; Amod Gupta

    2014-01-01

    In this retrospective case series, we report the spectrum and outcomes of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) in infants ≥1500 g birth weight. Twenty-nine eyes of 15 infants are included. All infants were referred from level I or II nurseries, received supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration (>1 week) and had multiple systemic co-morbidities. Of the 29 eyes, 10 (34.5%) had zone 1 and 19 (65.5%) had posterior zone 2 disease. Twenty-five (86.2%) eyes had flat ...

  9. Additional Protein Fortification Is Necessary in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants Fed Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Houeto, Nellie; Buffin, Rachel; Loys, Claire-Marie; Godbert, Isabelle; Haÿs, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, approximately one in three (49/152, 32.2%) extremely low-birth-weight infants were demonstrated to require additional protein intake to supplement the standard fortification to achieve satisfactory weight gain. This additional protein fortification also resulted in a rapid increase in length-for-age (P < 0.001) and head circumference-for-age (P = 0.02) z scores.

  10. A Major Cause of Mortality and Morbidity of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Aygün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA, a cardiac pathology commonly seen in preterm infants, has negative effects on mortality and morbidity. Persistent patency of PDA is positively correlated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, prolonged respiratory support, pulmonary hemorrhage, broncopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal failure, neurodevelopmental impairment (cerebral palsy, retinopathy of prematurity and death. The standard treatment regimen is to close symptomatic PDA and cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin, ibuprofen are the first choises. Our aim in this study is to report PDA rate, treatment and complications in premature infants. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively enrolled 103 infants born <33 gestational weeks, without any major congenital anomaly or congenital heart defects between January 2010-November 2011. Echocardiograms was performed in the first week. PDA related pulmonary hemorrhage, NEC, BPD, ROP and death were demonstrated.Results: Among of 103 infants, 45 were male and 58 were female. Seventy infants were born with cesarian section and 33 were born with normal labor. The mean gestational week was 29.7±2.2, the mean gestational week of infants with PDA was 28.8±2.3. The mean birth weight of infants was 1323±375 grams. The mean Apgar score was 7.25±1.83, the scores of infants with patent ductus arteriosus were significantly low (6.7±1.9. Echocardiography was performed on the mean of 4.8±4.4 days, PDA was determined in 48 of 103 infants (%46. The mean of birth weight of infants with persistant PDA was 1162±351 grams, it was 1465±340 g in the closed group. The rate of pulmonary hemorrhage, NEC, BPD, ROP and death was significantly higher in infants with PDA compared with infants having ductal closure (p<0.05.Conclusion: The early closure of PDA in very low birth weight infants will reduce both mortality and early or late

  11. Birth weights of infants of first generation Asian women in Britain compared with second generation Asian women.

    OpenAIRE

    Dhawan, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare birth weights of infants of first generation Asian women (women born in the Indian subcontinent) with those of infants of second generation Asian women (born in the United Kingdom). DESIGN--Retrospective case note study. SETTING--Bolton District General Hospital. SUBJECTS--331 Asian women who gave birth between January 1989 and December 1989: 220 of these women were first generation Asians and 111 were second generation Asians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Birth weights of bab...

  12. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T2-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  13. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  14. Developmental outcome of very low birth weight infants in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballot Daynia E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in neonatal care allow survival of extremely premature infants, who are at risk of handicap. Neurodevelopmental follow up of these infants is an essential part of ongoing evaluation of neonatal care. The neonatal care in resource limited developing countries is very different to that in first world settings. Follow up data from developing countries is essential; it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from units in developed countries. This study provides follow up data on a population of very low birth weight (VLBW infants in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods The study sample included all VLBW infants born between 01/06/2006 and 28/02/2007 and discharged from the neonatal unit at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital (CMJAH. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Version 111 (BSID 111 were done to assess development. Regression analysis was done to determine factors associated with poor outcome. Results 178 infants were discharged, 26 were not available for follow up, 9 of the remaining 152 (5.9% died before an assessment was done; 106 of the remaining 143 (74.1% had a BSID 111 assessment. These 106 patients form the study sample; mean birth weight and mean gestational age was 1182 grams (SD: 197.78 and 30.81 weeks (SD: 2.67 respectively. The BSID (111 was done at a median age of 16.48 months. The mean cognitive subscale was 88.6 (95% CI: 85.69 - 91.59, 9 (8.5% were Conclusion Although the neurodevelopmental outcome of this group of VLBW infants was within the normal range, with a low incidence of cerebral palsy, these results may reflect the low survival of babies with a birth weight below 900 grams. In addition, mean subscale scores were low and one third of the babies were identified as "at risk", indicating that this group of babies warrants long-term follow up into school going age.

  15. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  16. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC Duration on Physical Growth of Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Basiri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Low birth weight is one of the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although in different studies the effect of kangaroo mother care on the growth of low birth weight infants had been examined, this study was planned to determine the effect of duration of KMC on the growth of LBW infants in NICU, Fatemieh hospital, Hamadan, 2012. Material & Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial on 115 under weight infants who were randomly assigned into two groups. Up to 4 hours a day new born infants in the first group and more than 4 hours the second group, were cared for by their mother using KMC method. Both groups were analyzed and evaluated with regard to their weight, body tempera-ture, oxygen saturation, frequency of feeding, and infection in the third and fifth days after KMC. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, ?2 and t-test. Results: Mean (SD weight, oxygen saturation, frequency of feeding in the group receiving Kangaroo care more than 4 hours were more than the recipients of kangaroo care less than 4 hours(P<0.05. Significant differences between the groups in terms of body temperature, infection, and mortality were not observed. Conclusions: KMC more than 4 hours a day is more beneficial than that of less than 4 hours a day in terms of developmental and physiological measures in low birth weight infants. There-fore, it highly suggested that the health practitioners and policy makers consider the benefits, impacts and strategies to increase the duration of KMC. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (1:8-15

  17. Early BCG vaccine to low-birth-weight infants and the effects on growth in the first year of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Andersen, Andreas; Ravn, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that early Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine reduces overall neonatal and infant mortality. However, no study has examined how BCG affects growth. We investigated the effect on infant growth of early BCG vaccine given to low-birth-weight (LBW) infants...... but not among boys (interaction between "early BCG" and sex: weight p = 0.03 and MUAC p = 0.04). This beneficial effect among girls was particularly seen among the largest infants weighing 2.0 kg or more at inclusion. CONCLUSION: Though BCG vaccination is not recommended to be given to LBW infants at birth...

  18. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Fabricius-Bjerre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence and to study if the effect differed between adolescents born small for gestational age (SGA vs. appropriate for gestational age (AGA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data from 30 SGA and 57 AGA healthy young Danish adolescents were analysed. They had a mean age of 17.6 years and all were born at term. Data on early infant weight gain from birth to three months as well as from birth to one year were available in the majority of subjects. In adolescence, glucose metabolism was assessed by a simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test and body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood pressures as well as plasma concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol were measured. Early infant weight gain from birth to three months was positively associated with the fasting insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, basal lipid levels and systolic blood pressure at 17 years. There was a differential effect of postnatal weight gain on HOMA-IR in AGA and SGA participants (P for interaction = 0.03. No significant associations were seen between postnatal weight gain and body composition or parameters of glucose metabolism assessed by the simplified intravenous glucose tolerance test. In subgroup analysis, all associations with early infant weight gain were absent in the AGA group, but the associations with basal insulin and HOMA-IR were still present in the SGA group. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that accelerated growth during the first three months of life may confer an increased risk of later metabolic disturbances--particularly of glucose metabolism--in individuals born SGA.

  19. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto (Canada); Brindle, Mary [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Daneman, Alan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  20. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Keerti Swarnkar; Jayanta Vagha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW) infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). KMC essentially...

  1. Taiwanese parents' perceptions of their very low-birth-weight infant with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Ying; Lin, Fang-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the perceptions and experiences of Taiwanese parents in coping with the unfolding evidence of a disability, their response to the official diagnosis, and their views about their child's developmental disability. This descriptive qualitative study is a partial analysis of data from a larger study including 19 Taiwanese parents of very low-birth-weight infants with developmental disability at 6 and 12 months of corrected age. Four themes were generated: uncertainty and worry about developmental progress, search for meaning and supernatural will, desire for normality and attitude toward services, and finding a balance point in family life and relationships. The parents of very low-birth-weight infants face uncertainty about developmental and other potential problems in the infant's early age. Adequate information related to infant development needs to be integrated into follow-up clinic and early intervention services. Early intervention programs should not only focus on the needs of these infants but also provide support and care to the whole family. Understanding parental beliefs and values toward developmental disabilities can help neonatal and pediatric professionals to provide optimal early intervention to these families. PMID:24164817

  2. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity in infants ≥ 1500 g birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghi, Gaurav; Dogra, Mangat R; Katoch, Deeksha; Gupta, Amod

    2014-02-01

    In this retrospective case series, we report the spectrum and outcomes of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP) in infants ≥ 1500 g birth weight. Twenty-nine eyes of 15 infants are included. All infants were referred from level I or II nurseries, received supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration (>1 week) and had multiple systemic co-morbidities. Of the 29 eyes, 10 (34.5%) had zone 1 and 19 (65.5%) had posterior zone 2 disease. Twenty-five (86.2%) eyes had flat neovascularization and 4 (13.8%) eyes had brush like proliferation. We noticed large vascular loops in 10 (34.5%) eyes. After confluent laser photocoagulation, 22 (75.9%) eyes had a favorable outcome. The study concludes that APROP in heavier (≥ 1500 g birth weight) premature infants occurs mostly in posterior zone 2 with flat neovascularization and atypical features like large vascular loops. Supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration and multiple systemic co-morbidities could be a contributing factor. PMID:24618495

  3. Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity in infants ≥1500 g birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sanghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective case series, we report the spectrum and outcomes of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (APROP in infants ≥1500 g birth weight. Twenty-nine eyes of 15 infants are included. All infants were referred from level I or II nurseries, received supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration (>1 week and had multiple systemic co-morbidities. Of the 29 eyes, 10 (34.5% had zone 1 and 19 (65.5% had posterior zone 2 disease. Twenty-five (86.2% eyes had flat neovascularization and 4 (13.8% eyes had brush like proliferation. We noticed large vascular loops in 10 (34.5% eyes. After confluent laser photocoagulation, 22 (75.9% eyes had a favorable outcome. The study concludes that APROP in heavier (≥1500 g birth weight premature infants occurs mostly in posterior zone 2 with flat neovascularization and atypical features like large vascular loops. Supplemental unmonitored oxygen for prolonged duration and multiple systemic co-morbidities could be a contributing factor.

  4. Successful Resuscitation of an Extremely Low Birth Weight Premature Infant in Delma Island Community Hospital, United Arab Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Zahra’a Mohamed; Shubbar, Imad Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Because of their physical size and physiological immaturity, resuscitation of extremely very low birth weight premature infants is a big dilemma for neonatologists in any hospital. The resuscitation may present an additional challenge to the caregiver if it is undertaken in a remote community hospital with limited technical facilities and health personnel. We present the case of successful resuscitation of a 23-week-old premature infant, with a birth weight of 650 g, at Delma Island Community...

  5. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Jia Lin; Li-Zhong Du; Xiao-Lu Ma; Li-Ping Shi; Jia-Hua Pan; Xiao-Mei Tong; Qiu-Ping Li; Jian-Guo Zhou; Bing Yi; Ling Liu; Yun-Bing Chen; Qiu-Fen Wei; Hui-Qing Wu; Mei Li; Cui-Qing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively...

  6. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Depressive Symptoms Prior to Pregnancy and Infant Low Birth Weight in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-10-01

    Despite improvements in service delivery and patient management, low birth weight among infants has been a persistent challenge in South Africa. The study aimed to explore the relationship between depression before pregnancy and the low birth weight (LBW) of infants in post-apartheid South Africa. This study utilized data from Waves 1 and 2 of the South African National Income Dynamics Study, the main outcome being a dichotomous measure of child LBW (<2500 g) drawn from the Wave 2 child questionnaire. Depressive symptoms of non-pregnant women was the main predictor drawn from the Wave 1 adult questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were screened using the 10-item four-point Likert version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) instrument. A total score of 10 or greater on the CES-D indicates a positive screen for depressive symptoms. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between women's depression before pregnancy and infant LBW. A sample size of 651 women in Wave 1 was linked to 672 newborns in Wave 2. The results of the adjusted logistic regression model indicated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) prior to pregnancy were associated with infant LBW (adjusted OR 2.84, 95 % CI 1.08-7.46). Another significant covariate in the model was multiple childbirths. Our finding indicates that women's depressive symptoms prior to pregnancy are associated with the low birth weight of newborns and suggests that this association may not be limited to depression present during the ante-natal phase.

  8. Early nCPAP versus intubation in very low birth weight infants

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    Pedro Neves Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation have been the standard of care for very low birth weight infants but, in the last decade, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been described in many studies as an option for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, recent studies have shown that early nCPAP is not associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and does not imply more days of ventilation support when compared to traditional ventilation techniques. The authors conducted a study to compare the outcomes (in terms of mortality, morbidity and need for medical support of very low birth weight infants treated with nCPAP or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One hundred and four newborns were enrolled in this study, 44 (42.3% were treated with nCPAP and 60 (57.7% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. A subgroup analysis of newborns with gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks was also performed. It included 57 newborns with similar demographic characteristics, 29 (50.9% treated with nCPAP and 28 (49.1% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (p = 0.033 and surfactant administration (p = 0.021 with lower rates in the nCPAP group. No other differences were found in the prevalence of other morbidities or in the need for medical support after birth. These results suggests that nCPAP might be chosen as primary ventilatory support choice in very low birth weight preterm, when there are no contraindications to its use.

  9. Urinary oxalate excretion by very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, T; Braden, G

    1989-11-01

    Renal calcifications have been described in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and diuretic drug-associated hypercalciuria is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of this lesion. Hyperoxaluria is an important cause of renal stone formation in children and adults. Because parenteral nutrition solutions contain the oxalate precursors ascorbate and glycine, the relationship between total parenteral nutrition administration and oxalate excretion in VLBW infants was examined. Administration of approximately 0.5 g of total parenteral nutrition protein per kilogram per day to VLBW infants was associated with an increased urinary oxalate concentration and an increased urinary oxalate to creatinine ratio, when compared with VLBW infants receiving a glucose and electrolyte solution. A further increase in urinary oxalate concentration and oxalate to creatinine ratio was noted when total parenteral nutrition protein was increased to approximately 1.5 g of protein per kilogram per day. In VLBW infants who receive total parenteral nutrition, elevated urinary oxalate concentrations may develop and may be a factor in the pathogenesis of nephrocalcinosis in these infants.

  10. Mineral balance studies in very low birth weight infants fed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineral homeostasis often is disrupted in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant fed either human milk or commercial formula that contains insufficient quantities of available calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Alterations in mineral homeostasis include abnormal patterns of serum (Ca and P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity) and urine (Ca and P) biochemical markers, low net Ca and P retentions in comparison with intrauterine estimates of mineral accretion, and decreased bone mineral content. A two-phase study was conducted in our laboratory to test for these alterations in mineral homeostasis. In phase 1, VLBW infants fed a preparation of fortified human milk (either human milk-derived fortifier I or II or cow milk-derived fortifier) or cow milk-based formula specially designed for VLBW infants were evaluated during their hospitalization. In phase 2, after hospitalization, these infants were evaluated during the first 6 months of life when fed either their mother's milk or routine formula exclusively. The bioavailability of Ca and P from the tested preparations varied widely. Although the fortification of human milk resulted in both an improved biochemical pattern and net retention of Ca and P, optimal intrauterine mineral accretion was not achieved in any group tested. Longitudinal assessments of bone mineralization, by single photon absorptiometry, demonstrated that human milk-fed former VLBW infants had reduced bone mineral content. These investigations suggest that former VLBW infants fed human milk exclusively may be at risk for Ca and P deficiencies

  11. Population Pharmacokinetics of Fluconazole in Premature Infants with Birth Weights Less than 750 Grams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momper, Jeremiah D; Capparelli, Edmund V; Wade, Kelly C; Kantak, Anand; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy; Cummings, James J; Nedrelow, Jonathan H; Hudak, Mark L; Mundakel, Gratias T; Natarajan, Girija; Gao, Jamie; Laughon, Matt; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K

    2016-09-01

    Fluconazole is an effective agent for prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis in premature infants. The objective of this study was to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) and dosing requirements of fluconazole in infants with birth weights of weight received intravenous (i.v.) or oral fluconazole at 6 mg/kg of body weight twice weekly. Fluconazole plasma concentrations from samples obtained by either scheduled or scavenged sampling were measured using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Population PK analysis was conducted using NONMEM 7.2. Population PK parameters were allometrically scaled by body weight. Covariates were evaluated by univariable screening followed by multivariable assessment. Fluconazole exposures were simulated in premature infants using the final PK model. A population PK model was developed from 141 infants using 604 plasma samples. Plasma fluconazole PK were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order elimination. Only serum creatinine was an independent predictor for clearance in the final model. The typical population parameter estimate for oral bioavailability in the final model was 99.5%. Scavenged samples did not bias the parameter estimates and were as informative as scheduled samples. Simulations indicated that the study dose maintained fluconazole troughs of >2,000 ng/ml in 80% of simulated infants at week 1 and 59% at week 4 of treatment. Developmental changes in fluconazole clearance are best predicted by serum creatinine in this population. A twice-weekly dose of 6 mg/kg achieves appropriate levels for prevention of invasive candidiasis in extremely premature infants. PMID:27401564

  12. The role of oxidative stress on necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Serafina; Tataranno, Maria Luisa; Santacroce, Antonino; Negro, Simona; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating and common disease of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with a mortality rate of 10% to 50% and a significant cause of morbidity in survivors. The incidence of NEC has increased from 5% to 7% in the last decades and this rate is likely to rise because of the increased survival of infants born at 24 weeks gestation, which are at high risk of developing NEC. NEC etiology is multifactorial: ischemia, infections, cytokines, enteral feeding and reactive oxygen species or free radicals (FRs) may contribute to the disruption of the immature gut barrier. In particular, ischemia, hypoxia-reperfusion, infection and inflammation are mechanisms capable of producing high levels of FRs, perturbing the normal redox balance and shifting cells to a state of oxidative stress (OS). Despite advances in neonatal medicine, the early diagnosis of NEC remains a major challenge. Early clinical signs are non specific and the laboratory findings are not fully reliable. Therefore, its delayed occurrence after birth, its rapid onset, the highly fulminant nature, and its severe morbidity, as well as the possibility of progression to death, strongly require the identification of new prospective biomarkers specific for high NEC risk. There is evidences that OS biomarkers in cord blood allow the early identification of infants at risk for NEC and thereby can be used to develop novel therapies for this devastating disease which predominantly occurs in premature infants. PMID:25088341

  13. Evaluation of very low birth weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Gebeşçe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Neonates with birth weights below 1500 g who were cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit of Fatih University Hospital were retrospectively examined in order to define their rates of morbidity and mortality. Methods: This study was conducted on 72 premature infants divided into two groups: those with birth weights below 1000 g(31 infants and those above 1001 g(41 infants. Data on these infants were recorded and statistically evaluated. Birth weights ranged from 670 g to 1500 g and gestational weeks varied between 25 and 35 weeks. Results:In our study, the mortality rate of infants with extremely low birth weights was 7.6%. Durations of oxygen and antibiotic therapies were found to be significantly longer in the infants with birth weights of 1000 g or less (p < 0.01. The most common diseases in all the groups were retinopathy of prematurity, occurring in 54.2% (n=39; broncho-pulmonary dysplasia (BPD in 51.4% (n=37; and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH in 34.5% (n=20. Incidence of chronic pulmonary disease and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP was found to be statistically ignifi cant in the infants with birth weights of 1000 g or less (p < 0.01. Conclusion:Because mortality rate is low but rates of ROP, IVH and BPD are high in this unit, risk factors of these diseases hould be well assessed and necessary measures should be taken in order to increase quality of life in the long term for the infants with extremely low birth weights.

  14. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  15. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  16. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (pintakes were consistently less than 15% of the prescribed intakes. Growth velocity between the age when full EN was achieved and 36 weeks' PMA was 6.7% lower than Ziegler's estimate. One-third to one-half of the infants have EUGR at 36 weeks' PMA.

  17. Enteral glutamine supplementation for very low birth weight infants decreases morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, J; Roig, J C; Meetze, W H; Veerman, M; Carter, C; Millsaps, M; Bowling, D; Dallas, M J; Sleasman, J; Knight, T; Auestad, N

    1997-11-01

    Glutamine, described as a "conditionally essential" amino acid for critically ill patients, has not been routinely added to parenteral amino acid formulations for critically ill neonates and is provided in only small quantities by the enteral route when enteral intake is low. We conducted a blinded, randomized study of enteral glutamine supplementation in 68 very low birth weight neonates randomly assigned to receive glutamine-supplemented premature formula versus premature formula alone between days 3 and 30 of life. Primary end points consisted of hospital-acquired sepsis, tolerance to subsequent enteral feedings (days with no oral intake), and duration of hospital stay. Hospital acquired sepsis was 30% (control group) and 11% (glutamine group). Logistic regression with birth weight as a covariate showed that: (1) feeding group was significant (p = 0.048) in determining the probability of developing proven sepsis over the course of hospitalization and (2) the estimated odds of developing sepsis were 3.8 times higher for infants in the control group than for those treated with glutamine. Glutamine-supplemented infants had better tolerance to enteral feedings as measured by percent of days on which feedings needed to be withheld (mean percentage of 8.8 vs 23.8, p = 0.007). Analysis of T cells demonstrated a blunting of the rise in HLA-DR+ and CD16 subsets in glutamine-supplemented infants. There were no differences in growth; in serum ammonia, urea, liver transaminase, or prealbumin concentrations; or in mean hospital stay. This study provides evidence for decreased morbidity in very-low-birth-weight neonates who receive enteral glutamine supplementation.

  18. Birth weight and special educational needs: effects of an increase in the survival of very low birthweight infants in London.

    OpenAIRE

    Kempley, S T; Diffley, F S; Ruiz, G; Lowe, D.; Evans, B G; Gamsu, H R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the contribution of children with different birth weights to special educational needs within a single health district, and to determine whether this pattern changed over the time when the survival of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants was increasing. SETTING--An inner London health district. STUDY DESIGN--A cohort of children born to local parents between January 1974 and December 1980 was selected from birth notifications, including only those infants who survived for...

  19. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  20. Outcomes and milestone achievement differences for very low-birth-weight multiples compared with singleton infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Sharon; Genen, Linda; Turenne, Wendy; Dysart, Kevin

    2010-06-01

    We examined if very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants of multiple gestation pregnancies experience more complications and take longer to achieve clinical milestones compared with similar singletons. We performed a retrospective analysis of all infants less than 1500 g at birth in a large neonatal database. Singletons were compared with twins and higher-order multiples for demographic, morbidities, and process milestones including feeding, respiratory, thermoregulation, and length of stay. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounding variables. A total of 5507 infants were included: 3792 singletons, 1391 twins, and 324 higher-order multiples. There were no differences in Apgar scores, small for gestational age status, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, severe retinopathy of prematurity, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or the need for surgery. Multiples had higher rates of apnea and patent ductus arteriosus than singletons. VLBW multiples achieved milestones at similar rates in most areas compared with singletons except for the achievement of full oral feedings. Length of stay, after controlling for confounding variables, did not differ between the groups. Compared with singletons, VLBW multiples had similar morbidity and achieved most feeding and thermoregulation milestones at similar rates.

  1. Probiotics, prebiotics infant formula use in preterm or low birth weight infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugambi Mary N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reviews (2005 to 2009 on preterm infants given probiotics or prebiotics with breast milk or mixed feeds focused on prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis, sepsis and diarrhea. This review assessed if probiotics, prebiotics led to improved growth and clinical outcomes in formula fed preterm infants. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared preterm formula containing probiotic(s or prebiotic(s to conventional preterm formula in preterm infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Heterogeneity was assessed by visual inspection of forest plots and a chi2 test. An I2 test assessed inconsistencies across studies. I2> 50% represented substantial heterogeneity. Results Four probiotics studies (N=212, 4 prebiotics studies (N=126 were included. Probiotics: There were no significant differences in weight gain (MD 1.96, 95% CI: -2.64 to 6.56, 2 studies, n=34 or in maximal enteral feed (MD 35.20, 95% CI: -7.61 to 78.02, 2 studies, n=34, number of stools per day increased significantly in probiotic group (MD 1.60, 95% CI: 1.20 to 2.00, 1 study, n=20. Prebiotics: Galacto-oligosaccharide / Fructo-oligosaccharide (GOS/FOS yielded no significant difference in weight gain (MD 0.04, 95% CI: -2.65 to 2.73, 2 studies, n=50, GOS/FOS yielded no significant differences in length gain (MD 0.01, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.04, 2 studies, n=50. There were no significant differences in head growth (MD −0.01, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.00, 2 studies, n=76 or age at full enteral feed (MD −0.79, 95% CI: -2.20 to 0.61, 2 studies, n=86. Stool frequency increased significantly in prebiotic group (MD 0.80, 95% CI: 0.48 to 1.1, 2 studies, n=86. GOS/FOS and FOS yielded higher bifidobacteria counts in prebiotics group (MD 2.10, 95% CI: 0.96 to 3.24, n=27 and (MD 0.48, 95

  2. Effect of continuing or stopping smoking during pregnancy on infant birth weight, crown-heel length, head circumference, ponderal index, and brain:body weight ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, A A; Becker, S; Gray, R H; Herman, A A

    2000-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether stopping smoking between the first prenatal care visit and the 32nd week of pregnancy affects the smoking-associated changes in five infant anthropometric indices. The study population consisted of 15,185 births in the Swedish Medical Birth Register from 1991 and 1992. The associations between birth weight, crown-heel length, head circumference, ponderal index, brain:body weight ratio, maternal smoking status at the first prenatal care visit and at 32 weeks' gestation, and other maternal and infant characteristics were assessed using multivariate linear regression. The infants of 946 women who stopped smoking before week 32 of pregnancy were statistically indistinguishable from the 9,802 infants of nondaily smokers in terms of birth weight, head circumference, and brain:body weight ratio, but they retained a significant deficit in crown-heel length of 0.23 cm (standard error, 0.08) and a significant elevation in ponderal index of 0.027 (standard error, 0.009). In this study, stopping smoking between the first prenatal care visit and week 32 of pregnancy prevented smoking-associated deficits in infant birth weight, head circumference, and brain:body weight ratio, but did not completely prevent deficits in crown-heel length in comparison with nonsmokers' infants of the same age, and did not prevent elevation of ponderal index in comparison with nonsmokers' infants of the same weight and age. PMID:10933268

  3. Conservative Treatment of Lung Perforation Secondary to Retained Catheter in an Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Arda, Mehmet Surhan; Hamrick, Miller C.; Kane, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Airway injury may occur during the use of any instrumentation in premature infants. A surgical approach for the treatment of lung perforation in extremely low-birth-weight infants has been recommended in the past. Here, we present a case of lung perforation in an ex–28-week, 730-g premature infant, who sustained lung perforation, secondary to an 8-Fr suction catheter used to administer surfactant, in which the broken catheter was retained in the airway. Following removal of catheter by endosc...

  4. Anatomy-driven design of a prototype video laryngoscope for extremely low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Katherine; Tremblay, Eric; Karp, Jason; Ford, Joseph; Finer, Neil; Rich, Wade

    2010-11-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants frequently require endotracheal intubation for assisted ventilation or as a route for administration of drugs or exogenous surfactant. In adults and less premature infants, the risks of this intubation can be greatly reduced using video laryngoscopy, but current products are too large and incorrectly shaped to visualize an ELBW infant's airway anatomy. We design and prototype a video laryngoscope using a miniature camera set in a curved acrylic blade with a 3×6-mm cross section at the tip. The blade provides a mechanical structure for stabilizing the tongue and acts as a light guide for an LED light source, located remotely to avoid excessive local heating at the tip. The prototype is tested on an infant manikin and found to provide sufficient image quality and mechanical properties to facilitate intubation. Finally, we show a design for a neonate laryngoscope incorporating a wafer-level microcamera that further reduces the tip cross section and offers the potential for low cost manufacture.

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging of the cortical plate and subplate in very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; Zwol, Arjen L. van; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes B. van [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam, Zuid-holland (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Many intervention studies in preterm infants aim to improve neurodevelopmental outcome, but short-term proxy outcome measurements are lacking. Cortical plate and subplate development could be such a marker. Our aim was to provide normal DTI reference values for the cortical plate and subplate of preterm infants. As part of an ongoing study we analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of 19 preterm infants without evidence of injury on conventional MRI, with normal outcome (Bayley-II assessed at age 2), and scanned in the first 4 days of life. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the frontal and temporal subplate and cortical plate were measured in single and multiple voxel regions of interest (ROI) placed on predefined regions. Using single-voxel ROIs, statistically significant inverse correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and FA of the frontal (r = -0.5938, P = 0.0058) and temporal (r = -0.4912, P = 0.0327) cortical plate. ADC values had a significant positive correlation with GA in the frontal (r = 0.5427, P = 0.0164) and temporal (r = 0.5540, P = 0.0138) subplate. Diffusion tensor imaging allows in vivo exploration of the evolving cortical plate and subplate. We provide FA and ADC values of the subplate and cortical plate in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with normal developmental outcome that can be used as reference values. (orig.)

  6. Maternal hypoxic ventilatory response, ventilation, and infant birth weight at 4,300 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, L G; Brodeur, P; Chumbe, O; D'Brot, J; Hofmeister, S; Monge, C

    1986-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that increased hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness (HVR) raised maternal ventilation and arterial oxygenation during high-altitude pregnancy and related to the birth weight of the offspring, we studied 21 residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,300 m), while eight of them were 36 +/- 0 wk pregnant and 15 of them 13 +/- 0 wk postpartum. HVR was low in the nonpregnant women (mean +/- SE shape parameter A = 23 +/- 8) but increased nearly fourfold with pregnancy (A = 87 +/- 17). The increase in HVR appeared to account for the 25% rise in resting ventilation with pregnancy (delta VE observed = 2.4 +/- 0.7 l/min BTPS vs. delta VE predicted from delta HVR = 2.6 +/- 1.7 l/min BTPS, P = NS). Hyperoxia decreased ventilation in the pregnant women (P less than 0.01) to levels similar to those measured when nonpregnant. The increased ventilation of pregnancy raised arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) from 83 +/- 1 to 87 +/- 0%, and SaO2 was correlated positively with HVR in the pregnant women. The rise in SaO2 compensated for a 0.9 g/100 ml decrease in hemoglobin concentration to preserve arterial O2 content at levels present when nonpregnant. Cardiac output in the 36th wk of pregnancy did not differ significantly from values measured postpartum. The increase in HVR correlated positively with infant birth weight. An increase in HVR may be an important contributor to increased maternal ventilation with pregnancy and infant birth weight at high altitude.

  7. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants. PMID:22415299

  8. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants.

  9. Metabolic and energy balance in small- and appropriate-for-gestational-age, very low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, J C; Putet, G; Rigo, J; Salle, B L; Senterre, J

    1994-12-01

    This study compared nutrient utilization and postnatal weight gain composition in eight appropriate for gestational age (AGA: birth weight 1293 +/- 107 g; gestational age 28.8 +/- 1.4 weeks) and eight symmetrically growth-retarded (SGA: birth weight 1110 +/- 230 g; gestational age 32.7 +/- 1.9 weeks), very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. There was no significant difference in protein, mineral and energy intake between AGA and SGA infants. Nitrogen absorption (84 +/- 3 and 83 +/- 4%) and nitrogen retention (356 +/- 48 and 352 +/- 43 mg/kg/day) were similar in both groups. Fat absorption tended to be lower in AGA (78 +/- 15%) than in SGA (87 +/- 4%) infants. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium absorptions were similar in AGA and SGA infants. Metabolizable energy utilization was similar in both groups; about 55% was expended and 45% stored in new tissues. Energy expenditure was 58 +/- 4 kcal/kg/day in SGA infants and 61 +/- 9 kcal/kg/day in AGA infants. Weight gain and its composition were similar in both groups. We conclude that nutrient and energy utilization are similar in AGA and symmetrically growth-retarded, VLBW infants.

  10. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author)

  11. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).

  12. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  13. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  14. The 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants (ETTNO)' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Jes; Veiergang, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infants with extremely low birth weight uniformly develop anemia of prematurity and frequently require red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). Although RBCT is widely practiced, the indications remain controversial in the absence of conclusive data on the long-term effects of RBCT...... restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines enrolling 920 infants with birth weights of 400-999 g with long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up. Results and Conclusions: The results of ETTNO will provide definite data about the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines in very preterm...

  15. Factors associated with thymic size at birth among low and normal birth-weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq;

    2014-01-01

    treatment at the time of labor (0.84 [0.70-1.00]), number of pregnancy consultations (1.03 [1.00-1.05]), maternal age (0.91 [0.84-0.98]), Apgar score (1.06 [1.03-1.10]), and infant convulsions (0.44 [0.29-0.65]) were all independent determinants of thymic index but not all were determinants of thymus...

  16. Bloodstream Infections in Very Low Birth Weight Infants with Intestinal Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Conrad R.; Hansen, Nellie I.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Bell, Edward F.; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Walsh, Michele C.; Hale, Ellen C.; Newman, Nancy S.; Das, Abhik; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine pathogens and other characteristics associated with late-onset bloodstream infections (BSIs) in infants with intestinal failure (IF) as a consequence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Study design Infants weighing 401-1500 g at birth who survived for >72 hours and received car

  17. No relationship between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants aged two years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jun Zhu; Ying-Ying Bao; Guo-Lian Zhang; Li-Xin Ma; Ming-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of age in very low birth weight infants (≤1500 g) born by cesarean with those by vaginal delivery. Methods: In this retrospective, case-control study, we evaluated neonatal mortality, medical conditions and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age in 710 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born between January 2005 and December 2010. Of the 710 infants, 351 were born by the cesarean and 359/710 by vaginal route. Results: There were no significant differences in neonatal mortality between the cesarean delivery group and vaginal delivery group [56/351 (15.9%) vs. 71/359 (19.8%), P=0.20]. VLBW infants delivered by the cesarean procedure had a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome than those born by the vaginal route [221/351 (63.0%) vs. 178/359 (49.6%), P Conclusions: In neither neurodevelopment nor neonatal mortality did cesarean birth offered significant advantages to VLBW infants. Moreover, the operation might be associated with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome for VLBW infants. The mode of delivery of VLBW infants should be largely based on obstetric indications and maternal considerations rather than perceived better outcomes for the neonate.

  18. Distributions of Heavy Metals in Maternal and Cord Blood and the Association with Infant Birth Weight in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaobin; Zheng, Tongzhang; Cheng, Yibin; Holford, Theodore; Lin, Shaobin; Leaderer, Brian; Qiu, Jie; Bassig, Bryan A.; Shi, Kunchong; Zhang, Yawei; Niu, Jianjun; Zhu, Yong; Li, Yonghong; Guo, Huan; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Jianqing; Xu, Shunqing; Jin, Yinlong

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure serum levels of heavy metals in Chinese pregnant women and their newborns, and to evaluate the association of these metals with infant birth weight STUDY DESIGN We measured serum concentrations of lead (Pb), thallium (Tl), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), arsenic (As), nickle (Ni), vanadium (V), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in 81 mother-infant pairs using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations of these heavy metals with infant birth weight. RESULTS Se, Pb, As, and Cd showed the highest detection rates (98.8%) in both the maternal and cord blood, followed by Tl, which was detected in 79.0% and 71.6% of the maternal and cord blood samples, respectively. Pb had the highest concentrations in both the maternal and cord blood samples of all toxic metals detected, with concentrations of 23.1 ng/g and 22.0 ng/g, respectively. No significant associations were observed between any heavy metals and birth weight. However, Tl in the maternal and cord blood was most notably inversely associated with birth weight. CONCLUSION Se intake was low in Chinese women and their newborns, whereas Pb had the highest concentrations in both the maternal and cord blood samples of all toxic metals detected. Tl was a unique pollution source in this population, and Tl levels were shown to have the largest effect on decreasing infant birth weight in this pilot study. Further research incorporating larger sample sizes is needed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to heavy metals—especially Tl and Pb—on birth outcomes in Chinese infants. PMID:25745747

  19. Decreasing Incidence of Chronic Lung Disease Despite the Gradual Reduction of Postnatal Dexamethasone Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Chang Won; Hwang, Jong Hee; Shim, Jae Won; Ko, Sun Young; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sung Shin; Chang, Yun Sil; Park, Won Soon; Shin, Son Moon

    2004-01-01

    Dexamethasone has been widely used in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) weighing less than 1,500 g at birth for the prevention or treatment of chronic lung disease (CLD). Recently, however the use of dexamethasone is being reduced, as its association with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome is known. On the other hand, there have been persistent concerns about the increased risk of CLD according to the reduction of postnatal dexamethasone use. Hence, we did a retrospective cohort study to...

  20. Mother-preterm infant interactions at three months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica eNeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of Extremely Low Birth Weight-ELBW and Very Low Birth Weight-VLBW preterm infants with full-term ones. 77 preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW and 120 full term (FT infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 minutes of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviours were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis help to plan

  1. The relationship of birth weight, gestational age, and postmenstrual age with ocular biometry parameters in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze ocular biometry parameters and evaluate their relationship with gestational age, birth weight, and postmenstrual age in prematurely born infants. Methods: The right eyes of 361 premature infants born before the 36th gestational week were evaluated. Birth weight, gestational week, and gender were recorded. An A-scan Biometer was used for obtaining axial measurements, including anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, vitreous length, and total axial length. Results: Gestational age and birth weight values ranged from 23 to 36 weeks and from 560 to 2,670 g, respectively. The mean gestational age and birth weight were 30.8 ± 2.8 weeks and 1,497.9 ± 483.6 g, respectively. During the first examination (4-5 weeks of postnatal age, birth weight and gestational age of the infants correlated significantly and positively with lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length (r>0.5, p<0.001, but not with anterior chamber depth (r<0.5. Increased vitreous and axial lengths correlated significantly with increasing postmenstrual age of the infants (r=0.669, p<0.001; r=0.845, p<0.001, respectively. Conclusions: Lens thickness, vitreous length, and axial length, but not anterior chamber depth, were significantly correlated with birth weight and gestational age. All four parameters increased with increasing postmenstrual age, with higher correlations for vitreous and axial lengths than for anterior chamber depth and lens thickness. It was concluded that axial elongation resulted primarily from increasing posterior chamber length.

  2. Does visceral osteopathic treatment accelerate meconium passage in very low birth weight infants?- A prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Haiden

    Full Text Available To determine whether the complementary approach of visceral manipulative osteopathic treatment accelerates complete meconium excretion and improves feeding tolerance in very low birth weight infants.This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial in premature infants with a birth weight <1500 g and a gestational age <32 weeks who received a visceral osteopathic treatment 3 times during their first week of life or no treatment.Passage of the last meconium occurred after a median of 7.5 days (95% confidence interval: 6-9 days, n = 21 in the intervention group and after 6 days (95% confidence interval: 5-9 days, n = 20, in the control group (p = 0.11. However, osteopathic treatment was associated with a 8 day longer time to full enteral feedings (p = 0.02, and a 34 day longer hospital stay (Median = 66 vs. 100 days i.e.; p=0.14. Osteopathic treatment was tolerated well and no adverse events were observed.Visceral osteopathic treatment of the abdomen did not accelerate meconium excretion in VLBW (very low birth weight-infants. However infants in the osteopathic group had a longer time to full enteral feedings and a longer hospital stay, which could represent adverse effects. Based on our trial results, we cannot recommend visceral osteopathic techniques in VLBW-infants.Clinical trials.gov: NCT02140710.

  3. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  4. [Laser Doppler flowmetry in newborn infants with low birth weight. The effect of differences in humidity on peripheral circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssler, L; Roll, C; Breukmann, H

    1992-01-01

    In a group of 10 low birth weight infants we measured skin temperature using infrared thermography and laser Doppler flow in central and peripheral regions of the body. After elevation of incubator humidity from 40 to 80% skin temperature of the foot rose significantly (p less than 0.01). At the same time there was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) of laser Doppler flow. Temperature and laser Doppler flow in the area of the abdomen did not show significant changes. Low birth weight infants are able to regulate peripheral blood flow after changes of ambient humidity. With the method of laser Doppler flowmetry thermoregulatory responses in the microvascular bed can be measured in these infants.

  5. 'Resuscitation' of extremely preterm and/or low-birth-weight infants - time to 'call it'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2008-01-01

    Since ancient times, various methods have been used to revive apparently stillborn infants; many were of dubious efficacy and had the potential to cause harm. Based largely on studies of acutely asphyxiated term animal models, clinical assessment and positive pressure ventilation have become the cornerstones of neonatal resuscitation over the last 40 years. Over the last 25 years, care of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room has evolved from a policy of indifference to one of increasingly aggressive support. The survival of these infants has improved considerably in recent years; this has not, however, necessarily been due to more aggressive resuscitation. Urban myths have evolved that all extremely preterm infants died before they were intubated, and that all such infants need to immediately intubated or they will quickly die. This has never been true. Clinical assessment of infants at birth is subjective. Also, many techniques used to support preterm infants at birth have not been well studied and there is evidence that they may be harmful. It may thus be argued that many of our well-intentioned resuscitation interventions are of dubious efficacy and have the potential to cause harm. 'Resuscitation' is an emotive term which means 'restoration of life'. Death, thankfully, is a rare presentation in the delivery room. Therefore, concerning neonatal 'resuscitation', it is time to 'call it' something else. This will allow us to dispassionately distinguish preterm infants who are dead, or nearly dead, from those who are merely at high risk of parenchymal lung disease. We may then be able to refine our interventions and determine what methods of support benefit these infants most.

  6. Relationship between Matern al Nutritional Status and Infant Birth Weight of Vegetarians in DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fikawati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infant’s birth weight, especially low birth weight (LBW, areintergenerational issues that will affect the cycle of life.Vegetarian diets are at risk because limited food consumption could cause nutrient deficiencies. This retrospective studyaims to determine the relationship between maternal nutritional status (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and weight gain during pregnancy and infant’s birth weight among vegetarians in Jakarta. The total sample of 85 children aged 1 month to 5 years was selected purposively. Results showed that the mean of pre-pregnancy BMI of vegetarian mothers is 20.2 kg/m2 (±2.2 kg/m2, pregnancy weight gain is 15.5 kg (±6.4 kg and infant’s birth weight is 3212 gs (±417.7 gs. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were significantly associated with infant’s birth weight of vegetarians. There is no relationship between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate analysis found that pre-pregnancy BMI, protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn intakes and sex has relationship with infant’s birthweight. It is recommended that vegetarian mothers should get information about the importance of pre-pregnancy nutrition, optimal pregnancy weight gain, and maintaining adequate intake of protein, vitamin B12, iron, and Zn during pregnancy

  7. Changes in Perinatal Care and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mortality of very low birth weight premature infants is of great public health concern. To better guide local intervention program, it is essential that current and reliable statistics be collected to understand the factors associated with mortality of these infants.Methods: Data of very low birth weight premature infants admitted to a neonatal unit during 2002-2009 was retrospectively collected. Changes in perinatal care between two halves of the study period (2002-2005 and 2006-2009 were identified. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were found by logistic regression and a predictive score model was established.Findings: A total of 475 cases were enrolled. In-hospital mortality decreased from 29.8% in 2002-2005 to 28.1% in 2006-2009 (P>0.05. More infants born<28 gestational weeks survived to discharge in the latter epoch (38.1% vs 8.3%, P<0.05. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, pulmonary hemorrhage,birth weight <000 grams, gestational age <33 weeks, feeding before 3 postnatal days and enteral feeding were found predictors of in-hospital mortality by logistic regression. The discriminating ability of the predictivemodel was 82.4% and the cutoff point was -0.56.Conclusion: Survival of very low birth weight premature neonates was not significantly improved in 2006-2009 than 2002-2005. Infants with a score higher than -0.56 were assessed to be at high risk of in-hospital mortality. Multi-center studies of planned follow-up are needed to develop a comprehensive and applicable score system.

  8. Intervention effects on emotion regulation in preterm infants with very low birth weight: A randomize controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Chin; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Hsu, Hui-Chin; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lee, Wang-Tso; Chen, Wei-J; Ho, Yu-Wen; Jeng, Suh-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for emotional difficulties and behavioral problems. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of a clinic-based intervention program (CBIP) and a home-based intervention program (HBIP) compared with a usual care program (UCP) on emotion regulation to stress in preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight regulation in response to experimentally evoke stress evoked by a toy-behind-barrier procedure at 12, 18, and 24 months of corrected age. Their cognitive and language abilities, and mothers' responsiveness were also assessed at 12 months as potential covariates. Compared to the UCP-group infants, the HBIP-group infants exhibited shorter durations of visual orientation to a toy (adjusted difference [95% CI]=-1.60 [-3.07 to -0.13], p=0.03), and the CBIP-group infants exhibited shorter durations of avoidance (adjusted difference [95% CI]=-0.84 [-1.57 to -0.10], p=0.03) from 12 to 24 months of corrected age. The CBIP and HBIP showed no difference in the stress reactivity from the UCP, however. These results suggest that comprehensive interventions incorporating child-, parent- and dyad-focused services enhanced VLBW preterm infants' emotion regulation in response to stress at toddler age. PMID:26524725

  9. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist in very low birth weight infants: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narchi, Hassib; Chedid, Fares

    2015-06-26

    . Most previous studies and trials were not sufficiently large and did not include long-term patient oriented outcomes. Multicenter, randomized, outcome trials are needed to determine whether NAVA is effective in avoiding intubation, facilitating extubation, decreasing time of ventilation, reducing the incidence of CLD, decreasing length of stay, and improving long-term outcomes such as the duration of ventilation, length of hospital stay, rate of pneumothorax, CLD and other major complications of prematurity. In order to prevent barotrauma, next generations of NAVA equipment for neonatal use should enable automatic setting of ventilator parameters in the backup PC mode based on the values generated by NAVA. They should also include an upper limit to the inspiratory time as in conventional ventilation. The manufacturers of Edi catheters should produce smaller sizes available for extreme low birth weight infants. Newly developed ventilators should also include leak compensation and high frequency ventilation. A peripheral flow sensor is also essential to the proper delivery of all modes of conventional ventilation as well as NAVA. PMID:26140273

  10. Arginine-vasopressin in catecholamine-refractory septic versus non-septic shock in extremely low birth weight infants with acute renal injury

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Sascha; Gottschling, Sven; Baghai, Ali; Wurm, Donald; Gortner, Ludwig

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) as a rescue therapy in catecholamine-refractory septic and non-septic shock in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants with acute renal injury. Methods Prospective assessment of AVP therapy in three ELBW infants with catecholamine-refractory septic shock and acute renal injury (mean birth weight 600 ± 30 g) and three ELBW infants with non-septic shock and acute renal injury (mean birth weight 770 ± 1...

  11. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  12. Heterologous Immunological Effects of Early BCG Vaccination in Low-Birth-Weight Infants in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Larsen, Nanna; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) seems to have beneficial nonspecific effects; early BCG vaccination of low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns reduces neonatal mortality by >40% due to prevention of primarily septicemia and pneumonia. METHODS:  Within a randomized trial in LBW infants in Guinea......, particularly of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. CONCLUSION:  Four weeks after immunization, BCG-vaccinated infants have a significantly increased production of cytokines upon heterologous challenge, particularly T helper cell type 1 polarizing and typically monocyte-derived pro...

  13. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Effects of Serum Vitamin A and Clinical Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Arun Özer; Özlem Sivaslı Gül; Gamze Men; Ekrem Talay; Sümer Sütçüoğlu; Ali Kanık; Ebru Türkoğlu; Zelal Kahramaner; Hese Coşar; Aydın Erdemir; Işın Yaprak

    2011-01-01

    Pur po se: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a proliferative vascular disease which affects premature newborns and occurs during vessel development. The pathogenesis of ROP is complex and includes oxidative damage to the developing retina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of ROP with serum vitamin A levels and clinical parameters in infants with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and birth weight of ≤1500 grams. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Newborns admitted to Newbor...

  14. Impact of maternal diabetes mellitus on mortality and morbidity of very low birth weight infants: a multicenter Latin America study

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Grandi; Jose L. Tapia; Viviane C Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) born to women with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: This was a cohort study with retrospective data collection (2001-2010, n = 11.991) from the NEOCOSUR network. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the outcome of neonatal mortality and morbidity as a function of maternal DM. Women with no DM served as the reference group. RESULTS: The rate of maternal DM was 2....

  15. Is there any role for terlipressin in the extremely low birth weight infant with refractory septic shock?

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Bissolo; Carlo Alberto Forcellini; Stefania Spaggiari; Marcella Gaffuri; Giuseppe Pagano; Paolo Biban

    2012-01-01

    Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocorti...

  16. A premature low-birth-weight infant with congenital complete atrioventricular block and myocarditis successfully treated by staged pacemaker implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Tao; Nii, Masaki; Tanaka, Yasuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Congenital complete atrioventricular block is a known lethal condition. Although antenatal diagnosis and the technical advances of pacemaker treatment have reduced its mortality, treatment of premature babies with significant myocardial damage remains a challenge. In this paper, we report the case of a premature low-birth-weight infant with congenital complete atrioventricular block and extremely low ventricular rate, fetal hydrops, and myocarditis who was successfully treated with staged permanent pacemaker implantation. PMID:27071550

  17. High incidence of rickets in extremely low birth weight infants with severe parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Min; Namgung, Ran; Park, Min Soo; Eun, Ho Sun; Park, Kook In; Lee, Chul

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for rickets of prematurity have not been re-examined since introduction of high mineral formula, particularly in ELBW infants. We analyzed the incidence and the risk factors of rickets in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. As a retrospective case-control study from 2004 to 2008, risk factors were analyzed in 24 patients with rickets versus 31 patients without. The frequency of rickets in ELBW infants was 24/55 (44%). Infants with rickets were diagnosed at 48.2 ± 16.1 days of age, and improved by 85.3 ± 25.3 days. By radiologic evaluation, 29% were grade 1 rickets, 58% grade 2 and 13% grade 3. In univariate analysis, infants with rickets had significantly higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC), severe PNAC and moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for gestation and birth weight, rickets significantly correlated with severe PNAC and with moderate/severe BPD. Serum peak alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly elevated in rickets (P rickets of prematurity remains high and the incidence of severe PNAC and moderate/severe BPD was significantly increased 18 and 3 times, respectively.

  18. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Bruce R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, Methods We evaluated all ELBW infants admitted to Texas Children's Hospital NICU in 2006 and 2007. Of 211 admissions, we excluded 98 patients who were admitted at >30 days of age or did not survive/stay for >6 weeks. Bone radiographs obtained in 32 infants were reviewed by a radiologist masked to laboratory values. Results In this cohort of 113 infants, P-APA was found to have a significant inverse relationship with BW, gestational age and serum phosphorus. In paired comparisons, P-APA of infants Conclusion Elevation of P-APA >600 IU/L was very common in ELBW infants. BW was significantly inversely related to both P-APA and radiologic rickets. No single value of P-APA was related to radiological findings of rickets. Given the very high risk of osteopenia and rickets among ELBW infants, we recommend consideration of early screening and early mineral supplementation, especially among infants

  19. Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus Reuteri (DSM 17938 on the Incidence of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nouri Shadkam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feeding intolerance is a common problem among premature infants. There is limited information on the safety and effects of oral probiotic supplements, especially products containing Lactobacillus reuteri, and the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC in low birth weight preterm infants. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri on the gastrointestinal complications and feeding tolerance in premature infants. Methods: This randomized triple-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 premature infants divided into two groups of intervention and placebo. Subjects in the intervention group received one drop/kg of supplementary oral probiotic with 0.5 ml of distilled water, and infants in the placebo group only received 0.5 ml of distilled water. Probiotic administration continued to reach full enteral feeding. Results: In this study, mean time to reach full enteral feeding was 12.83 and 16.75 days in the intervention and placebo groups, respectively, which was indicative of a significant difference (P=0.01. However, mean of neonatal weight at discharge had no significant difference between the two groups. In addition, 6.7% and 36.7% of infants in the intervention and placebo groups were diagnosed with NEC, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P=0.005. Also, prevalence of jaundice and sepsis was not significantly different between the study groups. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Lactobacillus reuteri could reduce the time to reach full enteral feeding while diminishing the incidence of NEC in very low birth weight premature infants.

  20. Characterization of the role of microRNA-517a expression in low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, G Y; Song, W W; Han, Y; Wang, D; Na, Q

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of the placenta-specific microRNA miR-517a in maternal serum and in placental tissue from low birth weight newborns and try to detect the effects of miR-517a expression on invasion potential of trophoblasts. Placental tissue and maternal serum were collected from both low birth weight newborns (n = 10) and normal birth weight newborns (n = 20). Expression of miR-517a was assessed in placenta and serum samples by real-time qRT-PCR. In addition, human trophoblast HTR8/SVneo cells were transfected with a miR-517a 2'-O-methyl oligonucleotide or a negative control RNA, and invasion was measured using transwell migration assays. Expression of miR-517a was significantly increased in placentas from low birth weight newborns (61.79 ± 23.06) in comparison with those of normal birth weight newborns (5.01 ± 1.97; P inhibited invasion of HTR8/SVneo cells (P inhibition of trophoblast invasion. PMID:24924231

  1. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. The objective is to evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g). The design presents a cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance) and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public health care institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis). The significance level was set at 0.05. The results showed abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%), whereas 20 (23.3%) had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H2 O/kg and 63.7 cm H2 O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72%) infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H2 O/kg) high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H2 O/kg) and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H2 O/kg) were significantly different (p = 0.015). Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. The conclusion was that the results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic abnormalities in asymptomatic

  2. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Rosane Reis de; Dutra, Maria Virginia Peixoto; Ramos, Jose Roberto; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Andrade Lopes, Jose Maria de [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Fernandes Figueira

    2003-07-01

    Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. The objective is to evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g). The design presents a cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance) and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public health care institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis). The significance level was set at 0.05. The results showed abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in 34 babies (43%), whereas 20 (23.3%) had normal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance. The mean lung compliance and lung resistance for the group were respectively 1.30 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg and 63.7 cm H{sub 2} O/l/s. Lung alterations were found via high-resolution computed tomography in 62 (72%) infants. Most infants showed more than one abnormality, and these were described as ground glass opacity, parenchymal bands, atelectasis and bubble/cyst. The mean compliance values for infants with normal (1.49 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) high resolution computed tomography, 1 or 2 abnormalities (1.31 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) and 3 or more abnormalities (1.16 ml/cm H{sub 2} O/kg) were significantly different (p = 0.015). Our data were insufficient to find any association between lung resistance and the number of alterations via high-resolution computed tomography. The conclusion was that the results show high prevalence of lung functional and tomographic

  3. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Shi, Li-Ping; Pan, Jia-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Yi, Bing; Liu, Ling; Chen, Yun-Bing; Wei, Qiu-Fen; Wu, Hui-Qing; Li, Mei; Liu, Cui-Qing; Gao, Xi-Rong; Xia, Shi-Wen; Li, Wen-Bin; Yan, Chao-Ying; He, Ling; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Han, Shu-Ping; Lyu, Qin; Qiu, Yin-Ping; Li, Wen; Chen, Dong-Mei; Lu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Hong; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Xiong, Hong; Yue, Shao-Jie; Zhuang, Si-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019). BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed

  4. Dynamic Change of Fecal Calprotectin in Very Low Birth Weight Infants during the First Month of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Smith, P. Brian; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Cotten, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background Calprotectin is a cytosolic component of neutrophils. Fecal calprotectin (FC) level is a useful marker for exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease in children. FC may be a useful marker for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Objective To determine normal baseline levels of FC and observe dynamic changes of FC levels over the first postnatal month in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods FC levels of 14 VLBW infants (gestational age 23–30 weeks, birth weight ≤1,500 g) were serially measured in the first postnatal month. Demographics, feeding regimens, antibiotic use, laboratory and x-ray results, and maternal information were recorded. We assessed how FC levels changed over time, varied with nutritional source and differed between sick versus well infants. Results FC levels were not related to gestational age or feedings regimen. FC levels tended to decrease with increasing age (p = 0.121) and feeding volumes (p = 0.179). FC levels differed between ‘well’ and ‘sick’ infants (122.8 ± 98.9 vs. 380.4 ± 246.3 μg/g stool, p 350 μg/g stool was noted with signs of gastrointestinal injury, such as bloody stool and bowel perforation. FC levels decreased after initiation of treatments in sick infants who recovered. Conclusions FC levels may be a marker for early diagnosis and resolution of gastrointestinal illnesses in VLBW infants. Its utility for early diagnosis and assessment of resolution of NEC should be studied in a larger cohort of VLBW infants. PMID:18784422

  5. Associations of consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or small for gestational age births: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy MM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mary M Murphy,1 Nicolas Stettler,1,2 Kimberly M Smith,1 Richard Reiss3 1Exponent, Inc., Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Washington, DC, USA; 2The Lewin Group, Falls Church, VA, USA; 3Exponent, Inc., Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Alexandria, VA, USA Abstract: Maternal nutrition is recognized as one of the determinants of fetal growth. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is promoted as part of a healthful diet; however, intakes are typically lower than recommended levels. The purpose of this study was to systematically review results from studies examining the relationship between maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or risk for delivering a small for gestational age baby. A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted and abstracts were screened using predefined criteria. Eleven relevant studies were identified and systematically reviewed, including six prospective cohort studies, three retrospective cohort studies, and two case–control studies. Seven studies were conducted in cohorts from highly developed countries. One prospective study from a highly developed area reported increased risk for small for gestational age birth by women with low vegetable intakes (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.4–6.9; P=0.01; another large prospective study reported a 10.4 g increase in birth weight per quintile increase in fruit intake (95% confidence interval 6.9–3.9; P<0.0001 and increases of 8.4 or 7.7 g per quintile intake of fruits and vegetables (combined or fruits, vegetables, and juice (combined, respectively. One retrospective study reported an association between low fruit intake and birth weight. In less developed countries, increased vegetable or fruit intake was associated with increased birth weight in two prospective studies. Overall, limited inconclusive evidence of a protective effect of increased consumption of vegetables and risk for

  6. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS

  7. Chronic maternal depression is associated with reduced weight gain in latino infants from birth to 2 years of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Wojcicki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Latino children are at increased risk for mirconutrient deficiencies and problems of overweight and obesity. Exposures in pregnancy and early postpartum may impact future growth trajectories. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms experienced in pregnancy and infant growth from birth to 2 years of age in a cohort of Latino infants. METHODS: We recruited pregnant Latina mothers at two San Francisco hospitals and followed their healthy infants to 24 months of age. At 6, 12 and 24 months of age, infants were weighed and measured. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed prenatally and at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Women who had high depressive symptoms at both time periods were defined as having chronic depression. Logistic mixed models were applied to compare growth curves and risk for overweight and underweight based on exposure to maternal depression. RESULTS: We followed 181 infants to 24 months. At 12 and 24 months, respectively, 27.4% and 40.5% were overweight, and 5.6% and 2.2% were underweight. Exposure to chronic maternal depression was associated with underweight (OR = 12.12, 95%CI 1.86-78.78 and with reduced weight gain in the first 2 years of life (Coef = -0.48, 95% CI -0.94-0.01 compared with unexposed infants or infants exposed to episodic depression (depression at one time point. Exposure to chronic depression was also associated with reduced risk for overweight in the first 2 years of life (OR 0.28, 95%CI 0.03-0.92. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to chronic maternal depression in the pre- and postnatal period was associated with reduced weight gain in the first two years of life and greater risk for failure to thrive, in comparison with unexposed infants or those exposed episodically. The infants of mothers with chronic depression may need additional nutritional monitoring and intervention.

  8. Incidence and Risk Factors for Retinopathy in Premature Infants with Very Low Birth Weight, in the South-East Region, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Selahattin Katar; Mustafa Taşkesen; Belgin Ekmekçiler; Güray Saka

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the most common cause of childhood blindness. The risk of ROP is increased in premature infants with very low birth weights, as the most common risk factors for ROP are low birth weight and early periods of gestation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors and the incidence of ROP among premature infants weighing under 1500 g upon delivery. Materials and Methods: Between August 2010 and December 2012, 84 patients followed up...

  9. Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes and outcome of very-low-birth-weight infants in the German Neonatal Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Hanke

    Full Text Available It was the aim of our study to evaluate the independent effect of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM as a cause of preterm delivery on mortality during primary hospital stay and significant morbidities in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants < 32 weeks of gestation.Observational, epidemiological study design.Population-based cohort, German Neonatal Network (GNN.6102 VLBW infants were enrolled in GNN from 2009-2012, n=4120 fulfilled criteria for primary analysis (< 32 gestational weeks, no pre-eclampsia, HELLP (highly elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome or placental abruption as cause of preterm birth.Multivariable logistic regression analyses included PPROM as potential risk factors for adverse outcomes and well established items such as gestational age in weeks, birth weight, antenatal steroids, center, inborn delivery, multiple birth, gender and being small-for-gestational-age.PPROM as cause of preterm delivery had no independent effect on the risk of early-onset sepsis, clinical sepsis and blood-culture proven sepsis, while gestational age proved to be the most important contributor to sepsis risk. The diagnosis of PPROM was associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55, p=0.03 but not with other major outcomes.The diagnosis of PPROM per se is not associated with adverse outcome in VLBW infants < 32 weeks apart from a moderately increased risk for BPD. Randomized controlled trials with primary neonatal outcomes are needed to determine which subgroup of VLBW infants benefit from expectant or intentional management of PPROM.

  10. Effectiveness of therapeutic behavioral interventions for parents of low birth weight premature infants: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Carrie; Shaw, Richard J; Horwitz, Sarah M; John, Nicholas H St

    2012-11-01

    Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24532861

  11. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Effects of Serum Vitamin A and Clinical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Arun Özer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a proliferative vascular disease which affects premature newborns and occurs during vessel development. The pathogenesis of ROP is complex and includes oxidative damage to the developing retina. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of ROP with serum vitamin A levels and clinical parameters in infants with a gestational age of ≤32 weeks and birth weight of ≤1500 grams. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Newborns admitted to Newborn Intensive Care Unit within the first 24 hours of life, with gestational age ≤ 32 weeks, birth weight ≤1500 grams, without any major congenital anomalies, inborn error of metabolism or prior history of blood/blood products transfusion were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, ROP (+ and ROP (-, according to the presence of ROP at any stage. Serum vitamin A levels and gender, type of delivery, birth weight, gestational age, duration of hospitalization and oxygen supply, multiple gestation, preeclampsia, PDA, sepsis and intraventricular hemorrhage of the groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests. Re sults: The mean gestational age of these infants was 29.2±2.0 weeks and the mean birth weight was 1287±197 grams. ROP was diagnosed in 48% of infants and the mean serum vitamin A level was 0.56±0.45 μmol/L. In 44 cases (84%, vitamin A level was determined low (<0.7 μmol/L and was extremely low (<0.35 μmol/L in 17 cases (32.7%. There was no significant difference between the ROP (+ and ROP (- groups in terms of vitamin A levels. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of birth weight, gestational age, multiple gestation, duration of hospitalization and oxygen supply. Dis cus si on: Our results suggest that low birth weight, small gestational age, duration of hospitalization, oxygen exposure time and multiple gestation may increase the risk of ROP, while serum vitamin A level

  12. Conservative Treatment of Lung Perforation Secondary to Retained Catheter in an Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, Mehmet Surhan; Hamrick, Miller C; Kane, Timothy D

    2015-12-01

    Airway injury may occur during the use of any instrumentation in premature infants. A surgical approach for the treatment of lung perforation in extremely low-birth-weight infants has been recommended in the past. Here, we present a case of lung perforation in an ex-28-week, 730-g premature infant, who sustained lung perforation, secondary to an 8-Fr suction catheter used to administer surfactant, in which the broken catheter was retained in the airway. Following removal of catheter by endoscopy, tension pneumothorax had occurred. Attempts were made to treat the patient with single chest tube, unfortunately as it was not efficacious, the second one was placed on the ipsilateral side of hemithorax and the patient recovered without further surgery. PMID:26788450

  13. Impact of maternal diabetes mellitus on mortality and morbidity of very low birth weight infants: a multicenter Latin America study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Grandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI born to women with and without diabetes mellitus (DM. METHODS: This was a cohort study with retrospective data collection (2001-2010, n = 11.991 from the NEOCOSUR network. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the outcome of neonatal mortality and morbidity as a function of maternal DM. Women with no DM served as the reference group. RESULTS: The rate of maternal DM was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1, but a significant (p = 0.019 increase was observed between 2001-2005 (2.4%, 2.1-2.8 and 2006-2010 (3.2%, 2.8-3.6. Mothers with DM were more likely to have received a complete course of prenatal steroids than those without DM. Infants of diabetic mothers had a slightly higher gestational age and birth weight than infants of born to non-DM mothers. Distribution of mean birth weight Z-scores, small for gestational age status, and Apgar scores were similar. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, and patent ductus arteriosus. Delivery room mortality, total mortality, need for mechanical ventilation, and early-onset sepsis rates were significantly lower in the diabetic group, whereas necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC was significantly higher in infants born to DM mothers. In the logistic regression analysis, NEC grades 2-3 was the only condition independently associated with DM (adjusted OR: 1.65 [95% CI: 1.2 -2.27]. CONCLUSIONS: VLBWI born to DM mothers do not appear to be at an excess risk of mortality or early morbidity, except for NEC.

  14. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants Discharged from NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease of the eye caused by disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels resulting in scarring and retinal detachment. All preterm babies are at high risk for ROP, and very low birth weight is an additional risk factor. An increased incidence of ROP is expected in Iran because of improved survival of low birth weight and premature babies, and it is obvious that pediatricians and ophthalmologists are concerned about prevention and timely treatment of ROP in these children. To asses the real situation of ROP in our NICU we studied its prevalence and risk factors. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of premature infants with birth weight of ≤1500 grams or gestational age of ≤32 weeks, admitted April 1, 2005 to March 28, 2006, to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Qaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The collected data of 47 cases in this cross-sectional study are analyzed by SPSS (Mann_Whitney, t-Student. Findings: Forty five infants were included in the study. Out of these, 4 (8.5% developed ROP (inclusive all stages. Our analysis revealed that low gestational age, sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome were independent predictors for the development of ROP. Conclusion:The frequency of ROP in our hospital was lower than the range reported in developed countries, and our risk factors were a little different.

  15. Ambient Air Pollution and Birth Weight in Full-Term Infants in Atlanta, 1994–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Strickland, Matthew J; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.

    2010-01-01

    Background An emerging body of evidence suggests that ambient levels of air pollution during pregnancy are associated with fetal growth. Objectives We examined relationships between birth weight and temporal variation in ambient levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2.5 to 10 μm (PM2.5–10), and PM2.5 chemical component measurements for 406,627 full-term births occurring between 1994 and ...

  16. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  17. Preeclampsia and Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Population-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Huang

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP are associated with impaired angiogenesis. Previous studies on the relationship between preeclampsia and ROP have produced conflicting results. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal preeclampsia and ROP using a large population-based cohort of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants from 21 neonatal departments registered in the database of the Premature Baby Foundation of Taiwan. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for preeclampsia with reference to ROP and severe ROP. A total of 5,718 VLBW infants (844 cases with maternal preeclampsia were included for analysis. The overall incidences of mild and severe ROP were 36.0% and 12.2%, respectively. Univariable analysis showed lower GA and lower birth weight, vaginal delivery, non-SGA, RDS, PDA, sepsis, transfusion, and absence of maternal preeclampsia to be associated with mild and severe ROP development. However, OR (95% CI adjusted for the variables that were significant according to univariable analysis showed the risks of developing any-stage ROP and severe ROP for maternal preeclampsia to be 1.00 (0.84-1.20 and 0.89 (0.63-1.25, respectively. The results remained unchanged in stratified analyses according to SGA status. Our data showed that maternal preeclampsia was not associated with the subsequent development of any stage or severe ROP in VLBW infants.

  18. Very Low Birth Weight Infant Necessitating Nissen Fundoplication for Weaning off the Mechanical Ventilator

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    İpek Güney Varal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER is one of the common problems of neonatal intensive care units. Although this condition does not always need to be treated, it occasionally causes clinically serious consequences. Initial management is medical; however, in some cases surgery might be required. A premature neonate with birth weight of 1370 grams was managed in our ICU. The patient was mechanical ventilator dependent due to GER. The patient needed Nissen fundoplication for successfully weaning off the ventilator.

  19. Periodontitis: A risk for delivery of premature labor and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Saini, Sugandha R

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is a destructive inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth and is caused by specific microorganisms or a group of specific microorganisms. Association of periodontal infection with organ systems like cardiovascular system, endocrine system, reproductive system, and respiratory system makes periodontal infection a complex multiphase disease. Inflamed periodontal tissues produce significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which may have systemic effects on the host. Low birth weight, defined as birth weight less than 2500 g, continues to be a significant public health issue in both developed and developing countries. Research suggests that the bacteria that cause inflammation in the gums can actually get into the bloodstream and target the fetus, potentially leading to premature labor and low birth weight (PLBW) babies. One reasonable mechanism for this is the deleterious effect of endotoxin released from gram-negative bacteria responsible for periodontal disease. Hence, periodontal disease appears to be an independent risk factor for PLBW and there is a need to expand preventive measures for pregnant women in coordination with the gynecological and dental professions. PMID:22470234

  20. Periodontitis: A risk for delivery of premature labor and low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Saini, Sugandha R

    2010-07-01

    Periodontitis is a destructive inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth and is caused by specific microorganisms or group of specific microorganisms. The association of periodontal infection with organ systems like cardiovascular system, endocrine system, reproductive system, and respiratory system makes periodontal infection a complex multiphase disease. Inflamed periodontal tissues produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, prostaglandin E2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which may have systemic effects on the host. Low birth weight, defined as birth weight less than 2,500 g, continues to be a significant public health issue in both developed and developing countries. Research suggests that the bacteria that cause inflammation in the gums can actually get into the bloodstream and target the fetus, potentially leading to premature labor and low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies. One reasonable mechanism begins with deleterious effects of endotoxins released from Gram-negative bacteria responsible for periodontal disease. Hence periodontal disease appears to be an independent risk factor for PLBW and there is a need to expand preventive measures for pregnant women in harmonization with the gynecological and dental professions. PMID:22096335

  1. Effect of glutamine with auxiliary enteral and parenteral nutrition on feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Cai; Chun-Hong Chen; Yan-Fang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical effects of glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition on improving the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants.Methods: A total of 40 cases of low birth weight infants (LBW) in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2015 were selected, which were divided equally into the observation group and the control group according to the different nutritional intervention methods. Patients in the control group received routine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition while children of observed group received glutamine assisted enteral and parenteral nutrition. Differences of children’s growth and development indicators, nutritional status and levels of calcium and phosphorus, gastrin and motilin levels, mucosal barrier and immune function were compared between two groups. Results:After receiving nutritional intervention, children in the observation group had higher levels of serum leptin, GH, IGF-I and adiponectin than the control group patients, while Cor values were lower. The observation group patients who received nutritional intervention had higher TSF, AMC, TP, ALB, calcium and phosphorus levels than the control group, while the ALP values were lower; children of observation group who received nutrition intervention had higher GAS and MOT levels than the control group; children of observation group after intervention had higher peripheral blood CD3+T, CD4+T and CD4+/CD8+ levels than the control group children, while D-lactic acid and blood ammonia levels were lower.Conclusion:Glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition could improve the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants, and it improved the nutritional status as well as growth and development of children as a whole, and thus had positive clinical significance.

  2. Recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusion in low-birth weight preterm infants under restrictive transfusion guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the number and volume of red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) in very low birth weight infants under restrictive red blood cell transfusion guidelines with and without erythropoietin administration. In a controlled clinical trial conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit of Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, between April 2002 to April 2004, 60 premature infants with gestational age up to 34 weeks, birth weight up to 1500 g, and postnatal age between 8 and 14 days were included. The newborns were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 received 3 doses of 400 IU/kg erythropoietin per week for 6 weeks, and Group 2 received no treatment aside from their conventional medications. The 2 groups did not differ significantly with respect to their mean gestational age, birth weight and hematocrit at the study entry. Fewer transfusions were administered to those receiving erythropoietin (26.7% versus 50%, p=0.03), but there was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to volume of transfusion. Compared with the placebo group, the infants receiving erythropoietin had a higher mean hematocrit (34% +/- 4.3 versus 29% +/- 5.9, p<0.001) and absolute reticulocyte count (57 +/- 19 versus 10 +/- 4.8 x 106, p<0.001) at the end of the study. We found no significant difference in the incidence of thrombocytopenia and leukopenia between the 2 groups. We conclude that when the restrictive RBCT guidelines were followed, treatment with erythropoietin can be useful in reduction of the number of RBCTs. (author)

  3. Serum cortisol values, superior vena cava flow and illness severity scores in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that high cortisol concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Neonatal illness severity and mortality risk scores are reliable in predicting morbidity and mortality. The objectives were (i) to assess the correlation between serum cortisol levels and clinical assessment of multi-organ dysfunction\\/illness severity scores (CRIB II, SNAPPE-II and neonatal multiple organ dysfunction score (NEOMOD)) in first 24 h in VLBW infants and (ii) to assess the relationship between surrogates of end organ blood flow and serum cortisol levels. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight <1500 g were eligible for enrollment. Echocardiography evaluation of superior vena cava (SVC) flow was carried out in the first 24 h life. Cortisol levels were measured simultaneously and appropriate clinical scores were calculated. RESULT: A total of 54 VLBW neonates were enrolled following parental consent. Two patients were excluded because of congenital malformations. In 14 babies the cortisol value was not simultaneously obtained. The mean birth weight was 1.08 kg, mean gestational age was 27.8 weeks. There was a significant correlation between cortisol and NEOMOD score (P=0.006). There was no correlation between cortisol and CRIB II score (P=0.34), SVC flow (P=0.49) and mean arterial blood pressure respectively (P=0.35). CONCLUSION: There was no correlation between SVC flow and cortisol values or between cortisol and mean blood pressure values. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels and neonatal organ dysfunction score evaluated suggesting that stressed VLBW infants do mount a cortisol response.

  4. The effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability in very-low-birth-weight infants : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Anemone; Fetter, Willem P. F.; Westerbeek, Elisabeth A. M.; van der Vegt, Ina M.; van der Molen, Hilda R. A.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants are susceptible to glutamine depletion. Glutamine depletion has negative effects on intestinal integrity. The lower infection rate in VLBW infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may originate from improved intestinal integrity, as refl

  5. "New-generation" pulse oximeters in extremely low-birth-weight infants: how do they perform in clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Anne C; Horsch, Sandra; Eilers, Paul H C; Dankelman, Jenny; Smit, Bert J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of "new-generation" pulse oximeters in extremely low-birth-weight ([ELBW] ≤ 1000 g) infants. In a prospective crossover observational study, the performance of pulse oximeters of 3 brands (Masimo, Nellcor, and Philips) was evaluated by dual SpO2 measurement in ELBW infants. Disposable probes of either equal or different brands were placed around both feet of the patient simultaneously for approximately 4 hours. Probes were switched between feet every hour. Absolute differences in SpO2 values (ΔSpO2) and the bias between brands were studied. Nine ELWB infants were included (gestational age: mean ± SD = 26(3)/7 ± 1 4/7 weeks). The median (range) ΔSpO2 was 2% (0%-26%). In 9% of the time, ΔSpO2 was 5% or more. The variance of the difference of the 3 pulse oximeter brands was not significantly different. No consequent bias between brands was found. Simultaneously obtained pulse oximeter measurements from the feet of ELBW infants differ from each other. Our results suggest that it is not the brand but the handling of the pulse oximeter in clinical practice, such as the place and positioning of the probe, that influences the performance of the pulse oximeter the most. Improvement in the accuracy of oxygen-monitoring techniques for ELBW infants is required. PMID:22551866

  6. Cerebral tissue oxygenation index and superior vena cava blood flow in the very low birth weight infant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Superior vena cava (SVC) flow assesses blood flow from the upper body, including the brain. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides information on brain perfusion and oxygenation. AIM: To assess the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) and cardiac output measures in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant in the first day of life. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight less than 1500 g (VLBW) were eligible for enrollment. Newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital malformations and greater than Papile grade1 Intraventricular Haemorrhage on day 1 of life were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Low SVC flow states were defined as a flow less than 40 mL\\/kg\\/min. cTOI was measured using NIRO 200 Hamamatsu. RESULTS: Twenty-seven VLBW neonates had both echocardiography and NIRS performed. The median (range) gestation was 29\\/40 (25 + 3 to 31 + 5 weeks) and median birth weight was 1.2 kg (0.57-1.48 kg). The mean (SD) TOI was 68.1 (7.9)%. The mean (SD) SVC flow was 70.36(39.5) mLs\\/kg\\/min. The correlation coefficient of cerebral tissue oxygenation and SVC flow was r = 0.53, p-value 0.005. There was a poor correlation between right and left ventricular output and cTOI which is not surprising considering the influence of intra- and extracardiac shunts. CONCLUSION: There is a positive relationship between cerebral TOI values and SVC flow in the very low birth infant on day one of life.

  7. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84% o

  8. Infant adiposity at birth and early postnatal weight gain predict increased aortic intima-media thickness at 6 weeks of age: a population-derived cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Kate; Burgner, David; Carlin, John B; Skilton, Michael R; Cheung, Michael; Dwyer, Terence; Vuillermin, Peter; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Infant body composition and postnatal weight gain have been implicated in the development of adult obesity and cardiovascular disease, but there are limited prospective data regarding the association between infant adiposity, postnatal growth and early cardiovascular parameters. Increased aortic intima-media thickness (aortic IMT) is an intermediate phenotype of early atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between weight and adiposity at birth, postnatal growth and aortic IMT. The Barwon Infant Study (n=1074 mother-infant pairs) is a population-derived birth cohort. Infant weight and other anthropometry were measured at birth and 6 weeks of age. Aortic IMT was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound at 6 weeks of age (n=835). After adjustment for aortic size and other factors, markers of adiposity including increased birth weight (β=19.9 μm/kg, 95%CI 11.1, 28.6; Pinfant weight and adiposity at birth, as well as increased early weight gain, were positively associated with aortic IMT. Excessive accumulation of adiposity during gestation and early infancy may have adverse effects on cardiovascular risk.

  9. Comparison of anesthesia with sevoflurane-N2O and midazolam-remifentanil in low-birth-weight premature infants undergoing diode laser photocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    BUT, Abdulkadir; Arikan, Müge; ASLAN, Bilge; Öztürk, Levent; TABUK, Meltem; HORASANLI, Eyüp

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The present study aimed to compare anesthesia with sevoflurane-N2O and midazolam-remifentanil in terms of hemodynamic parameters and safety in low-birth-weight (LBW) premature infants undergoing diode laser photocoagulation (DLP) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Materials and methods: A total of 91 infants undergoing DLP for ROP were enrolled in this study. All of the infants were established with LBW (

  10. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Jia Lin; Li-Zhong Du; Xiao-Lu Ma; Li-Ping Shi; Jia-Hua Pan; Xiao-Mei Tong; Qiu-Ping Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:With the progress ofperinatal medicine and neonatal technology,more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world.This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China.Methods:All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) <1000 g were included between January 1,2011 and December 3 1,201 1.All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire.The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed.Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test.Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors.Results:A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs,of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks,and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g.The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%.Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal.Furthermore,the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs.35.3%,P =0.019).BW <750 g and GA <28 weeks were the largest risk factors,and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality.Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication.The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus,intraventricular hemorrhage,periventricular leukomalacia,bronchopulmonary dysplasia,retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%,33.7%,6.7%,48.1%,and 41.4%,respectively.Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization.Conclusions:Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China.The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed countries.

  11. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jia Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3% died and another 69 infants (26.7% died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019. BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other

  12. ESTABLISHMENT OF REFERENCE RANGE FOR LIPID PROFILE IN HEALTHY NEW BORN, INFANT AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEWBORN IN INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush B. Tailor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is among the major cause of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries.The earlier prevailing belief that chronic disease in adulthood are the consequences of adult lifestyle choices and exposures, has now also given room for thought to the concept that the process of atherosclerosis begins in childhood and that the fatty streaks are present in children as young as three year of age. In present study, infant and newborn baby, coming to S.S.G Hospital, Vadodara were taken in to study. Infants were divided in three groups. First group included new born between age of 1-5 days, second group an infant between age of 6-12 weeks and the third group infants suffering from low birth weight. Blood samples were collected from the vein of normal new born, age group of 6-12 weeks and from LBW babies. Samples from new born babies were collected within the 24 -36 hours of birth time. Serum Cholesterol was measured using PAP method, Triglyceride using GPO method and HDL-Cholesterol using PTA method, VLDL-Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol was calculated by using Friedewald’s equation. Each and every baby has corresponding normal value according to its age. It cannot be comparable with other age group norm with adult. Lipid profile of the Indian population baby cannot be comparable with norms of the other country because there are many factor can change profile value, like dietary habit, living habit and condition, environment and atmosphere also. Baby suffering or come with SFD and LBW has higher chance of CHD in an adulthood compare to other normal child.

  13. Brain CT scans and clinical study in very-low-birth-weight infants, including eight cases of cerebellar porencephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-nine brain CT scans taken in very-low-birth-weight infants ( < 1500 g) during the past three years were studied retrospectively. Eighty-nine cases of very-low-birth-weight infants were admitted to our premature nursery during the period from Jan. 1, 1982 to Dec. 31, 1984. We obtained brain CT scans in 59 of them, and studied them retrospectively. a) Normal CT in 25 cases, b) enlargement of the extracerebral space in 17, c) megacisterna magna in four, d) unilateral ventriculomegaly in six, e) hydrocephalus in seven, f) cerebral porencephaly in two, g) brain stem atrophy in seven, and h) low density area in the posterior fossa in eight, were observed. The clinical courses of patients a) to f) above were almost similar to those previously reported. g) brain stem atrophy was found on CT scans in seven cases. Five of them developed infantile spasms later. This suggests that one of the main sites of lesions in infantile spasms is the tegmentum of the brain stem. h) Low density area in the posterior fossa was found on CT in eight cases. Three of them showed cerebellar defective lesions on metrizamide CT or RI cisternography. Four of them showed no defective lesion in the posterior fossa on ultrasonography at the early neonatal stage. These lesions in the posterior fossa are believed to be cerebellar porencephaly, which occurred after birth. Seven cases of cerebellar porencephaly, except for one with SFD, had respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, such as neonatal asphyxia, RDS, PDA, and/or apnea. The cerebral lesions such as intracranial hemorrhage, hydrocephalus and cerebral porencephaly, which had been observed in all cases of cerebellar porencephaly, finally resulted in cerebral palsy, mental retardation and infantile spasms. (J.P.N.)

  14. Development of lung function in very low birth weight infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia: Longitudinal assessment during the first 15 months of corrected age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalisch Gerd

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birth weight (VLBW infants ( Methods Comprehensive lung function assessment was performed at about 50, 70, and 100 weeks of postmenstrual age in 55 sedated VLBW infants (29 with former BPD [O2 supplementation was given at 36 weeks of gestational age] and 26 VLBW infants without BPD [controls]. Mean gestational age (26 vs. 29 weeks, birth weight (815 g vs. 1,125 g, and the proportion of infants requiring mechanical ventilation for ≥7 d (55% vs. 8%, differed significantly between BPD infants and controls. Results Both body weight and length, determined over time, were persistently lower in former BPD infants compared to controls, but no significant between-group differences were noted in respiratory rate, respiratory or airway resistance, functional residual capacity as determined by body plethysmography (FRCpleth, maximal expiratory flow at the FRC (V'max FRC, or blood gas (pO2, pCO2 levels. Tidal volume, minute ventilation, respiratory compliance, and FRC determined by SF6 multiple breath washout (representing the lung volume in actual communication with the airways were significantly lower in former BPD infants compared to controls. However, these differences became non-significant after normalization to body weight. Conclusions Although somatic growth and the development of some lung functional parameters lag in former BPD infants, the lung function of such infants appears to develop in line with that of non-BPD infants when a body weight correction is applied. Longitudinal lung function testing of preterm infants after discharge from hospital may help to identify former BPD infants at risk of incomplete recovery of respiratory function; such infants are at risk of later respiratory problems.

  15. Sildenafil and Retinopathy of Prematurity Risk in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; van den Anker, John N.; Laughon, Matthew M; Clark, Reese H.; Smith, P. Brian; Hornik, Christoph P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of sildenafil therapy on development of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) requiring surgical intervention in premature infants. Study Design We identified premature infants who were discharged from Pediatrix Medical Group neonatal intensive care units from 2003–2012 and who received an ophthalmologic exam. We matched each infant exposed to sildenafil prior to first eye exam to three non-exposed infants using propensity scoring to control for differences i...

  16. Exclusive Breastfeeding among Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants at One Month Follow-up after Hospital Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Jahan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishment and maintenance of breastfeeding in preterm low birth weight (PT LBW neonates after discharge from hospital is challenging and may be affected by multiple factors. We designed this study to find out the association of these factors with breastfeeding in our population. Objectives: To observe the rate of exclusive breasrfeeding (EBF among the PT LBW neonates at one month follow up and to identify the factors that are related with the maintenance of EBF. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted during the period from July 2009 to October 2011 in Enam Medical College Hospital (EMCH. Preterm infants ≤ 34 wks gestation, stayed in the NICU for >3 days and discharged home were eligible. Mothers were interviewed at one month follow-up after discharge. Infants who were given only breast milk up to 4 weeks were termed as “Exclusively breastfed (EBF” and who were given formula milk in addition were labeled as “Nonexclusively breastfed (NEBF”. Baseline information regarding maternal demography, delivery of the baby, feeding during discharge was taken from database of neonatal ward. Results: Among 89 infants, 37 (42% were female and 52 (58% were male, including 5 twins. Gestational age ranged from 29 to 34 weeks (mean 32±2, and birth weight ranged from 1100 to 2200 grams (mean 1763±20 g. At one month follow up visit 19% (17/89 were found to be NEBF and 81% were EBF. Factors significantly associated with EBF were shorter duration of hospital stay (p=0.001, method of feeding at discharge (p=0.001, mode of delivery (p=0.004, below average socio-economic status (p=0.03, maternal education (p=0.02, number of antenatal visits (p=0.02 and larger birth weight (p=0.038. Conclusion: A variety of factors may affect EBF in PT LBW babies. Extensive counseling of the mothers during antenatal visits, counseling of the family members regarding the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding is necessary. Support should be

  17. Cyst(e)ine requirements in enterally fed very low birth weight preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedijk, Maaike A.; Voortman, Gardi; van Beek, Ron H. T.; Baartmans, Martin G. A.; Wafelman, Leontien S.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Optimal nutrition is of utmost importance for the preterm infant's later health and developmental outcome. Amino acid requirements for preterm infants differ from those for term and older infants, because growth rates differ. Some nonessential amino acids, however, cannot be sufficiently

  18. Outcome of Very Lov Birth Weight Infants in Neonatal Care Unit of Dicle University Faculty of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for infants weighing less than 1500 g, who were admitted to the neonatal care unit of our hospital from April 2005 to February 2006.The number of VLBW admissions to the our neonatal care unit was 91, fourty one percent female and %49 were male. The mean birth weight was 1191±261 g and gestational age was 29±2.4 weeks. The mortality rate was 37.3 %. Antenatal steroids had been given to only 8% of mothers. The most important maternal risk factors were preeclampsia/eclampsia 30%, premature rupture of membranes 13%, hemorhage 8%. Respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed 47%, surfactant was given to 40% of these infants. The major causes of death were sepsis, respiratuar distres syndrome, and extreme prematurity.Compared with reports from other developed NICU, VLBW infants at our center had higher mortality rates. We conclude that, the major cause of high mortality rate depends on low-social –cultural –education conditions associated with insufficient prenatal care, neonatal care and inaccurate neonatal transport in our region.

  19. Meconium obstruction in absence of cystic fibrosis in low birth weight infants: an emerging challenge from increasing survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradiso Valentina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meconium abnormalities are characterized by a wide spectrum of severity, from the meconium plug syndrome to the complicated meconium ileus associated with cystic fibrosis. Meconium Related Ileus in absence of Cystic Fibrosis includes a combination of highly viscid meconium and poor intestinal motility, low grade obstruction, benign systemic and abdominal examination, distended loops without air fluid levels. Associated risk factors are severe prematurity and low birth weight, Caesarean delivery, Maternal MgSO4 therapy, maternal diabetes. In the last 20 yrs a new specific type of these meconium related obstructions has been described in premature neonates with low birth weight. Its incidence has shown to increase while its management continues to be challenging and controversial for the risk of complicated obstruction and perforation. Materials and methods Among 55 newborns admitted between 1992-2008 with Meconium Related Ileus as final diagnosis, data about Low Birth Weight infants (LBW Results 30 cases with BW ≥ 1500 g had an M/F ratio16/14, Mean B.W. 3052 g, Mean G.A. 37 w Caesarean section rate 40%. There were 10 meconium plug syndrome, 4 small left colon syndromes, and 16 meconium ileus without Cystic Fibrosis. Five cases were born at our institution (inborn versus 25 referred after a mean of 2, 4 Days (1-7 after birth in another Hospital (outborn. They were managed, after a Gastrografin enema with 90% success rate, by 1 temporary Ileostomy and 2 trans appendiceal irrigation. 25 cases with BW Conclusions Meconium Related Ileus without Cystic Fibrosis responds to conservative management and softening enema in most of mature infants. In LBW clinical course is initially benign but as any long standing bowel obstruction management may present particular challenges. Clinical and plain radiographic criteria are reliable for making diagnosis and testing for Cystic Fibrosis may not be indicated. Enema may be resolutive when

  20. Is there any role for terlipressin in the extremely low birth weight infant with refractory septic shock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bissolo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocortisone, in whom terlipressin was attempted as a rescue drug. Despite three doses of terlipressin, administered 6-hourly, the patient remained profoundly hypotensive and eventually died. Further studies are required before any recommendation on the use of terlipressin in term or preterm newborns with septic shock can be made.

  1. Early Caffeine Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants and Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Won; Lim, Gina; Chung, Sung-Hoon; Chung, Sochung; Kim, Kyo Sun; Kim, Soo-Nyung

    2015-12-01

    The use of caffeine citrate for treatment of apnea in very low birth weight infants showed short-term and long-term benefits. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was undertaken to document the effect providing caffeine early (0-2 days of life) compared to providing caffeine late (≥3 days of life) in very low birth weight infants on several neonatal outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We searched MEDLINE, the EMBASE database, the Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed for this meta-analysis. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Jadad's scale. Studies were included if they examined the effect of the early use of caffeine compared with the late use of caffeine. Two reviewers screened the candidate articles and extracted the data from the full-text of all of the included studies. We included a total of 59,136 participants (range 58,997-59,136; variable in one study) from a total of 5 studies. The risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 0.902; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.828 to 0.983; P=0.019), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (OR, 0.507; 95% CI, 0.396 to 0.648; Pcaffeine group. Early caffeine use was not associated with a risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and NEC requiring surgery. This meta-analysis suggests that early caffeine use has beneficial effects on neonatal outcomes, including mortality and BPD, without increasing the risk of NEC.

  2. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  3. Early home intervention with low-birth-weight infants and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, M E; Rosenbaum, P L; Cunningham, C E

    1986-02-01

    We investigated the effects of a year-long home intervention with a sample of preterm infants randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: a developmental intervention, a parent-infant intervention, and a no-treatment control group. A full-term no-treatment control was also used. Both intervention approaches focused on the parent-child unit, providing training for parents to improve observational skills, emotional support, and information about community resources. However, whereas specific tasks to facilitate the child's development were provided in the developmental intervention group, the quality of the parent-infant interaction was the target for treatment in the other group. All infants were assessed at 4, 8, 12, and 16 months of age corrected for prematurity. The results suggest that although both intervention approaches were effective in modifying some aspects of the home environment and, to a lesser degree, in improving infants' cognitive development, the parent-infant interaction approach seemed to have the greater impact. These findings confirm previous observations regarding the cognitive development of preterm and full-term infants during the first 18 months of life and demonstrate changes in behavior and behavior styles in both pre- and full-term infants as they become older.

  4. Iron overload in very low birth weight infants: Serum Ferritin and adverse outcomes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, M

    2011-11-01

    Adequate iron isessential for growth and haematpoiesis. Oral iron supplementation is the standard of care in VLBW infants. Post mortem evidence has confirmed significant iron overload. Excessive free iron has been associated with free radical formation and brain injury in term infants.

  5. Feeding very-low-birth-weight infants: our aspirations versus the reality in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.E. Corpeleijn; M.J. Vermeulen; C.H. van den Akker; J.B. van Goudoever

    2011-01-01

    Recently, new guidelines for enteral feedings in premature infants were issued by the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition. Nevertheless, practice proves difficult to attain suggested intakes at all times, and occurrence of significant pote

  6. Neuroprotection with erythropoietin in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Qiuxia; Xiang, Hong; Xin, Yue; Chang, Ming; Lu, Hongyan

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal brain injury caused by extreme prematurity remains a great challenge for prevention. Erythropoietin (EPO) has shown neuroprotective effects in a series of neonatal experimental models and recent clinical trials of premature infants. In this meta-analysis of seven clinical trials, EPO was associated with a highly reproducible reduction in the risk of neurodevelopmental disability in preterm infants. However, there was no difference in the risk for morbidity, cerebral palsy, visual deficit, severe hearing deficit, necrotizing enterocolitis, intracranial hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus. The use of EPO, to some extent, is associated with reduction in neurodevelopmental disability in preterm infants. More double blind randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the best therapeutic approach for neuroprotection in preterm infants. PMID:24650681

  7. The Role of Immunonutrients in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC and NEC-related mortality have not declined accordingly. The fast progression from nonspecific signs to extensive necrosis also makes primary prevention the first priority. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated the important role of several nutrients in primary prevention of NEC. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize some potential immunomodulatory nutrients in the prevention of NEC, including bovine colostrum, probiotics, prebiotics (e.g., human milk oligosaccharides, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine, l-arginine and l-citrulline. Based on current research evidence, probiotics are the most documented effective method to prevent NEC, while others still require further investigation in animal studies and clinical randomized controlled trials.

  8. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... with GA gestational weeks 32-40. Finally, after adjusting for GA......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...

  9. Factors associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates of very-low-birth-weight infants in 34 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine whether patient loads, infant status on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis rates in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). METHODS This was a retrospective study of 3,880 VLBW (≤ 1,500 g) infants admitted to 34 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the MNNR. Sepsis was diagnosed in symptomatic infants with positive blood culture. RESULTS Sepsis developed in 623 (16.1%) infants; 61 (9.8%) had early-onset sepsis (EOS) and 562 (90.2%) had late-onset sepsis (LOS). The median EOS rate of all NICUs was 1.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 0%, 2.0%). Compared with NICUs reporting no EOS (n = 14), NICUs reporting EOS (n = 20) had significantly higher patient loads (total live births, admissions, VLBW infants, outborns); more mothers with a history of abortions, and antenatal steroids and intrapartum antibiotic use; more infants requiring resuscitation procedures at birth; higher rates of surfactant therapy, pneumonia and insertion of central venous catheters. The median LOS rate of all NICUs was 14.5% (IQR 7.8%, 19.2%). Compared with NICUs with LOS rates below the first quartile (n = 8), those above the third quartile (n = 8) used less intrapartum antibiotics, and had significantly bigger and more mature infants, more outborns, as well as a higher number of sick infants requiring ventilator support and total parenteral nutrition. CONCLUSION Patient loads, resuscitation at birth, status of infants on admission and treatment interventions were significantly associated with inter-institutional variations in sepsis. PMID:26996633

  10. The Effect of Assisted Exercise Frequency on Bone Strength in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Erez, Hedva; Eliakim, Alon; Bauer-Rusek, Sofia; Arnon, Shmuel; Regev, Rivka H; Sirota, Gisela; Nemet, Dan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to assess whether a twice daily assisted exercise interventional program will have a greater effect on bone strength compared to a once daily intervention or no intervention in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Thirty-four very VLBW preterm infants (mean BW 1217 ± 55 g and mean gestational age 28.6 ± 1.1 weeks) were randomly assigned into one of three study groups: twice daily interventions (n = 13), a once daily intervention (n = 11), and no intervention (control, n = 10). The intervention was initiated at a mean of 8 ± 2.4 days of life and continued for 4 weeks. It included passive extension and flexion range-of-motion exercise of the upper and lower extremities. Bone strength was measured at enrollment and after 2 and 4 weeks using quantitative ultrasound of tibial bone speed of sound (SOS, Sunlight Omnisense™). At enrollment, the mean bone SOS was comparable between the twice daily interventions, once daily intervention and control groups (2918 ± 78, 2943 ± 119, and 2910 ± 48 m/s, respectively). As expected, the bone SOS declined in all groups during the study period (-23.6 ± 24, -68.8 ± 28, and -115.8 ± 30 m/s, respectively, p exercise attenuates the decrease in bone strength and may decrease the risk of osteopenia and future fractures in VLBW preterm infants. PMID:27142078

  11. Congenital heart disease in low-birth-weight infants: effects of small for gestational age (SGA) status and maturity on postoperative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Daniel; Azen, Colleen; Bhombal, Shazia; Hastings, Laura; Paquette, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the role that small for gestational age (SGA) status plays in postoperative outcomes for low-birth-weight (LBW) infants with congenital heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to examine the effect of SGA status, gestational and chronologic age, and weight on differences in morbidities and mortalities during the immediate postoperative hospitalization period. The charts of infants with CHD weighing less than 2.5 kg who underwent operative repair during the neonatal period between 2004 and 2011 were reviewed. Infants with an isolated patent ductus arteriosus were excluded from the study. Data on hospital morbidities and mortality before discharge were collected. The study identified 136 LBW infants with a diagnosis of CHD. Among the 74 infants who underwent surgery and had complete chart records, the SGA infants had a higher gestational age at birth (36.8 vs. 32.3 weeks; p risk of postoperative infection. In contradistinction, an older postnatal age at surgery was associated with an increased risk of preoperative infection (p risk of preoperative infection. A gestational age of 32 weeks or more at birth was associated with decreased morbidities, which could influence obstetric management. PMID:24997649

  12. Premature Infants 750–1,250 g Birth Weight Supplemented with a Novel Human Milk-Derived Cream Are Discharged Sooner

    OpenAIRE

    Amy B. Hair; Bergner, Erynn M.; Lee, Martin L; MOREIRA, Alvaro G.; Hawthorne, Keli M.; Rechtman, David J; Abrams, Steven A.; Blanco, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Infants may benefit from early nutritional intervention to decrease hospital stay. To evaluate the effects of adding a human milk (HM)-derived cream (Cream) product to a standard feeding regimen in preterm infants. Materials and Methods: In a prospective multicenter randomized study, infants with birth weights 750–1,250 g were assigned to a Control or Cream group. The Control group received a standard feeding regimen consisting of mother's own milk or donor HM with donor H...

  13. Respiratory morbidity in very preterm and very low birth weight infants: the first 2 years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory morbidity in the first two years of life, including recurrent symptoms and frequent hospitalizations, is a common problem in very preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW infants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study aiming to describe the respiratory morbidity at 2 years of corrected age for very preterm and VLBW infants and to identify potential risk factors for its development in a Portuguese based population born in a tertiary referral center between 2009 and 2011. Data were collected from patient’s clinical files and using a standardized questionnaire-based clinical interview for parents. A total 59 children were included. Thirteen (22.0% had recurrent respiratory symptoms and 12 (20.3% were using chronic respiratory medication. Health care utilization for respiratory causes was frequent (57.6%, particularly emergency department attendance (50.8%. Twenty seven (45.8% had additional outpatient visits for respiratory causes and hospital admission was necessary for 8 (13.6% patients. Factors associated with increased recurrent respiratory symptoms included maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, umbilical artery flow disturbances, being small for gestational age, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage and a weight percentile below 3 at 6, 12 and 24 months of corrected age. Premature rupture of membranes was negatively associated with respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity at 2 years of age is a common problem in very preterm and VLBW children from our population. Several perinatal and developmental risk factors were identified for respiratory morbidity. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of these factors, as they can lead to changes in healthcare guidelines.

  14. Intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants: associated risk factors and outcome in the neonatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancini Monique Catache

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is a severe complication in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns (NB. With the purpose of studying the incidence of IVH, the associated risk factors, and the outcomes for these neonates, we studied all the VLBW infants born in our neonatal unit. Birth weight, gestational age, presence of perinatal asphyxia, mechanical ventilation, length of hospitalization, apnea crisis, hydrocephalus, and periventricular leukomalacia were analyzed. The diagnosis of IVH was based on ultrasound scan studies (Papile's classification performed until the tenth day of life and repeated weekly in the presence of abnormalities. Sixty-seven/101 neonates were studied. The mortality rate was 30.6% (31/101 and the incidence of IVH was 29.8% (20/67 : 70% grade I, 20% grade III and 10% grade IV. The incidence of IVH in NB <1,000 g was 53.8% (p = 0.035 and for gestational age <30 weeks was 47.3% (p = 0.04, both considered risk factors for IVH. The length of hospitalization (p = 0.00015 and mechanical ventilation (p = 0.038 were longer in IHV NB. The IVH NB had a relative risk of 2.3 of developing apnea (p = 0.02, 3.7 of hydrocephalus (p = 0.0007, and 7.7 of periventricular leukomalacia (p < 0.00001. The authors emphasize the importance of knowing the risk factors related to IVH so as to introduce prevention schemes to reduce IVH and to improve outcomes of affected newborns.

  15. A sutureless technique using cyanoacrylate adhesives when creating a stoma for extremely low birth weight infants

    OpenAIRE

    Nose, Satoko; Sasaki, Takashi; Saka, Ryuta; Minagawa, Kyoko; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal perforation and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are neonatal intestinal emergencies that are especially common in premature infants. While prompt surgical intervention, including stoma creation, is often required, the optimal surgical treatment has been controversial because of the substantial risks related to the stoma creation and management. The use of a tissue adhesive may have some advantages over the use of sutures when creating an intestinal stoma in extremely low bi...

  16. Bedside detection of low systemic flow in the very low birth weight infant on day 1 of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miletin, J

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between the clinical and biochemical parameters of perfusion and superior vena cava (SVC) flow in a prospective observational cohort study of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Newborns with congenital heart disease were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Capillary refill time (forehead, sternum and toe), mean blood pressure, urine output and serum lactate concentration were also measured simultaneously. Thirty-eight VLBW infants were examined. Eight patients (21%) had SVC flow less than 40 ml\\/kg\\/min. There was a poor correlation between the capillary refill time (in all sites), mean blood pressure, urine output and SVC flow. The correlation coefficient for the serum lactate concentration was r = -0.28, p = 0.15. The median serum lactate concentration was 3.5 (range 2.8-8.5) vs. 2.7 (range 1.2-6.9) mmol\\/l (p = 0.01) in low flow versus normal flow states. A serum lactate concentration of >2.8 was 100% sensitive and 60% specific for detecting a low flow state. Combining a capillary refill time of >4 s with a serum lactate concentration of >4 mmol\\/l had a specificity of 97% for detecting a low SVC flow state. Serum lactate concentrations are higher in low SVC flow states. A capillary refill time of >4 s combined with serum lactate concentrations >4 mmol\\/l increased the specificity and positive and negative predictive values of detecting a low SVC flow state.

  17. Parenteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hopewell, J

    2012-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) plays an important role in providing nutrients for infants unable to tolerate enteral feeds study was to look at PN prescribing in neonatal units in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Ireland, in particular in infants < 1.5 kg. A postal questionnaire was administered to the 235 neonatal units. The response rate was 179 (76%), of which 136 (76%) used PN. The initial amount of protein prescribed was 0.1-2 g\\/kg\\/day in 102 units (91%), >2 g\\/kg\\/day in 4 (4%) and 5 (5%) used no protein. 88 (80%) started lipids with the first PN prescription. Only 5 units (5%) started with >1 g\\/kg\\/day. The maximum dose of lipids and protein both varied from 2 - >4 g\\/kg\\/day. The initial glucose infusion rate was 4-8 mg\\/kg\\/min. Interestingly only 44% of units started PN in the first 24 hours of age. Hence results show great variation in PN prescribing.

  18. Social aspects of low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, H G

    1984-05-01

    The categories of low birth weigth infants, social vs. racial factors, factors increasing the risk of low birth weight, prevention of low birth weight, social factors in the development of low birth weight children, the influence of social factors vs. other variables, and implications for management are reviewed. In 1948 the World Health Assembly designated children who were born weighing 2500 g or less as "immature" and further stated that a liveborn infant with a period of gestation of less than 37 weeks or specified as "premature" may be considered as the equivalent of an immature event. In 1961 it was recommended that babies weighing 2500 g or less should no longer be referred to as being "premature" and that the concept of "prematurity" in the definition should give way to that of "low birth weight." Intrauterine growth curves for liveborn males and females were devised from data on birth weight and gestational age. Infants born prior to 37 completed weeks of gestation whose weight lies between the 10th and 90th percentiles on such curves may be called preterm with a weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA), whereas infants born after any length of gestation whose birth weight is at or below the 10th percentile may be named hypotrophic or small for gestational age (SGA). On a worldwide scale it has been estimated that about 22 million low birth weight babies, representing roughly 1/6 of all births, are born alive each day. Only about 1 million of them (mostly preterm) are born in developed countries; of the 21 million born in developing areas, roughly 16 million are SGA full-term and not preterm babies. Socioeconomic status appears as 1 of the most important dterminants of the ultimate level of brain function in children of low birth weight, and this is true with respect to neurologic, psychologic, and educational outcome. Social class also has an indirect effect through birth weight, frequency of perinatal brain injury, and other biological variables as

  19. Association of late-onset neonatal sepsis with late neurodevelopment in the first two years of life of preterm infants with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Hentges

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the influence of late-onset sepsis on neurodevelopment of preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, according to the etiologic agent METHOD: This was a cohort of newborns with birth weight < 1,500 g and gestational age less than 32 weeks, admitted to the institutional intensive care unit (ICU with up to 48 hours of life, and followed-up at the outpatient follow-up clinic for preterm infants with VLBW until 2 years of corrected age. Exclusion criteria: death within the first 72 hours of life, congenital malformations and genetic syndromes, children with congenital infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, congenital infection (STORCH, presence of early-onset spesis and cases with more than one pathogen growth in blood cultures. Septic and non-septic infants were compared regarding neonatal outcomes and mortality. Neurodevelopment was assessed using the Bayley Scale (BSDI-II at 18 to 24 months of corrected age. RESULTS: 411 preterm infants with VLBW were eligible; the mean gestational age was 29 ± 2.2 weeks and mean birth weight was 1,041 ± 281grams. Late-onset sepsis occurred in 94 preterm infants with VLBW (22.8%. VLBW infants with Gram-positive infection showed motor deficit when compared to the non-septic group, 68.8% vs. 29.3%, respectively (OR 6; 1.6-21.8, p = 0.006; the cognitive development was similar between the groups. The overall mortality rate from infection was 26.7%; considering the pathogens, the rates were 18.7% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 21.8% for Gram-positive bacteria, and 50% for Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. CONCLUSION: Neonatal sepsis has a significant influence on late neurodevelopment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants with VLBW, and Gram-positive infections are associated with motor deficit.

  20. The last and first frontier – emerging challenges for HIV treatment and prevention in the first week of life with emphasis on premature and low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Cotton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is new emphasis on identifying and treating HIV in the first days of life and also an appreciation that low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PTD frequently accompany HIV-related pregnancy. Even in the absence of HIV, PTD and LBW contribute substantially to neonatal and infant mortality. HIV-exposed and -infected infants with these characteristics have received little attention thus far. As HIV programs expand to meet the 90-90-90 target for ending the HIV pandemic, attention should focus on newborn infants, including those delivered preterm or of LBW. Discussion: In high prevalence settings, infant diagnosis of HIV is usually undertaken after the neonatal period. However, as in utero infection may be diagnosed at birth, earlier initiation of therapy may limit viral replication and prevent early damage. Globally, there is growing awareness that preterm and LBW infants constitute a substantial proportion of births each year. Preterm infants are at high risk for vertical transmission. Feeding difficulties, apnoea of prematurity and vulnerability to sepsis occur commonly. Feeding intolerance, a frequent occurrence, may compromise oral administration of medications. Although there is growing experience with post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-exposed term newborn infants, there is less experience with preterm and LBW infants. For treatment, there are even fewer options for preterm infants. Only zidovudine has adequate dosing recommendations for treating term and preterm infants and has an intravenous formulation, essential if feeding intolerance occurs. Nevirapine dosing for prevention, but not treatment, is well established for both term and preterm infants.HIV diagnosis at birth is likely to be extremely stressful for new parents, more so if caring for preterm or LBW infants. Programs need to adapt to support the medical and emotional needs of young infants and their parents, where interventions may be lifesaving

  1. Risk factors for preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, JS; Watts, DH; Mofenson, L; Stiehm, ER; Harris, DR; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, MJ; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, WT; Hammill, H; van Dyke, R; Maupin, R; Silio, M; Fowler, MG

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate independent contributions of maternal factors to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Risk factors for preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), and intrauterine growth retardation (

  2. A prospective cohort study of biomarkers of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure: the correlation between serum and meconium and their association with infant birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braun Joe M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of infant meconium as a cumulative matrix of prenatal toxicant exposure requires comparison to established biomarkers of prenatal exposure. Methods We calculated the frequency of detection and concentration of tobacco smoke metabolites measured in meconium (nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine concentrations and three serial serum cotinine concentrations taken during the latter two-thirds of pregnancy among 337 mother-infant dyads. We estimated the duration and intensity of prenatal tobacco smoke exposure using serial serum cotinine concentrations and calculated geometric mean meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations according to prenatal exposure. We also compared the estimated associations between these prenatal biomarkers and infant birth weight using linear regression. Results We detected nicotine (80%, cotinine (69%, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (57% in most meconium samples. Meconium tobacco smoke metabolite concentrations were positively associated with serum cotinine concentrations and increased with the number of serum cotinine measurements consistent with secondhand or active tobacco smoke exposure. Like serum cotinine, meconium tobacco smoke metabolites were inversely associated with birth weight. Conclusions Meconium is a useful biological matrix for measuring prenatal tobacco smoke exposure and could be used in epidemiological studies that enroll women and infants at birth. Meconium holds promise as a biological matrix for measuring the intensity and duration of environmental toxicant exposure and future studies should validate the utility of meconium using other environmental toxicants.

  3. Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds and health effects in women and their infants. Epidemiological studies on birth-weight, cancer incidence, and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rylander, L.

    1997-05-01

    In Sweden the main exposure route for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other persistent organochlorine compounds is through consumption of fatty fish species from the Baltic Sea (the eastern coast of Sweden). Cohorts of fishermen`s wives from the Swedish east and west coasts were established. Interviewed east and west coast cohort women ate locally caught fish at least twice as often as women from the general population. The east coast cohort women displayed during the period 1968-1989 an increased breast cancer incidence and mortality in ischemic heart disease as compared with the west coast cohort. Due to lack of individual data on exposure and confounding factors, it is not possible to conclude that the differences were caused by fish intake. Infants from the east coast cohort had during the period 1973-1991 an increased risk for low birth weight, as compared with infants from the west coast cohort. A nested case-referent study within the east coast cohort indicated an increased risk of low birth weight among infants born to mothers who reported a relatively high current intake of fish from the Baltic Sea, as well as among mothers who had grown up in a fishing village. Moreover, maternal 2,2`,4,4`,5,5`-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153, which was showed to be a feasible biomarker for exposure to PCB) concentrations in plasma drawn in 1995 and the estimated concentrations during the year of childbirth showed effects on the risk for having an infant with low birth weight. Employing alternative plausible kinetic models, an increased risk for low birth weight was observed at a CB-153 concentration in plasma during year of childbirth around 300-400 ng/g lipid. 117 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Salivary Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Mothers and their Low Birth Weight Infants and Sample Collecting Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevski Milica Ranković

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salivary cortisol measurement is a non-invasive method suitable for use in neonatal research. Mother-infant separation after birth represents stress and skin-to-skin contact (SSC has numerous benefits. The aim of the study was to measure salivary cortisol in mothers and newborns before and after SSC in order to assess the effect of SSC on mothers’ and infants’ stress and to estimate the efficacy of collecting small saliva samples in newborns.

  5. Can low birth weight be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S S

    1985-01-01

    In the US low birth weight is the major factor associated with the death of infants in the 1st 4 weeks of life. Over the 1st 1/2 of the century, infant mortality declined from about 100 to about 30 deaths/1000 live births. But most of this decline has been attributed to decreases in the rate of postneonatal mortality (deaths from 28 days to the 1st birthday). Declines in low-birth-weight rates have been concentrated among babies whose mothers are at lowest risk. Low-birth-weight infants who do survive face increased risk of a range of childhood illnesses and developmental problems. The problem of low birth weight is also important for economic reasons. More than US$1.5 billion is spent annually on neonatal intensive care services in the US. Teenage mothers, blacks, and women of low socioeconomic status are at high risk of having a baby of low birth weight. Pregnancy intervals of shorter than 6 months, a variety of chronic illnesses, multiple pregnancies, smoking, and failure to obtain, or delay in initiating, prenatal care also increase the risk that a woman will have a low-birth-weight baby. The Institute of Medicine committee has outlined an approach to the prevention of low birth weight that emphasizes 5 principal points: 1) pre-pregnancy identification of high risk women with more and improved counseling, health education, and family planning services; 2) increase the availability and quality of early prenatal care; 3) strengthen and expand the content of prenatal services; 4) mount a public information campaign aimed at preventing low-birth-weight; 5) research. If these measures are implemented, it has been estimated that US$41 million can be saved each year from the US$188 million the government spends annually for the care of low-birth-weight babies. The federal government must take a leadership role if these measures are to be successful. PMID:3842660

  6. Delivery room management of very low birth weight infants in Germany, Austria and Switzerland - a comparison of protocols

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    Roehr CC

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveys from the USA, Australia and Spain have shown significant inter-institutional variation in delivery room (DR management of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI, Objective To investigate protocols for DR management of VLBWI in Germany, Austria and Switzerland and to compare these with the 2005 ILCOR guidelines. Methods DR management protocols were surveyed in a prospective, questionnaire-based survey in 2008. Results were compared between countries and between academic and non-academic units. Protocols were compared to the 2005 ILCOR guidelines. Results In total, 190/249 units (76% replied. Protocols for DR management existed in 94% of units. Statistically significant differences between countries were found regarding provision of 24 hr in house neonatal service; presence of a designated resuscitation area; devices for respiratory support; use of pressure-controlled manual ventilation devices; volume control by respirator; and dosage of Surfactant. There were no statistically significant differences regarding application and monitoring of supplementary oxygen, or targeted saturation levels, or for the use of sustained inflations. Comparison of academic and non-academic hospitals showed no significant differences, apart from the targeted saturation levels (SpO2 at 10 min. of life. Comparison with ILCOR guidelines showed good adherence to the 2005 recommendations. Summary Delivery room management in German, Austrian and Swiss neonatal units was commonly based on written protocols. Only minor differences were found regarding the DR setup, devices used and the targeted ranges for SpO2 and FiO2. DR management was in good accordance with 2005 ILCOR guidelines, some units already incorporated evidence beyond the ILCOR statement into their routine practice.

  7. Incidence and Risk Factors for Retinopathy in Premature Infants with Very Low Birth Weight, in the South-East Region, Turkey

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    Selahattin Katar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is the most common cause of childhood blindness. The risk of ROP is increased in premature infants with very low birth weights, as the most common risk factors for ROP are low birth weight and early periods of gestation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors and the incidence of ROP among premature infants weighing under 1500 g upon delivery. Materials and Methods: Between August 2010 and December 2012, 84 patients followed up in the neonatal intensive care unit who were under 32 weeks old at birth and under 1500 g at birth were included in this study. Patients were separated into two groups: those with retinopathy and those without. Then the risk factors were compared between groups. Results: Mean gestational age and birth weight of the patients in group 1 and group 2 were 27.86±2.0 weeks, 1,146.66±278.58 g and 29.08±1.96 weeks, 1,289.36±74.77 g, respectively. Retinopathy was detected in 44% of the patients and of them 7.1% were treated for severe retinopathy. We determined that early periods of gestation (p=0.007, low birth weight (p=0.007, being transported (p=0.01, intraventricular hemorrhage (p=0.04, prolonged ventilation (p=0.006, prolonged oxygen administration (p=0.01, and blood transfusion (p=0.01 were statistically significant risk factors in patients with retinopathy. Conclusions: ROP has been recognized as one of the most important causes of childhood blindness in the world. However blindness is preventable if patients are diagnosed early and treated properly. Thus, it is important to determine the risk factors for ROP.

  8. 135名低出生体重儿的贝利婴幼儿发展量表测试分析%Analysis of Bayley Scales of Infant Development Test Results of 135 Low Birth Weight Infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艺; 喻璨; 蒋丽仙

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the intelligence development status of the low birth weight infants and its influence factors. Methods The intelligence developments of 135 low birth weight infants aged 6-30 months were investigated using Bayley Scales of Infant Development, and the self-development influential factors were analyzed with questionnaire.Results The average of MDI was 86.76±18.95 in 135 infants,of which the detection rate of MDI<80 points accounted for 17.8%and the detection rate of PDI<80 points accounted for 29.6%;birth weight of infant,age,the degree of parents,culture and feeding way had significant effects on MDI in infants;age and birth weight had significant effects on PDI in infants. Conclusion The development level of infants is influenced by multi-factors. More attention should be paid to reduce premature and low birth weight infants,improve the degree of parents' culture, advocate breastfeeding and conduct early intervention in order to assure the intelligence development of infants.%目的:了解低出生体重儿智能发育状况及其影响因素,为促进与改善婴幼儿智力发育提供依据.方法对135名低出生体重儿采用贝利婴幼儿量表进行评估并分析婴幼儿智力发展的影响因素.结果135名婴幼儿平均MDI为(86.76±18.95)分,MDI<80分检出率为17.8%、PDI<80分检出率为29.6%;婴幼儿MDI的影响因素是出生体重、年龄、父母亲文化程度、喂养方式;婴幼儿PDI的影响因素是年龄和出生体重.结论减少早产儿、低出生体重儿的出生;提高父母文化程度;提倡母乳喂养;进行早期干预可促进婴幼儿智力发育.

  9. Meeting the challenge of providing neonatal nutritional care to very or extremely low birth weight infants in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguia-Peniche, Teresa; Kirsten, Gert Francois

    2014-01-01

    Most infant deaths (99%) occur in developing countries. The 14.9 million infants born prematurely (>11% of all live births) carry a particularly high mortality risk. This chapter discusses strategies to improve neonatal outcome under resource-restricted conditions, with a focus on nutritional interventions. Evidence-based interventions begin before conception with strategies to prevent and treat malnutrition among women of reproductive age, and micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy. As an example, a practically feasibly strategy of feeding very low birth weight infants in South Africa is presented. The use of parenteral nutrition can be limited by feasibility and affordability, but intravenous glucose and electrolytes should generally be provided after birth. Emphasis is put on the use of expressed own mother's milk without or with pasteurization from women without or with HIV infection, respectively, which is complemented by the use of pasteurized donor milk. If human milk fortifiers are not available, calcium and phosphate should be added, and high total daily feed volumes should be strived for, e.g. by frequent feedings. With restricted resources, human milk fortifiers or preterm formula can be used for high-risk groups such as infants with poor growth. Kangaroo mother care and breastfeeding should be actively encouraged. PMID:24751637

  10. Review of interventional procedures in the very low birth-weight infant (<1.5 kg): complications, lessons learned and current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffan, Eoghan E. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa, ON (Canada); McNamara, Patrick J.; Whyte, Hilary; L' Herault, Johanne [The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Amaral, Joao; Temple, Michael; John, Philip; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, The Image-Guided Therapy Unit, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    Interventional radiology (IR) procedures in very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants (<1.5 kg) are challenging due to size, immaturity, comorbidities and lack of devices of suitable size. Infants are moved from the neonatal intensive care unit to the IR suite, further exposing them to risk. Our purpose was to review our experience of interventional procedures in VLBW infants, specifically complications and potential risks. VLBW infants referred for image-guided therapy between 1998 and 2005 were identified and medical records reviewed. ''Complications'' were divided into: major or minor, periprocedural or postprocedural, and intervention-/device-related, patient-related or equipment-related. Transport risk index of physiological stability (TRIPS) scores were calculated. A total of 116 infants (68 male, 48 female) underwent 176 procedures (159 vascular access-related and 17 nonvascular). Of 158 complications identified, 116 were major and 42 were minor. Major complications included hypothermia (n=33), line manipulations/removals (n=25), bleeding (n=12), thrombosis (n=4), cardiac arrest (n=3), tamponade (n=2), and multiorgan failure (n=1). Of the complications, 119 were categorized as intervention-/device-related, 32 patient-related and 7 equipment-related. There were no significant differences between pre- and postprocedural TRIPS scores. Successful completion of IR procedures in the VLBW infant is possible, but complications still occur in these fragile infants. (orig.)

  11. Review of interventional procedures in the very low birth-weight infant (<1.5 kg): complications, lessons learned and current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interventional radiology (IR) procedures in very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants (<1.5 kg) are challenging due to size, immaturity, comorbidities and lack of devices of suitable size. Infants are moved from the neonatal intensive care unit to the IR suite, further exposing them to risk. Our purpose was to review our experience of interventional procedures in VLBW infants, specifically complications and potential risks. VLBW infants referred for image-guided therapy between 1998 and 2005 were identified and medical records reviewed. ''Complications'' were divided into: major or minor, periprocedural or postprocedural, and intervention-/device-related, patient-related or equipment-related. Transport risk index of physiological stability (TRIPS) scores were calculated. A total of 116 infants (68 male, 48 female) underwent 176 procedures (159 vascular access-related and 17 nonvascular). Of 158 complications identified, 116 were major and 42 were minor. Major complications included hypothermia (n=33), line manipulations/removals (n=25), bleeding (n=12), thrombosis (n=4), cardiac arrest (n=3), tamponade (n=2), and multiorgan failure (n=1). Of the complications, 119 were categorized as intervention-/device-related, 32 patient-related and 7 equipment-related. There were no significant differences between pre- and postprocedural TRIPS scores. Successful completion of IR procedures in the VLBW infant is possible, but complications still occur in these fragile infants. (orig.)

  12. Are Gestational Age, Birth Weight, and Birth Length Indicators of Favorable Fetal Growth Conditions? A Structural Equation Analysis of Filipino Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bollen, Kenneth A.; Noble, Mark D.; Adair, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    The fetal origin hypothesis emphasizes the life-long health impacts of prenatal conditions. Birth weight, birth length, and gestational age are indicators of the fetal environment. However, these variables often have missing data and are subject to random and systematic errors caused by delays in measurement, differences in measurement instruments, and human error. With data from the Cebu (Philippines) Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, we use structural equation models (SEMs), to expl...

  13. Post discharge formula fortification of maternal human milk of very low birth weight preterm infants: an introduction of a feeding protocol in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer El Sakka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW. Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430, length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027, and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217 in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls, P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources.

  14. Post Discharge Formula Fortification of Maternal Human Milk of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Introduction of a Feeding Protocol in a University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sakka, Abeer; El Shimi, Mohamed Sami; Salama, Kareem; Fayez, Hend

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF) was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430), length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027), and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217) in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls), P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources. PMID:27777705

  15. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, G.; Bellinger, D.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature

  16. Prevalence of breastfeeding in premature infants with very low birth weight in the first six months of life - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.11805

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelize Helena Sassá

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the duration of breastfeeding among premature infants born with very low birth weight. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among very low birth weight premature infants at a university hospital in Londrina Paraná State, Brazil and the identification of factors related to breastfeeding practice were determined. Current quantitative and analytic retrospective study analyzed the medical records, attendance reports and interviews of 54 mother-infant binomials. Breastfeeding was prevalent in 90% of infants, of which 50% were exclusively breastfed, at hospital discharge. However, 51% were weaned before their sixth month. The statistical analysis showed a positive association between breastfeeding and do not working mothers outside the home, cesarean delivery, positive previous experience in breastfeeding and gestational age at birth over 33 weeks. MF prevalence in the specific population NBVLW infants reinforce the notion that breastfeeding preterm infants, albeit challenging, may be carried out with the appropriate support of the mother-child binomial.

  17. Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus with Cyclo-oxygenase Inhibitors beyond 2 Weeks of Age in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainwala, Shabnam; Hussain, Naveed

    2016-05-01

    Background Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COX-I) treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during the early postnatal period is well established, but their use beyond early postnatal period is not well studied. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of postnatal COX-I for PDA treatment beyond 2 weeks of age in VLBW infants. Study Design A retrospective cohort of VLBW infants admitted to two tertiary NICUs between 1990 and 2008 were studied. Infants with symptomatic PDA were treated with COX-I and infants with failed medical treatment were candidates for surgical ligation. Effectiveness of COX-I treatment, measured by the need for surgical ligation, was compared between early (day of life [DOL] value: not significant). There were no significant differences in demographics or morbidities between the two groups. Conclusions In VLBW infants, late treatment of PDA with COX-I was as effective as early treatment. Trial of late COX-I treatment is warranted for symptomatic PDA before surgical treatment. PMID:26731181

  18. Development of left ventricular longitudinal speckle tracking echocardiography in very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia during the neonatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Czernik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In preterm infants, postnatal myocardial adaptation may be complicated by bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. We aimed to describe the development of left ventricular function by serial 2D, Doppler, and speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE in infants with and without BPD during the neonatal period and compare these to anthropometric and conventional hemodynamic parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective echocardiography on day of life (DOL 1, 7, 14, and 28 in 119 preterm infants 10% were seen for the apical segment. While anthropometric parameters show rapid development during the first 4 weeks of life, the speckle tracking parameters did not differ statistically significantly during the neonatal period. Infants with and without BPD differed significantly (p<0.001 in the development of anthropometric parameters, conventional hemodynamic parameters except for heart rate, and 2D-STE parameters: global longitudinal systolic strain rate (GLSSR and longitudinal systolic strain for the mid left wall (LSSR. The largest differences were seen at DOL 1 and 7 in GLSSR (p<0.001 and in LSSR (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Reproducible 2D-STE measurements are possible in preterm infants <1500 g. Cardiac deformation reveals early (DOL 1 and 7 ventricular changes (GLSSR and LSSR in very low birth weight infants who develop BPD.

  19. Como minimizar a lesão pulmonar no prematuro extremo: propostas Strategies to minimize lung injury in extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Suguihara

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão das principais causas da nova displasia broncopulmonar e as estratégias utilizadas para diminuir sua incidência nos prematuros extremos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Para essa revisão, pesquisas foram feitas na MEDLINE (1996 a outubro de 2004, no Cochrane Database, em resumos da Society for Pediatric Research e recentes conferências sobre o tema. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A tecnologia e os novos conhecimentos científicos têm aumentado significantemente a sobrevida de prematuros extremos. Esse aumento da sobrevida resultou em aumento da incidência de displasia broncopulmonar. Atualmente, a displasia broncopulmonar é mais freqüentemente observada em recém-nascidos OBJECTIVE: To review the main causes of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the strategies utilized to decrease its incidence in extremely low birth weight infants. DATA SOURCES: For this review a MEDLINE search from 1966 to October 2004, the Cochrane Database, abstracts from the Society for Pediatric Research and recent meetings on the topic were used. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The survival of extremely low birth weight infants has increased significantly due to improvement in both scientific knowledge and technology. This improvement in survival has therefore resulted in an increased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants, the so called "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia are quite different from the classic bronchopulmonary dysplasia described by Northway. This new bronchopulmonary dysplasia has a multifactorial etiology, which includes volutrauma, atelectrauma, oxygen toxicity and lung inflammation. Therapy such as prenatal corticosteroids, exogenous surfactant, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, new mechanical ventilation modalities and gentle ventilation have been used in attempts to decrease lung injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent lung injury in

  20. Glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants. Design of a double-blind randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN73254583

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twisk Jos WR

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteral feeding of very low birth weight (VLBW infants is a challenge, since metabolic demands are high and administration of enteral nutrition is limited by immaturity of the gastrointestinal tract. The amino acid glutamine plays an important role in maintaining functional integrity of the gut. In addition, glutamine is utilised at a high rate by cells of the immune system. In critically ill patients, glutamine is considered a conditionally essential amino acid. VLBW infants may be especially susceptible to glutamine depletion as nutritional supply of glutamine is limited in the first weeks after birth. Glutamine depletion has negative effects on functional integrity of the gut and leads to immunosuppression. This double-blind randomised controlled trial is designed to investigate the effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on feeding tolerance, infectious morbidity and short-term outcome in VLBW infants. Furthermore, an attempt is made to elucidate the role of glutamine in postnatal adaptation of the gut and modulation of the immune response. Methods VLBW infants (gestational age

  1. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  2. A mortalidade do prematuro extremo em nosso meio: realidade e desafios Mortality of very low birth weight preterm infants in Brazil: reality and challenges

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    Manoel de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho apresenta uma revisão da literatura sobre os indicadores epidemiológicos e a estrutura organizacional da assistência perinatal no sistema de saúde brasileiro, enfatizando os aspectos ligados aos neonatos com peso ao nascer OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to review and discuss the medical literature on epidemiological indicators and organizational structure of the Brazilian perinatal health system concerning the care of very low birth weight premature infants (< 1,500 g. DATA SOURCES: Electronic search of the MEDLINE, Lilacs and SciELO databases from 1990 to 2004, with a selection made of the most relevant articles. Documents and reports from the Ministry of Health (Mortality Information System - SIM and Live Births Information System - SINASC. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The decrease in infant mortality rates and the high incidence of maternal deaths, observed since 1990, prompted de Brazilian government to focus its strategies on the organization and delivery of care to pregnant women and their newborn infants. However, a critical analysis of the actions aimed at the care of premature infants reveals that the coverage and utilization of these services are not uniform and that the records on birth and death rates are not reliable. The availability of neonatal beds is very limited and does not meet the demand, especially for those requiring high levels of complexity. Important challenges must be overcome to adequately deal with the incorporation of inappropriate technology, the limited number of qualified health professionals and utilization of evidence-based best practices to improve perinatal care. CONCLUSIONS: A reduction in the rates of morbidity and mortality of premature infants requires more effective planning and intervention in the prenatal care system. To meet the demand, increases in the number of neonatal intensive care beds should be implemented through specialized perinatal centers rather than

  3. The effect of dexamethasone on respirator-dependent very-low-birth-weight infants is best predicted by chest X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants shows a variable clinical course with different radiological manifestations. Objective. To evaluate the correlation between parameters of transmembrane permeability [albumin/secretory component (SC)] and oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA)/SC] in tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) and radiological findings with the effect of a 5-day course of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg per day). Materials and methods. Fifty ventilator-dependent premature infants with birth weights 2 x mean airway pressure > 40 % at day 5, compared to pretreatment values. About 80 % of the responders showed homogeneous lung opacification on chest X-ray, reflecting leaky lung syndrome. In contrast, seven of eight infants with predominantly emphysema on radiology were non-responders; 80 % of infants with a mixed radiological picture characterized by predominance of consolidations alternating with regions of emphysema were also non-responders. Ratios of albumin/SC and MDA/SC in TAF decreased significantly within 3 days after the onset of dexamethasone. However, MDA/SC was persistently higher in non-responders compared to responders. Opaque lungs were largely improved by dexamethasone, in contrast to streaky or patchy consolidations and emphysema. In a logistic regression model, radiographic classification was the most important factor influencing the response to dexamethasone with a positive predictive value of 86 %, followed by albumin/SC ratio. Conclusions. The optimum timing of dexamethasone treatment may be determined by the stage of developing CLD and radiological findings rather than by the age of the premature infant. (orig.)

  4. Role of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants: Systematic review and implications for clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on mortality and morbidity of preterm infants weighing less than 1000 g at birth. The study conducted a systematic search of available database from 1996-2008. Retrieved articles were assessed for eligibility and data was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Decisions to include studies for review and the methodological quality of included studies were asssessed in duplicate based on predetermined criteria. No language restrictions were applied. Only one eligible study that enrolled 84 extremely low birth weight infants was identified. Prophylactic surgical ligation of PDA resulted in a statistically significant reduction of severe stage II or III necrotizing enterocolitis, [RR 0.25, 95% CI (0.08, 0.83), P value 0.02, number needed to treat 5]. The study, however, found no statistically significant difference in mortality, intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity. Current evidence does not support the use of prophylactic surgical ligation of PDA in the management of the preterm infants

  5. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion polymorphism is not associated with an increased risk of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight infants

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    Baier R John

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ACE gene contains a polymorphism consisting of either the presence (insertion, I or absence (deletion, D of a 287 bp alu repeat in intron 16. The D allele is associated with increased ACE activity in both tissue and plasma. The DD genotype is associated with risk of developing ARDS and mortality. The frequency of the D allele is higher in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis and berylliosis. The role of this polymorphism has not been studied in the development of BPD in the premature newborn. Methods ACE I/D genotype was determined in 245 (194 African-American, 47 Caucasian and 4 Hispanic mechanically ventilated infants weighing less than 1250 grams at birth and compared to outcome (death and/or development of BPD. Results The incidence of the D allele in the study population was 0.58. Eighty-eight (35.9% infants were homozygous DD, 107 (43.7% were heterozygous ID and 50 (20.4% were homozygous II. There were no significant differences between genotype groups with respect to ethnic origin, birth weight, gestation, or gender. There was no effect of the ACE I/D polymorphism on mortality or development of BPD (O2 on 28 days or 36 weeks PCA. Secondary outcomes (intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia similarly were not influenced by the ACE ID polymorphism. Conclusions The ACE I/D polymorphism does not significantly influence the development of BPD in ventilated infants less than 1250 grams.

  6. Role of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants: Systematic review and implications for clinical practice

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    Mosalli Rafat

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives :To investigate the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA on mortality and morbidity of preterm infants weighing less than 1000 g at birth. Materials :The study conducted a systematic search of available database from 1996-2008. Retrieved articles were assessed for eligibility and data was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Decisions to include studies for review and the methodological quality of included studies were asssessed in duplicate based on predetermined criteria. No language restrictions were applied. Results :Only one eligible study that enrolled 84 extremely low birth weight infants was identified. Prophylactic surgical ligation of PDA resulted in a statistically significant reduction of severe stage II or III necrotizing enterocolitis, [RR 0.25, 95% CI (0.08, 0.83, P value 0.02, number needed to treat 5]. The study, however, found no statistically significant difference in mortality, intraventricular hemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions :Current evidence does not support the use of prophylactic surgical ligation of PDA in the management of the preterm infants.

  7. Relationship between blood pressure, cerebral electrical activity, cerebral fractional oxygen extraction, and peripheral blood flow in very low birth weight newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Suresh; Marson, Anthony G; Appleton, Richard E; Beirne, Margaret; Weindling, A Michael

    2006-02-01

    There is uncertainty about the level of systemic blood pressure required to maintain adequate cerebral oxygen delivery and organ integrity. This prospective, observational study on 35 very low birth weight infants aimed to determine the mean blood pressure (MBP) below which cerebral electrical activity, peripheral blood flow (PBF), and cerebral fractional oxygen extraction (CFOE) are abnormal. Digital EEG, recorded every day on the first 4 d after birth, were analyzed a) by automatic spectral analysis, b) by manual measurement of interburst interval, and c) qualitatively. CFOE and PBF measurements were performed using near-infrared spectroscopy and venous occlusion. MBP was measured using arterial catheters. The median (range) of MBP recorded was 32 mm Hg (16-46). The EEG became abnormal at MBP levels below 23 mm Hg: a) the relative power of the delta (0.5-3.5 Hz) frequency band was decreased, b) interburst intervals were prolonged, and c) all four qualitatively abnormal EEG (low amplitude and prolonged interburst intervals) from four different patients were recorded below this MBP level. The only abnormally high CFOE was measured at MBP of 20 mm Hg. PBF decreased at MBP levels between 23 and 33 mm Hg. None of the infants in this study developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia. One infant (MBP, 22 mm Hg) developed ventricular dilatation after intraventricular hemorrhage. The EEG and CFOE remained normal at MBP levels above 23 mm Hg. It would appear that cerebral perfusion is probably maintained at MBP levels above 23 mm Hg. PMID:16439599

  8. A randomised controlled trial of early insulin therapy in very low birth weight infants, "NIRTURE" (neonatal insulin replacement therapy in Europe

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    Cornette Luc

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in adult intensive care have highlighted the importance of insulin and improved glucose control on survival, with 32% reduction in mortality, 22% reduction in intensive care stay and halving of the incidence of bacteraemia. Very low birth weight infants requiring intensive care also have relative insulin deficiency often leading to hyperglycaemia during the first week of life. The physiological influences on insulin secretion and sensitivity, and the potential importance of glucose control at this time are not well established. However there is increasing evidence that the early postnatal period is critical for pancreatic development. At this time a complex set of signals appears to influence pancreatic development and β cell survival. This has implications both in terms of acute glucose control but also relative insulin deficiency is likely to play a role in poor postnatal growth, which has been associated with later motor and cognitive impairment, and fewer β cells are linked to risk of type 2 diabetes later in life. Methods A multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of early insulin replacement in very low birth weight babies (VLBW, birth weight Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN78428828. EUDRACT Number 2004-002170-34

  9. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:27154523

  10. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

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    Dino Gibertoni

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  11. Frequent Use of Fresh Frozen Plasma Is a Risk Factor for Venous Thrombosis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Matched Case-control Study

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    Maruyama,Hidehiko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneously inserted central catheters (PICCs are often used in neonatal medicine. Venous thrombosis (VT is one of the complications associated with PICC use. According to some reports, fresh frozen plasma (FFP may be a risk factor for VT. The purpose of this study was to determine whether FFP use is associated with VT in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs. We performed a matched case-control study on risk factors for VT in ELBWIs born over a period of 5 years in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. Controls were infants from the unit matched for gestational age and birth weight. We performed univariate analyses and created receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves for the cut-off values of continuous parameters such as FFP. We also conducted multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis and calculated adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Thirteen VT cases and 34 matched controls were examined. Using an ROC curve, FFP by day 5>50mL/kg was selected as the cut-off value. In multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, FFP by day 5>50mL/kg exhibited an adjusted odds ratio of 5.88 (95% confidence interval:1.12-41.81, p=0.036. FFP by day 5>50mL/kg may be a risk factor for VT in ELBWIs.

  12. Advances in medical care for extremely low birth weight infants worldwide%超低出生体重儿救治的国内外近况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春

    2013-01-01

    Dramatic advances in neonatal medicine over recent decades have resulted in decreased mortality and morbidity rates for extremely low birth weight infants.However,the survival of these infants is associated with short-and long-term morbidity,including severe intraventricular hemorrhage,periventricular leukomalacia,nosocomial infection and necrotizing enterocolitis,bronchopulmonary dysplasia,retinopathy of prematurity and adverse long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae.This article reviewed the latest advances in the medical care for extremely low birth weight infants including survival rate,ethical issues and short-and long-term morbidity,domestically and abroad.%近几十年来新生儿医学的快速发展使得超低出生体重儿(ELBWI)病死率和并发症发生率明显下降.然而存活ELBWI发生近远期并发症风险显著增加,包括严重脑室内出血、脑室旁白质软化、院内感染和坏死性小肠结肠炎、支气管肺发育不良、早产儿视网膜病变以及远期神经发育后遗症等.目前国内ELBWI救治水平不断提高,但与国外差距仍较大.本文将近年国内外ELBWI救治存活率、伦理学问题、近远期并发症情况等作一综述.

  13. Early aggressive nutrition: parenteral amino acids and minimal enteral nutrition for extremely low birth weight (<1 000 g) infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkin, D H

    2007-08-01

    Postnatal growth failure in the extremely low birthweight infant is a morbidity that needs vigorous attention. The transition from intrauterine to the extrauterine environment should occur with minimal disruption in nutritional support. Early aggressive parenteral and enteral nutrition strategies may lead to reducing cumulative deficits of energy and protein that occur during the first weeks of life. These strategies decrease the degree of postnatal weight loss, reduce the age that birthweight is regained and the age that full enteral nutrition is achieved. Overall growth outcomes are also improved through discharge and beyond. This article provides clinical practicum to guide the use of early parenteral nutrition and both miminal enteral nutrition and advancing enteral nutrition. PMID:17947842

  14. The effect of dexamethasone on respirator-dependent very-low-birth-weight infants is best predicted by chest X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrod, L.; Neuhaus, T. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Horwitz, A.E. [Dept. of Radiology/Paediatric Radiology, Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany); Speer, C.P. [Dept. of Neonatology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Background. Chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants shows a variable clinical course with different radiological manifestations. Objective. To evaluate the correlation between parameters of transmembrane permeability [albumin/secretory component (SC)] and oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA)/SC] in tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) and radiological findings with the effect of a 5-day course of dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg per day). Materials and methods. Fifty ventilator-dependent premature infants with birth weights < 1,500 g (gestational ages 23-31 weeks) and radiological signs of early chronic lung disease (CLD) were treated with dexamethasone at day of life 5-27 (median 10 days) because of respiratory deterioration. TAF was collected serially. Chest X-rays taken before and 8-10 days after dexamethasone were scored for changes of opacification, consolidation and hyperinflation/emphysema, and classified into three groups. Results. Twenty-four infants had a positive response to dexamethasone, defined as a reduction of the ventilation index FiO{sub 2} x mean airway pressure > 40 % at day 5, compared to pretreatment values. About 80 % of the responders showed homogeneous lung opacification on chest X-ray, reflecting leaky lung syndrome. In contrast, seven of eight infants with predominantly emphysema on radiology were non-responders; 80 % of infants with a mixed radiological picture characterized by predominance of consolidations alternating with regions of emphysema were also non-responders. Ratios of albumin/SC and MDA/SC in TAF decreased significantly within 3 days after the onset of dexamethasone. However, MDA/SC was persistently higher in non-responders compared to responders. Opaque lungs were largely improved by dexamethasone, in contrast to streaky or patchy consolidations and emphysema. In a logistic regression model, radiographic classification was the most important factor influencing the response to dexamethasone with a positive predictive value of 86

  15. Use of a computerized C-reactive protein (CRP based sepsis evaluation in very low birth weight (VLBW infants: a five-year experience.

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    Sarah A Coggins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serial C-reactive protein (CRP values may be useful for decision-making regarding duration of antibiotics in neonates. However, established standard of practice for its use in preterm very low birth weight (<1500 g, VLBW infants are lacking. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate compliance with a CRP-guided computerized decision support (CDS algorithm and compare characteristics and outcomes of compliant versus non-compliant cases. Measure correlation between CRPs and white blood count (WBC indices. METHODS: We examined 3 populations: 1 all preterm VLBW infants born at Vanderbilt 2006-2011 - we assessed provider compliance with CDS algorithm and measured relevant outcomes; 2 all patients with positive blood culture results admitted to the Vanderbilt NICU 2006-2012 - we tested the correlation between CRP and WBC results within 7 days of blood culture phlebotomy; 3 1,000 randomly selected patients out of the 7,062 patients admitted to the NICU 2006-2012 - we correlated time-associated CRP values and absolute neutrophil counts. RESULTS: Of 636 VLBW infants in cohort 1, 569 (89% received empiric antibiotics for suspected early-onset sepsis. In 409 infants (72% the CDS algorithm was followed; antibiotics were discontinued ≤48 hours in 311 (55% with normal serial CRPs and continued in 98 (17% with positive CRPs, resulting in significant reduction in antibiotic exposure (p<0.001 without increase in complications or subsequent infections. One hundred sixty (28% were considered non-compliant because antibiotics were continued beyond 48 hours despite negative serial CRPs and blood cultures. Serial CRPs remained negative in 38 (12% of 308 blood culture-positive infants from cohort 2, but only 4 patients had clinically probable sepsis with single organisms and no immunodeficiency besides extreme prematurity. Leukopenia of any cell type was not linked with CRPs in cohorts 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: CDS/CRP-guided antibiotic use is safe and effective in culture

  16. Birth weight, growth and feeding pattern in early infancy predict overweight/obesity status at two years of age: a birth cohort study of Chinese infants.

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    Jianduan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years. METHODS: A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3(rd and 24(th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity, model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight. RESULTS: Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95(th >BMI ≥85(th p and BMI ≥95(th p, referring to WHO BMI standards at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80-1.88, relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15-1.16 and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30-1.57 were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09-1.12, paternal BMI (OR: 1.06, and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54-1.57 or formula feeding (OR: 1.90-1.93 in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1. CONCLUSION: Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.

  17. The impact of the method Kangaroo Mother Care in the learning process of low-birth-weight preterm infants: A literature review

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    Mariana de Paiva Franco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Technology advances and scientific studies in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU have contributed significantly to reduce mortality and morbidity of at-risk newborns (NB. However, they are more likely to present neurological and/or developmental psychomotor delay with neurological and sensory alterations. Therefore, proposals for neonatal intervention were developed with the aim of protecting the baby and offering appropriate incentives to minimize the effects of hospital intervention. To this end, programs of protective measures such as the Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC were developed. Given the relevance of the issue described, this systematic review critically appraises articles from the national and international literature, published in recent years (from 2000 to 2011, that describe whether the KMC can be a protective factor for the development of writing in premature infants. The textual search was conducted using the Virtual Health Library (VHL, a website that covers publications worldwide, allowing access to articles from health science, including LILACS, IBECS, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and SciELO, as database. The findings revealed that infants who participated in the KMC program showed improvements in their development and that factors such as low-birth-weight prematurity and learning disorders have close relationship with the onset of motor impairments and changes in psychomotor development. The findings showed no articles describing the KMC as a protective factor for the incidence of dysgraphia. Thus, we emphasize the importance of conducting further studies on these topics.

  18. Nursing programs of extremely low birth weight infants%超低出生体重儿的护理方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小云; 朱小瑜

    2010-01-01

    超低出生体重儿由于各系统发育极不成熟,临床上病死率很高.提高超低出生体重儿的存活率离不开科学的护理,本文从体温管理、建立静脉、动脉通路、液体疗法护理、呼吸道管理、喂养护理、感染的预防、环境管理、健康教育等方面阐述关于超低出生体重儿的护理方案.%ELBWI(extreme low birth weight infant,birth weight<1 000 g)is characterized with high fatality due to very immature development of all systems.Meticulous,rigorous,scientific,loving nursing is very important for improved survival rate of ELBWI.The article presented the ELBWI's care programs including body temperature management,vein and artery access establishment,fluid therapy care,respiration management,feeding care,infection prevention,environmental management,health education and etc.

  19. Effects of therapeutic approach on the neonatal evolution of very low birth weight infants with patent ductus arteriosus

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    Lilian S.R. Sadeck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of treatment approach on the outcomes of newborns (birth weight [BW] < 1,000 g with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, from the Brazilian Neonatal Research Network (BNRN on: death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH III/IV, retinopathy of prematurity requiring surgical (ROPsur, necrotizing enterocolitis requiring surgery (NECsur, and death/BPD. METHODS: This was a multicentric cohort study, retrospective data collection, including newborns (BW < 1000 g with gestational age (GA < 33 weeks and echocardiographic diagnosis of PDA, from 16 neonatal units of the BNRN from January 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2011. Newborns who died or were transferred until the third day of life, and those with presence of congenital malformation or infection were excluded. Groups: G1 - conservative approach (without treatment, G2 - pharmacologic (indomethacin or ibuprofen, G3 - surgical ligation (independent of previous treatment. Factors analyzed: antenatal corticosteroid, cesarean section, BW, GA, 5 min. Apgar score < 4, male gender, Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology Perinatal Extension (SNAPPE II, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, late sepsis (LS, mechanical ventilation (MV, surfactant (< 2 h of life, and time of MV. Outcomes: death, O2 dependence at 36 weeks (BPD36wks, IVH III/IV, ROPsur, NECsur, and death/BPD36wks. Statistics: Student's t-test, chi-squared test, or Fisher's exact test; Odds ratio (95% CI; logistic binary regression and backward stepwise multiple regression. Software: MedCalc (Medical Calculator software, version 12.1.4.0. p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: 1,097 newborns were selected and 494 newborns were included: G1 - 187 (37.8%, G2 - 205 (41.5%, and G3 - 102 (20.6%. The highest mortality was observed in G1 (51.3% and the lowest in G3 (14.7%. The highest frequencies of BPD36wks (70.6% and ROPsur were observed in G3 (23.5%. The lowest occurrence of

  20. Epidemic microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis in very-low-birth weight infants: experience of the German Neonatal Network.

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    Christoph Härtel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We evaluated blood culture-proven sepsis episodes occurring in microclusters in very-low-birth-weight infants born in the German Neonatal Network (GNN during 2009-2010. METHODS: Thirty-seven centers participated in GNN; 23 centers enrolled ≥50 VLBW infants in the study period. Data quality was approved by on-site monitoring. Microclusters of sepsis were defined as occurrence of at least two blood-culture proven sepsis events in different patients of one center within 3 months with the same bacterial species. For microcluster analysis, we selected sepsis episodes with typically cross-transmitted bacteria of high clinical significance including gram-negative rods and Enterococcus spp. RESULTS: In our cohort, 12/2110 (0.6% infants were documented with an early-onset sepsis and 235 late-onset sepsis episodes (≥72 h of age occurred in 203/2110 (9.6% VLBW infants. In 182/235 (77.4% late-onset sepsis episodes gram-positive bacteria were documented, while coagulase negative staphylococci were found to be the most predominant pathogens (48.5%, 95%CI: 42.01-55.01. Candida spp. and gram-negative bacilli caused 10/235 (4.3%, 95%CI: 1.68% -6.83% and 43/235 (18.5% late-onset sepsis episodes, respectively. Eleven microclusters of blood-culture proven sepsis were detected in 7 hospitals involving a total 26 infants. 16/26 cluster patients suffered from Klebsiella spp. sepsis. The median time interval between the first patient's Klebsiella spp. sepsis and cluster cases was 14.1 days (interquartile range: 1-27 days. First patients in the cluster, their linked cases and sporadic sepsis events did not show significant differences in short term outcome parameters. DISCUSSION: Microclusters of infection are an important phenomenon for late-onset sepsis. Most gram-negative cluster infections occur within 30 days after the first patient was diagnosed and Klebsiella spp. play a major role. It is essential to monitor epidemic microclusters of sepsis in

  1. 活产婴儿低出生体重相关因素分析%Analysis on the related factors of low birth weight among live-born infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玥娇; 邓长飞; 代礼; 周光萱; 李月花; 朱军

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the related factors of Iow birth weight among live - born infants, provide a theoretical basis for making the direction of children's health care and intervention measures.Methods: Birth defect monitoring method on the basis of population was used in the study, the live -born infants in Tianjin city, Jian'ou city and Gongyi city were selected as study objects, SPSS 13.0 software was used, single factor x2 analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to screen the related effect factors of low birth weight infants.Results: The average birth weight of 86 982 live - born infants was 3 325.67 g, the incidence of low birth weight among live - born infants was 2.8%, single factor analysis showed that gender, gestational weeks, nunber of births, maternal age, educational levels of mothers and place of residence were related to low birth weight of live - born infants; binary logistic regression analysis showed that gender, gestational weeks, number of births, educational levels of mothers and place of residence were related to low birth weight of live - born infants.Conclusion: The incidence of low birth weight in the study areas is relatively low, premature delivery is the main effect factor of low birth weight; more attention should be paid to the rural pregnant women with polyembryony, avoiding premature delivery is an important measure to reduce the incidence of low birth weight among live - born infants; strengthening publicity and education may be helpful to improve the maternal knowledge of pregnant women.%目的:探讨活产儿低出生体重相关因素,为制定儿童保健研究方向和干预措施提供理论依据.方法:采用以人群为基础的出生缺陷监测方法,以天津市、建瓯市和巩义市活产儿为研究对象,运用SPSS 13.0软件,采用单因X2分析和二分类Logistic回归分析方法,筛选低出生体重儿相关影响因素.结果:86 982例活产儿平均出生体重为3 325.67 g,活产儿

  2. Desenvolvimento de prematuros com baixo peso ao nascer nos primeiros dois anos de vida Development of low birth weight preterm infants during the first two years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alves da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar e descrever o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de prematuros com baixo peso ao nascer nos dois primeiros anos de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com prematuros entre quatro e 24 meses, no Ambulatório de Alto Risco Neonatal do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, avaliados em três momentos: 8, 11 e 14 meses de idade cronológica. A amostra, composta inicialmente por 69 indivíduos, teve caráter intencional, segundo os critérios de inclusão e exclusão estabelecidos. A Escala de Brunet e Lèzine foi usada para avaliar o desenvolvimento nas seguintes áreas: coordenação óculo-motriz, linguagem, postura e sociabilidade. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial. RESULTADOS: A idade gestacional média foi de 31 semanas e o peso ao nascer foi de 1236g. O quociente de desenvolvimento global apresentou melhora da primeira para a última avaliação, alcançando 85% de escores dentro da normalidade na terceira avaliação. As áreas específicas da coordenação óculo-motriz e da linguagem tiveram os piores resultados iniciais, contrapondo-se à postural, que apresentou os melhores escores. Foi encontrada correlação entre o peso ao nascer e as áreas da postura, linguagem e sociabilidade na primeira avaliação e sociabilidade e coordenação óculo-motriz na terceira avaliação. CONCLUSÕES: O desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor desta população apresentou déficits mais evidentes nos primeiros meses de vida. Embora o seguimento não tenha mostrado diferenças estatísticas entre a primeira e a última avaliação, houve melhora em todas as áreas do desenvolvimento.OBJECTIVE: To analyze and describe the neuropsychomotor development of low birth weight preterm infants in the first two years of life. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled preterm infants between 4 and 24 months old at the follow up clinic of Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

  3. Population based trends in mortality, morbidity and treatment for very preterm- and very low birth weight infants over 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüegger Christoph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, improvements in medical care have been associated with a significant increase and better outcome of very preterm (VP, Methods Our population-based observational cohort study used the Minimal Neonatal Data Set, a database maintained by the Swiss Society of Neonatology including information of all VP- and VLBW infants. Perinatal characteristics, mortality and morbidity rates and the survival free of major complications were analysed and their temporal trends evaluated. Results In 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008, a total number of 3090 infants were enrolled in the Network Database. At the same time the rate of VP- and VLBW neonates increased significantly from 0.87% in 1996 to 1.10% in 2008 (p Conclusions Over the 12-year observation period, the number of VP- and VLBW infants increased significantly. An unchanged overall mortality rate and an increase of survivors free of major complication resulted in a considerable net gain in infants with potentially good outcome.

  4. 低出生体质量儿呼吸暂停护理干预效果观察%The effect observation of nursing intervention in low birth weight infants with apnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丽波; 袁明泽; 陈丽君

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察新生儿监护病房( NICU)中低出生体质量儿呼吸暂停的临床护理效果。方法回顾性分析低出生体质量儿呼吸暂停180例临床护理干预及治疗效果。结果呼吸暂停多发生于胎龄28~34周,出生体质量1500~1800g的早产儿;胎龄<28周,出生体质量<1500g的早产儿呼吸暂停的发生率可高达89.92%;胎龄>34周,出生体质量在1800~2500g的低出生体质量儿呼吸暂停发生率明显降低,对于有呼吸暂停的低出生体质量儿均应予心率,呼吸及血氧饱和度的监测。结论对于低出生体质量儿尤其是胎龄<28周及出生体质量<1500g的患儿发生呼吸暂停应给予密切监测、认真评估及早期及时干预。%Objective To observe the effect of nursing care for low birth weight infants with apnea in NICU. Methods Retrospectively analysed the treatment and nursing effects for 180 low birth weight infants with apnea. Results The apnea occurred in the gestational age in 28~34 weeks,which were born in 1500~1800g. The premature whose gestational age less than 28 weeks and birth weight less than 1500g,apnea occurrence rate is 89. 92%. For the infants with gestational age more than 34 weeks and birth weight in 1800~2500g,the incidence of apnea was significantly decreased. For the low birth weight infants with apnea should be given the monitoring for heart rate,respiration and blood oxygen saturation. Conclusion For low birth weight infants with apnea,especially for the infants whose gestational age less than 28weeks and birth weight of less than 1500g,should be given close monitoring,careful evaluation and timely intervention.

  5. Analysis of Weight Development of Low Birth Weight Infants and Its Influence Factors%低出生体质量儿体质量发育及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡素君; 李智瑞; 苏元元; 徐发林; 程秀永; 王玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨低出生体质量儿(LBWI)出生12个月时体质量发育情况及影响因素.方法 以2010年2月-2011年2月在本院出生后转入NICU的41例LBWI作为观察组,选择同期在本院产科出生的健康足月新生儿(NBWI)50例作为健康对照组.2组新生儿均于12个月时进行体质量发育评估,比较体质量发育情况;分析影响体质量发育的相关因素,调查内容包括姓名、性别、胎龄、日龄、出生体质量、娩出方式、家庭经济收入、父母文化程度、喂养方式、早期大小便训练等项目.结果 LBWI组在12个月时体质量显著低于NBWI组,差异有统计学意义(t=4.268,P<0.01).回归分析显示,与体质量发育呈正相关的因素有孕周、出生体质量、娩出方式、喂养方式、母亲文化程度、早期大小便训练(Pa<0.05),其中孕周影响最大(OR=0.465).结论 LBWI 12个月时体质量发育仍落后于NBWI,体质量发育受多种因素的影响,其中孕周影响最大.%Objective To investigate the weight development and the influence factors for low birth weight infant(LBW1) in 12 months after birth. Methods Forty - one LBW1 delivered from Feb. 2010 to Feb. 2011 were enrolled in NICU ,the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, were selected as observation group. Fifty full term normal birth weight infant (NBWI) ,bom in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University in the same period,were selected as healthy control group. Infants in the 2 groups all received weight development assessment in 12 months. The weight development between 2 groups was compared and the influence factors in weight gain were analyzed. The survey included name, sex, gestational age, day age, birth weight, style of childbirth, income of family, cultural background of the parents, way of feeding,early urine training,et al. Results There was statistically significant difference between LBWI group and NBWI group in weight development in 12 months

  6. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ness RB, Barron SJ, Roberts JM. Inflammation and dyslipidemia related to risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Am ... validity of maternal recall of pregnancy-related events. Epidemiology 1999;10(6):774–7. CrossRef PubMed American ...

  7. Meconium obstruction in absence of cystic fibrosis in low birth weight infants: an emerging challenge from increasing survival

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso Valentina; Briganti Vito; Oriolo Lucia; Coletta Riccardo; Calisti Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Meconium abnormalities are characterized by a wide spectrum of severity, from the meconium plug syndrome to the complicated meconium ileus associated with cystic fibrosis. Meconium Related Ileus in absence of Cystic Fibrosis includes a combination of highly viscid meconium and poor intestinal motility, low grade obstruction, benign systemic and abdominal examination, distended loops without air fluid levels. Associated risk factors are severe prematurity and low birth weig...

  8. 极低出生体重儿23例早期护理干预效果研究%Study on the effect of early nursing intervention on 23 very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨早期护理干预对极低出生体重儿存活率及并发症的影响.方法:将46例极低出生体重儿随机分为观察组和对照组各23例.观察组给予早期护理干预(微量喂养、抚触、体位管理等),对照组给予常规护理.观察两组极低出生体重儿护理后体重增长情况、不良反应发生率.结果:与对照组比较,观察组极低出生体重儿体重增长速度快(P<0.01),呕吐、哭闹、胃潴留、腹胀发生率明显降低(P<0.01).结论:早期护理干预能够提高极低出生体重儿的存活率,减少并发症,值得临床推广.%Objective: To investigate the effect of early nursing intervention on the survival rate and complications of very low birth weight infants.Methods: 46 very low birth weight infants were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group ( 23 cases for each group ).The early nursing intervention ( micro - amount feeding, massage, position management,etc.) was given to the infants in the observation group and the infants in the control group received routine nursing care.The weight gain and incidence of adverse reactions of very low birth weight infants were observed after nursing care in both groups.Results: The weight gain of very low birth weight infants was faster in the observation group than the control group (P <0.01 );the incidence of vomiting, crying, gastric retention, abdominal distension was significantly lower in the observation group than the control group ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusion: The early nursing intervention can improve the survival rate of very low birth weight infants and reduce the incidence of complications.

  9. Determinants of Low Birth Weight a Cross Sectional Study: In Case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ghouse, Ghulam; Zaid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of different independent factors on birth weight of infant. The Demographic and Health Survey of Pakistan (PDHS) 2014 data are used for empirical analysis. Binomial Logit Regression is employed for analysis. The analysis revealed the significant relationship of birth weight with mother’s education; Mother’s working status, wealth index of family, gender of child, Place of residence, age of mother at first birth with birth weight of infant. The analysis also ...

  10. 肠内外营养对极低、超低出生体重儿营养摄入和生长发育的影响%Influences of parenteral and enteral nutrition on nutritional intake and body mass growth of very low birth weight infants and extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌雅; 钱燕; 姜赛芝; 余震

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence of different parenteral and enteral nutirion on nutritional intake, and the relationship between different nutrition approaches and body mass growth of very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs). Methods Data of 84 VLBWIs and ELBWIs were collected. VLBWIs and ELBWIs receiving parenteral nutirion (PN) for less than 10 days (PN 0.05) between the two groups in the first week following the birth; However, it has the statistical significance as amounts of intaking of calorie, fluid, proteins, and lipids of Group 1 are significantly larger than that in Group 2 in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th week (P < 0.05), and Group 1 reaching the benchmark of 120 Kcal/(kg·d) was earlier than Group 2. Positive effects of early establishment of enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition on infants include small decrease in birth weight, fast-growing of average weight, earlier return to birth weight, earlier reach hospital discharge standards (2 000 g) Conclusions Early gastrointestinal feeding and short-time parenteral nutrition measure can be able to provide enough energy and nutrients to satisfy the needs for VLBWI's and ELBWI's body mass growth.%目的:探讨不同肠内外营养治疗手段对极低与超低出生体重儿营养摄入的影响和不同营养方式与生长发育情况的关系.方法:84例极低出生体重儿(包括超低出生体重儿)按照肠外营养(PN)应用的时间分为两组,组1:PN<10 d,平均(4.97±2.25)d,共计37例;组2:应用PN≥10 d,平均(14.11±5.70)d.共计47例.记录两组出生体重及住院期间的体重变化(每天测量1次),逐日记录两组生后4周内的脂肪、蛋白质、碳水化合物、液体及能量摄入量,比较分析两组生后4周内的营养摄入和生长情况.结果:组1在生后第2、3、4周摄入能量、总液体量、蛋白质、脂肪均大于组2,组1能量早于组2达到120 Kcal/(kg·d),而生后第1周两组则相差不大.且早

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low birth weight infants and very low birth weight infants and its risk factors%超低和极低出生体质量儿早产儿视网膜病变及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅芳; 陈志钧

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI) and very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) and to explore its risk factors.Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out for the screened 53 ELBWI and 974 VLBWI.Comparison of ROP incidence between ELBWI and VLBWI groups was statistically analyzed.Birth weight,gestational age and gender between ROP and non-ROP groups,and mild ROP group and severe ROP group were compared.Results 23/53 ELBWI developed ROP with an incidence of 43.4%,while 15 of them developed severe ROP with an incidence of 28.3 %.177/974 VLBWI developed ROP with an incidence of 18.2%,while 33 of them developed severe ROP with an incidence of 3.4%.The difference of ROP incidence between ELBWI and VLBWI was statistically significant (x2 =20.39,P < 0.001),while the differences of birth weight (x2 =20.39,P < 0.001) and gestational age (x2 =50.06,P < 0.001) between ROP group and non-ROP group were statistically significant.Also,the differences of birth weight (x2 =24.21,P < 0.001) and gestational age (x2 =53.67,P < 0.001) between mild ROP group and severe ROP group were statistically significant.Conclusions The incidences of ROP and severe ROP in ELBWI are higher than those in VLBWI.ROP risk factors are various and mainly include gestational age less than or equal to 28 weeks and low birth weight.%目的 了解超低出生体质量儿(ELBWI)和极低出生体质量儿(VLBWI)早产儿视网膜病变(ROP)的发病情况,探讨其相关危险因素.方法 回顾分析接受ROP筛查的ELBWI 53例和VLBWI 974例,比较ELBWI和VLBWI的ROP发生率,ROP组与非ROP组以及轻症与重症ROP组的出生体质量、胎龄和性别.结果 53例ELBWI中检出ROP 23例(43.4%),其中重症15例(28.3%);974例VLBWI中检出ROP 177例(18.2%),其中重症33例(3.4%).ELBWI和VLBWI的ROP发生率差异有统计学意义(x2=20.39,P<0.001);ROP组

  12. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  13. Racial differences in IGF1 methylation and birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Straughen, Jennifer K.; Sipahi, Levent; Uddin, Monica; Misra, Dawn P.; Misra, Vinod K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The birth weight of Black neonates in the United States is consistently smaller than that of their White counterparts. Epigenetic differences between the races may be involved in such disparities. The goal of these analyses was to model the role of IGF1 methylation in mediating the association between race and birth weight. Data was collected on a cohort of 87 live born infants. IGF1 methylation was measured in DNA isolated from the mononuclear fraction of umbilical cord blood coll...

  14. Study protocol: the relation of birth weight and infant growth trajectories with physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behavior at 8-9 years of age - the ABCD study

    OpenAIRE

    van Deutekom, Arend W; Chinapaw, Mai JM; Vrijkotte, Tanja GM; Gemke, Reinoud JBJ

    2013-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and accelerated infant growth have been identified as independent risk factors for childhood and adult obesity and cardiovascular disease. This led to the ‘Developmental Origins of Health and Disease’ (DOHaD) hypothesis, stating that environmental factors during pregnancy and early postnatal life affect disease risk in later life. There is growing evidence that perinatal factors may influence adult health through the programming of energy balance regulation, includ...

  15. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  16. 极低出生体质量儿的早期积极营养支持%Early nutritional support for very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾谦学; 顾红兵; 李双双; 陆超; 胡毓华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the role of early intravenous nutrition given aggressively combined with early minimal feeding on very low birth weight infants (VLBWI),and to evaluate the clinical value of intestinal barrier protein and MicroRNA.Methods All of 62 cases of VLBWI admitted in NICU,the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Nantong Affiliated to Nantong University from January 2006 to June 2014 were recruited.Sixty-two VLBWI were randomly divided into group A and group B.Thirty infants in group A were exposed to conventional intravenous nutrition.Thirty-two infants in group B were treated with early intravenous nutrition aggressively combined with early minimal feeding.The time of birth weight recovery,days with intravenous nutrition,hospital stay and complications were recorded.The liver and kidney functions,electrolytes,blood gas analysis were monitored.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent method was used to detect intestinal fatty acid binding protein (Ⅰ-FABP),an intestinal barrier protein in plasma.Infection related MicroRNA155 was detected with fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Group B was superior to group A in weight loss after birth [(13.70 ± 3.10) % vs (5.46 ± 2.64) %,P < 0.05],shorter recovery time of body weight [(12.20 ± 3.38) d vs (6.82 ± 3.20) d,P < 0.05],fewer days with intravenous nutrition [(29.62 ± 4.16) d vs (20.80 ± 3.20) d,P < 0.05] and shorter hospital stays [(44.60 ± 6.32) d vs (28.91 ± 4.36) d,P < 0.05].Compared with group A,the infants in group B had less complications,including hyperbilirubinemia (31.2% vs 56.7%),extrauterine growth retardation (34.3% vs 73.3%),cholestasis (6.2% vs 23.3%),feeding intolerance (15.6% vs 53.3%) and necrotizing enterocolitis (0 vs 16.7%) (all P < 0.05).Although Ⅰ-FABP had a higher plasma concentration in group A than that of group B [(9.083 ± 1.059) μg/L vs (7.563 ± 0.739) μg/L],the difference was not significant (t =1.190,P =0.076 4

  17. 早产低出生体重儿静脉营养的应用效果初步评定%Preliminary Evaluation of the Effect of Intravenous Nutrition in Premature Infants With Low Birth Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:初步评定早产低出生体重儿静脉营养的应用效果。方法以2013年5月~2015年5月实行早期静脉营养的50例早产低出生体重儿为观察组,选取传统静脉喂养的50例早产低出生体重儿为对照组。结果对比恢复出生体重所需时间、日增重量、宫外成长迟缓率,结果均显示差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。对比并发症发生率未见差异(P>0.05)。结论对早产低出生体重儿实行早期静脉营养可促进患儿发育,缩短住院时间。%Objective To evaluate the effect of the application of intravenous nutrition in premature infants with low birth weight.Methods50 premature infants with low birth weight were observed in May 2013 to May 2015,and 50 cases of low birth weight infants were selected as control group. ResultsCompared with the recovery of birth weight,length of stay,daily weight gain,growth retardation rate,the results showed significant differences(P0.05).Conclusion Early parenteral nutrition can promote the development of children,shorten the length of hospital stay.

  18. Pre-pregnancy body mass index in relation to infant birth weight and offspring overweight/obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangbin Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity in women of childbearing age is a serious public-health problem. In China, the incidence of maternal overweight/obesity has been increasing. However, there is not a meta-analysis to determine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI is related to infant birth weight (BW and offspring overweight/obesity. METHODS: Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched systematically from January 1970 to November 2012. The dichotomous data on pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and BW or offspring overweight/obesity were extracted. Summary statistics (odds ratios, ORs were used by Review Manager, version 5.1.7. RESULTS: After screening 665 citations from three electronic databases, we included 45 studies (most of high or medium quality. Compared with normal-weight mothers, pre-pregnancy underweight increased the risk of small for gestational age (SGA (odds ratios [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76-1.87; low BW (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27-1.71. Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increased the risk of being large for gestational age (LGA (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.08; 95% CI; 1.95-2.23, high BW (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.00; 95% CI; 1.84-2.18, macrosomia (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42-1.97; and OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.39-4.37, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.77-2.13; and OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.68-3.49, respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that sample size, study method, quality grade of study, source of pre-pregnancy BMI or BW had a strong impact on the association between pre-pregnancy obesity and LGA. No significant evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pregnancy underweight increases the risk of SGA and LBW; pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increases the risk of LGA, HBW, macrosomia, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity. A potential effect modification by maternal age, ethnicity, gestational weight gain, as

  19. Analysis on effects of fetal age and birth weight on prognosis of premature infants%胎龄和出生体重对早产儿预后影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫雅蓉; 章恒; 许兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨胎龄及出生体重对早产儿预后的影响.方法:回顾性分析无锡市妇幼保健院2008年1月~2009年12月间分娩的217例早产儿资料.结果:早产儿并发症的发生率和死亡率分别为43.8%和2.3%.早产儿并发症和死亡主要发生于胎龄<32周或出生体重<1 500 g的极低体重儿.缺氧缺血性脑病、窒息、呼吸窘迫综合症发生率和死亡率随胎龄或出生体重增加均呈下降趋势.结论:出生前加强孕期保健,尽可能延长胎龄,促进肺成熟;出生后防止早产儿窒息和加强低出生体重儿监护,将降低早产儿并发症发生率和死亡率.%Objective: To explore the effects of fetal age and birth weight on prognosis of premature infants. Methods: The clinical data of 217 premature infants born in the hospital from January 2008 to December 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The incidence of complication and mortality of premature infants were 43.8% and 2. 3%, respectively; the premature infants less than 32 gestational weeks or birth weight < 1 500 g had high incidence of complication and high mortality; the incidences of complications ( including hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome) and mortality of premature infants showed a decreasing trend with fetal age and the increase of birth weight. Conclusion: Enhancing pregnant health care before delivery, prolonging fetal age as far as possible,promoting fetal lung maturity, preventing neonatal asphyxia and strengthening the monitoring on low birth weight infants may reduce the incidence of complication and mortality of premature infants.

  20. Birth weight: a major determinant of child survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The problems of maternal malnutrition, low birthweight, and infant mortality and morbidity were investigated in a prospective study (1981-85) involving 7586 pregnant women (3197 from urban areas and 4389 from rural areas) in India. The mothers were followed until their infants were 1 year of age. There were 6879 live births among these women and 208 still births (a rate of 29.3/1000 deliveries). The perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates were 65.3/1000, 57.7/1000, and 94.5/1000, respectively. 90% of these deaths involved infants with a birthweight below 2000 grams. Overall, 39% of infants studied were classified as low birthweight (under 2500 grams). Factors associated with low birthweight included maternal age below 19 years or over 35 years, maternal weight below 40 kg, maternal height below 145 cm, weight gain during pregnancy of under 5 kg, an interpregnancy interval less than 24 months, hemoglobin less than 8 grams%, and maternal illiteracy. Moderate to severe morbidity (neonatalas phyxia) was found in 10% of the births in this series. Breastfeeding was delayed beyond 24 hours in 77% of rural births and 13% of urban births; 30% of infants in both settings were given a bottle within the 1st week of life. 98% of rural mothers and 85% of urban mothers did not utilize available maternal-child health services in the postpartum period. Reducing the incidence of low birthweight births through primary health care interventions such as screening, food supplementation, adequate prenatal care, and correction of maternal nutritional deficiencies is the best strategy for improving infant survival in India. In the interim period, adequate health care must be made available to low birthweight infants and proper feeding practices should be promoted. PMID:3440594

  1. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  2. The birth rate of full-term low birth weight infants in recent 5 years at obstetric department in our hospital and an analysis of its related factors%我院产科近5年足月低体重儿的出生率及其相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑再娟; 卢雪珍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨足月低体重儿的出生率,并分析其高危因素.方法 对我院分娩的14062例新生儿进行回顾性研究,分析足月低体重儿的出生率及高危因素.结果 足月低体重儿的出生率为2.52%,其高危因素有:妊娠期肝内胆汁淤积症、妊娠期高血压疾病、贫血、子宫发育畸形、多次人工流产、产检次数少、多胎妊娠、胎儿畸形、羊水过少、脐带异常、胎盘位置异常、形态异常和重量异常.结论 足月低体重儿的出生率较高,其高危因素多样,是各种因素综合作用的结果.%Objective To investigate the birth rate of full-term low birth weight infants,and to analyze its risk factors.Methods 14062 newborns who were born in our hospital were studied retrospectively.The birth rate of low birth weight infants and its related risk factors.Results The birth rate of low birth weight infants was 2.52%.The risk factors for low birth weight were intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, pregnancy-induced hypertension, anemia, uterine malformation, multiple induced abortion, fewer prenatal examinations, multiple pregnancy, fetal malformation,oligohydramnios,umbilical cord abnormalities,and abnormal placental location,shape,and weight.Conclusions The birth rate is higher in low birth weight infants.The risk factors for low birth weight are various and the result of action of different factors.

  3. Significant weight loss in breastfed term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Villegas Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss of greater than 7% from birth weight indicates possible feeding problems. Inadequate oral intake causes weight loss and increases the bilirubin enterohepatic circulation. The objective of this study was to describe the association between total serum bilirubin (TSB levels and weight loss in healthy term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia after birth hospitalization. Methods We reviewed medical records of breastfed term infants who received phototherapy according to TSB levels readmitted to Caja Petrolera de Salud Clinic in La Paz, Bolivia during January 2005 through October 2008. Results Seventy-nine infants were studied (64.6% were males. The hyperbilirubinemia readmission rate was 5% among breastfed infants. Term infants were readmitted at a median age of 4 days. Mean TSB level was 18.6 ± 3 mg/dL. Thirty (38% had significant weight loss. A weak correlation between TSB levels and percent of weight loss was identified (r = 0.20; p 20 mg/dL was notably higher among infants with significant weight loss (46.7% vs. 18.4%; p Conclusions Significant weight loss could be a useful parameter to identify breastfed term infants at risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia either during birth hospitalization or outpatient follow-up visits in settings where routine pre-discharge TSB levels have not been implemented yet.

  4. 早期干预对低出生体重儿体格和神经行为发育的影响%Effect of early intervention on low birth weight infant physical development and nerve behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of early intervention on low birth weight infant physical development and nerve behavior. Methods 96 cases of low birth weight infants as the discussion object, randomly divided into the intervention group and the non intervention group two group, and selected 42 cases of normal term infants as control group, the implementation of infant massage, nutrition guidance, early education, motion perception, language training in the intervention group, three groups of infant weight, body length, head circumference were measured. Results the intervention group weight, length, head circumference was better than the untreated group, the intervention had no significant difference between group and control group. Conclusion early intervention on low birth weight infants physical and neurobehavioral development is obviously promote.%目的分析讨论早期干预对低出生体重儿体格和神经行为发育的影响。方法选取96例低出生体重儿为讨论对象,随机分为干预组和未干预组两组,同期选择42例正常足月的婴儿为对照组,对干预组实施婴儿抚触、营养指导、早期教育、感知运动、语言等训练,对三组婴儿六个月之后的体重、身长、头围等进行检查测量。结果干预组的体重、身长、头围明显优于未干预组,干预组和对照组之间无显著性差异。结论早期干预对低出生体重儿体格和神经行为发育有明显的促进作用。

  5. 营养护理对早产低出生体重儿营养状况的影响%Influence of nutritional nursing on the nutrition condition of low birth weight premature infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎娟; 杜惠妍; 陈汶钰; 黄艾艾

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨营养护理干预对早产低出生体质量儿营养状况的影响。方法选取2011年10月~2013年10月在我院出生的早产低出生体质量儿86例,并根据患者入院顺序按数字随机法分为对照组和干预组,每组各43例。对照组进行常规护理,干预组进行早期营养护理干预,比较实验前后两组血糖、白蛋白和恢复出生体质量的时间等。结果对早产低出生体质量儿进行营养护理干预可缩短其恢复出生体质所需时间、留置鼻管时间以及肠道营养达到418.4kj/kg时间(P<0.05)。与对照组比较,干预组试验后的血浆总蛋白、血浆白蛋白、血糖以及淋巴细胞总数水平均明显升高且干预组实验后的血尿素氮水平明显降低(P<0.05)。干预组的治疗有效率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论对于早产低出生体质量儿的早期营养干预防止营养不良的发生。%Objective To investigate the influence of nutritional nursing on the nutrition condition of the premature low birth weight infant. Methods 86 premature low birth weight infants who were born in our hospital from October,2011 to October,2013 were selected and divided into control group and interfere group by digital randomized according to the order of admission, each group included 43 infants. Infants in the control group were nursed in regular nursing method while the infants in the interfere group were nursed with nutritional nursing. We compared the blood sugar level, albumin level, time to grow to regular birth weight and the like. Results The nutritional interfere in premature low birth weight infant can significantly lower reduce the time for growing to regular birth weight, nasal tube and the intestinal nutrition level increasing to 418.4kj/kg(P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the blood total protein level, the albumin level, the blood sugar level and the total lymphocyte level of interfere group significantly

  6. Importância dos minerais na alimentação do pré-termo extremo Minerals in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide E. P. Trindade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão crítica da literatura sobre os minerais cálcio, fósforo e microelementos na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando a importância no crescimento, mineralização óssea e como componente de dietas. FONTES DOS DADOS: Utilizamos o banco de dados MEDLINE e o Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, de 1994 a 2004. Selecionamos artigos com enfoques originais, artigos de revisão e livros específicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As dificuldades na nutrição de prematuros extremos aumentam a freqüência de prematuros com restrição de crescimento, cujas conseqüências futuras estão para serem determinadas. Todavia, há pouca literatura sobre minerais, especialmente sobre micronutrientes na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando-se o deficiente armazenamento e a importância destes em nutrição. O principal enfoque desta revisão foi sobre o cálcio e o fósforo na mineralização óssea e na suplementação em nutrição parenteral e enteral, bem como a avaliação crítica da nutrição pós-alta sobre a mineralização óssea. São abordadas as necessidades de micronutrientes, principalmente selênio e zinco, e a função antioxidante do selênio na provável prevenção de doenças do prematuro com atuação de radicais livres. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando os baixos estoques de minerais em prematuros extremos, há necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre minerais na nutrição destes prematuros para definir suas reais necessidades, os aspectos metabólicos, bem como aplicar os conhecimentos na formulação de dietas que permitam prevenir quadros de deficiência e conseqüências a longo prazo. Ainda há controvérsias sobre a influência de fórmulas pós-alta sobre a evolução da doença óssea da prematuridade.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the role of calcium, phosphorus and trace elements in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants, considering their importance for metabolism, bone mineralization

  7. Clinical analysis of 165 extremely low birth weight infants%超低出生体重儿165例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄严; 高喜容; 刘新晖; 熊月娥; 刘雨; 张琼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features and prognosis of extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI).Method Data of totally 165 hospitalized ELBWI between August 1st,2008 and November 30th,2013 in Hunan Children's Hospital were analyzed.The information of general data and births,prenatal care,delivery room stabilization,transfer information,complications,treatment,outcome and follow up were summarized.Result (1) One hundred and sixty-five ELBWI were involved,their mean gestational age was(28.4 ± 2.4) weeks,mean birth weight (910.9 ± 93.1) g.(2) Rate of delivery in tertiary hospital was 46.7% (77/165)and prenatal steroids exposure was found in 52.1% (86/165).None of the cases were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in delivery room.(3) Rate of infants who were transfered to the class Ⅲ b neonatal ward within 12 hours after birth was 58.8% (97/165).(4) The main complications of them included neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS,77.0%,127/165),bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD,70.1%,75/107),patent ductus arteriosus (PDA,50.0%,40/80),preterm retinopathy (ROP,43.0%,46/107),sepsis 39.4% (65/165),intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH,34.8%,49/141),necrotizing enterocolitis(NEC,8.0%,7/88).(5) Treatment:97.6%(161/165) received oxygen therapy and 66.1% (109/165) received mechanical ventilation,55.2% (91/165) used CPAP.89.8% (114/127) of the NRDS used PS; 44.0% (33/75) of the BPD used low dose dexamethasone,32.0% (24/75) used low dose nitric oxide; 60.0% (24/40)of the PDA used medication.32.6% (15/46) of the ROP received laser photocoagulation.The average time of beginning enteral feeding was 2.0 d,the mean time to achieve full gastrointestinal feeding was 43.4 d.(6) Outcome:rate of survival in 165 cases with ELBWI was 51.5% (85/165),treatment was abandoned in 37.6% (62/165),total mortality was 48.5% (80/165).There were significant difference in survival rate between different birth weight group

  8. Infant feeding practices and weight gain for length of term normal birth weight infants in the first 6 months of life%喂养习惯与婴儿出生后前6个月按身长体质量增加的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周丽莉; 孙倩倩; 胡燕琪; 刘金荣; 刘珊珊; 张杰; 盛晓阳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between infant feeding practices and infants growth,especially the weight gain for length in the first 6 months of life. Methods Two-hundred healthy full-term singlet normal birth weight 5 - 6 months old infants and their main care givers were recruited in Kongjiang community health service center in Shanghai. The questionnaires included infants feeding pattern, feeding environment and care givers feeding behaviors, and were completed on-site by investigators. The birth weight was obtained. The weight and length of infants at 6 months were measured. Results There were 70/200 (35.0%) infants overweight (BMI for age Z score>+1) at 6 months. There were more overweight boys than girls (40.0% vs. 30.9%, x2 = 1.798, P = 0.180). Compared with normal weight infants, the overweight infants had same birth weight (3.30 ± 0.35 kg vs. 3.35 ± 0.32 kg, t =1.010, P = 0.314) and same length at 6 months (67.64 ± 2.10 cm vs. 67.91 ± 1.97 cm, t=- 0.896, P = 0.371). However, the overweight infants gained much more weight for length in the first six months of life. At 6 months, the weight and BMI of overweight infants was significantly higher than that of normal weight infants (9.16 ± 0.67 vs. 7.94 ±0.64, t = 12.324, P 0.05). The grandparents played an important role in infants feeding in Shanghai. There were 39.0% infants fed only by grandparents, and 23.0% infants fed jointly by grandparents and parents (x2 = 0.175, P > 0.05).The care givers' educational level and knowledge of feeding skill were similar in overweight and normal weight infants (x2 = 0.446, t = 0.949, P > 0.05). However, the overweight infants were fed more quickly than normal weight infants (Z = 2.753, P +1),占35%.男婴超重多于女婴(40.0%对30.9%,x2=1.798,P=0.180).超重婴儿和体质量正常婴儿的出生体质量一致(3.30±0.35 kg对3.35±0.32 kg,t=1.010,P=0.314),6月龄时两组婴儿的身长也一致(67.64±2.10 cm对67.91±1.97cm,t=0.896,P=0.371).

  9. 极低出生体重儿发育迟缓的相关因素探讨%Study on the relative factors of very low birth weight infants with growth retardation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杜燕; 李经猷; 张冰; 李洁敏

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨极低出生体重儿在宫外生长过程中发生发育迟缓的比率和影响因素。方法:从极低出生体重儿中选出181例胎龄<32周的早产儿,记录其胎龄、出生体重、身长、头围、性别、恢复出生体重时间、首次肠内营养供给时间、首次完全肠内营养供给时间。同时在其生长到37~42周时测量患儿的体重、身长、头围,研究宫外发育迟缓几率和各类危险因素,并同时研究适于胎龄儿和小于胎龄儿宫外发育迟缓发生几率。结果:发育迟缓的患儿胎龄、出生时的体重、身长以及头围均明显低于发育正常新生儿,同时其恢复出生体重时间、首次肠内营养供给时间、首次完全肠内营养供给时间均大于正常发育新生儿,且小于胎龄儿发育迟缓发生几率明显高于适于胎龄儿。结论:极低出生体重儿发育迟缓的影响因素包括胎龄、营养摄入时间等。%Objective To investigate the rate and influence factors of very low birth weight infants with extrauterine growth re-tardation.Method 181 premature infants of gestational age less than 32 weeks were selected from very low birth weight infant born, and recorded data such as gestational age,birth weight,height,head circumference,gender,gestational age children nature,respirato-ry distress rate,birth weight recovery time,the first time of enteral nutrition supply,the first full enteral nutrition feeding time.While growted to 37 ~42 weeks,then measured children′s weight,height,head circumference,studied the extrauterine growth retardation rates and all kinds of risk factors,and also studied the the extrauterine growth retardation rates of gestational age and below gesta-tional age children.Results Compared to normal neonates,the gestational age,birth weight,height,head circumfere nce of children with growth retardation were significantly lower,the birth weight recovery time,first time of enteral nutrition

  10. The Intergenerational Effects on Birth Weight and Its Relations to Maternal Conditions, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Leide Irislayne Macena da Costa e; Filumena Maria da Silva Gomes; Maria Helena Valente; Ana Maria de Ulhôa Escobar; Alexandra Valéria Maria Brentani; Grisi, Sandra J. F. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Parents' birth weight acts as a predictor for the descendant birth weight, with the correlation more strongly transmitted through maternal line. The present research aims to study the correlation between the child's low or increased birth weight, the mother's birth weight, and maternal conditions. Methods. 773 mother-infant binomials were identified with information on both the baby's and the mother's birth weight recorded. Group studies were constituted, dividing t...

  11. Pharmacoeconomic impact of use of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low-birth-weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimaguila MAVT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Ann VT Dimaguila,1,2 Peter Gal,1,3,4 Tiffany Wilson,1 John E Wimmer Jr,1,2 McCrae Smith,1,2 Rita Q Carlos,1,2 Christie C Davanzo,1,2 J Laurence Ransom1,2 1Women's Hospital of Greensboro, Cone Health, Greensboro, NC, USA; 2Piedmont Neonatology, Greensboro, NC, USA; 3Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Greensboro Area Health Education Center, Greensboro, NC, USA Background: A recent study showed that use of Lactobacillus reuteri as probiotic prophylaxis decreased the necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC rate from 15.1% to 2.5% in neonates with birth weight below 1000 g. Given the controversies surrounding use of probiotics in neonatal intensive care units, we address one additional aspect of routine implementation of probiotics for NEC prophylaxis – the pharmacoeconomic impact. Methods: Using data from our initial published experience, and continuing data collection after instituting a higher dose of L. reuteri, we measured the reduction in NEC in neonates with birth weight below 1000 g. Cost savings from prior studies examining the cost and outcomes of medical and surgical NEC were used to calculate the financial impact of routine L. reuteri DSM 17938 prophylaxis. Results: Medical records for 354 neonates were reviewed, 232 in the years before introduction of L. reuteri prophylaxis and 79 who received L. reuteri prophylaxis dosed at 0.1 mL daily and 43 neonates given a total daily dose of 0.2 mL as one or two doses. The incidence of NEC was significantly lower in the neonates who received L. reuteri (two of 122 neonates [1.6%] versus 35 of 232 neonates [15.1%]. The expected benefits for our neonatal intensive care unit per 100 extremely low-birth-weight neonates treated were four fewer deaths, five fewer cases of medical NEC, eight fewer cases of surgical NEC, one less patient with short-bowel syndrome, and a cost saving of approximately $2.2 million. Conclusion: Prophylactic

  12. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink;

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  13. 不同胎龄及出生体质量双胎早产儿224例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 224 Twin Premature Infants with Different Gestational Age and Birth Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖镇宇; 黄瑞文; 肖艾青

    2014-01-01

    【目的】分析不同胎龄及出生体质量双胎早产儿并发症发生率及死亡原因。【方法】将2010年7月至2012年7月在本院新生儿科住院的224例双胎早产儿,根据胎龄分为≤32周,~34周,~37周组,根据出生体质量分为<1500 g,~2500 g,≥2500 g组。比较各组患儿并发症的发生率及病死率。【结果】贫血、呼吸衰竭、早产儿视网膜病变、新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征、支气管肺发育不良在不同胎龄及出生体质量双胎早产儿组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且胎龄越小,出生体质量越低,发生率越高;低血糖在不同胎龄及出生体质量双胎早产儿组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且出生体质量越低,发生率越高;呼吸暂停在不同胎龄及出生体质量双胎早产儿组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。224例患儿中死亡15例,病死率为6.7%。胎龄越小、出生体质量越低,病死率越高,各组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。【结论】加强双胎早产儿孕母的保健工作,降低早产儿及低出生体质量儿的发生率;加强双胎早产儿常见并发症的防治,以降低其病死率。%[Obj ective]To analyze the incidence of the complications and mortality rate of twin premature infants with different gestational age and birth weight.[Methods]According to gestational age,224 twin premature infants hos-pitalized in neonate department of our hospital from July 2010 to July 2012 were divided into less than 32-week group,32~34-week group and 34~37 week group.According to birth weight,all patients were divided into less than 1500g group,1500-2500g group and more than 2500g group.The incidence of complications and mortality rate were compared among different groups.[Results]There were significant differences in the incidence of anemia,respiratory failure,reti-nopathy of prematurity

  14. Low Birth Weight Causes Survey in Neonates

    OpenAIRE

    F. Eghbalian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Neonatal mortality rate is one of the main health problems which is affected by prenatal status, maternal, fetal and perinatal conditions. Low birth weight (LBW) is one of the main causes of neonatal and infantile mortality. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the LBW causes in neonates. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was done on 1500 neonates, born in Fatemieh Hospital, Hamedan, 2004. Data such as birth weight, sex, maternal age, gestational age, birth inte...

  15. Research progress of enteral nutrition and growth velocity in very low birth weight infants%极低出生体重儿肠内营养与生长速度的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新颖; 范玲

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed the digestive system characteristics,enteral nutrition style,milk choice,the starting time of enteral nutrition,the velocity of milk volume increased and the ideal growth velocity of very low birth weight infants.The aim was to investigate the effect of the different starting time of enteral nutrition on their digestive function and the growth velocity,in order to find the suitable starting time of enteral nutrition,providing the basis for clinical enteral nutrition program of very low birth weight infant.%本文阐述了极低出生体重儿消化系统特点、肠内营养方式、乳类选择、开始时间、奶量增长速度及理想的生长速度,旨在了解不同的肠内营养开始时间对极低出生体重儿消化功能及生长速度的影响,以期寻找极低出生体重儿适宜的肠内营养开始时间,为临床制定极低出生体重儿肠内营养方案提供依据.

  16. Investigation analysis of very low birth weight infants on the daily average hospitalization%82例极低出生体重儿日均住院费用调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴; 汤文决

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influenc factors on the daily average hospitalization expenses of very low birth weight infants,in order to cany out our nursing measure, relieve the financial burden on families and build harmonious relationship between doctors and patients. Methods-The analysis was taken to deal with hospitalization expenses and related data of the very low birth weight infants from August 2010 to December 2011 in our hospital. Results:The main factors of the effect to daily average hospitalization expenses were birth weight,respiratory distress syndrome,bronchopulmonary dysplasia,septicemia. Con- clusions:The prevention of ventilator - associated pneumonia,strengthen infection in preterm children can reduce the everage daily cost of hospitalization.%目的:分析极低出生体重儿日均住院费用的影响因素,为实施护理措施,减轻患儿家庭经济负担,构建和谐医患关系提供依据.方法:对本院2010年8月~2011年12月住院的极低出生体重儿的住院费用及有关数据进行分析,找出影响因素.结果:影响日均住院费用的因素主要为呼吸窘迫综合征,出生体重、支气管肺发育不良、败血症.结论:预防呼吸机相关性肺炎,可减少患儿日均住院费用.

  17. Maternal Determinants of Birth Weight in Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Abubakari

    Full Text Available Weight at birth is usually considered as an indicator of the health status of a given society. As a result this study was designed to investigate the association between birth weight and maternal factors such as gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy BMI and socio-economic status in Northern Ghana.The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey conducted in two districts in the Northern region of Ghana. These districts were purposively sampled to represent a mix of urban, peri-urban and rural population. The current study included 419 mother-infant pairs who delivered at term (37-42 weeks. Mother's height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight changes were generated from the antenatal records. Questionnaires were administered to establish socio-economic and demographic information of respondents. Maternal factors associated with birth weight were examined using multiple and univariate regressions.The mothers were generally well nourished before conception (Underweight 3.82%, Normal 57.76%, Overweight 25.06% and Obesity 13.37% but approximately half of them could not gain adequate weight according to Institute of Medicine recommendations (Low weight gain 49.64%, Adequate weight gain 42.96% and Excessive weight gain 7.40%. Infants whose mothers had excess weight gain were 431g (95% CI 18-444 heavier compared to those whose mothers gained normal weight, while those whose mothers gained less were 479g (95% CI -682- (-276 lighter. Infants of mothers who were overweight and obese before conception were 246g (95% CI 87-405 and 595g (95% CI 375-815 respectively heavier than those of normal mothers, whereas those whose mothers were underweight were 305g (95% CI -565 -(-44 lighter. The mean birth weight observed was 2.98 ± 0.68 kg.Our findings show that pre-pregnancy body mass index and weight gain during pregnancy influence birth weight. Therefore, emphasis should be placed on counseling and assisting pregnant women to stay within the recommended weight

  18. 极低出生体重儿不同喂养方式的临床分析%A clinical analysis of different feeding patterns for very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金会; 张红爱; 王文静

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate feeding tolerances and effects of different feeding patterns for very low birth weight infants. Methods 45 very low birth weight infants were randomly divided into two groups: group A and group B. 23 infants in group A were given intermittent per os tube feeding+non-nutrition sucking (NNS) and 22 infants in group B were given per os feeding. At beginning, milk intake started from 10~20 mL/Kg per day and once per 3 hours for all infants. The feeding persisting time was 10~15 min. Thereafter, the milk intake increased by 20mL. All the infants were also given partly parenteral nutrition to meet the caloric needs till complete enteral nutrition. The incidence rates of feeding intolerance, gastroesophageal reflux, milk aspiratory pneumonia and time to reach full enteral nutrition in the two groups were compared. Results The incidence rates of gastroesophageal reflux (χ2=3.74,P=0.04), milk aspiratory pneumonia (χ2=5.14,P=0.02) of infants in group A were lower than those in group B, the differences were statistically significant. And the time to reach complete enteral nutrition in group A was shorter than that in group B (t=6.41,P=0.00). There was no statistically difference in incidence rate of feeding intolerance between the two groups (χ2=0.25,P=0.40). Conclusion Intermittent per os tube feeding+NNS is contributive to growth and development of the very low birth weight infants and perfect of their gastrointestinal functions.%目的 探讨不同喂养方式对极低出生体重儿的喂养耐受性及喂养效果的优劣性.方法 将45例极低出生体重儿随机分为两组,A组:23例,间歇经口管饲+非营养性吸吮,B组:22例,经口喂养;两组起始奶量均从10~20mL·kg-1·d-1、从每3小时喂1次开始,每次持续时间为10~15分钟,每天增加20mL/kg.所有的极低出生体重儿均同时进行部分静脉营养,直至达到完全肠道内营养.比较两组极低出生体重儿的喂养耐受、胃食道返流、

  19. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  20. Evidence-based basis and suggestion on the feeding of very low birth weight infants%极低出生体重儿喂养的循证依据和建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范娟; 李茂军; 吴青; 陈昌辉

    2016-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is essential for the growth and health of very low birth weight infants ( VLBWI ) .The primary goal of feeding VLBWI is to reach the full enteral feeding in the shortest time ,and at the same time ,to maintain the optimal growth and nutrition and to avoid the adverse reactions of rapid feeding .Attaining this goal is very difficult ,and it is also full of controversy .A work-ing group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants in McMaster University ,Canada listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBWI ,and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines that can be used for reference by domestic pediatricians in clinical practice .%充足的营养对于极低出生体重儿( very low birth weight infants ,VLBWI)的健康生长至关重要。 VLBWI喂养的首要目标是在最短的时间内达到全肠内喂养,同时使患儿获得最佳的营养和生长,并避免喂养过快导致的不良反应。 VLBWI的喂养存在很大难度,也充满许多争议。加拿大麦克马斯特大学儿童医院VLBWI喂养指南工作组列举了VLBWI喂养的一些重要问题,并制定了一套全面的指南,可供国内临床医师参考。

  1. THE SOCIO ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI METROPOLITAN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Rode, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The public health care policies are responsible for human resource development. Such human resource promotes economic growth and development in any region. But public health care policies are ineffective in slums of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region. It has affected on birth weight, infant and child mortality and malnutrition. The incidence of low birth weight is found more in slums of Kalwa. The illiterate and secondary school studied parents have high incidence of low birth weight babies. The ...

  2. Study on Low Birth Weight and Correlates of Infants Born by HIV Positive Woman%HIV感染妇女分娩婴儿低出生体质量情况及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱杰; 汪永忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the birth weight status of infants born by HIV positive woman, and to explore its correlates FACTOR for taking effective measures for pregnancy health guidance. Methods Total 156 case records about infant of bom by HIV positive woman in 5 HIV high or mid epidemic counties ( city and district ) in Yunnan from January 2006 to March 2008 were selected to understand the status of birth weight. Results The total of 155 mothers received survey. Percentage of low birth weight rate was 14.74% (23/156), the rate of premature labor was 5.13% (8/156), and the rate of mature infant was 10. 14% (15/148). The main correlations with the low birth weight status of infants born by HIV positive women were as follows; premature labor(OR = 18.0, 95% CI: 4.803~67.459) and gestation anaemia(OR = 3.784, 95% CI: 2.236 -12.373). Conclusion Because pregnant woman has influenced by HIV virus, the opportunity that causes premature labor and low birth weight would increase, Therefore should strengthen the pregnancy guidance of health protection of HIV influence woman.%目的 了解HIV感染妇女分娩婴儿的出生体质量及其影响因素,为HIV感染妇女的孕期保健提供指导依据.方法 分析云南省5个艾滋病高、中流行县(市/区)HIV感染妇女分娩的156例婴儿的出生体质量,采用现况研究方法对其影响因素进行分析.结果 共调查155例HIV感染母亲,低出生体质量发生率为14.74% (23/156),早产率为5.13% (8/156),在足月分娩的新生儿中,低出生体质量发生率高达10.14% (15/148).早产(OR =18.0,95% CI:4.803~67.459)和妊娠期贫血(OR =3.784,95%CI:2.236 ~ 12.373)是造成HIV感染妇女分娩婴儿低出生体质量的重要影响因素.结论 孕妇感染HIV病毒会造成早产与低出生体质量的机会增加,应加强HIV感染妇女的孕期保健指导.

  3. Treatment of neonatal fungal infective endocarditis with recombinant tissue plasminogen: activator in a low birth weight infant case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayigit, Aslan; Cebeci, Burcu; Buyukkale, Gokhan; Semerci, Seda Yılmaz; Bornaun, Helen; Oztarhan, Kazim; Gokce, Muge; Cetinkaya, Merih

    2015-10-01

    With advances in medical sciences, an increase in survival rates of low birth weight; increased incidence in use of catheter and antibiotics, and total parenteral nutrition are reported, therefore, the rate of fungal infections in late and very late onset neonatal sepsis have increased. Although fungal endocarditis rarely occur in newborns, it has a high morbidity and mortality. Antifungal therapy is often insufficient in cases who develop fungal endocarditis and surgical treatment is not preferred due to its difficulty and high mortality. Herein, fungal endocarditis in a preterm newborn treated with single-dose recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in addition to antifungal therapy is presented and relevant literature has been reviewed. The vegetation completely disappeared following treatment and no complication was observed.

  4. The Clinical Experience of Comprehensive in the Treatment of 23 Cases of Very Low Birth Weight Premature Infants%综合救治23例早产极低体重儿的临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海山; 龙权生; 黄戈平; 廖佩婵; 谢雪娴; 赵结换

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy of an integrated treatment approach for very low birth weight premature infants according to its own characteristics.Method:23 cases of very low birth weight premature infants used a range of features for its own integrated treatment approach,including the use of pulmonary surfactant,ventilator,nutritional support,temperature and humidity management,antibiotics,oxygen concentration monitoring etc,the therapeutic effect was observed.Result:In addition to three cases of drop out,the remaining patients were discharged uneventfully up to the discharge standards,weighing more than 2 kg,average(2.70±0.27)kg,able to live off oxygen and temperature box,sucking milk 30 ml/times,without intravenous nutritional support,stable vital signs,they were successful discharged from hospital.Conclusion:For very low birth weight premature infants a comprehensive treatment approach to its own characteristics is efficacy and worthy of promotion.%目的:观察一整套针对早产极低体重儿自身特点的综合救治方法的疗效。方法:对于23例早产极低体重儿,采用一系列针对其自身特点的综合救治方法,包括使用肺泡表面活性物质、呼吸机、营养支持、温度和湿度管理、抗生素的应用、吸氧浓度监测等,观察其治疗效果。结果:除了3例中途放弃以外,其余患儿均体重达2 kg以上,平均(2.70±0.27)kg,能够脱离氧气和温箱生活,吮奶30 ml/次以上,无需静脉营养支持,生命体征平稳,顺利出院。结论:针对早产极低体重儿自身特点的综合救治方法,疗效确切,值得推广。

  5. Gene expression in placentas from nondiabetic women giving birth to large for gestational age infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlsson, F.; Åkerud, H.; Schijven, D.; Olivier, J.; Sundstrom-Poromaa, I.

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes, obesity, and excessive weight gain are known independent risk factors for the birth of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. However, only 1 of the 10 infants born LGA is born by mothers with diabetes or obesity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare placental g

  6. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part II: From Canonical Babbling up to the Appearance of the First Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the preverbal development of preterm infants from canonical babbling up to the first word and to compare it with that of healthy full-term infants. In addition, the amount of vocalization between the preterm and full-term groups was compared. The sample consisted of 18 preterm infants with…

  7. Alcohol use, conception time, and birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    Predictors of birth weight and birth length were studied using sociodemographic data collected from 2259 women who resided in Funen County, Denmark, and delivered a healthy child during the period 1978-9 at Odense University Hospital. Low birth weight was significantly related to tobacco use in the year of delivery (p less than 0.01), alcohol use during the same period (p less than 0.05), and a delay in conception of over six months (p less than 0.01). Smoking history and a delay in conceptio...

  8. Research of gastric residuals in necrotizing enterocolitis of very low birth weight infants%极低出生体重儿坏死性小肠结肠炎中胃潴留的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 刘汉楚; 孙金枝

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristics of gastric residuals in very low birth weight infants (VLBW) with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and evaluate the role of gastric residuals in early identification of NEC. Methods: In a case-control study, 30 NEC patients were matched with control infants by birth weight, gestalional age. sex and were born from September 2008 to September 2010 in our department. Feeding characteristics were recorded from birth to the days at diagnosis of NEC in both groups, and the data in the two groups were compared. Results: Mean maximum residual from birth to NEC onset (5.35±2.14) ml was significantly higher in patients than that in control infants (2.38±2.72) ml, and maximum residual as percentage of the corresponding feed volume was also higher in patient (42.10±14.65)% than that in the control infants (21.30±7.51)% (P<0.05). The percentage of infants with hemorrhagic residuals in patients (63.33%) was significantly higher than in control infants (26.67%) (P<0.05). Conclusion: Gastric residuals seem to be the best predictor for NEC because Gastric residuals.%目的:研究极低出生体重儿坏死性小肠结肠炎(NEC)中胃潴留的特征,探讨胃潴留在NEC早期诊断中的意义.方法:选取2008年9月~2010年9月我科住院治疗的NEC患儿30例,同期住院的患儿按出生体重、性别、胎龄相当的非NEC患儿30例为对照组配对.记录NEC组患儿出生到确诊当日,胃潴留的液量以及性质的变化,对照组患儿在相同时间段亦进行相应的记录.比较两组间的差异.结果:NEC组胃潴留最大量(5.35±2.14)ml显著高于对照组的(2.38±2.72)ml,以及潴留量所占前次喂养量的最大比率(42.10±14.65)%亦高于对照组的(21.30±7.51)%,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05);NEC组出血性胃潴留的比例(63.33%)亦显著高于对照组(26.67%)(P<0.05).结论:NEC患儿胃潴留明显增加,且易出现出血性胃潴留,提示胃潴留的监测

  9. Influence of Nursing Intervention on Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants with Feeding Intolerance%新型护理干预对早产低出生体重儿喂养不耐受的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐少粉; 苏小燕; 钟见平

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨新型护理干预对早产低出生体重儿喂养不耐受的影响。方法将78例适于胎龄的早产低体重儿分为两组各39例,对照组在常规治疗和静脉营养的基础上采用传统的护理方法,试验组在常规治疗和静脉营养基础上给予非营养性吸吮、微量泵间断胃管喂养、喂养后俯卧位及腹部抚触的措施,并贯穿在早产儿的日常护理中。观察两组喂养不耐受情况及呕吐、腹胀、胃残留发生情况,记录鼻胃管留置时间、恢复出生体质量时间及到达全肠道营养时间等。结果试验组患儿喂养不耐受发生率显著低于对照组(P<0.05);试验组患儿达到全肠道营养时间、恢复出生体质量时间、鼻胃管留置时间、第1次排黄便时间均较对照组显著缩短(P<0.05);试验组喂养出现腹胀、胃残留均显著少于对照组(P<0.05)。结论早产低体重儿喂养时给予新型护理干预能促进胃肠道功能的成熟,提高经肠道喂养的耐受性,有效减少喂养不耐受的发生。%Objective To explore the effect of new nursing intervention on premature and low birth weight infants with feeding intolerance. Methods 78 premature and low birth weight infants (appropriate-for-gestational-age) were divided into two groups, with 39 cases in each group. On the basis of routine therapy and parenteral nutrition, the control group received the routine nursing, while the experimental group received the nursing intervention (non-nutritive sucking, intermittent nasogastric feeding by micro pump, prone position after feeding, and abdominal touch) during daily care. The incidences of feeding intolerance, vomiting, abdominal distention, gastric residuals were observed, and the time of nasogastric tube indwelling, the time to regain birth weight and the time to reach full enteral nutrition were recorded. Results The incidence of feeding intolerance of experimental group was significantly lower than

  10. Clinical analysis of two parenteral nutrition treatments on premature infants with low birth weight%早产低体重儿两种肠道外营养方式的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽; 曹明

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价两种肠道外营养方式对早产低体重儿的治疗效果,寻找最佳治疗方法。方法对86例在陕西省勉县医院新生儿科住院的早产低体重儿进行临床观察,随机分为两组,强化组45例,对照组41例。除肠道外营养方式不同外,其它治疗均相同。观察两组生理性体重下降时间,恢复至出生体重时间,体重增长情况及相关并发症等。结果强化组肠道外营养时间短于对照组,有统计学意义(t=2.895,P<0.05);强化组体重增加大于对照组,平均住院时间短于对照组(t值分别为5.603和7.243,均P<0.05);两组均无静脉炎、氮质血症及胆汁淤积的发生,高血糖、高胆红素血症发生率差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论早期较大剂量肠道外营养可以改善早产低体重儿氮质平衡,体重增长速度快,不会增加肠道外营养相关并发症的发生,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To evaluate the effects of two parenteral nutrition treatments on premature infants with low birth weight so as to find the best treatment .Methods Eighty-six premature infants with low birth weight hospitalized in People ’ s Hospital of Mian County were divided into two groups randomly , 45 cases in treatment group ( intensive group ) and 41 cases in observation group ( control group ) .All medical treatments on two groups were same except that parenteral nutrition was dispensed differently .The length of physiological weight loss, time for restoring birth weight , weight gain and related complications were observed in two groups .Results The duration of parenteral nutrition treatment in the intensive group was significantly shorter than the control group (t=2.895, P0.05).Conclusion Early use of high-dose parenteral nutrition on premature infants with low birth weight can improve their nitrogen balance and increase their weight rapidly without any risk of complications

  11. Birth weight, domestic violence, coping, social support, and mental health of young Iranian mothers in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Mozhdeh Nasseh Lotf; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Nygren, Lennart; Nojomi, Marzieh; Richter, Jörg

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations of birth weight with sociodemographic variables, domestic violence, ways of coping, social support, and general mental health of Iranian mothers. Six hundred mothers aged 15 to 29 years participated between June 2009 and November 2010. t-Test, analysis of variance, Spearman's correlation, and multiple regression were used. The results showed that there was no significant association between birth weight and general mental health of the mothers. Prenatal care visits, the mothers' history of having children with low birth weight (LBW), and weight gain during pregnancy were significantly associated with birth weight. The women who reported physical abuse during pregnancy had infants with lower birth weight. Satisfaction with social support and use of positive reappraisal were significantly associated with higher birth weight. In conclusion, a high quality of prenatal care and screening of pregnant women are recommended. Social environments good enough during pregnancy have protective effects against LBW. PMID:23817159

  12. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  13. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  14. 人工气道温度设定对极低体重儿核心体温的影响%The effects of temperature setting of artificial airway on core temperature in very low birth weight infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏春兰; 唐淑云; 凌秀红

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of the temperature of inspiratory gas with artificial airway on core temperature in very low birth weight infants. Methods:45 very low birth weight infants with artificial airway were randomly divided into three groups according to the temperature of inspiratory gas. The temperature of inspiratory gas was 36. 5-37. 3℃ in the group A,34. 5-35℃ in the group B,and 38. 5-39℃ in the group C. The gas temperature at the side of patents′mouth as the setting temperature was dicided by the inductor. The rectal temperature of the infants were recorded every 2 hours. Results:The core temperature in the infant was maintained at neutral temperature when the setting temperature was 36. 5-37. 3℃(group A)(P<0. 05). The core tem-perature was lower than neutral temperature when the setting temperature was 34. 5-35℃(group B). The core temperature was higher than neutral temper-ature when the setting temperature was 38. 5-39 ℃(group C). Conclusion:The core temperature in very low birth weight infant with artificial airway could be maintained at neutral temperature when the temperature of inspiratory gas was 36. 5-37. 3 ℃. At the same time,It could decrease oxygen consumption, the loss of evaporative heat,metabolism,and reduce complication.%目的:探讨人工气道吸入气体温度对极低体重儿核心体温的影响。方法:将我院符合入组标准的45例建立人工气道的极低体重儿随机等分为3组,A组吸入气体温度设置为36.5~37.3℃,B组吸入气体温度设置为34.5~35℃,C组吸入气体温度设置为38.5~39℃。均以感应器测定的到达患儿口边的气体温度为设定温度,每2 h测量3组患儿体温(肛温)1次并记录。结果:A组患儿核心温度维持在中性温度,B组患儿核心温度低于中性温度,C组则高于中性温度。结论:极低体重儿建立人工气道时将吸入气体温度调到36.5~37.3℃可使极低体重儿的核心体温度维持在中性温度,同

  15. 胎龄别体重Z评分法评价早产极低出生体重儿生后早期营养状况的分析%Growth Assessment with Z Score of Weight for Very Low Birth Weight Infant During Hospital Stay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乔红; 邹永蓉; 谭学蓉; 唐文秀; 高月; 陈伟; 王一

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrition status in very low birth weight at reture birth weight and discharge with Z score of weight for correct age( CA) . Methods 141 appropriate for gestational age( GA) premature infants with hospital stay ex-ceeding 2 weeks but no major congenital diseases were included. Z scores of weight for age were calculated at birth and reture birth weight and discharge. Their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Results At all the subgroups( categorized by GA at birth or by nutrition support method or by nutrition status at discharge) ,The Z scores at reture birth weight and discharge were positively related with Z scores at birth(P<0. 001);Different nutrition support method were significantly related with Z score at reture birth weight and discharge(P<0. 001). The lower Z scores at birth, the time of reture birth weight and discharge were longer. Conclu-sion Very low birth weight infants occurred growth retardation during admission. Nutritional support strategy is helpful for nutri-tion condition in premature infants.%目的:采用纠正胎龄别体重Z评分法评估极低出生体重儿入院时、恢复出生体重时与出院时营养状况,探讨其与出生时营养状况、生后营养支持方式、恢复出生体重时间及住院时间之间的关系。方法选择出生胎龄28~33+6周,出生体重<1500g,生后24h内入院,住院时间≥2周新生儿,分别按出生胎龄和营养支持方式、出院时营养状况分组,比较每组出生时、恢复出生体重时和出院时的Z评分,以及恢复出生体重所需时间和住院时间的关系。结果每组患儿出院时Z评分均低于入院时;小出生胎龄组恢复出生体重时和出院时Z评分均高于大胎龄组;营养支持滞后组,恢复出生体重时及出院时Z评分均较积极组更低,滞后组恢复出生体重所需时间和住院时间也均更长;出生时Z评分越低,恢复出生体重时Z评分和出院时Z评分越低,恢复出

  16. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet...... in pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight for gestational age, lower risk of SGA, and higher risk of LGA. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  17. Aquisição de habilidades motoras até a marcha independente em prematuros de muito baixo peso Acquisition of motor abilities up to independent walking in very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. P. Volpi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar as idades cronológica e corrigida de aquisição das habilidades motoras até a marcha independente em prematuros de muito baixo peso e avaliar até quando é necessário o uso da idade corrigida. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal de prematuros OBJECTIVE: To determine chronological and corrected ages at acquisition of motor abilities up to unaided walking in very low weight preterms and to determine up to what point it is necessary to use corrected age. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study of preterms with birth weight < 1,500 g and gestational age < 34 weeks, free from neurosensory sequelae, selected at the high-risk infants follow-up clinic at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP in Botucatu, Brazil, between 1998 to 2003, and assessed every 2 months until acquisition of unaided walking. RESULTS: Nine percent of the 155 preterms recruited were excluded from the study, leaving a total of 143 patients. The mean gestational age was 30±2 weeks, birth weight was 1,130±222 g, 59% were female and 44% were small for gestational age. Preterms achieved head control in their second month, could sit unaided at 7 months and walked at 12.8 months' corrected age, corresponding to the 4th, 9th and 15th months of chronological age. There were significant differences between chronological age and corrected age for all motor abilities. Preterms who were small for their gestational age acquired motor abilities later, but still within expected limits. CONCLUSIONS: Very low weight preterms, free from neurosensory disorders, acquired their motor abilities within the ranges expected for their corrected ages. Corrected age should be used until unaided walking is achieved.

  18. 极低和超低出生体重儿神经发育预后及其影响因素%Neurodevelopmental outcomes and its risk factors of very low and extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟倩; 曹云; 王艺; 张澜; 杨红; 邵肖梅; 徐秀; 陆春梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neurodevelopmental outcomes and its risk factors of very low birth weight infant (VLBWI) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI).Methods Data of 85 VLBWI and ELBWI hospitalized in Children's Hospital of Fudan University from October 2005 to November 2009 who had finished infant development test of Baley Scales of Infant Development Ⅱ (Bayley Ⅱ) for neurological development at corrected gestational age between 18 to 42 months were retrospectively reviewed.Twelve infants who accepted treatment in other hospital over 10 days were excluded; the rest 73 infants were divided into normal (neurodevelopment) group or abnormal group according to the definition of neurodevelopmental impairment reported by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Network.Potential risk factors of neurodevelopmental impairment were analyzed with Logistic stepwise regression.Results The mean gestational age of 73 infants was (30.4±2.3) weeks; among which 13 were smaller than 28 weeks,42 between 28 and 32 weeks,and 18 older than 32 weeks.The mean birth weight was (1208.0±208.5) g; among which 15 (20.6%) <1000 g,and 58 (79.4%) were between 1000 g and 1500 g.Four babies (5.5%) were diagnosed as movement retardation,and neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 16 cases (21.9 %),psychomotor developmental index <70 occurred in 6 cases (8.2%,one case complicating with cerebral palsy); mental developmental index <70 occurred in 2 cases (2.7%); both psychomotor developmental index and mental developmental index <70 occurred in 7 cases (9.6 %,two cases complicating with cerebral palsy),and one case (1.4 %) was cerebral palsy only.Blind in either eyes and hearing impairment requiring deaf-aid were not found in any of the 73 babies.Logistic stepwise regression showed that use of mechanical ventilation was related to neurodevelopmental impairment (OR =6.183,95% CI:1.664-22.983,P =0.003).Psychomotor

  19. Analysis of Influence Factors and Neurobehavioral Development of Low Birth Weight Infants%低出生体质量儿神经行为发育及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡素君; 苏元元; 徐发林; 王玲; 李智睿; 程秀永

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨低出生体质量儿(LBWI)出生6个月、12个月时神经行为发育情况及影响因素.方法 2009年10月-2010年10月在本院出生后转入NICU的42例LBWI(LBWI组),同期在本院产科出生的健康足月新生儿(NBWI)51例(NBWI组),2组新生儿均于6个月、12个月时采用由中国科学院心理研究所和中国儿童发展中心(CDCC)合作制定的婴幼儿智能发育测验手册进行婴幼儿智能发育测试,比较智能发育指数(MDI)和心理运动发育指数(PDI),分析影响MDI和PDI神经行为发育的相关因素.调查内容包括姓名、性别、胎龄、日龄、出生体质量、娩出方式、家庭经济收入、父母文化程度、主要喂养方式、早期大小便训练、早期教育、游泳抚触等.结果 LBWI组在6个月时MDI和PDI与NBWI组比较差异均有统计学意义(t=2.893、2.082,P<0.01、0.05);LBWI组在12个月时MDI和PDI与NBWI组比较差异均有统计学意义(t=2.261、2.944,P<0.05、0.01).回归分析显示,与MDI发育相关因素有胎龄、出生时体质量、娩出方式、家庭经济收入、父母文化程度、早期大小便训练、早期教育、游泳抚触.与PDI发育相关因素有出生时体质量、家庭经济收入、父亲文化程度、喂养方式、早期教育、游泳抚触.结论 LBWI组6个月、12月时神经行为发育仍落后于NBWI组,神经行为发育受多种因素影响.%Objective To investigate the neurobehavioral development and the influence factors of low birth weight infant(LBWI) in 6 month and 12 month after birth. Methods Forty - two LBW1( LBWI group) deliveried from Oct. 2009 to Oct. 2010 were enrolled in Newborn Intensive Care Unit(NICU) ,the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Fifty - one normal birth weight infant ( NBWI) ( NBWI group) born in Obstetrics of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University ,from the same period. Infants of 2 groups received children's development center of China(CDCC) with

  20. Time course study of blood pressure in term and preterm infants immediately after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Pichler

    Full Text Available To describe temporal changes in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (SBP, DBP, and MBP, respectively in term and preterm infants immediately after birth.Prospective observational two-center study. In term infants SBP, DBP, and MBP were assessed non-invasively every minute for the first 15 minutes, and in preterm infants every minute for the first 15 minutes, as well as at 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after birth. Regression analyses were performed by gender and respiratory support in all neonates; and by mode of delivery, cord clamping time, and development of ultrasound-detected brain injury in preterm neonates.Term infants (n = 54 had a mean (SD birth weight of 3298 (442 g and gestational age of 38 (1 weeks, and preterm infants (n = 94 weighed 1340 (672 g and were 30 (3 weeks gestation. Term infants' SBP, DBP and MBP within the first 15 minutes after birth were independent of gender or respiratory support. Linear mixed regression analysis showed that preterm infants, who were female, born vaginally, had delayed cord clamping and did not require positive pressure ventilation nor develop periventricular injury or ventriculomegaly, had significantly higher SBP, DBP, and MBP at some measurement points within the first hour after birth.We present novel reference ranges of BP immediately after birth in a cohort of term and preterm neonates. They may aid in optimization of cardiovascular support during early transition at all gestations.

  1. Maternal factors in predicting low birth weight babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hematram; Lee, Nagarajah

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal factors and low birth weight among newborns at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study where mothers were followed through from first booking till delivery. There were 666 mothers who delivered from May 2007 to March 2008. Infants' birth weight were compared with maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, fathers BMI, parity, ethnicity, per capita monthly income, and maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. A multiple logistic regressions was used to determine the relationship of maternal factors and low birth weight, while the ROC curve was constructed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the predictive model. Among the significant risk factors of low birth weight were older age (35 years and above), low pre-pregnancy BMI (blood pressure. Blood pressure during pregnancy was an important risk factor for LBW, by using this parameter alone the risk of LBW could be predicted with a sensitivity rate of 70% and a specificity rate of 70%. The sensitivity and specificity was further improved to 80% and 75% percent respectively when other factors like maternal factors such as maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, ethnicity, and per capita monthly income were included in the analysis. PMID:23466766

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight. Cienfuegos Municipality. 2010-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Villafuerte Reinante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: reducing low birth weight is a priority in Cuba’s health policy since it is critical to reduce infant mortality. Objective: to identify the major risk factors associated with low birth weight in Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving all women who gave birth to low-birth-weight infants was conducted in Cienfuegos municipality from January 2010 through December 2014. Maternal age, maternal medical history, weight gain during pregnancy, nutritional assessment in early pregnancy, interpregnancy interval, gestational age at birth and pregnancy-related conditions were analyzed. Results: Four hundred fifty low-birth-weight infants were born. Hypertension as major illness in the maternal medical history was the main cause of maternal morbidity. In the obstetric history, an interpregnancy interval less than 2 years was frequently observed. It was demonstrated that the conditions mostly associated with pregnancy were vaginal infection, anemia and hypertension. Preterm infants predominated. Conclusions: the modification of these risk factors would have a favorable impact on the reduction of low birth weight.

  3. Relationship of Characteristics of Baby’s Mother with the Low Birth Weight in Regional General Hospital in Sorong

    OpenAIRE

    Agustina Naa; Rantetampang, A. L; Bernard Sandjaja

    2016-01-01

    The mortality rate of low birth weight is part of a reflection of the public health status. Low birth weight babies are born with birth weight less than 2,500 grams regardless of pregnancy. The aim of research to determine the relationship characteristic of mothers of infants with LBW. This type of research is observational analytic with cross sectional design. Collecting data through observation sheet on record medic mothers who gave birth in hospitals 2014, in Sorong, West Papua Province in...

  4. Low birth weight in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, H M; Ismail, N N; Gebbie, D A

    1991-06-01

    Low birth weight babies are defined as those weighing under 2,500 g. They make 13.5% of all births at the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur but contribute to 74.8% of all deaths. They are most likely to be Indian babies and least likely to be Chinese. Among all 3 communities, the primigravidae tend to produce smaller babies than multiparae but this is also true for the Indian of parity more than 3. The Malay teenager is more likely to produce small babies than their older counterparts but not so with the Indian and Chinese. There are definite clinical factors associated with or causing the births of small babies and the lighter the baby, the more influential are these factors. Maternal hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage, multiple pregnancy and unexplained intrauterine death are the 4 outstanding associations with both low birth weight and perinatal death. Although the spontaneous (often premature) onset of labour was the commonest preceding factor, it was much less important in the lowest birth weight groups of babies and was a less important contributor to perinatal death.

  5. Minimal enteral feeding of extensively hydrolyzed infant formula in nutritional support for very low birth weight infants%深度水解蛋白配方奶配合早期微量喂养在极低出生体重儿营养支持中的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑛; 李海燕; 储寅玥; 陈影宇; 江焘; 周俊雍; 谢玮; 彭瑞山; 罗永锋

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价深度水解蛋白配方奶配合早期微量喂养在极低出生体重儿营养支持中的临床应用效果.方法 选取2013年1月至2014年11月出生12小时内人住惠东县妇幼保健院新生儿科的极低出生体重儿90例,按抽签法随机分为A、B、C组.A组:12小时内给予深度水解蛋白配方奶(eHF)微量喂养,14天后改等量的早产儿配方奶(SPF)继续喂养;B组:12小时内给予SPF微量喂养;C组:为对照组,给予常规治疗,12小时以后开始SPF喂养.比较三组患儿恢复出生体重的日龄、喂养不耐受的发生率及新生儿贫血、宫外发育迟缓和NEC的发生率.结果 恢复出生体重时间A组短于B、C组,喂养不耐受发生率A组低于B组、C组,差异均有统计学意义;三组喂养方式下,A组新生儿贫血、宫外发育迟缓和NEC发生率低于B组和C组.结论 深度水解蛋白配方奶配合早期微量喂养可促进极低出生体重儿体重的早期恢复,改善喂养不耐受的发生率.%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of minimal enteral feeding of extensively hydrolyzed infant formula in nutritional support for very low birth weight infants.Methods 90 very low birth weight infants born within 12 hours and admitted into Department of Neonates,Huidong Children and Maternal Hospital from January 2013,to November,2014 were selected and were randomly divided into group A,group B,and group C according to lottery method.Group A were minimally fed with extensively hydrolyzed infant formula (eHF) within 12 hours,14 days from then with the same amount of standard preterm infant formula (SPF);group B with SPF within 12 hours;and group C (a control group) conventionally treated and with SPF 12 hours after being admitted.The time recovering to birth weight and the incidences of feeding intolerance,anemia,extra uterine growth restriction (EUGR),and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).Results The time recovering to birth weight was significantly shorter and

  6. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  7. Birth weight for gestational age among Flemish twin population

    OpenAIRE

    Doom, E.C.G.; Delbaere, I.; Martens, G.; Temmerman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop birth weight references for twins. Mean birth weights of individual twins are lower than those of singletons, hence singleton birth weight curves may not be suitable to assess twin birth weights. Study design: Twin birth weight curves were developed according to gestational age, gender, parity and mode of conception. The curves are based on population-based data of 40,494 twins born in Flanders, Belgium between 1987 and 2007. Results: A differen...

  8. Analysis of Birth weight using Singular Value Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Nagarajan, D; Nagarajan, V; Seethalekshmi, V

    2010-01-01

    The researchers have drawn much attention about the birth weight of newborn babies in the last three decades. The birth weight is one of the vital roles in the babys health. So many researchers such as (2),(1) and (4) analyzed the birth weight of babies. The aim of this paper is to analyze the birth weight and some other birth weight related variable, using singular value decomposition and multiple linear regression.

  9. Effect of administration of bifidobacteria on intestinal microbiota in low-birth-weight infants and transition of administered bifidobacteria: a comparison between one-species and three-species administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizeki, Shinobu; Sugita, Masaoki; Takata, Masaaki; Yaeshima, Tomoko

    2013-10-01

    The effects of administration of bifidobacteria on the intestinal microbiota in low-birth-weight infants, and the transition of each strain of administered bifidobacteria were investigated. A single strain of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (5 × 10(8); one-species group) or a mixture of three species composed of B. breve M-16V, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis M-63 and B. longum subsp. longum BB536 (5 × 10(8) of each strain; three-species group) were administered daily for 6 weeks. Bifidobacterial administration significantly increased the detection rates and cell numbers of bifidobacteria in the feces (weeks 1-6). The proportion of bifidobacteria was significantly higher in the one-species group at weeks 1-4, and in the three-species group at weeks 1-6 compared with the control group. Furthermore, the proportion of bifidobacteria in the three-species group was significantly higher than that in the one-species group at weeks 1 and 6. The proportion of infants with bifidobacteria-predominant microbiota was significantly higher in the three-species group than in the control group during the test period. The detection rates of Clostridium were lower in the bifidobacteria-administered groups. The proportions of Enterobacteriaceae were significantly lower in the three-species group compared to the other groups (weeks 4 and 6). Among the three strains administered, B. breve M-16V and Bifidobacterium infantis M-63 were detected in 85% or more of the infants during the administration period, while B. longum BB536 was detected in 40% or less. Compared with administration of one species, administration of three species of bifidobacteria resulted in earlier formation of a bifidobacteria-predominant fecal microbiota and maintenance of this microbiota.

  10. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  11. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  12. 捐赠母乳与配方奶喂养对极低和超低出生体重儿影响的meta分析%Meta-analysis of donor human milk versus formula milk for feeding very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余章斌; 韩树萍; 陈小慧; 周娟; 刘蓓蓓; 沙莉; 董小玥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of feeding donor human milk versus formula milk on very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI).Methods The Cochrane library,PubMed,EMBASE,Wanfang,CNKI and VIP database were searched for the randomized controlled trials (RCT) that compare donor human milk with formula milk in VLBWI and ELBWI from the establishment of database up to February 2014.The quality of the included studies was assessed.Meta analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2.9 software.The results were expressed by mean difference (MD) and 95%CI for continuous variables,RR and 95%CI for categorical variables.Results Only five trials were included:in quality evaluation,two trials were graded B,and the other three were graded C.Meta-analysis showed that,compared with the formula milk,feeding of donor human milk could reduce the risk ofnecrotizing enterocolitis (RR=0.36,95%CI:0.18-0.73,P<0.01),but not the risks of sepsis (RR=0.92,95%CI:0.50 1.72,P=0.80),retinopathy of prematurity (RR=1.21,95%CI:0.84-1.74,P=0.31) and in-hospital mortality (RR=0.66,95%CI:0.18-2.37,P=0.52).The significantly lower rates in weight gains in neonatal period (MD=-6.58,95%CI:-11.19 to-1.98,P<0.01) and body length (MD=-0.30,95%CI:-0.41 to-0.20,P<0.01)were found in donor human milk compared with formula milk.No significant difference in head circumference (MD=-0.16,95%CI:-0.33 to 0.01,P=0.13) was seen in comparison of donor human milk with formula milk.Conclusions Feeding with donor human milk can reduce the risk ofnecrotizing enterocolitis in VLBWI and ELBWI,but its effects on neonatal growth need to be further studied in large scale RCT.%目的 评价捐赠母乳与配方奶喂养对极低出生体重儿(very low birth weight infant,VLBWI)和超低出生体重儿(extremely low birth weight infant,ELBWI)的影响. 方法 检索Cochrane图书馆、PubMed、EMBASE、万方数据库、中国期刊全文数据库和中国维普数据库,

  13. Neonatal physiological correlates of near-term brain development on MRI and DTI in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants

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    Jessica Rose, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Results suggest that at near-term age, thalamus WM microstructure may be particularly vulnerable to certain neonatal risk factors. Interactions between albumin, bilirubin, phototherapy, and brain development warrant further investigation. Identification of physiological risk factors associated with selective vulnerability of certain brain regions at near-term age may clarify the etiology of neurodevelopmental impairment and inform neuroprotective treatment for VLBW preterm infants.

  14. Study on the correlation between pregestational BMI & weight gain during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight & infant obesity%孕前体重指数、孕期增重与新生儿出生体重及婴儿肥胖相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓青; 王小莹; 龙俊

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between pregestational BMI&weight gain during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight&newborn obesity.Methods:285 pregnant women(primiparity)with single pregnancy were divided into low body weight group (n=68),nor-mal weight group(n=164)and obese group(n=53)according to pregestational body mass index (BMI).The status of weight gain during pregnancy ,birth weight of newborn and infant obesity was observed and recorded ,and the correlation was analyzed .Results:The difference in the comparison of birth weight of newborn was statistically significant in these groups (P<0.05);the obese infants were more many in the obese group.The maternal weight was correlated with the months of obese infants (P<0.05).Conclusion:The pregestational weight has no correlation with weight gain during pregnancy ,but the weight gain during pregnancy is closely correlated with neonatal birth weight . Therefore the weight gain during pregnancy should closedly be monitored and diet be reasonably controlled ,so the birth rate of obese infants will be reduced .%目的:探讨孕前体重指数、孕期体重增加与新生儿出生体重及婴儿肥胖相关性研究。方法:按孕前体重指数将285例单胎初产妊娠孕妇分为低体重组68例、正常体重组164例及肥胖组53例,观察记录三组孕妇孕期体重增加、新生儿出生体重及婴儿肥胖情况,并分析其相关性。结果:不同体重组新生儿体重比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);肥胖组肥胖婴儿较多,且孕妇体重与肥胖儿月份呈相关性,其中不同体重组婴儿出生后1个月、3个月肥胖比例与孕妇体重呈正相关(P<0.05),且孕妇体重指数越高,出现肥胖儿越早。结论:孕前体重与孕期增重无相关性,但孕期增重与新生儿的出生体重有密切相关性,故应在孕期严密监测孕妇体重增加情况,合理控制饮食,从而降低肥胖儿出生率。

  15. Avaliação neurológica de recém-nascidos pré-termo de muito baixo peso com displasia broncopulmonar Neurological assessment of very low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Ghisi de Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever e comparar a avaliação neurológica e comportamental de recém-nascidos pré-termos com e sem displasia broncopulmonar (DBP. MÉTODOS: Recém-nascidos prematuros com peso ao nascer inferior a 1500g e idade gestacional menor de 32 semanas foram avaliados com 40 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida, no Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da Mulher da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Utilizou-se a Avaliação Neurológica de Dubowitz, com 29 itens divididos em seis categorias: tônus, padrões de tônus, reflexos, movimentos, sinais anormais e comportamento. O estado de consciência do recém-nascido foi graduado segundo Brazelton (1973. Utilizaram-se os testes do qui-quadrado e exato de Fischer para variáveis qualitativas e o de Mann-Whitney para as numéricas não-paramétricas, com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: No período de janeiro de 2005 a setembro de 2007, 24 recém-nascidos, 12 com DBP e 12 controles, com idade gestacional ao nascer de 28±1 semana e peso de 884±202g no grupo com DBP e 31±1 semana e 1156±216g no Grupo Controle foram avaliados. Dos 29 itens avaliados, 18 foram homogêneos entre os grupos e a pontuação geral dos dois grupos não apresentou diferença (p=0,30. Observou-se maior anormalidade neurológica no grupo com DBP em oito itens e, no Grupo Controle, em três itens. CONCLUSÕES: A comparação da avaliação neurológica de Dubowitz de recém-nascidos pré-termos com e sem DBP não apresentou diferença significante com 40 semanas de idade gestacional corrigida. Nas categorias reflexos e postura/tônus, observou-se tendência a anormalidade no grupo DBP.OBJECTIVE: To compare the neurological assessment of preterm newborn infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. METHODS: Preterm newborn infants with birth weight less than 1,500g and gestational age less than 32 weeks were evaluated by Dubowitz Method at 40 weeks of corrected gestational age. All infants

  16. Developmental outcome of low birth-weight and preterm newborns: a re-view of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems. Global statistics demonstrates an increase in the prevalence of low birth weight in the developing countries. Low birth weight infants are exposed to complications such as major neurosensory impairements, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances. The majority of infant's death and developmental disorders were due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight. Infants weighing less than 2500 g, is a major determinant of both neonatal and infant mortality rates and, together with congenital anomalies (e.g., cardiac, central nervous system, and respiratory, contributes significantly to childhood morbidity. Various studies indicate that low birth weight infants are suffering from physiological and psychosocial disabilities, two to three times more than the other children. At school age, preterm and low birth weight infants have poorer physical growth, cognitive function, and school performance. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Although the survival rates have increased dramatically and the incidence of morbidities has decreased, the complications are still considered to be associated with economical and social burdens. Most children with Low birth weight suffer from multiple disabilities. Therefore, they need special and consistent care. On demand of reducing the infant mortality rate, the need to decrease the complications in low birth weight and preterm infants should be considered by the policy makers in health care system. In this review article, we assessed current evidences on developmental outcomes of low birth weight and

  17. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

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    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  18. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

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    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  19. Infant Motor Assessment, Long-Term Clinical Outcome, Quantitative Cerebral MRI and Cognitive Training in Children Born Preterm with Very Low Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Grunewaldt, Kristine Hermansen

    2014-01-01

    The preterm birth incidence and survival rates have been increasing over the last few decades due to advances in obstetric care and neonatal treatment. Despite this, the number of preterm children that develop severe neuroimpairments or more subtle difficulties within cognition, attention, behavioral and every day skills are still high. Perinatal brain injury, including diffuse and focal white matter necrosis and grey matter injury is the most common cause of the neuroimpairments in preterm c...

  20. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

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    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  1. Risk Factors for Neutropenia in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants%极低出生体重儿中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨; 王丹华

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究极低出生体重儿中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素。方法回顾性纳入2011年1月至2013年12月在北京协和医院新生儿重症监护室住院治疗的极低出生体重儿。根据生后第一周内有无中性粒细胞减少症,分为早发中性粒细胞减少症和无早发中性粒细胞减少症病例;同时根据第一周后有无中性粒细胞减少症,分为晚发中性粒细胞减少症和无晚发中性粒细胞减少症病例。分别对其临床情况进行比较,对中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素进行分析。结果共108例患儿纳入本研究,平均胎龄(30.1±2.2)周,平均出生体重(1188±216) g。其中32例发生早发中性粒细胞减少症,53例发生晚发中性粒细胞减少症。早发中性粒细胞减少症患儿孕母妊娠期患高血压疾病发生率高于未发生早发中性粒细胞减少症患儿(59.4%比31.6%, P=0.007)。晚发中性粒细胞减少症患儿胎龄小于未发生晚发中性粒细胞减少症患儿[(29.5±2.3)周比(30.6±2.0)周, P=0.009];出生体重低于未发生晚发中性粒细胞减少症患儿[(1123±212) g比(1251±201) g, P=0.002];早发感染、晚发感染的发生率均高于未发生晚发中性粒细胞减少症患儿(50.9%比30.9%, P=0.034;100%比43.6%, P<0.001)。早发感染患儿中血小板减少症发生率高于中性粒细胞减少症发生率(45.5%比25.0%, P=0.045)。结论早发中性粒细胞减少症与晚发中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素不同。孕母妊娠期高血压疾病可能是早发中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素;小胎龄、低出生体重、早发感染和晚发感染可能是晚发中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素。%Objective To investigate the risk factors for neutropenia in extremely low birth weight ( EL-BW) infants.Methods We retrospectively studied the clinical data of ELBW infants treated in Neonatal

  2. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

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    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA. METHODS: Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana. RESULTS: Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05. CONCLUSION: This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  3. Spatial variations in the associations of term birth weight with ambient air pollution in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun; Tu, Wei; Tedders, Stuart H

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is an important indicator of overall infant health and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality, and low birth weight (LBW) is a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have examined the associations of birth weight with ambient air pollution, but the results were inconsistent. In this study, a spatial statistical technique, geographically weighted regression (GWR) is applied to explore the spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with concentrations of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the State of Georgia, USA adjusted for gestational age, parity, and six other socioeconomic, behavioral, and land use factors. The results show considerable spatial variations in the associations of birth weight with both pollutants. Significant positive, non-significant, and significant negative relationships between birth weight and concentrations of each air pollutant are all found in different parts of the study area, and the different types of the relationships are affected by the socioeconomic and urban characteristics of the communities where the births are located. The significant negative relationships between birth weight and O3 indicate that O3 is a significant risk factor of LBW and these associations are primarily located in less-urbanized communities. On the other hand, PM2.5 is a significant risk factor of LBW in the more-urbanized communities with higher family income and education attainment. These findings suggest that environmental and health policies should be adjusted to address the different effects of air pollutants on birth outcomes across different types of communities to more effectively and efficiently improve birth outcomes. PMID:27104672

  4. Resolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection-related severe pulmonary hypertension in a very low-birth-weight infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiterna-Sperling, Cornelia; Hüseman, Dieter; Timme, Jens; Bührer, Christoph; Obladen, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) affects approximately 0.5% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with poor prognosis. The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-related PAH (HIV-PAH) remains controversial. Little is known about the incidence, clinical course, and therapy options for PAH in HIV-1-infected pediatric patients. Here, we report the case of a preterm infant with HIV-related life-threatening PAH, which resolved after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  5. Teenagers born at extremely low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Michael F.; Grunau, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence constitutes a major transition for extremely low birth weight (ELBW) teenagers. Recent studies of ELBW teenagers born in the 1980s have provided information about the growth and developmental characteristics of these individuals in adolescence and in early adulthood. ELBW teenagers are shorter and lighter than their full-term peers, and have a smaller head circumference. Cognitive and academic vulnerabilities documented during the school years, particularly difficulties with nonve...

  6. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight. PMID:26398873

  7. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  8. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho; Diana Barbosa Cunha; Ana Paula Pereira Esteves; Elisa Maria de Aquino Lacerda; Mariza Miranda Theme Filha

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by explo...

  9. 厦门市低出生体质量儿危险因素病例对照研究%A case-control study of risk factors for low birth weight infants in Xiamen City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍啸青; 叶曦; 李学来; 李国伟; 陈岚枫; 张金华; 牛建军; 周裕林; 谢荣珍; 王昊平; 陈国伟; 蔡黎新

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨厦门市低出生体质量儿的发生及其危险因素,为预防和降低低出生体质量儿的发生提供科学依据。方法采用1∶3配对病例-对照方法,在厦门市属医疗机构收集86例低出生体质量儿及按匹配条件收集258例对照,利用条件 Logistic 逐步回归模型分析其影响因素。结果母亲文化程度在大专及以上、家庭月人均收入≥4000元、孕前1年至孕13周内补充叶酸、饮食清淡和产检次数≥5次是保护因素,而妊娠期高血压疾病、孕期服用抗生素、孕周 4 000 yuan,intake of folic acid a year before pregnancy to the first three months of pregnancy,balanced diet,and more than 5 times of antenatal examinations.The risk factors of LBW infants included hypertensive disorder complicated with pregnancy,intake of antibiotics,gestational age less than 37 weeks,increase in amplitude of gestational BMI<5,father was worker or technician,and eating raw garlic more than 2 times per week.Conclusion The above causes may contribute to low birth weight infants in Xiamen City and appropriate preventive measures should be taken to reduce the incidence.

  10. IGF-1、IGFBP-3与极低出生体质量儿生后早期生长发育的关系%The relationships of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 with growth of very low birth weight infants in the early postnatal stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范茜; 崔其亮; 张慧; 吴繁; 梁少珍; 谭岱峰; 林苑清; 谭慧园; 朱力逢

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationships of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) with growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in the early postnatal stage. Methods According to the individual gestational age and birth weight, 32 cases of VLBW infants were divided into small for gestational age (SGA) group and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group. After birth, all the infants were given the same nutritional intake. The body weight, body length, head circumference and body mass index (BMI) were monitored at different time points (d0, d7, d14 and d28 after birth). Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were measured by radiommunoassay, and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio was calculated. Results There was no signiifcant difference of body weight, body length, head circumference and BMI between two groups at d0, d7, d14 after birth. Body weight and BMI in SGA group were less than those in AGA group at d28 after birth (P0.05);但AGA组的IGF-1、IGFBP-3水平随日龄增长而升高,IGF-1于生后第14、28天时高于出生时水平,而IGFBP-3于生后第28天时高于出生时水平,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。生后第28天,SGA组IGF-1、IGFBP-3均低于AGA组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 SGA新生儿的IGF-1、IGFBP-3水平低于AGA,低水平的IGF-1、IGFBP-3可能会导致生长迟缓。

  11. Pulmonary diseases of the infants weighing under 1500 grams at birth: clinical and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of the intensive perinatal care, the survival rate of the infants weighing less than 1500 gm at birth has improved substantially. However, pulmonary diseases remain to be the major causes of the high mortality of these low birthweight infants. In order to systematically assess an epidemiologic distribution of the pulmonary diseases in these very low weight prematures, we have analyzed the chest x-rays of 102 infants weighing less than 1500 gm. These consisted of 30 with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) weighing less than 1000 gm and 72 with very low birth weight (VLBW) weighing 1001 - 1500 gm. The survival rate of ELBW and VLBW was 10% and 49%, respectively. Seventy of 102 infants had abnormal findings in the chest x-ray. Forty-eight had idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), 8 immature lung, 6 Wilson-Mikity syndrome, 4 pneumonia, 2 pulmonary hemorrhage, 1 congenital heart disease, and 1 suspicious Pierre-Robin syndrome. Seven out of 48 infants with IRDS had persistent ductus arteriosus, and in only 2(30%) of 7 cases were alive. Endotracheal intubation and assisted ventilation application for the treatment of IRDS resulted in pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 4 infants and pneumothorax and / or pneumomediastinum in 4 infants. Displacement of endotracheal intubation showed lobar and / or unilateral lung atelectasis in 8 infants and a case of accidental dislodgement of intubation tube into the esophagus resulted in air esophagogram and worsened lung aeration. In spite of the development of many sophisticated methods of diagnostic radiology, the chest x-ray was still the most valuable yet simple way of evaluating the pulmonary problems in these extreme and very low birth weight prematures

  12. Mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Costa, Raquel; Pacheco, Alexandra; Pais, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To study mother-to-infant emotional involvement at birth, namely factors (socio-demographics, previous life events, type of delivery, pain at childbirth, support from partner, infant characteristics, early experiences with the newborn, and mother’s mood) that interfere with the mother’s positive, negative and not clear emotions toward the newborn. Methods. The Bonding Scale (an extended Portuguese version of the ‘New Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale’) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Dep...

  13. Evaluation of the Growth Process of Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques at Royan Institute from Birth to 9 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Nateghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to recent scientific progress in assisted reproductive techniques (ART, infertile couples can now become fertile. Thus, a number of infants in our country are the results of these costly interventions. This study has been undertaken to evaluate the physical growth process of different methods of ART infants by standard growth charts from birth until nine months of age.Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 333 infants conceived through ART [intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and in vitro fertilization (IVF] at Royan Institute. A sequential, non-random sampling method in a period of 22 months was used. Their growth was assessed by measuring infants weight, height and head circumference, and physical examination. The growth patterns were calculated by recording the values in standard growth charts. The final analysis was done with SPSS version 16 and by using Chi-square test.Findings: In comparison with growth charts, the weights of one-third of the infants were less than two standard deviations (SD at birth and one-fourth had head circumference less than three SD at birth. Low birth weight (LBW infants were six times more than infants of normal population. From birth to six months of age, growth abnormalities were seen in a substantial number of infants. However, at nine months of age, there was no significant difference observed between infants conceived by different methods of ART (IVF and ICSI.Conclusion: Multiple births are the most important confounding factor impacting the growth process of ART infants. Multiple pregnancies can lead to low birth weight, height and head circumference, and growth abnormalities up to six months of age. This abnormality improves by increasing age of the infants.

  14. Efficacy observation of iron deficiency anemia prevention in 207 low birth weight infants%207例低出生体重儿预防缺铁性贫血的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵小飞; 刘杰; 郑娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy and adverse reactions of iron supplementation for preventing iron deficiency anemia of mild low birth weight infants at different ages, to provide reference for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia in low birth weight infant. Methods Totally 207 mild low birth weight infants were divided into 3 experimental groups (groupⅠ:starting iron supplement from the age of 2 weeks;groupⅡ:starting iron sup-plement from the age of 4 weeks; groupⅢ: starting iron supplement from the age of 2 months) and one control group (groupⅣ:without iron supplement) basing on the principle of parent informed consent. The iron supplement was 2 mg·kg-1·d-1 for subjects in the three experimental groups. Performed blood cell analysis of all subjects respec-tively at the beginning, age of 3 months and 6 months, compared the HGB, MCV, MCH, MCHC and anemia incidence rate of each group. Occurrence of adverse reaction were monitored at the same time. Results The hemoglobin levels of groupⅠ,ⅡandⅢwere higher than that of groupⅣ, and the incidence rates of groupⅠ,ⅡandⅢwere lower than that of the groupⅣ. The differences were statistically significant (P0.05);there were no statistically significant differences between the hemoglobin levels and anemia incidence rates of groupⅠand groupⅡ(P>0.05);GroupⅠshowed most adverse reactions. Conclusion It would be better to start iron sup-plementation at the age of 4 weeks so as to prevent iron deficiency anemia in mild low birth weight infants. Earlier iron supplementation will increase the incidence of adverse reaction, while later iron supplementation will increase the incidence of anemia.%目的:观察不同时期开始补铁以预防轻度低出生体重儿缺铁性贫血的疗效及不良反应发生情况,为预防低出生体重儿缺铁性贫血提供参考。方法将207例轻度低出生体重儿按家长知情同意原则分为三个实验组(Ⅰ组从2周龄

  15. 极低出生体质量新生儿DIC高危因素分析%HIGH RISK FACTORS OF DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION IN VERY LOW BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵长荣; 姜红; 王启红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate and analyse high risk factors of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in very low birth-weight infants (VLBWIs), so as to offer an early intervention. Methods Clinical data of 78 VLBWIs treated in the neonatal intensive care unit CNICU) between November 2010 and October 2011 were reviewed retrospectively for the incidence of DIC the information of those in DIC and non-DIC groups was analyzed for their perinatal periodi complicationsi and outcome, Logistic regression analysis was employed for the correlated risk factors. Results Twenty-six of the 78 VLBWIs were diagnosed with DIC, 74(94. 9%) survived. The differences between DIC and non-DIC group were significant in terms of gestational agef birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). asphyxia, septicemia, hypothermia, pulmonary hemorrhage, anemia, respiratory failure, and alimentary tract hemorrhage (t=2, 095,3. 100;X2 = 4. 524 - 18. 567,P<0, 05). Logistic regression analysis showed that IUGR, asphyxia., septicemia, hypothermia, pulmonary hemorrhage, anemia, and respiratory failure were the high-risk factors for DIC (X2 =4. 325-17. 175,P<0. 05). Conclusion VLBWI is the high-risk group of DIC, which is associated with gestational age, birth weight, IUGR, asphyxia, septicemia, anemia, pulmonary hemorrhage, anemia, respiratory failure, and alimentary tract hemorrhage in which, IUGR, asphyxia, septicemia, hypothermia, anemia and respiratory failure are risk factors for DIC. For those with younger gestational age and lighter birth weight, more DIC will be involved.%目的 调查分析极低出生体质量新生儿(VLBWI)弥散性血管内凝血(DIC)高危因素,以便早期干预.方法 回顾性分析2010年11月-2011年10月我院NICU住院治疗VLBWI 78例DIC发生情况,分析DIC组与非DIC组基本资料、围生期情况、并发症及治疗方面的差异,并对相关危险因素行Logistic回归分析.结果 78例VLBWI发生DIC 26例,存活74例(94.9%).DIC组与

  16. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  17. The clinical research of early total vein nutrition in very low birth weight infants%极低出生体重儿早期足量静脉营养临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙东明; 程亚颖; 王欣; 杨小巍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨极低出生体重儿早期足量静脉营养的效果。方法:选择我院儿科2008年1月至2011年12月收治的极低出生体重儿82例,随机分为2组。实验组45例,对照组37例,实验组予早期足量静脉养方案,对照组予传统的静脉营养方案。记录两组患儿恢复至出生体重时间、平均每日体重增长情况、达足量肠道喂养时间、住院时间、及相关合并症的发生率,对记录数据进行统计学分析。结果:与对照组相比,实验组恢复至出生体重的时间、达足量喂养时间、住院时间短,平均每日体重的增长较多,差异有统计学意义;两组间均无静脉炎、血栓形成、高血脂、氮质血症及坏死性小肠结肠炎的发生。结论:对极低出生体重儿应用早期足量静脉营养,体重增长快,达全胃肠喂养时间及住院时间缩短,且相关并发症的发生没有增加。%ObjectiveTo investigate the treatment effect of early sufficient vein nutrition in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). Method 82 cases of the VLBWI in our Hospital from Jul. 2008 to Dec. 2011 were selected and randomly divided into two groups. The 45 cases in experimental group were treated with the method of early sufficient vein nutrition, while 37 cases in the control group were treated with the method of classic peripheral vein nutrition. Record the time of regaining the birth weight, the time of hospitalization, and the time required for total gastroenteric nutrition, the daily increase of the body weight in the two groups. The incidence rate of complications were observed and the statistical analysis was done. ResultCam-pared with the control group, the time of regaining birth weight, the time of hospitalization,and the time required for total gastro-enteric nutrition, and the average daily increase of body weight was higher, the difference was statistically significant. The two groups didn’t have phlebitis

  18. Maternal dental radiography during pregnancy is not associated with term low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: In a report published in JAMA in 2004, Hujoel and colleagues indicated that maternal dental radiography during pregnancy may be associated with term low birth weight. Interestingly, they concluded that dental radiographies cause measurable radiation doses to the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and the radiation effects on this axis is the reason for term low birth weight. On the other hand, low birth weight is the second leading cause of infant death. In this paper the results obtained in a 2 year study conducted at a midwifery hospital in Rafsanjan, IR Iran are reported. Methods: Four hundred seventy-five singleton infants with gestational periods of 37-44 wk born between 2006 and 2007 at the Niknafs Teaching Hospital affiliated with Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences and met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Demographic data and clinical findings at birth including gestation age, sex of infant, birth order, season of birth, maternal age, and maternal education were collected from maternal and newborn hospital records and by interviews with parents. Maternal history of exposure to common sources of man-made ionizing and non-ionizing (exposure to radiations emitted by mobile phones, CRTs, cordless phones) radiation before and during pregnancy were carefully recorded. Results: Among the 475 infants who were studied, there were only 15 cases with a history of maternal dental radiography during pregnancy. The average newborn infants' birth weight in non-exposed and exposed (maternal dental radiography during pregnancy) groups were 3166.69±481.31 g and 3118.67±341.42 g respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: In this study, low birth weight was not associated with maternal dental radiography during pregnancy. These results are generally inconsistent with those reported by Hujoel and colleagues.

  19. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    children to Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) at birth or later according to local policy. Blood samples were obtained from a sub-group at age 6 weeks. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in whole-blood cell cultures stimulated with...... lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. RESULTS: Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate...... (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated with...

  20. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  1. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  2. Medical, nutritional, and dental considerations in children with low birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Susan

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that 8 to 26 percent of infants are born with low birth weight (LBW) worldwide. These children are at risk for medical problems in childhood and adulthood and often have poor oral health. The influence of fetal growth on birth weight and its relevance to childhood growth and future adult health is controversial. Evidence now indicates that the postnatal period is a critical time when nutrition may predispose the child to lifelong metabolic disturbance and obesity. Given the lack of consensus on optimum infant nutrition for LBW, premature, and small-for-gestational-age infants, many such infants may be suboptimally managed. This may result in rapid postnatal weight gain and ongoing health problems. The purpose of this review was to summarize medical terminology and issues related to fetal growth, morbidity associated with being born low birth weight, premature, or small for gestational age, and the importance of appropriate nutrition in such infants. Pediatric dentists can play an important role in supporting healthy feeding practices and improving long-term health in these children. Early integrated medical and dental care should be encouraged for all children with low birth weight.

  3. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index explains infant's weight and BMI at 14 months: results from a multi-ethnic birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Mesman; T.J. Roseboom; G.J. Bonsel; R.J.B.J. Gemke; M.F. van der Wal; T.G. Vrijkotte

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between (self-reported) maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (pBMI), and child's weight, height and BMI at age 14 months. Design: Prospective multi-ethnic community-based cohort study. Setting: Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Participants: 8266 pregnant women

  4. Effects of Non - nutritive Sucking and Abdominal Massage on Weight Gain in Very Low Birth Weight Infants%非营养性吸吮联合腹部抚触对极低出生体重儿重增长的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨非营养性吸吮联合腹部按摩对极低出生体重儿体重增长的影响.方法 将舟山市妇幼保健院NICU收治的48例需经鼻胃管喂养的极低出生体重儿随机分成两组.对照组(24例)给予单纯经鼻胃管喂养,实验组(24例)在经鼻胃管喂养的基础上辅以非营养性吸吮加腹部抚触,两组均给予同一种早产儿特殊配方乳喂养.观察记录两组胃内残留发生率、鼻胃管留置时间、达到完全肠道营养时间、胎粪完全排尽时间、恢复出生体重时间、体重增长速度、睡眠时间.结果 与对照组比较,实验组鼻胃管留置时间较短,达到完全肠道营养时间短,胎粪完全排尽时间短,胃内残留奶量少,恢复出生体重时间及体重增长速度快,睡眠时间相对延长.结论 极低出生体重儿在鼻胃管喂养期间辅以非营养吸吮伴腹部抚触的方法,能有效促进胃排空,对其胃肠功能发育及体重增长有促进作用.%Objective To investigate the effects of non - nutritive sucking ( NNS) and abdominal massage on weight gain in veiy low birth weight infants. Methods Forty - eight very low weight infants in neonate intensive care unit ( NICU) accepting intermittent nasogastric feeding ( INCF) were randomized allocated into treatment group (24 cases) and control group (24 cases). All the infants in this study were fed with the same milk formula with the objects in the treatment group treated with non - nutritional sucking and abdominal massage additionally. We observed the rate of gastric residue, the retaining time of nasogastric tube, the reaching time of total intestinal nutrition, the time of meconium exhaustion, the birth - weight regaining time, the velocity of weight gain and sleep time in the two groups. Results Compared with the control group, the retaining time of nasogastric tube, the reaching time of total intestinal nutrition, and the time of meconium exhaustion were significantly shorter, the rate

  5. Nutrition management strategy of very low and extremely low birth weight infants%极低和超低出生体质量儿营养管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩树萍

    2014-01-01

    Extrauterine growth restriction is a major clinical problem for very low and extremely low birth weight infants.They need the rapid accumulation of protein and energy after born;otherwise it will lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies,malnutrition and neurological problems.The ideal nutritional strategies is to provide parenteral nutrition after birth,amino acids and lipids are initially provided at a minimum of 2.0 g/(kg · d) and 1.0 g/(kg — d),which advance to 3.5-4.0 g/(kg · d) and 3.0 g/(kg · d),keep the appropriate protein/energy ratio.The appropriate vitamin,minerals and elements should be provided.Enteral feeding should be initiated immediately about 24 h after birth,minimal feeding [10-20 mL/(kg · d)] should last 3-5 days.Human milk should gradually increase to 75-120 mL/(kg · d) and add human milk fortifier.Parenteral nutrition is stopped when human milk fed to 120 mL/(kg · d).%极低和超低出生体质量儿出生早期如无快速积累蛋白和能量,将发生营养不足,导致神经发育不良和疾病的增加.理想的营养策略为出生就开始肠外营养,氨基酸、脂肪乳剂分别从2.0 g/(kg·d)和1.0g/(kg·d)开始,并快速达到3.5 ~4.0g/(kg·d)、3.0 g/(kg·d),保持适当的蛋白/能量比,合理添加维生素、矿物质和微量元素.肠内营养于出生后24 h左右开始喂养,微量喂养10~20 mL/(kg·d),持续3~5d后逐渐增加奶量.母乳喂养者奶量增至75~ 120 mL/(kg·d)可添加母乳强化剂.奶量至120 mL/(kg·d)停肠外营养.

  6. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  7. 极低出生体质量儿中枢神经系统假丝酵母菌感染诊断%Diagnosis for the very low birth weight infant with central nervous system Candida infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛健

    2011-01-01

    Disseminated Candida infection in the very and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most pathogens for the late onset of sepsis. Central nervous system Candida infection, such as microabscess, does not show specific manifestations in spite of multiple pathological involvements which often could not be demonstrated by microbiological and cellular examinations of cerebral spinal fluid. The examination of cerebral spinal fluid combined with brain imaging should be taken into consideration on the diagnosis of central nervous system Candida infection, particularly diffusion-weighted MRI could play more important role in early diagnosis of cerebral microabscess.%全身播散性假丝酵母菌感染已成为极低和超低出生体质量儿晚发感染的主要病原之一,而其导致的中枢神经系统受累的临床表现缺乏特异性、神经病理学的多样性使得脑脊液微生物学和常规细胞学分析不能除外特殊的损伤类型,特别是微小脑脓肿.因此中枢神经系统假丝酵母菌感染的诊断必须结合脑脊液和影像学检查,磁共振弥散加权成像可能成为早期诊断微小脓肿的重要方法.

  8. Medida da freqüência respiratória e do volume corrente para prever a falha na extubação de recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso em ventilação mecânica Evaluation of respiratory rate and tidal volume to predict extubation failure in mechanically ventilated very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josy Davidson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se a freqüência respiratória (FR, o volume corrente (VC e a relação FR/VC poderiam prever a falha na extubação em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso submetidos à ventilação mecânica. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, de recém-nascidos com idade gestacional OBJECTIVE: To verify if respiratory rate (RR, tidal volume (TV and respiratory rate and tidal volume ratio (RR/TV could predict extubation failure in very low birth weight infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled newborn infants with gestational age <37 weeks and birth weight <1,500g, mechanically ventilated from birth during 48 hours to 30 days and thought to be ready for extubation. As soon as the physicians decided for extubation, the neonates received endotracheal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP for 10 minutes while spontaneous RR, TV and RR/TV were measured using a fixed-orifice pneumotachograph positioned between the endotracheal tube and the ventilator circuit. Thereafter, the neonates were extubated to nasal CPAP. Extubation failure was defined as the need for reintubation within 48 hours. RESULTS: Of the 35 studied infants, 20 (57% were successfully extubated and 15 (43% required reintubation. RR and RR/TV before extubation had a trend to be higher in unsuccessfully extubated infants. TV was similar in both groups. Sensitivity and specificity of these parameters as predictors of extubation failure were 50 and 67% respectively for RR, 40 and 67% for TV and 40 and 73% for RR/TV. CONCLUSIONS: RR, TV and RR/TV showed low sensitivity and specificity to predict extubation failure in mechanically ventilated very low birth weight infants.

  9. The Effect of Oral Polio Vaccine at Birth on Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Najaaraq; Andersen, Andreas; Hansen, Anna Sofie K;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Routine vaccines may have nonspecific effects on mortality. An observational study found that OPV given at birth (OPV0) was associated with increased male infant mortality. We investigated the effect of OPV0 on infant mortality in a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: A total...... of 7012 healthy normal-birth-weight neonates were randomized to BCG only (intervention group) or OPV0 with BCG (usual practice). All children were to receive OPV with pentavalent vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B) at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. Seven...

  10. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtekar Shyam; Kulkarni Madhav; Sadavarte Vaishali; Ashtekar Ratna

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight b...

  11. Effect of Women’s Decision-Making Autonomy on Infant’s Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Arpana Sharma; Manzur Kader

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight (LBW), an outcome of maternal undernutrition, is a major public health concern in Bangladesh where the problem is most prominent. Women's decision-making autonomy is likely an important factor influencing maternal and child health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of women's decision-making autonomy on infant's birth weight (BW). Methods. The study included data of 2175 enrolled women (14–45 years of age) from the Maternal and Infant Nutritio...

  12. Risk factors of developing infantile food allergy in low birth weight infants%低出生体质量儿婴儿期食物过敏发生的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晋波; 李楠; 李在玲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of low birth weight infants with food allergy.Methods Forty-nine food allergy children who had been admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) of Peking University Third Hospital from Jan.1,2007 to Dec.31,2011 and followed up in the Pediatrics Allergy Clinic after discharged from hospital were involved as food allergy group.Forty-nine children who had been admitted to the NICU of Peking University Third Hospital at the same time and followed up in the Child Health Care Clinic after discharged from hospital but had no manifestations of food allergy were selected by stratified sampling as control group.A questionnaire was designed to record the children's gender,gestation age,mode of delivery,feeding patterns after discharging from hospital,tobacco and alcohol consumption of their parents,allergy history of their parents,the intake of egg of the mother during lactation and the children's introduction of egg.At the same time,their hospital notes were investigated.The diseases they had and the application of parental nutrition,pulmonary surfactant and ventilator were all analyzed.Quantitative data were analyzed with Chi-square,qualitative data were analyzed with t-test.The risk factors of food allergy of the low birth weight infants were examined by unconditional Logistic regression.Results The birth weight,gender,mode of delivery,feeding patterns after discharging from hospital,parents,exposure to tobacco smoke and alcohol,the intake of egg of the mother during lactation and the children's introduction of egg between the 2 groups were no significantly different.The diseases they got and the application of parental nutrition,pulmonary surfactant and ventilator when they in hospital were no significantly different,too.The gestation age,parental history of allergy between the 2 groups were significantly different.The proportion of children of 33-35 weeks and 36-37 weeks gestation age in food allergy group were

  13. Lesões isquêmicas cerebrais no recém-nascido pré-termo de muito baixo peso Ischemic brain damage in very low birth weight preterm newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Silveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão crítica e atualizada sobre as lesões cerebrais isquêmicas no recém-nascido pré-termo de muito baixo peso. FONTES DE DADOS: As referências foram obtidas através do banco de dados MEDLINE, sendo selecionadas as mais representativas a critério dos autores. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A hemorragia com evolução para lesão isquêmica cerebral, a leucomalácia periventricular cística e a lesão difusa da substância branca cerebral são as lesões isquêmicas mais freqüentes em recém-nascidos pré-termo de muito baixo peso. Todas são doenças de causas multifatoriais, em que podem estar envolvidos fatores vasculares, hemodinâmicos, inflamatórios e infecciosos. São doenças que podem causar seqüelas neuropsicomotoras importantes e levar à paralisia cerebral e/ou déficit cognitivo e comportamental. CONCLUSÕES: O diagnóstico precoce e uma estratégia terapêutica adequada podem minimizar as seqüelas causadas por essas doenças. A prevenção da prematuridade é a principal medida preventiva a ser tomada.OBJECTIVE: To present a critical and up-to-date review of ischemic brain damage in premature, very low birth weight infants. SOURCES OF DATA: Articles were obtained by means of a search of the MEDLINE database, with those considered most representative by the authors being selected. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The most frequent ischemic injuries among preterm, very low birth weight neonates are hemorrhage progressing to with ischemic brain damage, cystic periventricular leukomalacia and diffuse lesions of the cerebral white matter. All of these conditions have multiple causative factors, which may include vascular, hemodynamic, inflammatory and infectious factors. These are disorders that can cause significant neuropsychomotor sequelae and lead to cerebral palsy and/or cognitive and behavioral deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis and adequate management of the patient can minimize long-term problems caused

  14. Comparison of Two Phototherapy Methods (Prophylactic vs Therapeutic) for Management of Hyperbilirubinemia in Very Low Birth Weight Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedeh-Sarah Nazem-Sadati; Majid Mohammadizadeh; Ramin Iranpour

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Preterm and low birth weight (LBW) infants are at greater risk of developing bilirubin-associated brain damage compared with term infants. Certainly, phototherapy, if used appropriately, is capable of controlling the bilirubin levels in LBW infants; but there is not a unique phototherapy treatment strategy in LBW infants. This study was designed to compare the prophylactic phototherapy and late treatment of jaundiced newborns weighing 1000-1500 grams.Methods: Sixty newborns with bi...

  15. Oral erythromycin for treatment of feeding intolerance in very low birth weight preterm infants%口服红霉素在极低出生体重早产儿喂养不耐受的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伊琳; 庄思齐; 刘晓红; 王斌; 朱小瑜; 崔其亮; 杨杰; 何少茹

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] A prospective,multi-center,controlled study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and possible side effects of oral erythromycin (EM) in treating preterm infants, especially VLBW(very low birth-weight ) preterm infants with feeding intolerance(FI). [Methods] 46 preterm infants with FI from 16 hospitals were enrolled,study period from January,2008 to March,2010. The patients were divided into 3 random groups:EM-HD group,oral erythromycin 12. 5 mg/kg,q8h for 7~10 days; EM-LD group,oral erythromycin 5 mg/kg, therapy as above; and control group, not treated by any gastrointestinal prokinetic agent. Several critical time points of feeding condition were compared,the incidence of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) and the potential adverse effects of erythromycin were also evaluated. [Results] 11 patients had be classed as EM-HD group,22 as EM-LD group, 13 as control. After enrollment,the time reaching 50 kCal/(kg o d) from enteral feeding were significantly shorter and the proportions of calorie ingested by the enteral route when the infants regained to their birth weight were significantly higher in two trial groups than the control group. The incidence of EUGR was significantly lower in EM-HD group. All enrolled infants were followed up from discharge to 6 months ' age,no obvious side effect was found in the trial groups. [Conclusions] In this research, both doses of oral erythromycin are effective for treating VLBW preterm infants with FI and the high dose is more effective. There are not obvious side effects of oral erythromycin observed.%[目的]评价口服不同剂量红霉素对早产儿喂养不耐受(feeding intolerance,FI)的治疗效果及可能存在的副作用,尤其对极低出生体重早产儿FI的治疗作用. [方法]选取2008年1月1日-2010年3月31日在16家三甲医院新生儿科住院并诊断为FI的早产儿,随机分为3组:红霉素大剂量组(第8~10日龄起口服红霉素12.5mg/kg,q8 h,疗程7~10 d)、红

  16. Gene expression in placentas from non-diabetic women giving birth to large for gestational age infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlsson, F; Åkerud, Helena; Schijven, D; Olivier, Jocelien; Sundström Poromaa, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes, obesity and excessive weight gain are known independent risk factors for the birth of a large for gestational age (LGA) infant. However, only one out of ten infants born LGA is born by mothers with diabetes or obesity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare placental

  17. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    OpenAIRE

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM; Middeldorp Christel M; Lamb Diane J; Vink Jacqueline M; Haak Monique C; Boomsma Dorret I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the N...

  18. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  19. New assessment of the effects of birth order and socioeconomic status on birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowding, V M

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the 20 698 singleton births occurring in one year to women resident in the Greater Dublin area provided information on birth weight, birth order, and social class. Low (less than or equal to 2500 g), suboptimal (less than or equal to 3000 g), and optimal (3001-4499 g) birth weights all showed a linear relation with social class. The incidence of low and suboptimal birth weight was highest in first, fifth, and subsequent births, and conversely optimal weight was commonest in second...

  20. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design...

  1. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Lamb; C.M. Middeldorp; C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt; J.M. Vink; M.C. Haak; D.I. Boomsma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on importan

  2. 前白蛋白在早产低出生体质量儿肠道外营养治疗中的意义%Role of serum prealbumin in nutritional treatment of low birth weight premature infants in parenteral alimentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璟; 张巍; 马建荣; 王华; 武玮

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the role of serum prealbumin in nutritional treatment of low birth weight premature infants of parenteral nutrition.Methods A total of 61 eases of low birth weight premature infants were divided into two groups: partial parenteral nutrition group(PPN group) and total parenteral nutrition group (TPN group). We detected the levels of serum prealbumin and albumin at the age of 20 hours and 7 days after birth of all infants respectively, at the same time,we observed the infants with body weight change and total caloric intake. Results Before the application of parenteral nutrition,the serum levels of prealbumin were(88.0 ± 9.1)mg/l in PPN group and (87.0± 8.7)mg/l in TPN group, and there were no significant difference between two groups(P > 0.05). Prealbumin levels of PPN group at the 7th day after birth were significantly higher than those of TPN group, which were (128.0 ± 10.8)mg/l in PPN group and (106.0 ± 10.9)mg/l in TPN group(t = 2.67, P 0.05).在生后第7天,PPN组的前白蛋白水平明显高于TPN组,分别为(128,0±10,8)mg/L和(106.0±10.9)mg/L(t=2.67,P0.05),但PPN组患儿热卡的摄入量明显高于TPN组(t=2.81,P<0.05).结论 前白蛋白比白蛋白能更好地反映机体近期的营养水平,可作为蛋白质营养状况的敏感监测指标.

  3. 低出生体重儿危险因素病例对照研究%A Case-Control Study on Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight Infant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘银梅; 沈月平; 罗小明; 刘娜; 胡文斌; 赵瑶

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the risk factors of low birth weight (LBW) infant and to provide the scientific evidence of reducing the birth rate of LBW. Methods:A strictly designed 1: 2 case-control study,with 631 LBW infants and 1262 normal birth weight infants involved,was performed in Suzhou during 2004 to 2009 to analyze the epidemiologic information. Results: Main risk factors of LBW included poor economic conditions ( OR=2.01,95%Cl 1.35 ~4.81 ) ,the history of mother's liver disease ( OR =2.73,95% Cl 1.01 ~7.37 ), mother family history with diabetes ( OR = 9.13,95% Cl 1.01 ~ 82.15 ), spontaneous abortion ( OR =1.41,95% Cl 0.97 ~ 2.04), oral contraception within 6 months before pregnancy ( OR = 3.31,95% Cl 1.07 ~10.27), poor nutrition status during pregnancy ( OR = 5.93,95% Cl 3.24 ~ 10.89 ), vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy ( OR = 1.42,95% Cl 1.03 ~ 1.96), small weight gain during pregnancy ( < 9 kg) ( OR =3.74,95%Cl 1.92 ~5.90) ,few times of pregnancy check-up ( <5 times) ( OR =3.52,95% Cl 2.49 ~7.11 ) ,gestational hypertension ( OR =3.23,95%Cl 2.02 ~5.17) ,multiple pregnancies ( OR = 10.02,95%Cl 6.17 ~16.27) ,anemia ( OR=2.34,95%Cl 1.59 ~3.43) ,low platelet count ( OR=2.16,95%Cl 1.47 ~3.16). Parent with high education level was a protective factor. Conclusions:The incidence of LBW is associated with many factors, intended measures to prevent those risk factors could be effective in reducing the incidence of LBW.%目的:探讨低体重儿发生的相关危险因素,为降低低体重儿出生率提供科学依据.方法:采用严格设计1:2配比的病例对照研究方法,对2004~2009年苏州地区的631例低体重儿和1262例正常体重儿相关流行病学资料进行分析.结果:经济状况差(OR=2.01,95%CI1.35~4.81)、母亲肝病史(OR=2.73,95%CI 1.01~7.37)、母亲糖尿病家族史(OR=9.13,95%CI1.01~82.15)、自然流产史(OR=1.41,95%CIO.97~2.04)、孕前6

  4. Low Birth Weight in Relation to Maternal Age and Multiple Pregnancies at Muhimbili National Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Harold, Adamson

    2007-01-01

    To determine the relationship between Low Birth Weight (LBW), maternal age and multiple pregnancies A retrospective cross-sectional study was done where by data were obtained from labor ward register books and computer database of the MNH labour ward and analyzed by using EPI-INFO version 6 computer program. Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) A total of 6931 infants were studied. Prevalence of LBW and multiple births were 26.4% and 2.9% respectively. There was no significant association betwee...

  5. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  6. Validation of a model for optimal birth weight: a prospective study using serial ultrasounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Gavin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to validate a model for optimal birth weight derived from neonatal records, and to test the assumption that preterm births may be considered optimally grown if they are not exposed to common factors that perturb fetal growth. Methods Weights of fetuses were estimated from serial biometric ultrasound scans (N = 2,848 and combined with neonatal weights for a prospective pregnancy cohort (N = 691. Non-Caucasians, fetuses subsequently born preterm and those with diagnosed or suspected determinants of aberrant growth were excluded leaving fetuses assumed to have experienced normal growth. A generalised linear longitudinal growth model for optimal weight was derived, including terms for gestational duration, infant sex, maternal height and birth order. This model was compared to a published model derived solely from birth weights. Results Prior to 30 weeks gestation, the published model yielded systematically lower weights than the model derived from both fetal weight and neonatal weight. From 30 weeks gestation the two models were indistinguishable. Conclusion The model for optimal birth weight was valid for births that have attained at least 30 weeks gestation. The model derived from both fetal and neonatal weights is recommended prior to this gestation.

  7. Clinical research of early individualized peripheral vein nutrition in very low birth weight premature infants%极低出生体重儿早期个体化外周静脉营养临床价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范礼英; 刘岳坤; 邹丽萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨早期个体化外周静脉营养方案对极低出生体重儿(VLBWIs)的耐受性和临床效果.方法 将湖南省浏阳市妇幼保健院2005年8月至2010年7月收治的不能耐受全胃肠道营养的早产VLBWIs 115例随机分为2组.实验组58例,于生后12 h开始应用个体化外周静脉营养方案;对照组57例,于生后48 h开始应用传统外周静脉营养方案.每天计算供给2组患儿公斤体重热卡、观察恢复出生体重时间、恢复出生体重后静脉营养期间每日体重增长情况,每天测量体重、监测血糖,每周测头围、身长各1次,在入院时、住院期间定期抽血了解肝功能、肾功能、血脂、血糖、电解质、血常规、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)的情况.观察静脉营养相关并发症发生情况,并进行统计学分析.结果 1周内相同日龄实验组所供热卡明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组恢复出生体重时间明显短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组住院14 d时白蛋白分别与同期对照组和住院72 h比较差异均有统计学意叉(P<0.05);实验组头围、身长增长较对照组快,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);实验组较对照组长至2 kg所需住院时间明显缩短,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组间比较均未增加代谢性酸中毒、胃肠外营养相关性胆汁淤积(PNAC)、脂质代谢紊乱、高胆红素血症以及肾功能损害;两组间比较ALP差异无统计学意义(P<0.05);但VLBWIs的ALP在住院14 d与住院72 h比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 VLBWIs早期个体化外周静脉营养耐受性好,体重增长快,达全胃肠喂养时间缩短,没有增加肠外营养相关并发症.%Objective To investigate the feasibility and treatment effect of early individualized peripheral vein nutrition in very low birth weight (VLBW) premature infants. Methods Totally 115 cases of the VLBW premature infants who cannot bear whole

  8. Relationship between gestational age, birth weight and deciduous tooth eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Mohamed Khalifa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Delayed tooth eruption was related to lower birth weight and prematurity. The delayed eruption in preterm babies may be related to premature birth and not to a delay in dental development.

  9. Effects of Maternal Factors on Birth Weight in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misato Terada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the possible factors related to the birth weight (BW using the Japanese perinatal database. Methods. The live infants born at 37 to 41 weeks of gestation were enrolled in this study. Cases with diabetic pregnancy, preeclampsia, an anomalous fetus, and a fetus with chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. A multiple regression analysis for confounding factors and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA for comparing the BW in 2006 and 2010 were used for the statistical analysis. Results. The BW significantly decreased from 2950.8 g in 2006 (n=27,723 to 2937.5 g in 2010 (n=38,008 in the overall population, and this decrease was similar for male and female neonates. All confounding factors, except for the mode of delivery, affected the BW. Primiparity, smoking, and a female gender were related to the decrease in BW, whereas maternal age, maternal height, weight gain during pregnancy, BMI, the use of in vitro fertilization, induction of labor, and gestational duration were related to an increased BW. The ANCOVA showed that no significant change of the BW was seen between 2006 and 2010 (the difference was 2.164 g, P=0.414. Conclusion. The gestational duration is the most important factor affecting the BW in singleton term infants.

  10. Linking Assessment and Intervention for Developmental/Functional Outcomes of Premature, Low-Birth-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying; Filler, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are two major biological factors that put infants and young children at high risk for developmental delays or disabilities. While survival rates for premature and LBW children have improved, incidence figures have changed little over the past 20 years; in fact, the incidence of LBW has increased. Although the…

  11. Thiamine supplementation to prevent induction of low birth weight by conventional therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Conventional treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus increases the proportion of infants born with a low birth weight, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in later life. Thiamine supplementation during pregnancy may be shown to be a safe preventive measure. During preg

  12. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  13. 低出生体重儿及早产儿先天性心脏病手术的麻醉处理%Anesthetic management of low birth weight neonates and premature infants undergoing cardiovascular operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晟; 梁杰贤; 陈萍; 曾嵘; 陈寄梅; 庄建

    2012-01-01

    目的 总结70例低出生体重新生儿及早产儿先天性心脏病手术的麻醉处理,并探讨其围术期的危险因素.方法 2003年6月至2011年4月共完成70例低出生体重新生儿及早产儿先天性心脏病手术.患儿孕周26~42 (33.52±3.98)周,出生体重640~2 500(1 713.30±522.43)g.手术时日龄4~55(26.50±15.72)d,体重650~2 712(1 963.20±454.72)g.其中52例为早产儿.所有患儿均在全麻下完成先天性心脏病矫治术,其中非CPB手术34例,CPB下手术36例,其中心脏不停跳3例,深低温(<20℃)10例.结果 术中死亡5例(7.14%),术后早期死亡(72 h内)7例(10%),放弃治疗3例(4.29%).CPB时间35~326 (129.0±76.7)min;主动脉阻断时间27~173 (77.8±47.3)min.术后机械通气时间12~648 (116.9±128.1)h.16例延迟关胸,7例术后出血,心包填塞,需再次开胸止血.结论 早产儿或低体重儿实施简单或复杂的先天性心脏病手术是安全和有效的;低体重儿可实施早期手术治疗;良好的麻醉管理有助于降低围术期的死亡率和并发症发生率,并提高术后的生存率.%Objective To summarize the anesthetic management of the low birth weight neonates with congenital heart disease. Methods Seventy cases undergoing surgical treatment from June 2003 to April 2012 were included in this study. The mean gestaiional age, age at operation, birth weight and weight at operation were 26-42(33. 52 3. S8> weeks, 4-55 (26. 5O 15. 72)d, 640-2 500(1 713. 30 522.43)g, 650-2 712(1 963.20 + 454.72) g respectively. 52 cases were premature infants. All cases underwent cardiac operations under general anesthesia. 34 cases were operated without cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). 3 cases in 36 cases with CPB underwent beating heart technique surgery and 10 cases underwent deep hypothermia(<20 C). Results The mtra-operative and post-operative mortality was 5 cases ( 7. 14%) and 12 cases ( 10%) respecitively, giving up treatment in 3 cases (4. 29%). The mean

  14. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. Methods The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500–4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother’s Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother’s job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother’s poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. Results The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother’s job style had the most adverse effect (B=−0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother’s level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother’s job style and household income (B=−0.17). Conclusion According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother’s job situation in order to

  15. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  16. Gestational Age, Birth Weight, Intrauterine Growth and Risk for Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuelian; Vestergaard, Mogens; Carsten B Pedersen; Christensen, Jakob; Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the association between gestational age, birth weight, intrauterine growth and epilepsy in a population-based cohort of 1.4 million singletons born in Denmark (1979-2002). A total of 14,334 individuals were registered with epilepsy in the Danish National Hospital Register as inpatients (1979-2002) and outpatients (1995-2002). Information on gestational age and birth weight was obtained from Danish Medical Birth Registry. Children small at birth were identified through tw...

  17. The effects of birth weight and gender on neonatal mortality in north central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwuanaku Caroline A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide 15.5% of neonates are born with low birth weight, 95.6% of them in the developing countries. Prematurity accounts for 10% of neonatal mortality globally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of birth weight and gender on neonatal outcome. Findings The data of 278 neonates managed in the Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH over a 2 year period from July 2006 to June 2008 were analyzed. One hundred and fifty nine (57.2% were males and 119(42.8% females. There were 87(31.3% preterm and 191 (68.7% term babies. Twelve of the babies died. Seven (2.52% and 5 (1.80% being males and females respectively. The neonatal mortality rate by gender was not significant (p > 0.05. The neonatal mortality was 25.2 deaths per 1000 live births for boys and 18.0 for girls. The mean birth weights of the preterm and term babies were 1.88 ± 0.47 kg and 3.02 ± 0.50 kg respectively, with a mean gestational age of 30.62 ± 3.65 weeks and 38.29 ± 0.99 weeks respectively. Eighty seven (31.3% of the babies were of low birth weight, 188(67.6% were of normal birth weight and 3(1.1% high birth weight. Of the low birth weight babies, 6(2.2% were term small for gestational age. Six (2.2% of the preterm infants had normal birth weight. Eleven of the babies that died were preterm low birth weight. The overall mortality rate was 4.32%. The birth weight specific mortality rate was 126 per 1000 for the preterm low birth weight and 5 per 1000 for the term babies. Birth weight unlike gender is a significant predictor of mortality, mortality being higher in neonates of The subjects showed one or more major clinical indications for admission. The major clinical indications for the preterm and term babies were respectively as follows: neonatal sepsis 63(22.7% and 124(44.6%; neonatal jaundice 32(11.1% and 71(24.7%; malaria 9(3.1% and 13(4.5%; birth asphyxia 3(1.0% and 7(2.4%. Neonatal sepsis was a common

  18. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  19. The piglet&apos;s behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lorencová V.; Mlyneková L.; Mlynek J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  20. The analysis of effects of very low birth weight infant's nutrition on brain development%高静脉营养对极低出生体重儿脑发育影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽莉; 赵玲; 陈晓

    2012-01-01

    目的 对极低出生体重儿(VLBWI)的早期营养与生后头围生长、MRI影像学的关系进行探讨.方法 将57例VLBWI随机分为高静脉营养(干预组)27例和标准静脉营养(对照组)30例,两组均联合肠道喂养,监测生长状况、记录热卡蛋白质摄入量至纠正胎龄40周;纠正胎龄40周时,记录头围、身长与体重,用MRI测量总脑容积(TBV)、皮层脑容积(CBV)及T2驰张时间,并进行统计分析.结果 在纠正胎龄40周时,干预组各生长指标(头围、身长及体重)均高于对照组,干预组MRI T2值低于对照组,均有统计学意义;能量摄入多寡与TBV呈正相关性(r=0.35,P<0.05),T2值与TBV呈负相关(r=-0.33,P<0.05).结论 尽早喂养及积极充分地使用胃肠外营养,能促进脑组织增长及成熟.MRI T2值对脑发育有很好的参考价值.%Objective To analyze the relationship between earlier macronutrients in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) and postnatal head growth and the data from quantitative magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) . Methods Fifty-seven VLBWI were randomized to hyperalimented (intervention group) , standard par-enteral (control group) , and enteral nutrition. 27 infants in the intervention group and 30 infants in the control group. Head circumference was measured and quantitative was performed at CGA 40 weeks. Results Energy and protein intake of the intervention group were significantly higher than that of the control group. There was statistically significant difference between the two groups in the primary growth variables at CGA 40 weeks ( P < 0. 05 ) . Energy intake was positively correlated with TBV( r =0. 35 ,P <0. 05). T2 values was negatively correlated with TBV(r = - 0. 33,P < 0.05). Conclusion MRI T2 relaxation times are predictive of head growth; earlier enteral feeding and hyperalimented nutrition could promote brain growth and maturation.

  1. Fatores associados à interrupção do aleitamento materno exclusivo de lactentes nascidos com baixo peso assistidos na atenção básica Factors associated with interruption of exclusive breastfeeding in low birth weight infants receiving primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Cera Sanches

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Visou-se a identificar os fatores associados à interrupção do aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME de lactentes nascidos com baixo peso assistidos na Atenção Básica. Estudo transversal com 170 lactentes assistidos em unidades básicas de saúde (UBS da periferia do Município de São Paulo, Brasil. Incluíram-se nascidos com peso ≤ 2.500g (inclusive gemelares, Apgar (5' ≥ 7 e acompanhados até o terceiro mês. Excluíram-se bebê/mãe com alterações que impedissem o AME e óbitos. Coletaram-se os dados utilizando-se formulários preenchidos nas consultas e prontuários. As razões de prevalência foram obtidas por regressão de Poisson. Identificou-se associado à interrupção do AME no terceiro mês: idade materna This study aimed to identify factors associated with interruption of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in low birth weight infants receiving primary care. This was a cross-sectional study of 170 infants treated at primary care units on the urban periphery of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample included infants with birth weight ≤ 2,500g (including twins and 5-minute Apgar ≥ 7, followed until the third month of life, and excluded infants/mothers with complications that would impede EBF, besides infant/maternal deaths. Data were collected from forms completed during consultations and patient records. Prevalence ratios were obtained by Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with interruption of EBF in the first three months of life: maternal age ≤ 18 years; informal employment (protective factor; alcohol intake during pregnancy; < 6 prenatal visits; multiple gestations; birth weight ≤ 2,000g; difficulty breastfeeding in the first month; complaints in breastfeeding during the first month; and use of pacifiers in the first two months. Prior knowledge of these factors can help plan measures and policies to increase EBF rates among low birth weight infants.

  2. Intrauterine nicotine exposure, birth weight, gestational age and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background and aim: Infantile colic is characterised by crying bouts in a healthy infant during the first months. Smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight (BW) have been previously identified as risk factors for infantile colic. Nicotine acts as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect...... the intrauterine central nervous system development, while low BW and premature birth have both been related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We investigated the association between intrauterine nicotine exposure, BW, gestational age (GA) and infantile colic in a large cohort study. Materials and methods......: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The study on nicotine exposure included 63,128 infants and the study on BW and GA included 62, 785 infants with complete data. Infantile colic was defined according to the modified Wessel’s criteria based on maternal interview 6 months postpartum...

  3. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Çaglar; I Özer; Altugan, F S

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), p...

  4. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Çaglar M.K.; Özer I.; Altugan F.S.

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), ...

  5. Low-birth-weight babies among hospital deliveries in Nepal: a hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koirala AK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arun K Koirala,1 Dharma N Bhatta2,3 1Administrative Department, Helping Hands Community Hospital, Chabahil, Kathmandu, 2Department of Public Health, Nobel College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 3Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand Background: Birth weight is an important indicator of a population’s health and is associated with numerous interrelated factors in the infant, mother, and physical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of low birth weight and identify the associated factors for low birth weight in a liveborn infant among the women in Morang, Nepal.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from December 2010 to March 2011 among 255 mothers who gave birth during the study period at the Koshi Zonal Hospital, Nepal. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed through logistic regression and presented with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: The study showed that the prevalence of low-birth-weight babies was 23.1% (95% CI: 17.9–28.1. The mean (standard deviation age of mothers was 23.23 (4.18 years. The proportion of low birth weight of previous baby was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.1–7.9, and 15.7% (95% CI: 11.5–20.5 of the respondents had preterm delivery. Nearly one-third (36.1%; 95% CI: 26.4–45.6 of the respondents had >2 years’ gap after the previous delivery. Nonformal employment (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 0.523–8.74, vegetarian diet (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.23–9.36, and no rest during pregnancy (AOR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.41–4.39 were factors more likely to determine low birth weight. However, none of the variables showed a significant association between low birth weight and other dependent variables.Conclusion: Low birth weight is an important factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality and is a common problem in the developing world. The

  6. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T;

    2014-01-01

    between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....

  7. Mutual touch during mother-infant face-to-face still-face interactions: influences of interaction period and infant birth status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantis, Irene; Stack, Dale M; Ng, Laura; Serbin, Lisa A; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2014-08-01

    Contact behaviours such as touch, have been shown to be influential channels of nonverbal communication between mothers and infants. While existing research has examined the communicative roles of maternal or infant touch in isolation, mutual touch, whereby touching behaviours occur simultaneously between mothers and their infants, has yet to be examined. The present study was designed to investigate mutual touch during face-to-face interactions between mothers and their 5½-month-old fullterm (n=40), very low birth weight/preterm (VLBW/preterm; n=40) infants, and infants at psychosocial risk (n=41). Objectives were to examine: (1) how the quantitative and qualitative aspects of touch employed by mothers and their infants varied across the normal periods of the still-face (SF) procedure, and (2) how these were associated with risk status. Mutual touch was systematically coded using the mother-infant touch scale. Interactions were found to largely consist of mutual touch and one-sided touch plus movement, highlighting that active touching is pervasive during mother-infant interactions. Consistent with the literature, while the SF period did not negatively affect the amount of mutual touch engaged in for mothers and their fullterm infants and mothers and their infants at psychosocial risk, it did for mothers and their VLBW/preterm infants. Together, results illuminate how both mothers and infants participate in shaping and co-regulating their interactions through the use of touch and underscore the contribution of examining the influence of birth status on mutual touch.

  8. Correlation between Peroxisome Proliferator - Activated Receptor γC161T Gene Polymorphism and Low Birth Weight Infants%过氧化物酶增殖激活受体γC161T基因多态性与低出生体质量新生儿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文静; 陈守航; 高莉丽; 张培林; 张华; 陈英; 郑明慈

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨基因过氧化物酶增殖激活受体( PPAR)γ C161T多态性对低出生体质量新生儿的影响.方法 用横断面调查法,使用统一的调查表,对入住本院分娩的孕妇及其单胎、活胎的低出生体质量儿和健康对照新生儿进行凋查,共得到有效样本268个母亲-新生儿对,并根据出生体质量和孕周进行分组,分为健康对照组和低出生体质量组,其中低出生体质量组包括早产儿组和小于胎龄儿组.使用多聚酶链-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)方法检测其外周血基因PPARγ C161T单核苷酸多态性,分析不同基因型对其低出生体质量的影响.结果 1.根据双变量Logistic回归分析得出低出生体质最与父母的受教育水平、职业、家庭居住环境和氛围及维生素的补充相关,相关系数分别为-0.434、-0.337、-0.343、-0.269、-0.691、0.296、0.235.2.PPARγC161T多态性CC型、CT型与TT型基因频率分布在健康对照组、小于胎龄儿组和早产儿组分别为53.33%、14.44%、21.11%,75.00%、18.18%、6.82%和76.67%、20.00%、3.33%,早产儿组和小于胎龄儿组比较均无统计学差异,但与健康对照组比较均有统计学差异.携带C等位基因增加低出生体质量的风险,低出生体质量组携带CC基因型风险与健康出生体质量儿的OR值分别为1.93895% CI:1.001~3.750,P=0.002)、2.122(95% CI:1.091 ~4.127,P=0.000).结论 低出生体质量是环境和遗传因素共同作用的结果,PPARγ C161T多态性与低出生体质量有关,C等位基因可能是低出生体质量的遗传易感基因.%Objective To study the relationship of the peroxisome proliferator - activated receptor(PPAR)γ C161T gene polymorphism and low birth weight infants. Methods A cross - sectional survey was performed by using a unified questionnaire to investigate and control a total effective sample of 268 mothers - newborns from the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical

  9. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  10. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  11. Impact of Premature Birth on the Development of the Infant in the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Terri J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined effects of birth of premature infant on the family system , focusing on how problems associated with premature birth place family at risk. Mothers of preterm infants felt overprotective, were unwilling to leave infants with babysitters, and perceived initial negative effect on the family. Preterm infants showed less exploratory play and…

  12. Prognostic factors for success in the Kangaroo Mother Care method for low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Pratiwi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW is closely related to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Management of LBW infants in developing countries remains limited, due to the low availability of incubators. The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method has been shown to be effective for newborns, especially LBW infants, in which skin-to-skin contact may be conducive for infants’ weight gain, thermoregulation, and heart rate stability.Objective To determine the prognostic factors for KMC success in LBW babies.Methods This cohort study included LBW infants at Dr. Kariadi General Government Hospital, Semarang, by a consecutive sampling method. Success of KMC was assessed by infant weight gain, as well as stabilization of temperature, heart rate, and respiration. Prognostic factors for KMC success that we assessed were birth weight, gestational age, KMC duration, age at KMC onset and maternal education level. Statistical analyses used were Chi-square and relative risk (RR tests.Results Of 40 LBW infants, 24 were successful in KMC. Birth weight ≥ 1500 grams (RR 0.4; 95%CI 0.23 to 0.73; P=0.001], gestational age ≥ 34 weeks (RR 0.94; 95%CI 0.46 to 1.89; P=1.00, KMC duration ≥ 65 minutes (RR 1.44; 95%CI 0.76 to 2.75; P= 0.215, high maternal education level (RR 1.25; 95%CI 0.76 to 2.04; P=0.408, and age at KMC onset >10 days (RR 2.69; 95%CI 1.14 to 6.32; P=0.003, were factors that related to the successful of KMC.Conclusion Age at KMC onset > 10 days was a prognostic factor for KMC success in low birth weight babies.

  13. Use of laryngeal mask airway in an extremely low birth weight premature infant undergoing laser photocoagulation treatment of retinopathy of prematurity with general anesthesia%喉罩通气道全麻用于超低出生体重儿视网膜病变激光光凝术的麻醉处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兰; 张建文; 左云霞

    2013-01-01

    报道1例胎龄27+4周,现月龄1月27 d,体重1.67 kg的超低出生体重伴双眼早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的早产儿在喉罩通气道全麻下行双眼激光光凝术治疗.%This case report describes the successful use of laryngeal mask airway in an extremely low birth weight premature infant undergoing laser photocoagulation treatment.The premature infant with gestational age of 27 ~ weeks is retinopathy in both eyes,57 d old,and 1.67 kg weight.

  14. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MATERNAL BODY MASS INDEX AND WEIGHT GAIN WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN EASTERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananpanichkul, Panya; Rujirabanjerd, Sinitdhorn

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the association between maternal body mass index and pregnancy weight gain with low birth weight newborns (LBWN) at Phrapokklao Hospital in eastern Thailand. We evaluated the files of 2,012 women who delivered at the hospital. Data obtained from the charts were parity, maternal age, body mass index (BMI), prepregnancy weight, weight gained during pregnancy, gestational age, hematocrit level, referral status, place of residence, fetal presentation, completion of antenatal care visits and maternal HIV infection. Sixty-five point two percent of subjects were aged 20-34 years old. Fifty-seven percent of subjects had a normal BMI and 13.2% were anemic. Thirty- seven point five percent, 32.9% and 29.6% gained too little, the correct amount and too much weight during pregnancy, respectively. Primiparity, too little weight gain and gestational age less than 37 weeks at delivery were all significantly associated with LBWN. Preterm babies were 25 times more likely to have a low birth weight than term infants (adjusted OR = 24.995; 95% CI: 16.824-37.133, p < 0.001). When maternal weight gain of any BMI group was inadequate, the subject had a 3.4 times greater risk (adjusted OR = 3.357; 95% CI: 22.114-5.332, p < 0.001) of having a LBWN. Primiparous women had a 1.7 times (adjusted OR=1.720; 95% CI: 1.182-2.503, p-0.005) greater risk of having a LBWN. The results from this study may be useful to plan maternal health programs for eastern Thailand. PMID:26867367

  15. Clinical analysis of nosocomial infection in low birth weight infant%极低出生体质量儿医院感染的临床特点及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇晨; 马建荣

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析极低出生体质量儿(LBWI)医院感染的临床特点和危险因素.方法 对2010年9月至2014年8月首都医科大学附属北京妇产医院新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)收治的431例LBWI的临床资料进行回顾性调查分析,统计其医院感染发生部位、病原菌分布及危险因素.结果 LBWI的医院感染率为16.0%(69/431),共发生71例次,住院日相关的医院感染发生率11.4例次/1 000住院日.感染部位以血液为主,占67.6%(48/71),其次为呼吸道,占21.1%(15/71);共检出病原菌64株,以革兰阴性菌为主,其中肺炎克雷伯菌占32.8%(21/64).胎龄<32周、经外周中心静脉置管是LBWI发生医院感染的危险因素(x2=7.486、22.489,P<0.01).结论 LBWI是医院感染发生的高危人群,其中胎龄<32周、经外周中心静脉置管等是发生医院感染的危险因素.%Objective To study the clinical features and risk factors of nosocomial infection in low birth weight infant (LBWI).Methods A retrospectively analysis of 431 LBWIs in neonatal intensive care unit from September 2010 to August 2014 was preformed.The infection site and infection pathogen were recorded;the risk factors were analyzed.Results There were 69 infants with nosocomial infection,with incidence of 16.0% (69/431),and incidence of 11.4 cases per 1 000 patient hospitalization.The main infection site was blood infections [67.6% (48/71)],followed by respiratory tract infections [21.1% (15/71)];the main bacteria was gram-negative bacteria,in which Klebsiella pneumonia accounted for 32.8% (21/64).Gestational age less than 32 weeks,by peripheral central venous tube was LBWI occurred hospital infection risk factors (x2 =7.486,22.489,P < 0.01).Conclusions Incidence of nosocomial infection in LBWI is higher than that of others.The risk factors include small gestational age,peripherally inserted central catheter,and so on.

  16. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  17. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  18. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck;

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development o...

  19. INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL CORRELATES OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WIENER, GERALD

    LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN WERE STUDIED LONGITUDINALLY TO DETERMINE WHETHER--(1) THE RELATIVE INTELLECTUAL IMPAIRMENT OF PREMATURE CHILDREN IS STATIC OR CHANGES WITH TIME, (2) A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILD NOT NOTED TO BE IN NEUROLOGICAL DISTRESS COULD HAVE A POOR PROGNOSIS, AND (3) SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS COULD ARISE AS A CONSEQUENCE…

  20. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karema Corine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence decreased over the last six years (2002–2007. Therefore, the impact of malaria on birth outcomes is also expected to vary over time and space. Methods Obstetric indicators (birth weight and pregnancy outcome and malaria incidence were compared and analyzed to their association over time (2002–2007 and space. Birth data from 12,526 deliveries were collected from maternity registers of 11 different primary health centers located in different malaria endemic areas. Malaria data for the same communities were collected from the National Malaria Control Programme. Associations were sought with mixed effects models and logistic regression. Results In all health centres, a significant increase of birth weight over the years was observed (p Conclusion In Rwanda, birth weight and pregnancy outcome are not directly influenced by malaria, which is in contrast to many other studied areas. Although malaria incidence overall has declined and mean birth weight increased over the studied period, no direct association was found between the two. Socio-economic factors and improved nutrition could be responsible for birth weight changes in recent years.

  1. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. Methods We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Results Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Conclusion Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to

  2. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  3. Comparison of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Selenium Levels in Low and Normal Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyly Nazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the maternal and umbilical cord serum selenium concentrations in Low and normal birth weight neonates.Materials and methods:A case-control study was carried out in Vali-Asr and Akbarabadi Hospitals (Jan. to Dec. 2013. Two groups; case group; 91 mothers who delivered a low birth weight (LBW neonate and control group; 86 subjects who delivered a normal birth weight neonate were selected. Immediately after birth, 5 ml of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, and sent to laboratory to assay Se concentrations. To compare both groups' blood Se concentration, data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0.Results:Eighty six (48.6% mothers with normal birth weight neonates and 91 (51.4% mothers with low birth weight infants entered the study. Mean maternal mothers' age and mean maternal blood Se were 28.55+5.90 years and 79.3756+26.46915. A significant association was seen between maternal blood and cord blood Se level in control and case group (P value<0.0001, r = 0.69 and(P value<0.001, r = 0.79. On the other hand no differences were seen between 2 groups' maternal blood Se level (P Value = 0.65. Umbilical Cord blood Se concentration was not also different between case and control group (P value = 0.46.Conclusion:We found that maternal and umbilical cord blood Se concentrations were not different in low and adequate birth weight infants, however; umbilical cord Se concentrations were positively correlated with maternal blood Se concentrations.

  4. Incidence and Risk Factors of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants%极低体质量早产儿支气管肺发育不良的发生率及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春杰; 肖志辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia( BPD)in very low birth weight preterm infants and its risk factors. Methods We selected 317 very low birth weight preterm infants that accorded with inclusion and exclusion criteria from the Department of Neonatology of Children's Hospital of Suzhou University between September,2010 and May,2014. We recorded BPD incidence and mortality within 28 days of included infants with different gestational age and birth weight. Among infants with survival time≥28 d,46 infants with BPD were assigned as BPD group;92 infants were randomly selected from the rest 205 infants without BPD as control group,with a ratio of 1∶2 between the two groups. Risk factors for BPD incidence in very low birth weight preterm infants were investigated. Results ( 1 ) For 317 included preterm infants, mortality within 28 days was 20. 8%( 66/317 ) . The incidence of BPD in infants with survival time≥28 d was 18. 3%( 46/251). Difference in BPD incidence among infants of different gestational age and birth weight was significant(P﹤0. 05). (2) Significant difference existed between BPD group and control group in number of infants with gestational age less than normal, Apgar score(5 min,﹤7),neonatal respiratory distress syndrome( NRDS),application of postnatal pulmonary surfactant ( PS),endotracheal intubation,mechanical ventilation( ﹥7 d),ventilator associated pneumonia( VAP)and neonatal anemia and blood transfusion( ﹥3 times) (P ﹤0.05). (3)Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that mechanical ventilation( ﹥7 d),VAP,neonatal anemia and blood transfusion( ﹥3 times)had influence on BPD incidence of very low weight preterm infants(P﹤0. 05). Conclusion Very low birth weight preterm infants have high incidence of BPD. Risk factors include mechanical ventilation( ﹥7 d),VAP and blood transfusion( ﹥3 times).%目的:了解极低体质量早产儿支气管肺发育不良( BPD)的发生率,并探

  5. 新生儿黄疸对正常足月儿心肌损伤危害的临床研究%Clinical study of myocardial damage induced by neonatal jaundice in normal birth weight term infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔羽; 杨波; 黑明燕; 王秀利; 陈洋; 孙迎军; 佟念念

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clarify whether neonatal jaundice may cause myocardial damage to term infants with normal birth weight (BW).Methods Totally 178 term neonates admitted during March,2004 to December,2010 with normal BW were enrolled.Infants with antenatal or neonatal asphyxia,temperature abnormality,septicemia,antenatal viral infection,congenital dysmorphia,congenital heart disease,21-trisomy,and polycythemia were excluded. There was no maternal complications during the pregnancy.Serum total bilirubin (TB),creatine kinase (CK),MB isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK-MB),and cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) were measured.Patients with transcutaneous bilirubin level (TcB) ≥342 pmol/L (20 mg/dl) were in Group A ( n =32),and those with TcB below phototherapy level at matched time point were in Group B (n =25 ).ECG,for correct Q-T intervals (QTc) and correct QT intervals dispersion ( QTcd),and ECHO,for left ventricular ejection fraction ( EF),the ratio of the peak velocity of early stage and advanced stage of diastolic phase at the mitral orifice (E/A),were applied to patients in Group A and B.SPSS 13.0 software was used for the data analysis.The coefficients of correlation among age in hours on admission (hr),TB,CK,CK-MB,CK-MB/CK,and cTnI were studied by multiple and partial correlation analysis. Data in Group A and B were compared by independent-samples Mann-Whitney U test ( nonparametric method) or Student t-test.Results When the data were analyzed by multiple correlation,there were significant correlation between TB and cTnI,CK-MB,respectively ( r =0.212, - 0.161,respectively,all P < 0.05 ). But,when the data were analyzed by partial correlation,there was no correlation between TB and cTnl,CK-MB,respectively (r'=0.112, -0.112,respectively,all P >0.05),negative correlation between hr and TB,cTnI,respectively (r' =-0.490,P =0.000; r' =-0.162,P =0.032 ).There was no significant difference in CK ( Z =- 1.384,P =0.166),CK-MB ( Z =-0.821,P=0.412),cTnI (Z=-1.159,P=0.246),QTc (t=1

  6. Intrauterine nicotine exposure, birth weight, gestational age and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Preterm and growth restricted infants may have developmental delays or deviant organ function related to the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Since both organ systems are hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of infantile colic, a condition characterized...... by excessive crying during the first months of life, impaired fetal growth and preterm birth may be risk factors for infantile colic. Objectives To investigate the association between gestational age, birth weight, and infantile colic. Methods We used maternal interviews from the Danish National Birth Cohort...... (1996 to 2002) conducted at gestational week 17 and at six months post partum. We included 62 761 live-born singletons with complete information on birth weight, gestational age, and crying symptoms recorded at six months of age. Infantile colic was defined according to Wessel's modified criteria...

  7. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood pres

  8. 静脉补充谷氨酰胺对极低出生体重儿肠道功能的影响%Effect of parenteral glutamine supplementation on gut function in very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 蔡威; 陶晔璇; 汤庆娅; 冯一; 吴江

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of parenteral (PN) glutamine supplementation on gut function in the very low birth weight infants(VLBWIs). Methods A muhicentered, randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial was conducted. Thirty VLBWIs (<1500 g at birth) at two children's medical centers were randomly and equally assigned to either control group [sPN; amino acid was given at the dosage recommended by Chinese guidelines for the use of nutritional support in critically ill neonates(Jun. 2006)] or glutamine-supplemented group [GInPN; glutamine intake, 0. 3 g/(kg · d)]. The primary endpoints were the time to achieve full enteral nutrition, the incidence of gastric residuals, duration of parenteral nutrition and mortality. Results There were no significant differences between GInPN and sPN group in the time to achieve full enteral nutrition [(20±6)d vs (21±9)d], the number of gastric residuals [(3±4) vs (1±2)] and duration of parenteral nutrition [(17±7)d vs (17±8)d]. Of the 15 infants in the GlnPN group, 2 dropped out and 4 suspended treatment, and 4 in the control group suspended treatment (intention-to-treat analysis showed RR= 1.182; 95%CI:0. 937-1. 490). Conclusions Parenteral glutamine supplementation can not shorten the time to achieve full enteral nutrition and duration of parenteral nutrition, or reduce the incidence of gastric residuals and mortality in VLBWIs.%目的 评价含丙氨酰谷氨酰胺(Ala-Gln)肠外营养(parenteral-nutrition,PN)对极低出生体重儿肠道功能的影响.方法 对两家儿童医疗中心2006年4月至2007年2月收治的30例极低出生体重儿进行研究,采用平行、随机、双盲、对照试验,随机分为常规PN组(对照组)和常规PN+Ala-Gin组(研究组),两组各15例,对照组按照常规给予肠外营养支持,氨基酸的剂量按照中国新生儿营养支持临床应用指南给予[从1.0~2.0 g/(kg·d)开始,增至3.5 g/(kg·d)];研究组添加0.3 g/(kg·d)Ala-Gln双肽,其中Ala-Gln双肽取

  9. Low birth weight and health expenditures from birth to late adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Hummer, Michael; Lehner, Thomas; Gerald J. Pruckner

    2012-01-01

    Using administrative panel data of health insurants, we estimate the effects of low birth weight on health service utilization among children and young adults between birth and 21 years old. To account for time-invariant heterogeneity of mothers, we use sibling fixed- effects estimation. We find that low birth weight strongly increases subsequent health expenditures and that the effect is particularly pronounced in the first year of life. Starting in compulsory schooling, we observe a shift i...

  10. Birth weight and cognitive function in the British 1946 birth cohort: longitudinal population based study

    OpenAIRE

    M. Richards; HARDY, R.; Kuh, D.; Wadsworth, M E J

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between birth weight and cognitive function in the normal population.Design A longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study.Participants 3900 males and females born in 1946.Main outcome measures Cognitive function from childhood to middle life (measured at ages 8, 11, 15, 26, and 43 years).Results Birth weight was significantly and positively associated with cognitive ability at age 8 (with an estimated standard deviation score of 0.44 (95%, confidenc...

  11. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  12. Mental Health in Low Birth Weight Individuals Approaching Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Line Knutsen

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, an increasing number of children have survived after preterm birth during the latest decades. These children are surviving at the borders of viability and are at increased risk for a number of adverse outcomes. Few studies have followed low birth weight populations into adulthood. In this study, three groups of children born in the Trøndelag counties of Norway in 1986-88 have been followed up from birth to twenty years of age. Two groups born with low birth weight were...

  13. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorde...

  14. Study the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii administration on very-low-birth-weight infants in clinic%口服布拉酵母菌对极低出生体质量儿的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟; 袁玉芳; 赵赛; 程怀平; 田兆方

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii (SB) administration on very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants.Methods One hundred and ninety-eight preterm infants were prospectively randomized into observation group (105 cases) and control group (93 cases) based on the symptomatic and supportive treatment.When uncompletely stomach intestine nutrition fed,the patients of observation group took SB (50 mg/kg),the patients of control group took equivalent placebo.The times of defecation and diarrhea,the rate of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis,hospital onset of infection (septicemia,pulmonary infection),fungal infection,the time of intravenous nutrition and length of stay were compared.Results The general data in two groups had no significant difference (P > 0.05).The times of defecation,time of intravenous nutrition and length of stay in two groups had significant difference [(1.8 ± 0.4) times/d vs.(3.4 ± 0.5) times/d,(30.21 ± 3.43) d vs.(40.47 ± 4.35) d,(33.5 ± 6.8) d vs.(45.4 ± 9.3) d] (P < 0.05).The rate of diarrhea,neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis,septicemia and pyemia in two groups had significant difference [14.3% (15/105) vs.25.8% (24/93),11.4% (12/105) vs.19.4% (18/93),19.0% (20/105) vs.29.0% (27/93)] (P < 0.05).The rate of pulmonary infection and fungal infection between two groups had no significant difference(P> 0.05).Conclusion SB administration on VLBW infants can reduce the infection,promote enteral feeding,shorter hospital stay,and has a certain significance on the family and the community.%目的 研究布拉酵母菌散剂对极低出生体质量儿的临床意义.方法 198例极低出生体质量儿中未服布拉酵母菌散剂早产儿93例(对照组),口服布拉酵母菌散剂早产儿105例(观察组),回顾性对照分析两组患儿的一般资料,观察两组患儿大便频次或腹泻(伴中重度脱水)情况、新生儿坏死性小肠结肠炎(NEC)发生率、院内感染(败血症、肺部感染)

  15. Infants of azotemic mothers: a report of three live births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, A S; Singer, D; Anderson, L; Lester, B; Abuelo, J G

    1988-10-01

    Women with severe renal failure rarely conceive, and when they do become pregnant these women often deliver prematurely. The clinical course of mothers with renal failure has been described, but little attention has been given to the offspring. In this report, we provide data on three infants born prematurely to mothers either on dialysis or with severe renal failure. The infants were the appropriate size for gestational age and demonstrated no obvious physical abnormalities. Laboratory data, including renal function, was also within normal limits. Renal size in the two infants studied by ultrasound was near or above the 95th percentile when corrected for gestational age. The premature birth appeared to be a function of maternal complications rather than a primary in utero growth disturbance.

  16. Increased birth weight associated with regular pre-pregnancy deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for Vietnamese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation program given to women of reproductive age in north-west Vietnam. The program was made available to all women of reproductive age (estimated 51,623 in two districts in Yen Bai Province for 20 months prior to commencement of birth weight data collection. Data were obtained for births at the district hospitals of the two intervention districts as well as from two control districts where women did not have access to the intervention, but had similar maternal and child health indicators and socio-economic backgrounds. The primary outcome was low birth weight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The birth weights of 463 infants born in district hospitals in the intervention (168 and control districts (295 were recorded. Twenty-six months after the program was started, the prevalence of low birth weight was 3% in intervention districts compared to 7.4% in control districts (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.81, p = 0.017. The mean birth weight was 124 g (CI 68 - 255 g, p<0.001 greater in the intervention districts compared to control districts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study suggest that providing women with regular deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplements before pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight in rural Vietnam. The impact of this health system-integrated intervention on birth outcomes should be further evaluated through a more extensive randomised-controlled trial.

  17. Birth length and weight as predictors of breast cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatten Lars J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth size, and particularly birth length, is positively associated with breast cancer risk in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine whether birth size is associated with survival among breast cancer patients. Methods Information on birth size (weight, length and ponderal index (kg/length (m3 was collected from birth archives for 331 breast cancer patients who were diagnosed at two university hospitals in Norway (Bergen and Trondheim. The patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until death from breast cancer, death from another cause, or to the end of follow-up, and birth size was related to survival, using Cox regression analysis. Results Breast cancer patients with birth length ≥ 52 cm had nearly twice the risk of dying (hazard ratio, 1.92, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.41 from breast cancer compared to women with birth length less than 48 cm, after adjustment for place of birth and year of diagnosis. Similar analyses related to birth weight and ponderal index showed no clear association with breast cancer survival. Conclusions Poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high birth length may reflect effects of factors that stimulate longitudinal growth and simultaneously increase the risk of metastases and fatal outcome. It is possible that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system is involved in the underlying mechanisms.

  18. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  19. 超低出生体重儿脑室周围-脑室内出血的危险因素%Risk factors of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈幽; 刘成; 吴志军; 卢光进

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨超低出生体重儿(extremely low birth weight infant,ELBWI)脑室周围-脑室内出血(periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage,PIVH)的危险因素.方法 研究对象为2001年1月至2008年8月我院新生儿重症监护病房收治的资料完整的ELBWI 41例,其中PIVH23例,无PIVH者18例.采用单因素及Logistic回归分析ELBWI发生PIVH的围产期高危因素.结果 PIVH的发生率为56.1%(23/41).单因素分析显示,PIVH组胎龄小于无PIVH组[(27.1±l.9)周和(28.7±1.6)周](t=2.834,P<0.05),入院时平均血压低于无PIVH组[(28.9±4.8)mm Hg和(33.1±4.9)mm Hg](t=-2.747,P<0.05),生后1周内最低平均血压值低于无PIVH组[(24.4±4.3)mm Hg和(31.4±6.6)mm Hg](t=-3.863,P<0.05),血压波动值和最高PaCO2高于无PIVH组[分别为(19.0±5.2)mm Hg和(13.7±4.8)mm Hg;(60.2±19.4)mm Hg和(49.5±12.1)mm Hg](t分别=3.310和2.166,P均<0.05);应用肺表面活性物质(73.9%,17/23)、新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(60.9%,14/23)、休克(52.2%,12/23)、生后4 d内低血压(73.9%,17/23)、1周内高血糖(78.3%,18/23)和机械通气治疗(87.0%,20/23)的比例均高于无PIVH组[分别为27.8%(5/18)、27.8%(5/18)、5.5%(1/18)、33.3%(6/18)、44.5%(8/18)和44.5%(8/18)],差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).Logistic回归分析显示,血压波动值(OR=1.260,95%CI:1.009~1.572,P=0.041)和最低平均血压(OR=0.805,95%CI:0.672~0.965,P=0.019)是PIVH发生的独立危险因素.对接受机械通气治疗的28例ELBWI发生PIVH的危险因素进行Logistic回归分析,结果发现最高吸气峰压(OR=2.086,95%CI:1.140~3.819,P=0.017)是PIVH的独立危险因素.结论 低血压和血压波动是ELBWI发生PIVH的危险因素.对于机械通气的ELBWI,最高吸气峰压过高,可能增加PIVH的发生风险.%Objective To study the risk factors of periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) in extremely low birth weight infants(ELBWI). Methods A retrospective study was performed in 41 ELBWI hospitalized

  20. Interrelationships between Cd, Zn and birth weight in neonates of women who smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was designed to test the hypothesis that the increased cadmium level in pregnant women who smoke alters the metabolism of zinc in the maternal-fetal unit, and that this altered Zn metabolism may contribute to lower birth weight infants. One hundred-thirty mother/infant pairs were studied. Maternal whole blood and placental Cd were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry; maternal and fetal plasma, red blood cell and placental Zn by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Maternal plasma thiocyanate (SCN) levels were used as an index of smoking status. Zn intake was estimated by diet history in a subgroup of 34 patients. The data were analyzed using t-tests, correlation and stepwise multiple regression techniques. No differences in Zn intake were found between pregnant women who smoked and those who did not. The average daily intake of Zn was 10.2 +/- 5 mg; this is less than the RDA for Zn during pregnancy. The data show that there are significant positive correlations between SCN levels and levels of whole blood Cd, placental Cd, and placental Zn. Cord vein samples from infants of mothers who smoked had decreased red blood cell Zn. This was particularly true in nulliparous patients. In all patients, maternal whole blood Cd was found to be negatively related to birth weight and cord vein red blood cell Zn was positively related to birth weight. The results support the hypothesis of a Cd-Zn interaction in pregnant women who smoke. Additional findings suggest an effect of parity on the interaction between Cd and Zn. Placental Cd was found to be negatively related to birth weight in nulliparous patients (n=21). In multiparous patients (n=109) placental Zn was inversely related to birth weight. In patients with parity 2 or greater (n=54), placental Cd was directly predictive of placental Zn. These results may reflect a less favorable Zn nutritional status with increasing parity

  1. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2013-01-01

    was followed up in the NPR for PCOS diagnoses from age 15 years until the end of 2006. Furthermore, information on maternal diabetes diagnoses was extracted from the NPR. RESULT(S): The risk of PCOS was significantly increased in women with birth weight =4,500 g (incidence rate ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...... female children born of Danish mothers in Denmark between 1973 and 1991 were included (n = 523,757) and followed for a total of 4,739,547 person-years at risk. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Information on birth weight was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The cohort...

  2. Effect of Extensively Hydrolyzed Protein Formula on Feeding of Very Low Birth Weight Infants%深度水解蛋白配方奶对极低出生体质量儿喂养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉莲; 夏世文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether extensively hydrolyzed protein formula(HPF) ,compared with standard preterm infant formula (SPF) ,can accelerate gastric emptying, and improve early feeding tolerance, enable a more rapid establishment of full enteral feeding and promote the development of very low birth weight infants(VLBWI). Methods Thirty VLBWI who admitted in NICU of Hubei Maternity and Child Health Hospital from Jan. 2009 to Jun. 2009 were randomly divided into HPF group ( n = 16) and SPF group ( n = 14 ). Bolus feeding every 2 to 3 hours were started and accelerated at a speed of 20 mL · kg-1 · d-1 if tolerance. HPF group received HPF feeding for 14 days,then change to SPF feeding for the other 14 days. SPF group received SPF feeding for the entire 28 days. Gastric residuals, rate of weigh gain,full enteral feeding time and the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis( NEC ) were compared. The weight, body length and head circumference at 28 day were recorded. Results Compared with SPF group, gastric emptying in HPF group was significantly improved, gastric residual was much less. The total gastric residual number of the first 7 days [ (15.5 ± 2.9 ) times vs (17.1 ± 4.5 ) times], maximum residual on the 7th day [(0.9±1.0) mL vs (1.8±1.3) mL] ,maximum residual as a percentage of total feed volume on the 7th day[ (3.1 ±4.8)% vs (8.7 ±6. 9 ) % ] were decreased. Less time was required to achieve full enteral feeding [ ( 12.7 ± 4.2 ) d vs ( 16.6 ± 4.8 ) d ] in HPF group compared with SPF group, and the rate of weight gain was increased [ ( 15.37 ± 4.08 ) g · d - 1 vs ( 11.02 ± 3.49 ) g · d - 1 ]. There was also statistically significant difference with regard to growth measured by head circumference [ ( 30.01 ± 1. 11 )cm vs ( 29.05 ± 1.20 ) cm] , and length [ (42. 85 ± 1.62 ) cm vs (41.55 ± 1.51 )cm ], weight [ ( 1. 792 ± 0.213 ) kg vs ( 1.617 ± 0.187 ) kg ] on the 28th day. There were statistically significant difference in NEC morbidity

  3. Making a diagnosis of hypertension and defining treatment threshold in very low birth weight infants’ need revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sreekanth; Kumar, Deepak; Sykes, Craig; Olbrych, Stephanie; Patel, Nishant; Super, Dennis M.; Darusz, Jessica; Raina, Rupesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that preterm birth is a possible risk factor for high blood pressure (BP) in later life. The most widely quoted blood pressure centiles for very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500 g birth weight) infants at corrected term gestation is based on a cohort with mostly late preterm or term infants (Zubrow curves). Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of the Zubrow curves in diagnosis of hypertension in VLBW infants at their term corrected gestational age (CGA). Patients and Methods: In a case-control study, we compared BP in 75 VLBW infants at 40 weeks CGA (cases) to 69 full term infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (controls). Results: In spite of having lower weights, VLBW infants compared to term infants (2612.8 ± 546 vs. 3308.2 ± 373 g, P ≤ 0.001) had higher average systolic (88.8 ± 7.6 vs. 82.33 ± 8.5 mm Hg; P ≤ 0.001) and mean BP (61.2 ± 6.6 vs. 57.61 ± 6.9, P = 0.01). Although 41% (31/75) VLBW infants would have met the criteria for hypertension according to Zubrow curves only 4% (3/75) were diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: Since Zubrow BP centiles were based on a heterogeneous population of infants including preterm and term infants, new BP centiles based on chronological data from VLBW infants would allow a better definition of hypertension in these infants and identify the threshold BP for initiating treatment. PMID:27471735

  4. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...

  5. Effects of altitude versus economic status on birth weight and body shape at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giussani, D A; Phillips, P S; Anstee, S; Barker, D J

    2001-04-01

    The compelling evidence linking small size at birth with later cardiovascular disease has renewed and amplified a clinical and scientific interest in the determinants of fetal growth. Although the effects of maternal nutrition on fetal growth have been extensively studied, comparatively little is known about the effects of maternofetal hypoxia. This study tested the hypothesis that in highland regions, high altitude rather than maternal economic status is associated with reduced and altered fetal growth by investigating the effects of high altitude versus economic status on birth weight and body shape at birth in Bolivia. Bolivia is geographically and socioeconomically unique. It contains several highland (>3500 m above sea level) and lowland (weight, body length, and head circumference were compared between a high- (n = 100) and low- (n = 100) income region of La Paz (3649 m; largest high-altitude city) and a high- (n = 100) and low- (n = 100) income region of Santa Cruz (437 m; largest low-altitude city). In addition, the frequency distribution across the continuum of birth weights was plotted for babies born from high- and low-income families in La Paz and Santa Cruz. Mean birth weights were lower in babies from La Paz than in babies from Santa Cruz in both high- and low-income groups. The cumulative frequency curve across all compiled birth weights was shifted to the left in babies from La Paz compared with those from Santa Cruz, regardless of economic status. The frequency of low birth weight (head circumference:birth weight ratio. These findings suggest that high altitude rather than economic status is associated with low birth weight and altered body shape at birth in babies from Bolivia. PMID:11264431

  6. Mothers' Lifestyle Characteristics Impact on Her Neonates' Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Nath Das

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Epidemiological research often seeks to identify a causal relationship between the risk factors and the disease. Earlier researches suggest that mother age, her weight at last menstrual period, race, the number of physician visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, may affect on her neonate birth weight. Mechanisms of mother lifestyle characteristics on her neonate weight are intricately complicated. These mechanisms, however, can be easily interpreted through an appropriate mathematical relationship. The present study aims to identify the factors of mother's lifestyle characteristics which have statistical significant effects on her neonate birth weight based on statistical (or probabilistic modeling. Materials and Methods: The present study is based on the secondary data collected at Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts during 1986. It was a routine data set. There was not any specific setting. Study subjects were 189 mothers, 59 of which had low birth weight babies and 130 of which had normal birth weight babies. Joint generalized linear log-normal statistical modeling of mean and variance is used. Results: The present analysis identifies that mother age (p= 0.063, her weight at last menstrual period (p= 0.019, race (p= 0.017, p= 022, smoking status (p= 0.014, history of premature labor (p= 0.008, history of hypertension (p= 0.031, 0.039 and presence of uterine irritability (p= 0.002 are statistically significant on her neonate birth weight. It has been detected that the variance of neonatal birth weight is non-constant, which invites the present study. Conclusion: Impacts of mother's lifestyle characteristics on her neonate weight are explained based on mathematical relationships. This analysis supports many earlier research findings. However, the present analysis also has identified many additional casual factors that have explained the mean and variance of neonatal birth weight, which was not reported by the

  7. Alterações orais em crianças prematuras e de baixo peso ao nascer: a importância da relação entre pediatras e odontopediatras Oral abnormalities in preterm and low birth weight infants: the importance of the relationship between pediatricians and pediatric dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Baffi Diniz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão de literatura sobre as alterações orais em crianças prematuras e de baixo peso ao nascer. FONTES DE DADOS: Foram selecionados artigos em inglês e português, desde 1976 até 2009, pesquisados no PubMed, Lilacs e na Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (BBO, além de livros e consensos nacionais e internacionais. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: "prematuro", "recém-nascido de baixo peso", "cárie dentária", "hipoplasia do esmalte dentário", "manifestações bucais e "dentição primária". Selecionaram-se artigos avaliando incidência, prevalência e etiologia das alterações orais, além de revisões de literatura e relatos de casos clínicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As alterações orais mais comuns em crianças prematuras e de baixo peso ao nascer são os defeitos no esmalte dentário (hipoplasias e hipocalcificações, a predisposição ao desenvolvimento de lesões de cárie dentária, as alterações na cronologia de erupção dentária e as alterações no palato com consequente aparecimento de maloclusão. Outras alterações também são relatadas, como diferenças nas dimensões das coroas dentárias e na espessura e porosidade do esmalte dentário. A interação entre pediatras e odontopediatras é fundamental no manejo dessas crianças. CONCLUSÕES: O conhecimento das alterações orais em crianças pré-termo e de baixo peso ao nascer por parte dos pediatras e odontopediatras favorece a atuação multidisciplinar com o objetivo de educar, prevenir e atenuar as possíveis mudanças físicas e dentárias nessas crianças.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature review concerning oral abnormalities in preterm and low birth-weight infants. DATA SOURCES: Articles published in English and Portuguese on this subject were selected from 1976 to 2009, browsed on PubMed, Lilacs and Brazilian Dentistry Bibliography, besides books and national and international consensus. The search used the following key

  8. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  9. Birth weight and term of the gestation in pregnancies complicated by isolated oligo and isolated polyhydramnios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikanta Reddy V

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Isolated Oligo and Polyhydramnios are associated with increased rate of Low Birth Weight (Very Low Birth Weight and Low Birth Weight neonates and Preterm deliveries. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(4.000: 577-580

  10. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Moiduddin; Massey, Douglas S.

    2008-01-01

    In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse). We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce ...

  11. Use of occlusive wrap to prevent hypothermia in premature infants immediately after birth

    OpenAIRE

    邱靜雯; Yau, Ching-man

    2013-01-01

    Hypothermia at birth is strongly associated with mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Unfortunately, infants are prone to hypothermia immediately after birth. A large proportion of preterm infants, especially those of gestational age at less than 30 weeks, experience different levels of hypothermia. A frequently used possible preventive measure is the application of an occlusive wrap immediately after birth. However, no systematic review on this preventive measure supports its translat...

  12. Should we adjust for gestational age when analysing birth weights? The use of z-scores revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Ilse; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Bacquer, Dirk; Verstraelen, Hans; Gerris, Jan; De Sutter, Petra; Temmerman, Marleen

    2007-08-01

    Birth weight is the single most important risk indicator for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity, which has led to the idiom that 'every ounce counts'. Birth weight in turn, however, tends to vary widely across populations as a result of differential fetal growth velocity with such demographic factors as ethnicity, maternal and paternal height and altitude of residence. Accordingly, it has been acknowledged that the appraisal of birth weight should rely on its position relative to the birth weight distribution of the background population. This is commonly done by standardizing birth weight through its deviation from the population mean in the given gestational age stratum, as can be obtained from population-customized birth weight nomograms. This issue was recently revisited in 'Human Reproduction' through a plea for reporting birth weight as z-scores. In this article, we argue that adjustment for factors, such as gestational age, which may lie on the causal pathway from exposures present at the time of conception [e.g. single-embryo transfer (SET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET)] to birth weight, may induce bias, regardless of whether the adjustment happens via stratification, regression or through the use of z-scores.

  13. Sex ratios among infants with birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Adrian M; Richardson, Sandra D; Browne, Marilyn L; Carmichael, Suzan L; Canfield, Mark A; VanZutphen, Alissa R; Anderka, Marlene T; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2015-05-01

    A small number of population-based studies have examined sex differences among infants with birth defects. This study presents estimates of sex ratio for both isolated cases and those with multiple congenital anomalies, as well as by race/ethnicity. Male-female sex ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for 25,952 clinically reviewed case infants included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2009), a large population-based case-control study of birth defects. The highest elevations in sex ratios (i.e., male preponderance) among isolated non-cardiac defects were for craniosynostosis (2.12), cleft lip with cleft palate (2.01), and cleft lip without cleft palate (1.78); the lowest sex ratios (female preponderance) were for choanal atresia (0.45), cloacal exstrophy (0.46), and holoprosencephaly (0.64). Among isolated cardiac defects, the highest sex ratios were for aortic stenosis (2.88), coarctation of the aorta (2.51), and d-transposition of the great arteries (2.34); the lowest were multiple ventricular septal defects (0.52), truncus arteriosus (0.63), and heterotaxia with congenital heart defect (0.64). Differences were observed by race/ethnicity for some but not for most types of birth defects. The sex differences we observed for specific defects, between those with isolated versus multiple defects, as well as by race/ethnicity, demonstrate patterns that may suggest etiology and improve classification. PMID:25711982

  14. 230例极低出生体质量儿随访至纠正6月龄生存质量分析%Analysis of the quality of life of 230 very low birth weight infants followed up to 6 months of corrected age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋青莲; 包蕾

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析极低出生体质量(VLBW)婴儿的短期预后。方法回顾性分析2013年12月至2014年12月收治的VLBW婴儿随访至纠正6月龄的生存质量。结果共入选230例符合标准的VLBW婴儿,出院时死亡30例(13.0%),放弃治疗40例(17.4%),好转签字出院60例(26.1%),治愈100例(43.5%)。30例死亡VLBW婴儿中,主要为新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征18例、肺出血5例、败血症3例。200例存活婴儿随访至纠正6月龄时,13例(6.5%)失访;54例(27.0%)死亡,其中40例是因经济原因放弃治疗或好转签字出院的。纠正1、3、6月龄时,继续随访的VLBW婴儿身长、体质量均随月龄增长逐渐接近儿童生长标准,但至纠正6月龄时仍明显落后于儿童生长标准;身长落后较体质量落后更明显。109例患儿行眼底筛查,其中早产儿视网膜病变Ⅰ期21例、Ⅱ期7例,眼底出血行激光光凝术6例;98例患儿行听力筛查,单侧未通过5例,双侧未通过11例;95例患儿行头颅磁共振成像(MRI)检查,颅内出血10例,早产儿脑损伤9例。49例患儿纠正胎龄42周行新生儿神经行为测定(NBNA)均≤35分;纠正3月龄时,36例患儿行Gesell发育量表评估,轻度发育迟缓11例、中度2例;纠正6月龄时,24例行Gesell发育量表评估,轻度发育迟缓2例。VLBW婴儿在适应能力、社交行为、大运动方面进步较快。结论经济条件及新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征、肺出血、败血症是影响VLBW婴儿存活及生存质量的重要因素;存活VLBW婴儿的生长发育均有逐渐好转现象。%Objective To analyze the short term prognosis of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods The clinical data of VLBW infants who were hospitalized from December 2013 to December 2014 and followed up to 6 months of corrected age were retrospectively analyzed. Results A total of 230 VLBW infants were enrolled. Thirty infants (13.0%) died during hospitalization

  15. Risk factors for late onset septicemia in very low birth weight infants born small for gestational age%小于胎龄极低出生体质量儿晚发型败血症危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 王杨; 赵倩; 徐豆豆

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨新生儿重症监护室小于胎龄极低出生体质量儿( VLBWI)晚发型败血症的危险因素. 方法 回顾性分析安徽医科大学第一附属医院新生儿重症监护室2009年1月至2014年12月收治的胎龄7 d VLBWI的相关临床资料,分析其中小于胎龄VLBWI晚发型败血症临床特点、实验室结果、危险因素及预后等. 结果 296例纳入本研究的VLBWI中,小于胎龄儿组165例,其中发生晚发型败血症者56例,经单因素分析结果显示,小于胎龄VLBWI晚发型败血症危险因素包括极早产(胎龄18 h、预防应用抗菌药物>7 d、经外周中心静脉插管>7d、经鼻持续气道正压通气、机械通气、留置胃管>7d、静脉营养时间及住院时间长等. 有统计学意义的变量进入logistic多元回归分析显示,其独立危险因素为留置胃管>7 d和胎膜早破>18 h. 结论 在VLBWI中小于胎龄儿更易发生晚发型败血症,今后临床工作中应对这一特殊群体采取个性化预防措施,凡胎膜早破>18 h者需动态连续监测血象指标,尽早开始经口肠道微量喂养,缩短留置胃管时间.%Objective To investigate the risk factors for late onset septicemia(LOS) in very low birth weight(VLBW)infants born small for gestational age(SGA). Methods The VLBW infants whose birth weight were less than 1500g and hospital stays were more than 7 days in neonatal intensive care unit( NICU) of The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2009 to December 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Outcomes were compared between VLBW infants born SGA( birth weight less than tenth percentile according to gestational age and gender) and non-SGA infants. Clinical characteristics,laboratory features,risk factors and prognosis of VLBWI born small for gestational age with late onset septicemia were analyzed. Result 296 VLBW infants were included,of them,165 cases were SGA ,among them 56 episodes of late onset septicemia were

  16. Are environmental pollutants risk factors for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to air pollutants and low birth weight in a medium-sized city. An ecological study was performed, using live birth data from São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil. The environmental data were obtained from the São Paul State Environmental Agency. The study included full-term newborns whose mothers were 20 to 34 years of age and had at least a complete high school education, seven or more prenatal visits, singleton pregnancy, and vaginal delivery, in order to minimize potential confounding from these variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of each pollutant. Low birth weight was defined as less than 2,500g. The sample included a total of 2,529 data from 2001 that met the inclusion criteria (25.6% of the total. We identified 99 newborns (3.95% of the sample with low birth weight, and the pollutants sulfur dioxide and ozone were associated with low birth weight. The final model was À(x = -1.79 + 1.30 (SO2 + 1.26 (O3. Thus, sulfur dioxide and ozone were identified as risk factors for low birth weight in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil.

  17. Clinical investigation of prebiotics on feeding intolerance and early growth in preterm infants with low birth weight%益生菌对低体重早产儿喂养不耐受和生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许东宝; 汪浩文; 祝选娇; 黄玮; 胡海英

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨益生菌制剂对早产儿喂养不耐受和生长发育的影响.方法:将70例2.5kg以下的早产低体重儿随机分成治疗组和对照组,每组35例.两组患儿均给予常规治疗,治疗组生后24 h内口服益生菌制剂(培菲康),记录两组肠道营养达418.4 kJ/(kg·d)时间,恢复出生体重时间,出生满28 d时两组患儿头围、体质量、胃肠不耐受发生率及持续时间.结果:肠道营养达418.4 kJ/(kg·d)时间、恢复出生体重时间治疗组与对照组相比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗组满28 d时头围、体质量较对照组显著增高,而胃肠不耐受发生率及胃肠不耐受持续时间较对照组有显著降低(P<0.05).结论:培菲康可以改善胃肠不耐受,缩短肠道营养达418.4 kJ/(kg·d)时间及恢复至出生时的体质量时间,使头围和体质量快速增加,促进早产儿的生长发育.%Objective:To explore the effects of prebiotics on the feeding intolerance and early growth and development in premature infants.Methods:Seventy premature infants under 2.5 kg were randomly assigned into groups of intervention( n = 35 ) and controls ( n = 35 ) by conventional therapy. The intervention group were given oral intake of prebiotics in 24 h after birth, and the data were kept in the two groups concerning the time of reaching 418.4 k J/( kg · d) by enteral feeing, days to regain birth weight, head circumference at the 28th day after birth, body weight, incidence of feeding intolerance and duration of this event. Results: The two groups were different regarding the time of reaching enteral nutrition of 418.4 kJ/( kg · d) and days to regain birth weight (P <0.05). The head circumference by the 28 th day after birth and body weight were increased, yet the incidence of feeding intolerance and its duration were decreased, as compared with the controls( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: Prebiotits can reduce the incidence of feeding intolerance, reduce the time of

  18. Preventing large birth size in women with preexisting diabetes mellitus: The benefit of appropriate gestational weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Y.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Sappenfield, William; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the percentage of infants with large birth size attributable to excess gestational weight gain (GWG), independent of prepregnancy body mass index, among mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus (PDM). Study design We analyzed 2004–2008 Florida linked birth certificate and maternal hospital discharge data of live, term (37–41 weeks) singleton deliveries (N = 641,857). We calculated prevalence of large-for-gestational age (LGA) (birth weight-for-gestational age ≥ 90th percentile) and macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g) by GWG categories (inadequate, appropriate, or excess). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of large birth size associated with excess compared to appropriate GWG among mothers with PDM. We then estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of large birth size due to excess GWG among mothers with PDM (n = 4427). Results Regardless of diabetes status, half of mothers (51.2%) gained weight in excess of recommendations. Large birth size was higher in infants of mothers with PDM than in infants of mothers without diabetes (28.8% versus 9.4% for LGA, 5.8% versus 0.9% for macrosomia). Among women with PDM, the adjusted RR of having an LGA infant was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5, 1.9) for women with excess GWG compared to those with appropriate gain; the PAF was 27.7% (95% CI 22.0, 33.3). For macrosomia, the adjusted RR associated with excess GWG was 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9) and the PAF was 38.6% (95% CI 24.9, 52.4). Conclusion Preventing excess GWG may avert over one-third of macrosomic term infants of mothers with PDM. Effective strategies to prevent excess GWG are needed. PMID:27539071

  19. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloog Itai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008. Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01–1.13 for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in

  20. Socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of low birth weight babies: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiti Narain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO definition, infants with birth weights of less than 2,500 grams are classified as low birth weight (LBW. LBW is a sensitive indicator for predicting the chances of both infant survival and healthy childhood growth and development, and it also reflects the present and past health status of the mother. LBW constitutes an important factor affecting neonatal mortality and morbidity.Objective: To find the incidence of low birth weight babies and its determinants Materials and methods: Present study was a cross sectional type. All mothers delivering live born singleton neonate in study place (Postnatal ward of Rohilkhand Medical College and hospital were interviewed with pretested, predesigned schedule. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21software and chi square test, OR etc.Results: Overall incidence of LBW was 20% and mean birth weight was 2776.85 + 383.6 gm LBW was found to be more common in the rural population and poor educational status. A higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with inadequate diet and those who were anaemic. Conclusion: Low birth weight still poses a fair problem in our perspective, and when we cannot control ethnic factors like height, or do a drastic socio-economic upliftment, some basic factors, like good ANC care, correcting anemia, and above all motivating the mother to follow some habits in the ANC period like adequate consumption of food and adequate rest, institutional deliveries shall take a long way forward in addressing the problem.

  1. Birth Weight, Postnatal Growth, and Age at Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Mary Beth; Ferris, Jennifer S.; Tehranifar, Parisa; Wei, Ying; Flom, Julie D.

    2009-01-01

    Larger body size in childhood is correlated with earlier age at menarche; whether birth and infant body size changes are also associated with age at menarche is less clear. The authors contacted female participants enrolled in the New York site of the US National Collaborative Perinatal Project born between 1959 and 1963 (n = 262). This racially and ethnically diverse cohort (38% white, 40% African American, and 22% Puerto Rican) was used to investigate whether maternal (body size, pregnancy ...

  2. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  3. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Rafael A; Lin Xi; Campbell Joy M; Moeser Adam J; Odle Jack

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birt...

  4. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy...... results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...

  5. Comparação de ibuprofeno via oral e indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer Comparison of oral ibuprofen and intravenous indomethacin for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Yang

    2013-02-01

    (PDA in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants. Oral ibuprofen was compared to intravenous indomethacin regarding efficacy and safety in the treatment of PDA in infants weighting less than 1,000 g at birth. METHOD: This was a retrospective study in a single center. Data on ELBW infants who had an echocardiographically confirmed PDA were collected. The infants were treated with either intravenous indomethacin or oral ibuprofen. Rate of ductal closure, need for additional treatment, drug-related side effects or complications, and mortality were compared between the two treatment groups. RESULT: 26 infants who received indomethacin and 22 infants who received ibuprofen were studied. The overall rate of ductal closure was similar between the two treatments: it occurred in 23 of 26 infants (88.5% treated with indomethacin, and in 18 of 22 infants (81.8% treated with ibuprofen (p = 0.40. The rate of surgical ligation (11.5% versus 18.2%; p = 0.40 did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. No significant difference was found in post-treatment serum creatinine concentrations between the two groups. There were no significant differences regarding additional side effects or complications. CONCLUSION: In ELBW infants, oral ibuprofen is as efficacious as intravenous indomethacin for the treatment of PDA. There were no differences between the two drugs with respect to safety. Oral ibuprofen could be used as an alternative agent for the treatment of PDA in ELBW infants.

  6. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

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    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  7. Race, Ethnicity, Concentrated Poverty, and Low Birth Weight Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW. These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group. PMID:18807774

  8. Nutrition and weight gain in very low birth weight infants during hospitalization%极低出生体重儿住院期间营养状况及体重关系的多因素回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸宏伟; 潘家华

    2011-01-01

    Aim To analyze the nutrition state and weight gain in very low birth weight infants( VLBWI )during hospitalization. Methods 180 VLBWIs were admitted in NICU of authors' hospitals from Jan 2006 to Dec 2010. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.The risk factors which can lead to growth retardation of VLBWIs were assessed with logistic regression. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Mean gestational age was( 224.9 ± 15.2 )d. Mean birth weight was( 1 342.4 ± 140.8 )g. The time of initial enteral feeding was 2 d. For parenteral nutrion,amino acid was administered in 53.9% of patients. The time to begin was( 4.2 ± 2.7 )d. The duration of administration was( 8.7 ± 6.2 )d. The initial dose was( 0.92 ± 0.39 )g · kg -1. Lipid emulsions was administered in 53.9% patients.The time to begin was( 4.2 ± 2.2 )d. The duration of administration was( 10.4 ±7.4 )d. The initial dose was( 0.84 ± 0.19 )g · kg -1. Total energy intake of 120 kcal · kg · d -1 was achieved at( 13.2 ± 5.4 )d. Enteral feeding of 100 kcal · kg · d -1 was achieved at( 14.5 ± 5.4 )d. The average growth rate after regaining birth weight was( 15.1 ± 4.0 )g · kg -1 d-1 . Of 118 singletons,63.6% patients had growth retardation by weight at birth,while 73.7% at discharge. Gastational age, birth weight, feeding intolerance and intrauterine growth restriction were risk factors of extrauterine growth restriction. Conclusions Most VLBWIs had problems with nutrition and growth during hospitalization and failed to reach growth rate as desired for normal intrauterine growth rate. It is very important to begin parenteral nutrition as early as possible and parenteral nutrition should be admitted as supplement to parenteral nutrition.%目的 观察极低出生体重儿住院期间的营养支持情况和生长状况关系,探讨影响其体重增长的因素.方法 收集2006年1月~2010年12月住院的极低出生体重儿,回顾性分析患儿的营养状况和体重增

  9. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of ?-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn Câmara Grilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109. In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971. In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk.

  10. What is the strongest predictor of birth weight: Gestational age, hbalc, maternal weight, weight gain, or birth weight of sibling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Dethlefsen, Claus

    A1c values after 20th gestational week were collected. Multiple regression models were fitted to assess the effect various predictors of birthweight in both entire cohort (n=501) and in a subset with available weight of sibling (n=139). Sibling weight was calculated as relative to expected weight...

  11. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations of...... the study period. The relation to VLBW could indicate a causal relationship for hypospadias or a shared pathogenic factor....

  12. IS LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ASSOCIATED WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE?

    OpenAIRE

    Nutan Nalini; Atul Mukul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Daily we see lots of still birth cases and the agony associated with it after carrying the fetus for so many months with the negative outcome it is quite disheartening. Malnutrition is quite rampant in the country as far as the females are concerned and in the name of the religion and rituals, it complicates the issue further. If the mother is malnourished, the chance of low birth weight baby is high. OBJECTIVES To correlate the prevalence of cardiac anomal...

  13. Birth Weight, Apgar Scores, Labor and Delivery Complications and Prenatal Characteristics of Southeast Asian Adolescents and Older Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined 337 adolescents and 876 older mothers who delivered live-born, single infants between 1980-1982. Absence of alcohol and tobacco consumption among Southeast Asian subjects may have contributed to generally favorable Apgar scores, length of gestation, and birth weights. High frequencies of alcohol and tobacco consumption among White…

  14. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per;

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...

  15. Incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low birth weight infants%超低出生体重儿早产儿视网膜病变发病情况及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 张国明; 谭文静; 曾键; 唐松; 田汝银; 姚奕玲; 李丽红; 毛剑波

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解超低出生体重儿早产儿视网膜病变( ROP)发病情况,探讨其相关危险因素.方法 回顾分析ROP筛查的出生体重不足1000 g早产儿共145例.其中,男性93例,女性52例;平均胎龄(28.5±2.0)周,平均出生体重(923.0±85.0)g.统计时,诊断以随访过程中出现的最重ROP病情为录入标准,双眼非对称病例以发病严重侧为录入标准.以是否发生ROP将患儿分为ROP组和非ROP组,ROP组患儿再分为轻症组和重症组.轻症组包括1、2期ROP,未达阈值的3期ROP,以及以上各期ROP发生的瘢痕病变;重症组包括阈值前1型、阈值、急进性后部型以及4、5期ROP.将胎龄>28周或≤28周、出生体重<750 g或≥750 g、胎数单胎或多胎、分娩方式顺产或剖宫产、性别男或女作为危险因素,运用SPSS13.0进行统计学分析.结果 145例出生体重不足1000 g的早产儿中,96例发生不同程度的ROP,占66.21%.其中,重症患儿59例,重症ROP发生率为40.69%.ROP组和非ROP组胎龄(x2=15.021,P=0.000)、胎数(x2=4.744,P=0.029)、分娩方式(x2=11.848,P=0.001)间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);轻症组和重症组胎龄间差异有统计学意义(x2 =7.588,P=0.006).Logistic回归分析显示,仅胎龄与ROP的发生相关[Exp(B) =0.328 07,P=0.005 197].结论 超低出生体重儿具有ROP发生率以及重症率高的特点.胎龄≤28周、顺产、多胎是ROP发病危险因素.%Objective To investigate the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely low birth weight infants and to explore their risk factors. Methods ROP screening was carried out in Shenzhen Eye Hospital from July 2006 to October 2011.One hundred and forty-five infants with a birth weight less than 1000 grams were respectively analyzed.There were 93 males and 52 females.Their average gestational age was (28.5±2.0) weeks and average birth weight was (923.0 ± 85.0) grams.The more advanced ROP stages during the follow up or between the 2

  16. Neonatal Medical Exposures and Characteristics of Low Birth Weight Hepatoblastoma Cases: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Lucie M.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Ross, Julie A.; Feusner, James H.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Malogolowkin, Marcio H.; Krailo, Mark D.; Miller, Nicole; Fonstad, Rachel; Spector, Logan G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatoblastoma is a malignancy of young children. Low birth weight is associated with significantly increased risk of hepatoblastoma and neonatal medical exposures are hypothesized as contributors. This study represents the largest case–control study of hepatoblastoma to date and aimed to define the role of neonatal exposures in hepatoblastoma risk among low birth weight children. Procedure Incident hepatoblastoma cases who were born rays than in case series previously reported in the neonatal literature. Conclusions This study presents the largest case series of hepatoblastoma in <2,500 g birth weight infants with accompanying neonatal medical exposure data. Findings confirm that birth weight is highly correlated with exposure intensity, and neonatal exposures are themselves highly correlated, which hampers the identification of a causal exposure among hepatoblastoma cases. Experimental models or genetic susceptibility testing may be more revealing of etiology. PMID:25044669

  17. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  18. RISK FACTORS IN PREGNANCY AND THEIR RELATION TO BIRTH WEIGHT

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    F. Azordegan

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available In 17 hospitals, 13123 new births were born during 1989 in Tehran. Some well-trained personnel observed the events, filling the required questionnaires, interviewing, and collecting necessary information. Among them 730 newborns was low birth weight (less than 2500 grams which was considered as cases. Immediately after each case was born, two normal newborn were randomly selected as controls. So at the end of data collection, a total of 1460 births were considered controls. In a case-control study the effect of some risk factors during pregnancy of mothers on birth weight and death rate of newborn during first 4 weeks of their life were fully investigated. Some of the findings are as follows: The past history of miscarriages will decrease the birth weight of the newborn and thereby will increase the death rate in the first 28 days of their life. In this respect the difference between case and control was highly significant. Other variables like past history of premature birth, chronic diseases, hemorrhage and severe vomiting showed the same results.

  19. Parental Reactions to an Infant with a Birth Defect: A Study of Five Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, Dorian

    Five families whose first born infant experienced a birth anomaly were followed for two years through a combination of home and laboratory visits. Findings suggested that the birth of an infant with a defect was experienced by the parents as a narcissistic injury and a series of narcissistic insults that affect the parents' self esteem, interfere…

  20. Relationship between maternal periodontal status and preterm low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Mansi; Khatri, Manish; Kumar, Ashish; Bhatia, Gouri

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, there has been the belief that diseases that affect the mouth, such as periodontal disease, can have an effect on the rest of the body. It is only very recently that scientists and clinicians have begun to provide an increasing body of scientific evidence suggesting that moderate untreated periodontitis may affect an individual systemically, and may contribute to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and preterm low birth weight. Birth weight is affected by multiple factors and is considered as an outcome of a complex multifactorial system. Periodontitis is a remote gram-negative infection that may play a role in low birth weight. Periodontopathic microorganisms and their products have a wide range of effects mediated through host cytokine production in target cells. Many combined animal studies and data supporting plausible biologic mechanisms suggest that periodontal infection has a negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. PMID:24826203

  1. Birth weight and postnatal growth of pure-bred kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moik, Katja; Kienzle, Ellen

    2011-10-01

    Data on body weight of pure-bred kittens (Maine Coon, Norwegian Forest Cat, Birman, Persian, Siamese/Oriental Shorthair Cat) from birth (n 245) to 12 weeks of age (n 135) were obtained from breeders. Absolute birth weight (in g) was higher in larger breeds than in smaller breeds, whereas relative birth weight (in % of mature female weight) tended to be higher in smaller breeds (Maine Coon 115 g, 2.3 %; Norwegian Forest Cat 106 g, 2.7 %; Birman 97 g, 2.8 %; Siamese 92 g, 2.8 %; Persian 82 g, 3.2 %). Relative birth weight was lower than that described in the literature for colony cats. Relative litter weight was highest in Norwegian Forest Cats (14.6 (SD 1.8) %; n 10) and lowest in Birmans (8.8 (SD 3.1) %, n 7; P cats but no clear-cut effect of breed size. There appeared to be a trend to an earlier onset of sexual dimorphism in larger breeds. PMID:22005433

  2. Is adolescent pregnancy a risk factor for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria D'avila Nery Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether adolescent pregnancy is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW babies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and their newborns from a birth cohort in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected consecutively from March to July 2005. Information collected included socioeconomic, biological and reproductive aspects of the mothers, using a standardized questionnaire. The impact of early pregnancy on birth weight was evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 4,746 pairs of mothers and their babies. Of these, 20.6% were adolescents (< 20 years of age. Adolescent mothers had worse socioeconomic and reproductive conditions and perinatal outcomes when compared to other age groups. Having no prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors associated with low birth weight. Adolescent pregnancy, when linked to marital status "without partner", was associated with an increased proportion of low birth weight babies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence was a risk factor for LBW only for mothers without partners. Smoking during pregnancy and lack of prenatal care were considered to be independent risk factors for LBW.

  3. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  4. Birth Weight of Healthy Newborns in Zagreb Area, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Kolčić, Ivana; Polašek, Ozren; Pfeifer, Dina; Smolej-Narančić, Nina; Ilijić, Marcela; Bljajić, Danko; Biloglav, Zrinka; Ivanišević, Marina; Đelmiš, Josip

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess birth weight of healthy newborns from the City of Zagreb and Zagreb County, Croatia. Birth weights of healthy newborns, born at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Center »Zagreb« in the year 2001, were included into analysis. Since there were only few newborns in the 22nd–27th week of gestation, they were excluded from the study. Small number of data points was also noticed in 28th–36th week of gestation, and was supplemented w...

  5. Disposal of household burned garbage and risk of low birth weight in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pembakaran sampah di dalam rumah tanggadapat mempengaruhi berat badan bayi lahir rendah (BBLR. Pada tulisan ini disajikan pembakaran sampah di rumah tangga terhadap risiko BBLR.Metode: Analisis data menggunakan sebagian data studi potong lintang Riskesdas 2013 di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Data yang dianalisis ialah data bayi berusia 0-11 bulan. Berat badan bayi waktu lahir berdasarkan catatan berat bayi saat lahir yang tercatat dalam kuesioner Riskesdas. Bayi dikategorikan BBLR jika berat badan waktu lahir kurang dari 2500 gram. Hasil: Di antara 281 bayi yang mempunyai catatan berat badan lahir terdapat 10,6% (23 bayi yang BBLR. Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan perilaku pengelolaan sampah dengan cara dibakar dibandingkan dengan selain dibakar mempunyai risiko 2,3 kali lipat mengalami BBLR (RRa=2,28; 95% CI=1,18-8,61. Kesimpulan: Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan sampah dibakar dibandingkan dengan tanpa sampah dibakar mempunyai risiko lebih tinggi BBLR di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:89-93Kata kunci: berat badan lahir rendah, pembakaran sampahAbstractBackground: The management of household waste by burning can affect the incidence of low birth weight (LBW. This paper aims to identify the burning of garbage at home and risk of low birth weight. Methods: This analysis used a part of Riskesdas 2013 data in the Central Sulawesi Province. Subjects analyzed were infants aged 0-11 months. Baby’s weight was based on the baby’s birth weightwhich was recorded in the questionnaire of Riskesdas. The infants were categorized as LBW, if the recorded birth weight was less than 2500 grams. Results: Out of 392 babies,  281 babies had recorded birth weightswhich could be proved by documentary evidence. The majority of babies were boys (50.9% and lived in rural areas (58.7%. The proportion of babies who had LBW was 10.6% (23 infants. The babies who were living in households with

  6. Birth weight and altitude: a study in Peruvian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, J P; Frappell, P B; Aguero, L; Armstrong, K

    2000-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that at high altitude birth weight decreases once a critical barometric pressure (Pb) is reached. Birth weight data covering the 1-year period from November 1997 to October 1998 were collected in Peru from the data files of 15 community and mining centers between sea level and 4575 m altitude. These centers are scattered along the main road that joins Lima (on the Pacific shore) to Cerro de Pasco (4330 m) and surroundings. Above approximately 2000 m (ie, at Pb below approximately 590 mm Hg, inspired O(2) partial pressure of approximately 114 mm Hg) and up to approximately 4500 m altitude birth weight declined at an average of 65 g for every additional 500 m altitude (or 105 g for every additional 50 mm Hg drop in Pb). This pattern did not differ between sexes. Averages and modal distributions of the birth weight from 2 hospitals in Cerro de Pasco (4330 m) serving different social groups were similar. Body length at birth was similar at various altitudes, with the exception of the 2 highest locations above 4500 m, where it was slightly reduced. From these data, together with additional data collected in the North of Peru (Chacas, 3360 m) and with results from other ethnic groups previously published, we conclude that the drop in birth weight at altitude is (1) apparent once the critical Pb of approximately 590 mm Hg is reached, corresponding to an altitude of approximately 2000 m, (2) proportional to the increase in altitude between approximately 2000 m and 4500 m, and (3) independent from socioeconomic factors.

  7. 布拉氏酵母菌对不同喂养方式极低出生体重儿坏死性小肠结肠炎的影响研究%Efficacy comparison of Saccharomyces boulardii on Necrotizing enterocolitis between different feeding patterns of very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凌; 陈煜; 黄萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of Saccharomyces boulardii on morbidity and severity of Necrotizing enterocolitis between different feeding patterns of very low birth weight infants.Methods Very low birth weight infants born between April, 2014 to March, 2015 were enrolled. Breast milk group and pretermformula group were generated according to different feeding patterns.Each group was randomized either to receive feeding supplementation with Saccharomyces boulardii or not.The morbidity and severity of Necrotizing enterocolitis were analyzed.Results Compared with Breast milk group, pretermformula group had higher morbidity and more severe cases ( Stage Ⅲ) .In Breast milk group, Saccharomyces boulardii reduced the morbidity and severity of Necrotizing enterocolitis.In pretermformula group, Saccharomyces boulardii also had adverse effect on severity while no influence on morbidity.Conclusions Breast milk is a better feeding type than pretermformula.Saccharomyces boulardii reduces the severity of Necrotizing enterocolitis in both feeding patterns and morbidity in Breast milk feeding infants. However, the occurrence of Necrotizing enterocolitis in pretermformula feeding infants remains constant.%目的 在不同喂养方式的极低出生体重儿中,探讨布拉氏酵母菌对坏死性小肠结肠炎发病率和严重程度的影响. 方法 选取2014年4月1日至2015年3月1日收治的极低出生体重儿患者,根据喂养方式分为母乳喂养组和早产儿奶喂养组,在各组中均随机分出治疗组和对照组,治疗组使用布拉氏酵母菌治疗,观察坏死性小肠结肠炎发病率和严重程度. 结果 早产儿奶喂养组比母乳喂养组NEC发病率更高,第Ⅲ期以上严重病例者增多( P0.05). 结论 母乳喂养是最佳的喂养方式,布拉氏酵母菌在母乳喂养方式的患儿中能减少NEC发病率和降低严重程度,在早产儿奶喂养方式的患儿中NEC发病率虽无明显变化,但疾病严重程度得到降低.

  8. Effect of nest-type nursing combines with non-nutritive sucking on the growth of low birth weight infant%鸟巢式护理结合非营养性吸吮对低出生体重儿生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂花; 余勇妙; 梁建红; 邵美仙; 杜明仪; 严越秀; 莫伟雄

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨鸟巢式护理结合非营养性吸吮对低出生体重儿生长发育的影响.方法 将160例低出生体重儿,按是否辅以“鸟巢”式护理及非营养性吸吮,分为观察组和对照组各80例,观察两组患儿生长发育、出现喂养不耐受及出现呼吸暂停的情况.结果 观察组患儿恢复出生体重的时间(4.0±0.6)d,对照组为(7.2±2.3)d,两组比较差异有统计学意义(t=11.29,P<0.01);观察组患儿入院后第7天及第14天的睡眠时间分别为(20.6±2.4),(20.4±1.8)h,对照组分别为(19.2±2.2),(19.1±1.2)h,差异有统计学意义(t值分别为3.85,5.37;P<0.01);研究过程中,观察组出现胃潴留、腹胀、呕吐等喂养不耐受及出现呼吸暂停的情况较对照组少,差异有统计学意义(x2 =14.41,P<0.01).结论 鸟巢式护理结合非营养性吸吮能使低出生体重儿感到温暖及安全,提高经肠道喂养的耐受性,加快体格生长,促进低出生体重儿的生长发育.%Objective To explore the effect of nest-type care combines with non-nutritive sucking on the growth and development of low birth weight infant.Methods According to whether supplemented the" nest"type of care and non-nutritive sucking,totals of 160 cases of low birth weight infants were divided into the observation group( n =80) received the nest-type care combines with non-nutritive sucking,and the control group( n =80) received traditional nursing.Then,the growth,the occurrence of feeding intolerance,the ease of breathing pauses of infant were observed.Results The average time of infant in the observation group returned to birth weight was (4.± 0.6) days four days significantly shorter than (7.2 ± 2.3) days in the control group (t =11.29,P<0.01 ).The seventh and fourteenth days after admitted to hospital,the weight of infant in observation group were respectively ( 106.0 ± 12.2),(299.7± 3.4) g,which increased significantly faster than that in the control group respectively ( 31

  9. Avaliação dos fatores associados ao estado nutricional na idade corrigida de termo em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Evaluation of the nutritional status at 40 weeks corrected gestational age in a cohort of very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Gianini

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adequação do peso ao termo em uma coorte de recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento menor que 1.500 g e correlacioná-la a variáveis clínicas e nutricionais. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal onde recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso de oito hospitais (divididos em duas categorias: tipo I - aporte nutricional agressivo; tipo II - outras práticas foram acompanhados prospectivamente de novembro de 1999 a abril de 2000. O estado nutricional foi avaliado pelo escore z, sendo considerado como desnutrição o escore z menor ou igual a -2, segundo a curva do Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. Os dados foram analisados por meio de regressão linear múltipla e regressão logística. Este estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. RESULTADOS: 63% da população estudada (126/200 foi classificada como desnutrida ao termo. O peso ao termo apresentou correlação negativa com o tempo de internação, com a idade gestacional ao nascimento, com o tempo para a recuperação do peso de nascimento e com o clinical risk index for babies (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status at term of a cohort of newborn babies with birth weights of less than 1,500 g and to correlate this with nutritional practices and clinical variables. METHODS: Very low birth weight infants admitted to eight neonatal intensive care units from November 1999 to April 2000 were studied prospectively. The units were defined as Type I if they employed aggressive nutritional support techniques and Type II if other nutritional practices were used. Babies' were defined as malnourished if their z-score for weight was less than or equal to -2 on the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System growth curves. Data was analyzed using multivariate linear regression and logistic regression. The study was approved by the Committee for Ethics in Research. RESULTS: Sixty-three percent (126/200 of the study population were classed as being malnourished at term. Weight

  10. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also. PMID:6747384

  11. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. PMID:26245767

  12. Clinical comparison of early prophylactic application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure and pulmonary surfactant in the premature very low birth weight infants%早产极低出生体重儿早期预防性应用鼻塞式持续气道正压与肺表面活性物质的临床比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高薇薇; 谭三智; 杨杰; 张永; 叶秀桢; 聂川; 王越; 王俊平

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨在早产极低出生体重儿中生后早期使用鼻塞式持续气道正压(nCPAP)或应用肺表面活性剂(PS)以预防新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS)的临床疗效比较.方法:采用前瞻性对照研究,对出生后早期使用nCPAP辅助通气或早期使用PS替代治疗的早产极低出生体重儿进行对照研究,观察其死亡率、支气管肺发育不良发生率、辅助通气时间及临床并发症.结果:共106例患儿人选,死亡率和支气管肺发育不良(BPD)发生率组间比较差异无统计学意义.机械辅助通气、总用氧时间组间比较差异无统计学意义;nCPAP组PS使用数少于对照组(Odds Ratio:0.37,90% CI 0.209~0.655);气漏发生率低(Odds Ratio:0.476,90% CI0.233~0.971),IVH发生率低(Odds Ratio:o.778,90%CI 0.319~1.898).其他临床并发症组间比较差异无统计学意义.结论:早期应用nCPAP是预防早产极低出生体重儿呼吸窘迫综合征另一良好选择.%Objective; To explore the clinical effects of early prophylactic application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and pulmonary surfactant (PS) in prevention of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome ( NROS) among the premature very low birth weight infants. Methods: The clinical effects of early prophylactic application of nCPAP and PS in the premature very low birth weight infants were compared, the death rates, the incidences of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the duration times of assisted ventilation, and clinical complications in the two groups were observed. Results; A total of 106 infants were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in the death rate and the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the duration time of mechanical ventilation and total using oxygen time between the two groups; the number of infants using PS in nCPAP group was fewer than that in control group (Odds ratio; 0. 37, 90

  13. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E;

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  14. Prenatal Smoking Exposure, Low Birth Weight, and Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel T.; Breslau, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Prenatal problems are among theorized etiologies for child disruptive behavior problems. A key question concerns whether etiological contributors are shared across the broad range of disruptive psychopathology or are partially or largely distinct. Method: We examined prenatal smoking exposure and low birth weight as risk factors for…

  15. Weight at birth and all-cause mortality in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    with death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality...

  16. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    . Associations with death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS:: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality...

  17. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille;

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India...

  18. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t

  19. Preterm infant linear growth and adiposity gain: tradeoffs for later weight status, and IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort, Mandy B.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Buka, Stephen L.; Casey, Patrick H.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Among preterm infants, to examine tradeoffs between cognitive outcome and overweight/obesity at school age and in young adulthood in relation to infancy weight gain and linear growth. Study design We studied 945 participants in the Infant Health and Development Program, an 8-center study of preterm (≤37 weeks), low birth weight (≤2500 grams) infants from birth to 18 years. Adjusting for maternal and child factors in logistic regression, we estimated the odds of overweight/obesity (BMI ≥85th percentile at age 8 or ≥25 kg/m2 at age 18) and in separate models, low IQ (<85) per z-score change in infant length and BMI from term to 4 months, 4-12 months, and 12-18 months. Results More rapid linear growth from term to 4 months was associated with lower odds of IQ<85 at age 8 (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70, 0.96), but a higher odds of overweight/obesity (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05, 1.53). More rapid BMI gain in all 3 infant time intervals was also associated with a higher odds of overweight/obesity, and from 4-12 months with a lower odds of IQ <85 at age 8. Results at age 18 were similar. Conclusions In preterm, low birth weight infants born in the 1980’s, faster linear growth soon after term was associated with better cognition but also with a higher risk of overweight/obesity at 8 and 18 years of age. BMI gain over the entire 18 months after term was associated with later risk of overweight/obesity, with less evidence for a benefit to IQ. PMID:23910982

  20. Maternal prenatal felt security and infant health at birth interact to predict infant fussing and crying at 12 months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Natsumi; Gagné, Faby M; Séguin, Louise; Kramer, Michael S; McNamara, Helen; Platt, Robert W; Goulet, Lise; Meaney, Michael J; Lydon, John E

    2015-08-01

    Infants born with medical problems are at risk for less optimal developmental outcomes. This may be, in part, because neonatal medical problems are associated with maternal distress, which may adversely impact infants. However, the reserve capacity model suggests that an individual's bank of psychosocial resources buffers the adverse effects of later-encountered stressors. This prospective longitudinal study examined whether preexisting maternal psychosocial resources, conceptualized as felt security in close relationships, moderate the association between neonatal medical problems and infant fussing and crying 12 months postpartum. Maternal felt security was measured by assessing its indicators in 5,092 pregnant women. At birth, infants were classified as healthy or having a medical problem. At 12 months, experience sampling was used to assess daily maternal reports of fussing and crying in 135 mothers of infants who were healthy or had medical problems at birth. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that attachment, relationship quality, self-esteem, and social support can be conceptualized as indicators of a single felt security factor. Multiple regression analyses revealed that prenatal maternal felt security interacts with infant health at birth to predict fussing and crying at 12 months. Among infants born with medical problems, higher felt security predicted decreased fussing and crying. Maternal felt security assessed before birth dampens the association between neonatal medical problems and subsequent infant behavior. This supports the hypothesis that psychosocial resources in reserve can be called upon in the face of a stressor to reduce its adverse effects on the self or others. PMID:25528180

  1. Pattern of Breastfeeding in Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques at Royan Institute from birth to 6 months in Tehran - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Kermani

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: The most important factor which affects ART infants' nutrition pattern is their birth weight. The beginning time of feeding affects their weight and length increase till 6 months. Based on reproductive techniques, breastfeeding was similar in different methods of ART.

  2. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A. G.; Christian H Lindh; Piersma, Aldert H.; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Rylander, Lars; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. Objectives We assessed associations between multiple correlated biomarkers of environmental exposure and birth weight. Methods We evaluated a cohort of 1,250 term (≥ 37 weeks gestation) singleton infants, born to 513 mothers from Greenland, 180 from Poland, and 55...

  3. Effects of immune nutritional enhancing therapy on the prognosis of premature very low birth weight infants%免疫强化营养治疗对早产极低出生体质量儿预后的影响