WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth weight gestational

  1. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... has not been studied. Aim We aimed to investigate the association between BW, GA, and infantile colic. Methods We studied 62,785 singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information on infantile colic symptoms and possible confounders was collected by computer-assisted telephone......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...

  2. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.0001), but BMI was not (ρ = 0.025, P = 0.61). On regression analysis, gestational weight gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  3. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  4. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  5. Birth Weight does not Associate with Gestational Physical Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise during pregnancy has been a subject of debate and whether gestational physical activity profile affects birth weight is an important issue as birth weight is an indicator of fetal, neo-natal and post-natal mortality. This study was carried at three hospitals in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria to determine the difference between ...

  6. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  7. Birth weights and gestational ages of Malawian newborns at Queen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the distributions of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) and calculate rates of still birth (SB) of four years delivery in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital( QECH). Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out on data of deliveries conducted between January 2000 and December 2003.

  8. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  9. Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish standard ranges and curve of mean gestational birth weights validated by ultrasonography for the Cameroonian population in Yaoundé. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in the metropolis between March 5 and ...

  10. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  11. Birth weight centiles by gestational age for twins born in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Mathews, Jiji; Benjamin, Santhosh; Regi, Annie; Jose, Ruby; Kuruvilla, Anil; Mathai, Mathews

    2016-03-24

    Birth weight centile curves are commonly used as a screening tool and to assess the position of a newborn on a given reference distribution. Birth weight of twins are known to be less than those of comparable singletons and twin-specific birth weight centile curves are recommended for use. In this study, we aim to construct gestational age specific birth weight centile curves for twins born in south India. The study was conducted at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, south India. The birth records of all consecutive pregnancies resulting in twin births between 1991 and 2005 were reviewed. Only live twin births between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation were included. Birth weight centiles for gestational age were obtained using the methodology of generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Centiles curves were obtained separately for monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Of 1530 twin pregnancies delivered during the study period (1991-2005), 1304 were included in the analysis. The median gestational age at birth was 36 weeks (1st quartile 34, 3rd quartile 38 weeks). Smoothed percentile curves for birth weight by gestational age increased progressively till 38 weeks and levels off thereafter. Compared with dichorionic twins, monochorionic twins had lower birth weight for gestational age from after 27 weeks. We provide centile values of birth weight at 24 to 42 completed weeks of gestation for twins born in south India. These charts could be used both in routine clinical assessments and epidemiological studies.

  12. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael

    2007-01-01

    prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...

  13. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  14. References of Birth Weights for Gestational Age and Sex from a Large Cohort of Singleton Births in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  15. Relationship between gestational age, birth weight and deciduous tooth eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Mohamed Khalifa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Delayed tooth eruption was related to lower birth weight and prematurity. The delayed eruption in preterm babies may be related to premature birth and not to a delay in dental development.

  16. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large-for-gestation......Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large...

  17. Nationwide Twin Birth Weight Percentiles by Gestational Age in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jan Hu

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: This is the first nationwide birth weight norm for twins in Taiwan, which is particularly useful for investigation into the predictors and outcomes of altered fetal growth through twin studies in the Taiwanese population.

  18. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...

  19. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  20. Declines in Birth weight and Fetal Growth Independent of Gestational Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Esplin, M. Sean; Varner, Michael W.; Henry, Erick; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Objective Birth weight is decreasing in the US and elsewhere, even among term singletons, although trends in most maternal characteristics should contribute to increased birth weight. Some studies have attributed this decline to the simultaneous decrease in gestational length. Methods Using data from Intermountain Healthcare, where a successful initiative reduced the number of early term (37–38 week) elective deliveries, we examined trends in birth weight, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) among 219,694 singleton infants born July 2000 to December 2008 at 37–41 weeks gestation. Results Over the 8.5 years, births through scheduled deliveries at 37–38 weeks decreased (9.4% to 4.4%), but overall scheduled deliveries increased (29% to 34%) and mean gestational age at birth (39.1 weeks) did not change. Mean birth weight (3410g to 3383g) and LGA (9.0% to 7.4%) both decreased, whereas SGA increased (7.5% to 8.2%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, birth weight decreased (36g; 95% CI: 31, 42), especially among infants born at 37–38 weeks (40g; 30, 49) or that had medical indications for urgent deliveries (48g; 34, 63). Odds of LGA decreased (0.84; 0.80, 0.88) and odds of SGA increased (1.14; 1.08, 1.20). Conclusion Even in a population where gestation length did not change, birth weight and fetal growth declined. Decrease in not only gestational length but in fetal growth as well is likely to be contributing to the widely observed recent decrease in birth weight. PMID:23262927

  1. Birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity in discordant twins in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Hua Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To assess the relative effect of birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using preterm twin pairs discordant for birth weigh in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in China.METHODS: Fifty-six discordant twin pairs of 112 preterm infants were retrospectively analyzed. The twin pairs were divided into two subgroups based on birth weight in each pair. The occurrence of ROP and severe ROP requiring treatment were compared between the lower birth weight infants and their co-twins with the higher birth weight. Some neonatal morbidities related to prematurity and neonatal characteristics were also compared between the twin pairs.RESULTS: Based on the univariate analysis, gestational age and birth weight were significantly associated with the occurrence and progression of ROP. But no significant differences in ROP between larger and smaller infants were observed in the twin-paired analysis. The incidence of neonatal morbidities regarding respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, sepsis and neonatal characteristics regarding gender distribution, one- and five-minute Apgar score, postnatal steroid treatment, blood transfusion, supplemental oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were not different between the twins. However, gestational age of ≤28wk was significantly associated with significantly higher rates of ROP and severe ROP.CONCLUSION: Gestational age is a better predictor of ROP than birth weight in the twin-paired study.

  2. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...... risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than...... recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement: What is already known on this subject: Previous studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed...

  3. Executive Functions of Six-Year-Old Boys with Normal Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Desiree Yee-Ling; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Meaney, Michael J.; Qiu, Anqi

    2012-01-01

    Impaired fetal development, reflected by low birth weight or prematurity, predicts an increased risk for psychopathology, especially attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such effects cut across the normal range of birth weight and gestation. Despite the strength of existing epidemiological data, cognitive pathways that link fetal development to mental health are largely unknown. In this study we examined the relation of birth weight (>2500 g) and gestational age (37–41 weeks) within the normal range with specific executive functions in 195 Singaporean six-year-old boys of Chinese ethnicity. Birth weight adjusted for gestational age was used as indicator of fetal growth while gestational age was indicative of fetal maturity. Linear regression revealed that increased fetal growth within the normal range is associated with an improved ability to learn rules during the intra/extra-dimensional shift task and to retain visual information for short period of time during the delayed matching to sample task. Moreover, faster and consistent reaction times during the stop-signal task were observed among boys born at term, but with higher gestational age. Hence, even among boys born at term with normal birth weight, variations in fetal growth and maturity showed distinct effects on specific executive functions. PMID:22558470

  4. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We used data from >200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered...... (ORadj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied was not associated with adverse birth outcomes. Being employed as a nurse was associated with lower risk SGA infants (ORadj 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99) whereas food industry workers had an increased...... risk of preterm delivery (ORadj 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-2.02). There was little evidence for heterogeneity between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, overall, employment during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in the risk of preterm birth and that work in certain occupations may affect...

  5. Nationwide Birth Weight and Gestational Age-specific Neonatal Mortality Rate in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Tse Hsu

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: We have provided an easy-to-use birth weight/gestational age-specific neonatal mortality rate chart as a reference document that physicians and parents can use to make decisions based on ethical considerations relating to whether to give palliative care or further invasive management. The normative data are crucial for public health policies on neonatal care in Taiwan.

  6. Thiamine supplementation to prevent induction of low birth weight by conventional therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Gans, ROB

    Conventional treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus increases the proportion of infants born with a low birth weight, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in later life. Thiamine supplementation during pregnancy may be shown to be a safe preventive measure. During

  7. Gender-Specific Effects on Gestational Length and Birth Weight by Early Pregnancy BPA Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Liao, Chunyang; Ye, Wen; Domino, Steven E; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2015-11-01

    Effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on gestational and birth outcomes are controversial. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between prenatal exposure to BPA and birth and gestational outcomes. design, setting, participants, and outcome: Levels of unconjugated (uBPA) and BPA glucuronide in 80 matching samples of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and at delivery and matching term cord blood obtained from a prospective study conducted at the University of Michigan Hospitals were determined using a methodology validated in the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences funded Round Robin study and related to pregnancy outcomes. Highest levels of uBPA were found in maternal term samples followed by first trimester maternal (M1) samples and cord blood. A 2-fold increase in M1 uBPA was associated with 55-g less birth weight when male and female pregnancies were combined and 183-g less birth weight with only female pregnancies. A 2-fold increase in maternal term uBPA was associated with an increased gestational length of 0.7 days for all pregnancies and 1.1 days for only female pregnancies. Higher uBPA exposure levels during first trimester and term are associated with sex-specific reduction in birth weight and increase in gestational length, respectively. Race, parity, and employment have an effect on BPA exposure. Because low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes, effect of early pregnancy BPA levels on reducing birth weight highlights the risk posed by developmental exposure to BPA.

  8. Birth weight predicts the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and pregravid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, Jarosław; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Engel, Karina; Celewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that birth weight may determine metabolic abnormalities later in life. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between birth weight and future risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregravid obesity in a homogenous sample of Caucasian Polish women. In this retrospective study, we collected the medical reports of 787 women with GDM and 801 healthy pregnant women. We analyzed the following data: birth weight, age, pregravid weight, prior GDM, prior macrosomia, parity, and family history of diabetes. Birth weight was inversely associated with the risk of GDM; for each decrease in birth weight of 500 g, the risk increased by 11% (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.21). Birth weight was a strong predictor of GDM independent of other risk factors (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31), and it was positively correlated with pregravid weight (R = 0.21; P obesity (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34 and OR, 1.35; 95% CI 1.11-1.64, respectively). Each of the traditional risk factors for GDM were also strong predictors of pregravid obesity: age (P diabetes (P obesity is associated with high birth weight. Traditional risk factors for GDM, including maternal (but not paternal) history of diabetes, are also risk factors for pregravid obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  10. Birth weight by gestational age and congenital malformations in Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K; Nigatu, Balkachew; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-03-29

    Studies on birth weight and congenital anomalies in sub-Saharan regions are scarce. Data on child variables (gestational age, birth weight, sex, and congenital malformations) and maternal variables (gravidity, parity, antenatal care, previous abortions, maternal illness, age, medication, and malformation history) were collected for all neonates delivered at Ayder referral and Mekelle hospitals (Northern Ehthiopia) in a prospective study between 01-12-2011 and 01-05-2012. The total number of deliveries was 1516. More female (54%) than male neonates were born. Birth weights were 700-1,000 grams between 26 and 36 weeks of pregnancy and then increased linearly to 3,500-4,000 grams at 40 weeks. Thirty-five and 54% of neonates were very-low and low birth weight, respectively, without sex difference. Very-low birth-weight prevalence was not affected by parity. Male and female neonates from parity-2 and parity-2-4 mothers, respectively, were least frequently under weight. Sixty percent of newborns to parity -3 mothers weighed less than 2,500 grams, without sex difference. The percentage male neonates dropped from ~50% in parity-1-3 mothers to ~20% in parity-6 mothers. Diagnosed congenital malformations (~2%) were 2-fold more frequent in boys than girls. The commonest malformations were in the central nervous system (CNS; ~1.5% of newborns). Parity, low birth weight, gestational age less than 35 weeks, male sex, and lack of antenatal care were the most significant risk factors for congenital anomalies. The high prevalence of neonates with low birth weight and CNS anomalies in Northern Ethiopia was very high. The findings may reflect the harsh conditions in the past 2 decades and suggest environmental and/or nutritional causes. Male sex and parity affected the outcome of pregnancy negatively.

  11. Standards of Birth Weight According to Gestational Age in the Northwestern Regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodych O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the neonatal registry for 2001-2010 years in Rivne and Volyn regions of Ukraine as well as 2006-2011 years of Khmelnytsky region was carried out. General information was available about body weight of 366 607 newborns, among which 188 687 were boys and 177 920 girls. Based on the analysis we developed local standards of birth body weight in relation to gestational age separately for boys and girls. Procedure for processing local standards met international standards that have been developed by the WHO. Availability of processed local standards depending on gestational age will enable neonatologists, pediatricians and researchers to clearly identify anomalies in the health of newborns in the northwestern regions of Ukraine. Therefore, identification of newborns with low or high birth weight will enable adequate and timely steps to improve their health.

  12. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros C. Rosal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p<0.016. Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5 and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0 women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8. GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p<0.001. Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed.

  13. Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Birth Weight and Length of Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birks, Laura; Casas, Maribel; Garcia, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    matrix was associated with birth weight, term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery.Methods: Using individual participant data from 133,957 mother–child pairs in 13 European cohorts spanning births from 1994 through 2011, we linked maternal job titles with exposure to 10 EDC...... women were classified as exposed to EDCs at work during pregnancy, based on job title. Classification of exposure to one or more EDC group was associated with an increased risk of term LBW [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.49], as were most specific EDC groups; this association was consistent...... across cohorts. Further, the risk increased with increasing number of EDC groups (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.06 for exposure to four or more EDC groups). There were few associations (p titles classified as exposed to bisphenol A or brominated flame...

  14. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghani, Zein

    2010-12-01

    To find out the effect of prenatal exposure to low lead from cosmetics on gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane and birth weight. The study was carried out in the mountainous Aseer region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia where the air is thought to be clean and free of lead pollution due to the absence of petroleum smelting and other heavy industries. The region is famous as a holiday resort for tourists from Arabia and the gulf countries. All 176 pregnant women included in the study were of singleton pregnancies of gestational age 27 weeks or more who attended the antenatal outpatient clinic of the main maternity hospital. On the day of delivery 4 milliliters of venous blood from each singleton parturient was placed in a heparinized non-silica containing tube and stored at -20 degrees C prior to analysis. Ninety-four (70.1%) women out of 134 had maternal blood lead concentration 200 microg/L. The mean difference in gestational age was 10.5 days, showing a non significant difference (P=0.152). Ninety-three women (72.7%) out of a total of 128 who had blood lead concentration 200 microg/L gave birth to infants weighing an average of 2.99 kg. The mean difference was 0.12 kg which is non-significant (P=0.261). Regarding premature.rupture of the membrane a total of 127 women with maternal blood lead levels above 200 microg/L showed no significant differences (P=0.64). The Chi-square test of the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead below 150 microg/L was not significant while the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead above 200 microg/L resulted in very slight differences in the values of infants' birth weight. The detected low lead exposures from cosmetics does not produce statistically significant effects on the three pregnancy outcomes; gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane or birth weight. However, the importance of low lead exposure from the 100% lead sulfide eye cosmetic "kohl

  15. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirghani, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of prenatal exposure to low lead from cosmetics on gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane and birth weight. Methods: The study was carried out in the mountainous Aseer region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia where the air is thought to be clean and free of lead pollution due to the absence of petroleum smelting and other heavy industries. The region is famous as a holiday resort for tourists from Arabia and the gulf countries. All 176 pregnant women included in the study were of singleton pregnancies of gestational age 27 weeks or more who attended the antenatal outpatient clinic of the main maternity hospital. On the day of delivery 4 milliliters of venous blood from each singleton parturient was placed in a heparinized non-silica containing tube and stored at -20 deg. C prior to analysis. Results: Ninety-four (70.1%) women out of 134 had maternal blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L. The mean difference in gestational age was 10.5 days, showing a non significant difference (P=0.152). Ninety-three women (72.7%) out of a total of 128 who had blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L gave birth to infants weighing an average of 2.99 kg. The mean difference was 0.12 kg which is non-significant (P=0.261). Regarding premature rupture of the membrane a total of 127 women with maternal blood lead levels above 200 mu g/L showed no significant differences (P=0.64). The Chi-square test of the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead below 150 mu g/L was not significant while the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead above 200 mu g/L resulted in very slight differences in the values of infants' birth weight. Conclusion: The detected low lead exposures from cosmetics does not produce statistically significant effects on the three pregnancy outcomes; gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane or birth weight. However, the importance of low lead exposure from the 100% lead

  16. Birth weight classification in gestational diabetes: is there an ideal chart?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Silveira Mastella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is associated to increased rates of large for gestational age newborns and macrosomia. Several charts are used to classify birth weight. Is there an ideal chart to classify newborns of GDM mothers? Methods: We evaluated adequacy of birth weight of 332 neonates born to GDM mothers at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Newborns were classified according to gestational age as small (SGA, adequate or large (LGA based on four charts: Alexander, Pedreira, INTERGROWTH 21st Project and SINASC-2012. The latter was built using data from a large national registry of 2012, the Born Alive National Surveillance System (Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos – SINASC, which included 2.905,789 birth certificates. Frequencies of SGA and LGA and Kappa agreement were calculated. Results: In non-gender adjusted curves, SGA rates (95% confidence interval varied from 8% (5-11 to 9% (6-13; LGA rates, from 11% (8-15 to 17% (13-21. For males, SGA rates varied from 3% (1-6% to 6% (3-11%, and LGA rates, from 18% (13-24% to 31% (24-38%; for female, SGA rates were from 3% (1-7% to 10% (6-16% and LGA rates, from 11% (6-16% to 19% (13-26%. Kappa results were: ALEXANDER vs. SINASC-2012: 0.80 (0.73-0.88; INTERGROWTH 21st vs. SINASC-2012 (adjusted by sex: 0.62 (0.53-0.71; INTERGROWTH 21st vs. PEDREIRA: 0.71 (0.62-0.79; SINASC-2012 (by sex vs. PEDREIRA: 0.86 (0.79-0.93. Conclusions: Misclassification has to be taken into account when evaluating newborns of GDM mothers, as LGA rates can almost double depending on the chart used to classify birth weight.

  17. Different Risk Factors for Very Low Birth Weight, Term-Small-for-Gestational-Age, or Preterm Birth in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available From 1985 to 2013, the mean birth weight of infants in Japan decreased from 3120 g to 3000 g, and the low-birth-weight rate among live births increased from 6.3% to 9.6%. No prospective study has elucidated the risk factors for poor fetal growth and preterm birth in recent Japanese parents, such as increased parental age, maternal body figure, assisted reproductive technology (ART, and socioeconomic status. Participants were mother–infant pairs (n = 18,059 enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan from 2002 to 2013. Parental characteristics were obtained via self-reported questionnaires during pregnancy. Medical records helped identify very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <1500g, term-small-for-gestational-age (term-SGA, and preterm-birth (PTB; <37 weeks infants. We calculated relative risks (RRs for PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA birth based on parental characteristics. The prevalence of PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA was 4.5%, 0.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. Aged parents and ART were risk factors for PTB and VLBW. Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy increased the risk; a parental educational level of ≥16 years reduced risk of term-SGA. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI of <18.5 kg/m2 increased the risk of PTB and term-SGA. The RR for low BMI was highest among mothers who have low educational level. Among various factors, appropriate nutritional education to maintain normal BMI is important to prevent PTB and term-SGA in Japan.

  18. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight: A Within-Family Analysis in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, the high prevalence of unhealthy preconception body weight and inappropriate gestational weight gain among pregnant women is an important public health concern. However, the relationship among pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and newborn birth weight has not been well established. This study uses a very large dataset of sibling births and a within-family design to thoroughly address this issue. The baseline regression controlling for mother fixed effects indic...

  19. Association of Prenatal Ibuprofen Exposure with Birth Weight and Gestational Age: A Population-Based Sibling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezvalová-Henriksen, Kateřina; Wood, Mollie; Spigset, Olav; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2016-01-01

    Three studies so far have investigated the effect of prenatal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure on birth weight and gestational age. The aim in this study was to evaluate the association of prenatal ibuprofen with birth weight and gestational age at birth, using a sibling design in an attempt to adjust for the possibility of familial confounding. Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN), we identified 28 597 siblings, of whom 1080 were prenatally exposed to ibuprofen and 26 824 were not exposed to any NSAID. Random and fixed effects models with propensity score adjustment were used to evaluate the effects of ibuprofen exposure on birth weight and gestational age. Ibuprofen exposure during the first trimester was associated with a decrease in birth weight of 79 grams (95% confidence interval -133 to -25 grams). In contrast, second and/or third trimester exposure, and duration of exposure had no impact on the effect estimates. We found no association between ibuprofen exposure and gestational age at birth. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to ibuprofen during the first trimester is associated with a slight decrease in birth weight. The association does not seem to be attributable to shared genetics and family environment, and could be explained by either exposure to ibuprofen, or to non-shared confounding between pregnancies.

  20. Intrauterine nicotine exposure, birth weight, gestational age and the risk of infantile colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background and aim: Infantile colic is characterised by crying bouts in a healthy infant during the first months. Smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight (BW) have been previously identified as risk factors for infantile colic. Nicotine acts as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect the intr......Background and aim: Infantile colic is characterised by crying bouts in a healthy infant during the first months. Smoking in pregnancy and low birth weight (BW) have been previously identified as risk factors for infantile colic. Nicotine acts as a neurotransmitter and is known to affect...... the intrauterine central nervous system development, while low BW and premature birth have both been related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We investigated the association between intrauterine nicotine exposure, BW, gestational age (GA) and infantile colic in a large cohort study. Materials and methods......: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The study on nicotine exposure included 63,128 infants and the study on BW and GA included 62, 785 infants with complete data. Infantile colic was defined according to the modified Wessel’s criteria based on maternal interview 6 months postpartum...

  1. Estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso gestacional e peso ao nascer Maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Tanto o estado nutricional materno como o ganho de peso gestacional vem sendo estudado em relação ao papel determinante que desempenham sobre o crescimento fetal e o peso ao nascer. O peso inadequado ao nascer é uma das grandes preocupações da saúde pública devido ao aumento da morbimortalidade no primeiro ano de vida e ao maior risco de desenvolver doenças na vida adulta, tais como a síndrome metabólica, nos casos de baixo peso, e diabetes e obesidade, nos casos de macrossomia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever uma coorte de gestantes, classificando-as de acordo com o estado nutricional inicial, o ganho ponderal gestacional, a resistência nas artérias uterinas e o peso dos recém-nascidos. MÉTODOS: foi acompanhada, a cada quatro semanas gestacionais, uma coorte de 115 gestantes atendidas pelo Programa de Saúde da Família do município de Campina Grande, PB. O estado nutricional inicial foi determinado através do índice de massa corporal (kg/m² para a idade gestacional, e as gestantes classificadas de acordo com os critérios de Atalah. Na 20ª semana, foi estudada a resistência das artérias uterinas, através da dopplervelocimetria. RESULTADOS: o estado nutricional inicial mostrou uma alta prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade (27%, e uma prevalência significante de desnutrição (23%. Um alto percentual de gestantes ganhou peso excessivo tanto no segundo (44% como no terceiro trimestre (45%. A distribuição do peso ao nascer, indicou uma incidência de 10% de baixo peso e de 9% de macrossomia. Observou-se ainda, uma alta prevalência de incisuras nas artérias uterinas.INTRODUCTION: Maternal nutritional status and gestational weight gain have been addressed because of their importance to fetal growth and birth weight. Inadequate birth weight is a major concern to public health given it has been associated with increasing morbidity-mortality during the first year of life and with increased risks of

  2. Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiríksdóttir, Védís Helga; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður Ingibjörg; Kaestner, Robert; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW). We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Study design The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation. PMID:24324602

  3. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping Yang

    Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF GESTATIONAL AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORN ON TOOTH ERUPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sandra Regina Piovezani; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the beginning of eruption of the first deciduous tooth in preterm infants (eruption. Methods: The neonatal records and the moment of eruption of the first deciduous tooth of 146 infants - 77 preterm infants and 69 full-term infants, ranging from 5 to 36 months old, of both genders – were recorded. All of them were under care at the Pediatric Ambulatory of Hospital Universitário Evangélico at Curitiba – Parana. Data were analyzed considering biological age and post-conception, or corrected, age – which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of eruption of the first deciduous tooth. Results: Results showed that when chronological age is considered, tooth eruption in preterm and very low birth weight infants is importantly delayed. However, when corrected age is considered, no statistically significant differences were found among groups. Conclusion: The delayed eruption may be related to the premature birth and not to a delay in dental development. PMID:19089267

  5. Hearing loss by week of gestation and birth weight in very preterm neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Straaten, H.L. van

    2015-01-01

    Objective To gain insight into health and related costs associated with very preterm births, one needs accurate information about the prevalence of the disabling conditions, including neonatal hearing loss (NHL). Study design We assessed the prevalence of NHL by week of gestation and categories of

  6. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  7. Particulate matter exposure during pregnancy is associated with birth weight, but not gestational age, 1962-1992: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearce Mark S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollutants is suggested to adversely affect fetal growth, but the evidence remains inconsistent in relation to specific outcomes and exposure windows. Methods Using birth records from the two major maternity hospitals in Newcastle upon Tyne in northern England between 1961 and 1992, we constructed a database of all births to mothers resident within the city. Weekly black smoke exposure levels from routine data recorded at 20 air pollution monitoring stations were obtained and individual exposures were estimated via a two-stage modeling strategy, incorporating temporally and spatially varying covariates. Regression analyses, including 88,679 births, assessed potential associations between exposure to black smoke and birth weight, gestational age and birth weight standardized for gestational age and sex. Results Significant associations were seen between black smoke and both standardized and unstandardized birth weight, but not for gestational age when adjusted for potential confounders. Not all associations were linear. For an increase in whole pregnancy black smoke exposure, from the 1st (7.4 μg/m3 to the 25th (17.2 μg/m3, 50th (33.8 μg/m3, 75th (108.3 μg/m3, and 90th (180.8 μg/m3 percentiles, the adjusted estimated decreases in birth weight were 33 g (SE 1.05, 62 g (1.63, 98 g (2.26 and 109 g (2.44 respectively. A significant interaction was observed between socio-economic deprivation and black smoke on both standardized and unstandardized birth weight with increasing effects of black smoke in reducing birth weight seen with increasing socio-economic disadvantage. Conclusions The findings of this study progress the hypothesis that the association between black smoke and birth weight may be mediated through intrauterine growth restriction. The associations between black smoke and birth weight were of the same order of magnitude as those reported for passive smoking. These findings add to the growing

  8. Associations of consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or small for gestational age births: a systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mary M; Stettler, Nicolas; Smith, Kimberly M; Reiss, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is recognized as one of the determinants of fetal growth. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is promoted as part of a healthful diet; however, intakes are typically lower than recommended levels. The purpose of this study was to systematically review results from studies examining the relationship between maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or risk for delivering a small for gestational age baby. A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted and abstracts were screened using predefined criteria. Eleven relevant studies were identified and systematically reviewed, including six prospective cohort studies, three retrospective cohort studies, and two case–control studies. Seven studies were conducted in cohorts from highly developed countries. One prospective study from a highly developed area reported increased risk for small for gestational age birth by women with low vegetable intakes (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.4–6.9; P=0.01); another large prospective study reported a 10.4 g increase in birth weight per quintile increase in fruit intake (95% confidence interval 6.9–3.9; Pfruits and vegetables (combined) or fruits, vegetables, and juice (combined), respectively. One retrospective study reported an association between low fruit intake and birth weight. In less developed countries, increased vegetable or fruit intake was associated with increased birth weight in two prospective studies. Overall, limited inconclusive evidence of a protective effect of increased consumption of vegetables and risk for small for gestational age birth, and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and increased birth weight among women from highly developed countries was identified. Among women in less developed countries, limited inconclusive evidence suggests that increased consumption of vegetables or fruits may be associated with higher infant birth weight. The available

  9. Association between gestational age and birth weight on the language development of Brazilian children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbeto, Amanda B; Cortelo, Fernando M; C Filho, Élio B

    2015-01-01

    To review the literature that addresses the relationship between prematurity, birth weight, and development of language in Brazilian children. A systematic review of studies published between 2003 and 2012 in English and Portuguese and indexed in PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO. The following key words were used in the searches: Prematuro, Prematuridade, Linguagem, Prematurity, Language, Speech-Language Pathology. Fifty-seven articles were retrieved, 13 of which were included in the systematic review. The results showed an association between prematurity, low birth weight, and language development. In studies that made comparisons between preterm and term infants, there was evidence that preterm infants had poorer performance on indicators of language. It was also observed that children born with lower birth weight had a poorer performance on measures of language when compared to children with higher weight and closer to 37 weeks of gestational age. Regarding the type of language assessed, expression proved to be more impaired than reception. Higher parental education and family income were indicated as protective factors for the development of language. Conversely, lower birth weight and higher degree of prematurity emerged as risk factors. Preterm birth and low birth weight poses risks for the language development of children, especially in the first years of life. Therefore, it is essential that pediatricians are aware of the language development of these children to ensure proper treatment. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  11. The Impact of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on the Risk of Strabismus among Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Shilpa; Andrews, Chris A.; Apkarian, Alexandra O.; Musch, David C.; Lee, Paul P.; Stein, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Strabismus causes irreversible vision loss if not detected and treated early. It is unclear whether birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) are risk factors for strabismus. OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of BW and GA on the likelihood of developing strabismus among premature infants. DESIGN In this longitudinal cohort analysis, we followed a group of premature children from birth to determine the proportion which developed strabismus and the timing of first strabismus diagnosis. Multivariable Cox regression analyses assessed the relationships of BW and GA and the development of strabismus. Regression models were adjusted for other known risk factors for strabismus, sociodemographic factors, and ocular comorbidities. SETTING Communities throughout the United States PARTICIPANTS 38055 otherwise healthy children born prematurely who were enrolled for >6 months in a nationwide US managed care network between 2001–2011. EXPOSURE BW strabismus with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) RESULTS Of 38055 otherwise healthy children who were born prematurely, 587 were diagnosed with strabismus later in life. Cumulative incidence of strabismus was 3.0% at 5 years. Controlling for GA and other factors, infants born with BW strabismus. Controlling for BW and other covariates, there was no significant association between strabismus and GA (HR=0.98, [CI, 0.69–1.38]). Among premature infants with BW strabismus relative to those born after 32 weeks (HR=1.27, [CI, 0.86–1.88]). In contrast, among those with GA ≤32 weeks, BW strabismus relative to BW >2000g (HR=14.4, [CI 1.99–104]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Independent of GA, very low BW conferred a large increase in strabismus risk among premature infants. In contrast, independent of BW, GA did not significantly impact the risk of strabismus. Updates to existing guidelines in the pediatric and ophthalmic literature should be considered, highlighting the importance of BW rather than GA and alerting clinicians about

  12. Higher gestational weight gain is associated with increasing offspring birth weight independent of maternal glycemic control in women with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna L; Parellada, Clara B; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the association between gestational weight gain and offspring birth weight in singleton term pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred fifteen consecutive women referred at ...), and insufficient (n = 16) gestational weight gain. Diabetes duration was comparable, and median prepregnancy BMI was 25.3 (range 18-41) vs. 23.5 (18-31) vs. 22.7 (20-30) kg/m(2) (P = 0.05) in the three weight gain groups. Offspring birth weight and birth weight SD score decreased across the groups (3,681 [2......,374-4,500] vs. 3,395 [2,910-4,322] vs. 3,295 [2,766-4,340] g [P = 0.02] and 1.08 [-1.90 to 3.25] vs. 0.45 [-0.83 to 3.18] vs. -0.02 [-1.51 to 2.96] [P = 0.009], respectively). In a multiple linear regression analysis, gestational weight gain (kg) was positively associated with offspring birth weight (g) (β = 19...

  13. Changes in Gestational Weight Gain and Birth Weight in Women who Delivered at Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital in Tamba, Japan during 27 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Houu; Tanimura, Kenji; Nakashima, Yuki; Maruo, Motoyoshi; Sakai, Keiichiro; Ueda, Yasuo; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-12-03

    Two independent guidelines on appropriate weight gain for Japanese pregnant women have been established in 1997 and 2006. This study aimed to evaluate changes in the amount of gestational weight gain in pregnant women, the birth weight of their neonates, and the incidence of complications of pregnancy and neonatal outcome in women who delivered at Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital. Between 1988 and 2014, 6367 women delivered live singleton neonates at full term. The study period was divided into period I (1988-1996), period II (1997-2005), and period III (2006-2014). Changes in weight gain and birth weight were assessed. Complications of pregnancy and neonatal outcome were compared among the periods. Weight gain had been decreased in periods I and II, and weight gain was increased in period III. There was no difference in birth weights between the periods. The incidences of pregnancy-induced hypertension in periods II and III were higher than that in period I (pwomen.

  14. Associations of consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or small for gestational age births: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy MM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mary M Murphy,1 Nicolas Stettler,1,2 Kimberly M Smith,1 Richard Reiss3 1Exponent, Inc., Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Washington, DC, USA; 2The Lewin Group, Falls Church, VA, USA; 3Exponent, Inc., Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Alexandria, VA, USA Abstract: Maternal nutrition is recognized as one of the determinants of fetal growth. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is promoted as part of a healthful diet; however, intakes are typically lower than recommended levels. The purpose of this study was to systematically review results from studies examining the relationship between maternal consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy with infant birth weight or risk for delivering a small for gestational age baby. A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted and abstracts were screened using predefined criteria. Eleven relevant studies were identified and systematically reviewed, including six prospective cohort studies, three retrospective cohort studies, and two case–control studies. Seven studies were conducted in cohorts from highly developed countries. One prospective study from a highly developed area reported increased risk for small for gestational age birth by women with low vegetable intakes (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval 1.4–6.9; P=0.01; another large prospective study reported a 10.4 g increase in birth weight per quintile increase in fruit intake (95% confidence interval 6.9–3.9; P<0.0001 and increases of 8.4 or 7.7 g per quintile intake of fruits and vegetables (combined or fruits, vegetables, and juice (combined, respectively. One retrospective study reported an association between low fruit intake and birth weight. In less developed countries, increased vegetable or fruit intake was associated with increased birth weight in two prospective studies. Overall, limited inconclusive evidence of a protective effect of increased consumption of vegetables and risk for

  15. Amniotic Fluid Arginine from Gestational Weeks 13 to 15 Is a Predictor of Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Bjørke-Jenssen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arginine is a constituent of proteins and a precursor for polyamines and nitric oxide, and is essential for placentation, angiogenesis, and growth. Maternal plasma arginine concentrations are found to be lower in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction, and arginine supplementation in later pregnancy is reported to increase birth weight. We measured arginine and the metabolites asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA in the amniotic fluid obtained in pregnancy weeks 13 to 15 from 363 pregnancies with a documented normal outcome and related the concentrations to birth weight, length, and head circumference. Arginine was higher in the amniotic fluid from female (mean 40.8 (SD 10.6 µmol/L compared to male fetuses (37.4 (SD 11.2 µmol/L, p = 0.003. Despite the gender difference, arginine in the amniotic fluid from gestational weeks 13–15 was the strongest predictor for birth weight, length, and head circumference. ADMA was a strong predictor for birth weight and length, SDMA for birth weight, while Arg/ADMA and Arg/SDMA only predicted head circumference in multiple linear regression models. Due to increased arginine demands, pregnancy is considered a state of relative arginine deficiency. Our findings reflect the importance of a good maternal arginine status in early pregnancy, an observation that should be evaluated in an intervention study.

  16. Socioeconomic inequality in birth weight and gestational age in Denmark 1996-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    were siblings but were different in terms of socioeconomic position. Data consisted of 471,215 live born singletons born in Denmark 1997-2007 with at least one sibling or one first cousin. We examined parental educational attainment and household income in relation to preterm birth and small......A large body of literature has reported associations between socioeconomic position and adverse pregnancy outcomes even in affluent egalitarian welfare states. This study explored the nature of this relationship by examining women who changed socioeconomic position between pregnancies and women who...... for gestational age using Cox regression. Household income was only weakly related to these outcomes. Paternal education was strongly associated with the outcomes only in the cohort analyses. Maternal education was inversely associated with preterm birth only in the cohort analyses, where the least educated women...

  17. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  18. Association between early postnatal weight loss and death or BPD in small and appropriate for gestational age extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, R; Oh, W; Perritt, R; Laptook, A R; Poole, K; Wright, L L; Fanaroff, A A; Duara, S; Stoll, B J; Goldberg, R

    2007-06-01

    To examine the association between weight loss during the first 10 days of life and the incidence of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) extremely low-birth-weight infants. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of ELBW (birth weight BPD, within each birth weight/gestation category (SGA or AGA). BPD and death were also analyzed separately in relation to EPWL. Logistic regression analysis was done to evaluate the risk of death or BPD in SGA and AGA groups, controlling for maternal and neonatal demographic and clinical factors found to be significant by univariate analysis. SGA ELBW infants had a lower prevalence of EPWL as compared with AGA ELBW infants (81.2 vs 93.7%, respectively, PBPD rate was lower in the group of infants with EPWL compared with infants without EPWL (53.4 vs 74.3%, respectively, PBPD (47.2 vs 64%, PBPD (OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37-0.60). In SGA infants, on univariate analysis, a similar association between EPWL and outcomes was seen as shown in AGA infants: death or BPD (55.9 vs 75.2%, PBPD rate (48.3 vs 62.1%, P=0.002) and rate death (19 vs 40.8%, PBPD (OR 0.60, 95% CI: 0.41-0.89) among SGA infants. SGA infants experienced less EPWL when compared with their AGA counterparts. EPWL was associated with a lower risk of death or BPD in both ELBW AGA and SGA infants. These data suggest that clinicians who consider the association between EPWL and risk of death or BPD should do so independent of gestation/birth weight status.

  19. Evaluating the Relationship Between Birth Weight for Gestational Age and Adult Blood Pressure Using Participants From a Cohort of Same-Sex Siblings, Discordant on Birth Weight Percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Linda G; Buka, Stephen L; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gillman, Matthew W; Susser, Ezra; Lumey, L H

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have described an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure (BP). Debate continues, however, over the magnitude and validity of the association. This analysis draws on the Early Determinants of Adult Health study (2005-2008), a cohort of 393 US adults (mean age 43 years; 47% male), including 114 same-sex sibling pairs deliberately sampled to be discordant on sex-specific birth weight for gestational age (BW/GA) in order to minimize confounding in studies of fetal growth and midlife health outcomes. Every quintile increment in BW/GA percentile was associated with a 1.04-mm Hg decrement in adult systolic BP (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.14, 0.06) and a 0.63-mm Hg decrement in diastolic BP (95% CI: -1.35, 0.09), controlling for sex, age, site, smoking, and race/ethnicity. The relationship was strongest among those in the lowest decile of BW/GA. Adding adult body mass index to the models attenuated the estimates (e.g., to -0.90 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.94, 0.14) for systolic BP). In the sibling-pair subgroup, associations were slightly stronger but with wider confidence intervals (e.g., -1.22 mm Hg (95% CI: -5.20, 2.75) for systolic BP). In conclusion, we found a small inverse relationship between BW/GA and BP in cohort and sibling-pair analyses, but the clinical or public health significance is likely limited. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Impact of Maternal Glucose and Gestational Weight Gain on Child Obesity over the First Decade of Life in Normal Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Teresa A; Pedula, Kathryn L; Vesco, Kimberly K; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Ogasawara, Keith K

    2016-08-01

    Objective To determine, among children with normal birth weight, if maternal hyperglycemia and weight gain independently increase childhood obesity risk in a very large diverse population. Methods Study population was 24,141 individuals (mothers and their normal birth weight offspring, born 1995-2003) among a diverse population with universal GDM screening [50-g glucose-challenge test (GCT); 3 h. 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if GCT+]. Among the 13,037 full-term offspring with normal birth weight (2500-4000 g), annual measured height/weight was ascertained between ages 2 and 10 years to calculate gender-specific BMI-for-age percentiles using USA norms (1960-1995 standard). Results Among children who began life with normal birth weight, we found a significant trend for developing both childhood overweight (>85 %ile) and obesity (>95 %ile) during the first decade of life with both maternal hyperglycemia (normal GCT, GCT+ but no GDM, GDM) and excessive gestational weight gain [>40 pounds (18.1 kg)]; p obesity in the first decade remained after adjustment for potential confounders including maternal age, parity, as well as pre-pregnancy BMI. The attributable risk (%) for childhood obesity was 28.5 % (95 % CI 15.9-41.1) for GDM and 16.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-23.2) for excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions for Practice Both maternal hyperglycemia and excessive weight gain have independent effects to increase childhood obesity risk. Future research should focus on prevention efforts during pregnancy as a potential window of opportunity to reduce childhood obesity.

  1. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to school performance of 10-year-old children: a follow-up study of children born after 32 completed weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Ida; Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    after adjustment for potential cofounders and when the analyses were restricted to children born at term (39-40 weeks of gestation), suggesting that the association could not be explained by a low gestational age. Compared with children born at term, reading and spelling difficulties were more often...... the children were between 9 and 11 years of age, we gathered information about their school performance (reading, spelling, and arithmetic) from questionnaires completed by the parents and the children's primary school teachers. RESULTS: The association between birth weight and reading, as well as spelling...... found among children born at gestational age 33 to 36 weeks and 37 to 38 weeks, whereas there was no relation between gestational age and arithmetic difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational age and birth weight were associated with school performance in the 10-year-old child and the association extended...

  2. Vitamin A supplementation in extremely low-birth-weight infants: subgroup analysis in small-for-gestational-age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londhe, Vedang A; Nolen, Tracy L; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Tyson, Jon E; Oh, William; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2013-10-01

    Preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction are at increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). A randomized clinical trial by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network demonstrated that vitamin A supplementation in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) preterm infants requiring early respiratory support decreased the risk of developing BPD. A subgroup analysis of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants from the original NICHD trial was performed to test the hypothesis that in infants requiring early respiratory support, vitamin A supplementation decreases the relative risk of BPD or death in premature SGA infants to a greater extent than in gestational age-equivalent vitamin A-treated appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Although vitamin A supplementation significantly increased serum retinol concentrations in AGA ELBW infants (median [5th percentile, 95th percentile]: 16.3 [-7.0, 68.8] versus 2.4 [-13.9, 55.1]; p supplementation in preterm SGA infants requiring early respiratory support decreases the relative risk of BPD or death as compared with preterm AGA infants. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Individual exposures to drinking water trihalomethanes, low birth weight and small for gestational age risk: a prospective Kaunas cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence for an association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and impaired fetal growth is still inconsistent and inconclusive, in particular, for various exposure routes. We examined the relationship of individual exposures to THMs in drinking water on low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and birth weight (BW) in singleton births. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 4,161 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania), using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, to estimate an internal dose of THM. We used regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose and birth outcomes, adjusting for family status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, ethnic group, previous preterm, infant gender, and birth year. Results The estimated internal dose of THMs ranged from 0.0025 to 2.40 mg/d. We found dose-response relationships for the entire pregnancy and trimester-specific THM and chloroform internal dose and risk for LBW and a reduction in BW. The adjusted odds ratio for third tertile vs. first tertile chloroform internal dose of entire pregnancy was 2.17, 95% CI 1.19-3.98 for LBW; the OR per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose was 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19. Chloroform internal dose was associated with a slightly increased risk of SGA (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87-1.63 and OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89-1.68, respectively, for second and third tertile of third trimester); the risk increased by 4% per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09). Conclusions THM internal dose in pregnancy varies substantially across individuals, and depends on both water THM levels and water use habits. Increased internal dose may affect fetal growth. PMID:21501533

  4. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  5. Effects of early pregnancy BMI, mid-gestational weight gain, glucose and lipid levels in pregnancy on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat: A population-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2015-01-01

    Background: Maternal glucose and lipid levels are associated with neonatal anthropometry of the offspring, also independently of maternal body mass index (BMI). Gestational weight gain, however, is often not accounted for. The objective was to explore whether the effects of maternal glucose and lipid levels on offspring’s birth weight and subcutaneous fat were independent of early pregnancy BMI and mid-gestational weight gain. Methods: In a population-based, multi-ethnic, prospect...

  6. Association between small for gestational age and low birth weight with attention deficit and impaired executive functions in 3-6 years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat, M; Gharaee, J; Dalili, H; Mohammadzadeh, Y; Ansari, Sh; Farahani, Z

    2017-12-03

    Behavioral disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are frequently reported among children with history of small body size at birth and disproportionate intrauterine growth retardation. The current study aimed to investigate some factors like executive functions and attention deficit in children with history of Small for gestational age (SGA) and/or Low Birth Weight (LBW) at birth. A historical cohort study was done and 3-6 years old preschool children (with past history of SGA/LBW) from some kindergartens and health centers were selected. Control group was randomly selected among children with history of normal birth weight and appropriate for gestational age at birth. All children were interviewed by an expert psychologist. Variables related to their attention, development, and executive functions were assessed by ASQ, Conner's, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Completed questionnaires related Attention deficit and indexes of executive functions were evaluated between children in case groups and their counterparts in controls. Based on inclusion criteria, 229 preschool children entered the study. With regard to size for gestational age, 124 cases were categorized in the SGA/LBW group and the rest were assigned in the appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group. In the case group, NPE and Percent Perseverative Errors (PPE) scores were significantly lower than normal birth weight group (p = .0001, p = .015). Scores related B item of Conner's was significantly different between cases and their controls (p = .039, p = .035). Our results indicated that children with past history of some risks at birth may suffer from complications related attention and executive functions in their childhood. Recommendations for further research are strongly suggested.

  7. Maternal urinary triclosan level, gestational diabetes mellitus and birth weight in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Tang, Ning; Zhang, Hui-Juan; Wang, Xia; Zhao, Shasha; Wang, Weiye; Zhang, Jun; Cheng, Weiwei

    2018-01-16

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antibacterial chemical widely used in personal-care products and an endocrine disruptor. While TCS exposure is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disorders in animals, few studies have assessed its effect on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in humans. This study aimed to explore whether maternal urinary TCS level is associated with the risk of GDM and infant birthweight. We examined 620 pregnant women from Shanghai, China in 2012-2013. Urinary TCS level was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), and categorized into high, medium and low in tertiles. GDM was defined based on recommendation of International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). The GDM rate was 12.7%. TCS was detectable (≥0.1 ng/mL) in 97.9% women (median 2.7 ng/mL). There was a positive, but statistically non-significant association between urinary TCS levels and GDM (adjusted odds ratio 1.17; 95%CI: 0.99, 1.39, with each unit increase of log (TCS) ng/mL) with adjustment for urinary creatinine, maternal age, education, passive smoking, parity and prepregnancy BMI categories. 48.1% of infants were females. Birthweight was 122.8 g higher (95% CI: 13.9, 231.6 g) for female infants of women in high TCS (median 13.3 ng/mL) versus low TCS (median 0.77 ng/mL), with adjustment for urinary creatinine, prepregnancy BMI, GDM and other confounders. No association was found between maternal TCS and birthweight in male infants. These results suggested the potential for TCS to be associated with increased risk of GDM and a gender-specific association with higher birthweight among female infants in a population with widespread but moderate exposure to TCS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. An Influence of Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Apgar Score on Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials in Children with History of Prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Michalczuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of our study was to examine a possible influence of gestational age, birth weight, and Apgar score on amplitudes and latencies of P100 wave in preterm born school-age children. Materials and Methods. We examined the following group of school-age children: 28 with history of prematurity (mean age 10.56 ± 1.66 years and 25 born at term (mean age 11.2 ± 1.94 years. The monocular PVEP was performed in all children. Results. The P100 wave amplitudes and latencies significantly differ between preterm born school-age children and those born at term. There was an essential positive linear correlation of the P100 wave amplitudes with birth weight, gestational age, and Apgar score. There were the negative linear correlations of P100 latencies in 15-minute stimulation from O1 and Oz electrode with Apgar score and O1 and O2 electrode with gestational age. Conclusions. PVEP responses vary in preterm born children in comparison to term. Low birth weight, early gestational age, and poor baseline output seem to be the predicting factors for the developmental rate of a brain function in children with history of prematurity. Further investigations are necessary to determine perinatal factors that can affect the modified visual system function in preterm born children.

  9. Effects of early pregnancy BMI, mid-gestational weight gain, glucose and lipid levels in pregnancy on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Jenum, Anne Karen; Birkeland, Kåre Inge

    2015-04-03

    Maternal glucose and lipid levels are associated with neonatal anthropometry of the offspring, also independently of maternal body mass index (BMI). Gestational weight gain, however, is often not accounted for. The objective was to explore whether the effects of maternal glucose and lipid levels on offspring's birth weight and subcutaneous fat were independent of early pregnancy BMI and mid-gestational weight gain. In a population-based, multi-ethnic, prospective cohort of 699 women and their offspring, maternal anthropometrics were collected in gestational week 15 and 28. Maternal fasting plasma lipids, fasting and 2-hour glucose post 75 g glucose load, were collected in gestational week 28. Maternal risk factors were standardized using z-scores. Outcomes were neonatal birth weight and sum of skinfolds in four different regions. Mean (standard deviation) birth weight was 3491 ± 498 g and mean sum of skinfolds was 18.2 ± 3.9 mm. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain as well as early pregnancy BMI, gestational week at inclusion, maternal age, parity, smoking status, ethnic origin, gestational age and offspring's sex. However, weight gain was the strongest independent predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds, with a 0.21 kg/week increased weight gain giving a 110.7 (95% confidence interval 76.6-144.9) g heavier neonate, and with 0.72 (0.38-1.06) mm larger sum of skinfolds. The effect size of mother's early pregnancy BMI on birth weight was higher in non-Europeans than in Europeans. Maternal fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol were predictors of offspring's birth weight, and fasting and 2-hour glucose were predictors of neonatal sum of skinfolds, independently of weight gain. Mid-gestational weight gain was a stronger predictor of both birth weight and neonatal sum of skinfolds than early

  10. New population-based references for birth weight, length, and head circumference in singletons and twins from 23 to 43 gestation weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Saari, Antti; Gissler, Mika; Dunkel, Leo

    2013-09-01

    Birth size curves are needed for clinical and epidemiological purposes. We constructed birth weight (BW), length (BL), and head circumference (BHC) references, assessed effects of twinness and parity, and defined cut-off points for small, appropriate, and large for gestational age. Birth register data of all 753,036 infants born in 1996-2008 in Finland were cleaned to create references reflecting optimal intrauterine growth. The final data included 533,666 singletons and 15,033 twins (median gestation weeks (gws) 40.0 and 37.1, respectively, 41.6% primiparous). Sex-specific BW, BL, and BHC references were constructed from 23 to 43 gws separately for singletons and twins born to primiparous or multiparous mothers. GAMLSS method was used for modelling. In singletons from 36 gws onwards, increased BW and BL were observed in comparison to previous reference from 1979-1983. Twins diverged from singletons from 30 gws onwards. At 37.0 gws, mean BW was 400 g lower and mean BL 1.2 cm shorter than in singletons. From 30 gws onwards, birth size was larger in infants of multiparous than primiparous mothers. Population-based birth size references are available for the evaluation of birth size. Accounting for plurality and parity improves the accuracy of birth size evaluation.

  11. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight: A Prospective Cohort Study on Monozygotic Twin Mothers and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Nohr, Ellen A; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Rasmussen, Finn

    2016-08-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about whether particular periods of pregnancy could influence offspring body weight differently. We therefore aimed to explore total and trimester-specific effects of GWG in monozygotic (MZ) twin mother-pairs on their offspring's BW, weight at 1 year and body mass index (BMI) at 5 and 10 years. MZ twin mothers born 1962-1975 were identified in national Swedish registers, and data on exposure and outcome variables was collected from medical records. We analyzed associations within and between twin pairs. We had complete data on the mothers' GWG and offspring BW for 82 pairs. The results indicated that total, and possibly also second and third trimester GWG were associated with offspring BW within the twin pairs in the fully adjusted model (β = 0.08 z-score units, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.17; β = 1.32 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.29, 2.95; and β = 1.02 z-score units, 95% CI: -0.50, 2.54, respectively). Our findings, although statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account. Larger family-based studies with long follow-up are needed to confirm our findings.

  12. Glutathione S-transferase (GSTM1, GSTT1) gene polymorphisms, maternal gestational weight gain, bioimpedance factors and their relationship with birth weight: a cross-sectional study in Romanian mothers and their newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mărginean, Claudiu; Bănescu, Claudia Violeta; Mărginean, Cristina Oana; Tripon, Florin; Meliţ, Lorena Elena; Iancu, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between mother-child GSTM1, GSTT1 gene polymorphisms, maternal weight gain, maternal bioimpedance parameters and newborn's weight, in order to identify the factors that influence birth weight. We performed a cross-sectional study on 405 mothers and their newborns, evaluated in an Obstetrics and Gynecology Tertiary Hospital from Romania. Newborns whose mothers had the null genotype of GSTT1 gene polymorphism were more likely to gain a birth weight of >3 kg, compared to newborns whose mothers had the T1 genotype (odds ratio - OR: 2.14, 95% confidence interval - CI: [1.03; 4.44]). Also, the null genotype of GSTM1 gene polymorphism in both mothers and newborns was associated with a higher birth weight. Gestational weight gain was positively associated with newborn's birth weight (pbirth weight of more than 3 kg (p=0.006 and p=0.037). The null genotype of GSTT1 gene polymorphism in mothers and the null genotype of GSTM1 in mothers and newborns had a positive effect on birth weight. Also, increased maternal fat mass and basal metabolism rate were associated with increased birth weight. We conclude that maternal GSTM1÷GSTT1 gene polymorphisms present an impact on birth weight, being involved in the neonatal nutritional status. The clinical relevance of our study is sustained by the importance of identifying the factors that influence birth weight, which can be triggers for childhood obesity.

  13. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E

    2013-01-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on...... on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery.......Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters...

  14. A prospective observational study of early fetal growth velocity and its association with birth weight, gestational age at delivery, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudeva, Akhila, E-mail: akhilavasudeva@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Abraham, Anu Annie, E-mail: anuannieabraham@yahoo.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, Karnataka State (India); Kamath, Asha, E-mail: aashakamat@gmail.com [Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, A Constituent College of Manipal University (India)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: We aimed to measure early fetal growth velocity and to correlate this with the birth weight, gestational age at delivery, and with the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes specifically preeclampsia and perinatal mortality. Methods: A data based prospective observational study, wherein sonographic biometry data and specific pregnancy outcome related data were collected from pregnant women's records, starting soon after their first antenatal visit. Early fetal growth velocity was measured using BPD growth between 11 and 14 weeks scan and anomaly scan and standardizing this by Z scoring. Results: Out of 607 fetuses, 41 (6.7%) were slow growing, 531 (87.4%) normally growing, and 35 (5.7%) fast growing (Z scoring <10th{sup ,} 10–90th, and >90th percentiles respectively). As fetal growth velocity increased, the mean birth weight decreased from 2958.7 ± 388.9 (<10th centile), 2742.1 ± 576.6 (10–90th centile), to 2339.3 ± 729.4 (>90th centile); and gestational age at delivery decreased from 38.5 ± 1.3 (<10th centile), 37.5 ± 2.1 (10–90th centile), to 36.4 ± 2.2 (>90th centile), and both these trends were statistically significant (p < 0.001).Faster growing fetuses had a higher risk of preterm delivery(spontaneous + indicated) compared to other 2 groups [OR 4.42 (2.18,8.98)], and slower growing fetuses had a higher risk of postdated deliveries compared to other 2 groups [OR 3.042 (1.44, 6.45)].We found no significant association between early fetal growth velocity and incidence of small for gestational age at birth/low birth weight at term, preeclampsia, and perinatal mortality. Conclusions: Early fetal growth velocity between first and second trimesters, may be one of the important factors influencing ultimate birthweight and gestational age at delivery.

  15. New Option in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) Allows for the Conversion of Prevalence of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births to Prevalence of Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff

    2017-11-01

    Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a software model that estimates the health impact of scaling up interventions on maternal and child health. One of the outputs of the model is an estimation of births by fetal size [appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA)] and by length of gestation (term or preterm), both of which influence birth weight. LiST uses prevalence estimates of births in these categories rather than of birth weight categories, because the causes and health consequences differ between SGA and preterm birth. The World Health Assembly nutrition plan, however, has set the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) as a key indicator, with a specific goal of a 30% reduction in LBW prevalence by 2025. Objective: The objective of the study is to develop an algorithm that will allow LiST users to estimate changes in prevalence of LBW on the basis of changes in coverage of interventions and the resulting impact on prevalence estimates of SGA and preterm births. Methods: The study used 13 prospective cohort data sets from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; 4 from sub-Saharan Africa, 5 from Asia, and 4 from Latin America), with reliable measures of gestational age and birth weight. By calculating the proportion of LBW births among SGA and preterm births in each data set and meta-analyzing those estimates, we calculated region-specific pooled rates of LBW among SGA and preterm births. Results: In Africa, 0.4% of term-AGA, 36.7% of term-SGA, 49.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Asia, 1.0% of term-SGA, 47.0% of term-SGA, 36.7% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Latin America, 0.4% of term-AGA, 34.4% of term-SGA, 32.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. Conclusions: The simple conversion factor proposed here allows for the estimation of LBW within LiST for most LMICs. This will allow LiST users to approximate the impact of their health programs on

  16. Trends in Birth Weight and Gestational Age for Infants Born to HIV-infected, Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve Women in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Taha E.; Dadabhai, Sufia S.; Rahman, M. Hafizur; Sun, Jin; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Kumwenda, Newton I.

    2012-01-01

    Background We analyzed birth outcomes among infants of treatment-naïve, HIV-infected women from a series of mother-to-child transmission of HIV studies in Blantyre, Malawi. Methods Data from six prospective studies at one research site were analyzed. Mean birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA), and frequency of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and preterm (PT) birth (GA<37 weeks) were estimated. We assessed risk factors for LBW and PT birth using mixed-effects logistic regression. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from earlier studies (1989-94) and later studies (2000-07) are presented separately. Results The analysis included 8874 HIV-exposed infants. Mean BW and GA ranged from 2793 to 3079 g, and 37.8 to 39.0 weeks. Greater maternal age was consistently (during both the early and late periods) associated with lower odds of LBW and PT birth; AOR (95% CI) for both outcomes in the early and late periods, respectively, were 0.98 (0.96-1.00) and 0.97 (0.95-0.99). Female infant gender was consistently associated with higher odds of PT birth during both periods and with higher odds of LBW during the later period. During the early period, higher maternal education was associated with lower odds of LBW (AOR 0.67 (0.48-0.95)) and PT birth (AOR 0.70 (0.51-0.95)) and later birth year was associated with lower odds of PT birth (AOR 0.35 (0.19-0.70)). Conclusions BW and GA remained stable within each time period. This analysis provides important baseline information for monitoring HIV treatment effects on birth outcomes. Modifiable factors affecting BW and GA should continue to be explored. PMID:22327871

  17. Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006-2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves.Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants.There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes.

  18. Effects of the phthalate exposure during three gestation periods on birth weight and their gender differences: A birth cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hui; Mao, Lei-Jing; Tao, Xing-Yong; Ge, Xing; Huang, Kun; Zhu, Peng; Hao, Jia-Hu; Wang, Qu-Nan; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Zhong-Xiu; Sheng, Jie; Xu, Ye-Qing; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Tao, Xu-Guang; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2018-02-01

    Phthalate has been widely used as a type of plasticiser in various consuming products in daily life. Recent studies have suggested that prenatal phthalate exposure may have adverse effects on fetal development. We aimed to identify the effects of in utero phthalate exposure on birth weight (BW). We evaluated a birth cohort comprising 3474 pregnant women and their single infants; 3103, 2975 and 2838 urine samples were collected in the first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Phthalate metabolites included monomethyl phthalate (MMP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), and mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxylhexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), which were analysed in the urine by using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mixed linear model was used in the statistical analysis. Generally, MMP and MEP exposure during pregnancy was associated with decreased birth weight of infants (MMP, β=-12.192, p=0.009; MEP, β=-11.876, p=0.014). Hierarchical analysis found that MMP and MEOHP exposure was associated with decreased infants' birth weight only in low birth weight groups (MMP, β=-42.538, p=0.005; MEOHP, β=-63.224, p=0.008); MEHP and MEHHP exposure was associated with decreased infants' birth weight in both low birth weight group (MEHP, β=-42.348, p=0.035; MEHHP, β=-50.485, p=0.006) and high birth weight group (MEHP, β=-16.580, p=0.034; MEHHP, β=-18.009, p=0.040), MBP and MEHP exposure were associated with increased infants' birth weight in male NBW group (MBP, β=10.438, p=0.039; MEHP, β=13.223, p=0.017). Moreover, the effect has sex difference. The reduction of birth weight associated with MEHP and MEOHP exposure was stronger in male infants, while MMP and MEP exposure was more significant in female infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve; Hopster, Hans; Fillerup, Maaike; Ekkel, E Dinand; Mulder, Eduard J H; Wiegant, Victor M; Taverne, Marcel A M

    2006-03-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows to levels also observed after psychological stress. HCA was administered during three different periods of gestation (115 days in pigs): period 1: 21-50 (P1, n = 10), period 2: 51-80 (P2, n = 10) and period 3: 81-110 (P3, n = 10) days after insemination. Control sows (n = 11) received vehicle from 21-110 days after insemination. When P1-, P2- and P3-sows did not receive HCA, they also received vehicle. During gestation, weekly saliva samples were taken from the sows to determine salivary cortisol concentrations. Treatment effects on sow, litter and piglet characteristics were determined. In addition, two female piglets per litter were subjected to an ACTH-challenge test at 6 weeks of age to determine the adrenocortical response to ACTH. Pigs were slaughtered at 6 months of age and slaughter weight, back fat thickness and percentage of lean meat were analysed. During the period of treatment with HCA, salivary cortisol concentrations were increased in P1-, P2- and P3-sows compared to control sows (P 0.30), but pooled HCA-litters had a higher percentage of live born piglets (P back fat thickness. In conclusion, elevated peripheral cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows affect both litter characteristics and piglet physiology, the latter depending on the period of gestation during which concentrations were elevated. Underlying mechanisms require further investigation.

  20. Impact of Periconceptional Folic Acid Supplementation on Low Birth Weight and Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants in China: A Large Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2017-08-01

    To explore the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation alone during pregnancy on the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant status. Data were derived from a large population-based cohort study performed in China to evaluate the prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation. The sample comprised 200 589 singleton live births registered in 2 southern Chinese provinces by mothers for whom detailed information on folic acid use was available. Gestational age was calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period. LBW was defined as a birth weight birth weight was below the 10th percentile as defined by a national survey performed in 1998. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of folic acid after adjusting for the principal potential confounders. The overall incidence of LBW and SGA status was 2.18% and 5.82%, respectively. The incidence of LBW and SGA status was 2.09% and 5.73% in women who took folic acid, and 2.27% and 5.90% in those who did not. The adjusted risk ratios associated with folic acid use were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80-0.90) for LBW and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89-0.96) for SGA status. Folic acid use during pregnancy appeared to be particularly important to prevent LBW and SGA status. A maternal daily intake of 400 µg folic acid alone significantly reduced the risks of infant LBW and SGA status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Perinatal factors affecting growth and development at age 3 years in extremely low birth weight infants born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Nozomi; Taki, Atsuko; Tsuji, Atsumi; Nakajima, Keisuke; Takasawa, Kei; Morioka, Chikako; Minosaki, Yoshihiro; Oku, Kikuko; Kashimada, Kenichi; Morio, Tomohiro

    2018-01-01

    Factors affecting growth and development in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) born small for gestational age (SGA) have not been precisely elucidated. We performed a retrospective analysis of ELBWIs born SGA who were treated in the neonatal intensive care unit of Kawaguchi Municipal Medical Centre, Japan. A total 244 ELBWIs were born from 2003 to 2010, and 31 were born with weight and height below the 10th percentile for their gestational age. Among the 31 ELBWIs born SGA, we excluded 9 who died before they reached 3 yr of age or who had severe developmental retardation. A total of 16 patients (weight, 510-998 g; GA, 28w0d-32w5d) who were followed until age 3 yr were eligible for our study. At age 3 yr, 94% and 88% of ELBWIs were above the -2 standard deviation (SD) for height and weight, respectively. A history of mechanical ventilation was associated with height. The average score of the full developmental quotient (DQ) was 85, and 63% (10/16) of ELBWIs scored more than 85. Lower Apgar score (≤ 7) was a risk factor for lower DQ scores in motor development and full development. Our study revealed that most ELBWIs born SGA were more than -2 SD below the mean for height and body weight.

  2. Associations between high birth weight, being large for gestational age, and high blood pressure among adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuciene, Renata; Dulskiene, Virginija; Medzioniene, Jurate

    2018-02-01

    Low birth weight and being small for gestational age are associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, the results from the studies examining the associations between high birth weight (HBW), being large for gestational age (LGA), and high blood pressure (HBP) are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between HBW and being LGA alone and in combinations with body mass index (BMI) categories in adolescence and HBP among Lithuanian adolescents aged 12-15 years. The participants with HBP (≥90th percentile) were screened on two separate occasions. Data on the BMI, birth weight (BW), gestational age, and BP were analyzed in 4598 adolescents. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models. The overall prevalence of HBW (>4000 g), being LGA, adolescent overweight/obesity, and HBP were 13.9, 10.4, 14.5, and 25.6%, respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, and BMI, significant positive associations were found between HBW and being LGA and HBP (HBW: aOR 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.63; LGA: aOR 1.44; 95% CI, 1.16-1.79). After adjustment for age and sex and compared to BW 2500-4000 g and being AGA (appropriate for gestational age) with normal weight in adolescence, the combinations that included both risk factors-HBW with overweight/obesity and being LGA with overweight/obesity-showed higher aORs (aOR 4.36; 95% CI, 3.04-6.26; and aOR 5.03; 95% CI, 3.33-7.60, respectively) than those with either of these risk factors alone did. HBW and being LGA were positively associated with HBP in Lithuanian adolescents aged 12-15 years. The highest odds of having HBP were observed for subjects with both risk factors-neonatal HBW or being LGA and overweight/obesity in adolescence.

  3. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with birth weight but not with gestational length: results from a large prospective observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women consume caffeine daily. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal caffeine intake from different sources and (a) gestational length, particularly the risk for spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD), and (b) birth weight (BW) and the baby being small for gestational age (SGA). Methods This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. A total of 59,123 women with uncomplicated pregnancies giving birth to a live singleton were identified. Caffeine intake from different sources was self-reported at gestational weeks 17, 22 and 30. Spontaneous PTD was defined as spontaneous onset of delivery between 22+0 and 36+6 weeks (n = 1,451). As there is no consensus, SGA was defined according to ultrasound-based (Marsal, n = 856), population-based (Skjaerven, n = 4,503) and customized (Gardosi, n = 4,733) growth curves. Results The main caffeine source was coffee, but tea and chocolate were the main sources in women with low caffeine intake. Median pre-pregnancy caffeine intake was 126 mg/day (IQR 40 to 254), 44 mg/day (13 to 104) at gestational week 17 and 62 mg/day (21 to 130) at gestational week 30. Coffee caffeine, but not caffeine from other sources, was associated with prolonged gestation (8 h/100 mg/day, P caffeine was associated with spontaneous PTD risk. Caffeine intake from different sources, measured repeatedly during pregnancy, was associated with lower BW (Marsal-28 g, Skjaerven-25 g, Gardosi-21 g per 100 mg/day additional total caffeine for a baby with expected BW 3,600 g, P Caffeine intake of 200 to 300 mg/day increased the odds for SGA (OR Marsal 1.62, Skjaerven 1.44, Gardosi 1.27, P caffeine, consumption was associated with marginally increased gestational length but not with spontaneous PTD risk. Caffeine intake was consistently associated with decreased BW and increased odds of SGA. The association was strengthened by concordant results for

  4. Effects of gestation and transition diets, piglet birth weight, and fasting time on depletion of glycogen pools in liver and 3 muscles of newborn piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, P K; Cordero, G; Henckel, P; Puggaard, L; Oksbjerg, N; Sørensen, M T

    2011-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to assess the effects of maternal nutrition in late gestation on glycogen pools of newborn piglets of different birth weights and to assess how rapidly the glycogen pools in the liver and 3 muscles are mobilized during fasting. Until d 108 of gestation, 48 sows were fed a gestation standard diet (GSD) with low dietary fiber (DF, 17.1%), or 1 of 3 diets with high DF (32.3 to 40.4%) consisting of pectin residue (GPR), potato pulp (GPP), or sugar-beet pulp (GSP). From d 108 until farrowing, sows were fed 1 of 6 transition diets with low or high dietary fat: one group received a standard diet (TSD; control) containing 3% animal fat, another group received the TSD diet + 2.5 g/d of hydroxy-methyl butyrate as topdressing (THB), and 4 other groups received diets with 8% added fat from coconut oil (TCO), sunflower oil (TSO), fish oil (TFO), or 4% octanoic acid + 4% fish oil (TOA). Two piglets per litter (the second and fifth born) were blood sampled, and 1 was killed immediately after birth, whereas the other, depending on the litter, was killed after 12, 24, or 28.5 to 36 h (mean 32.5 h) of fasting. Samples of liver, LM, M. semimembranousus (SM), and M. diaphragm (DP) were collected and analyzed for glycogen concentration. No dietary effects (P > 0.20) on glycogen concentrations in liver, LM, SM, or DP were observed. The weight of the liver was affected by gestation diet (P muscle mass, and glycogen pools (P muscles were not (P > 0.05). Liver weight; glycogen concentrations in liver, LM, SM, and DP; and glycogen pools in liver and muscles decreased (P muscle, was estimated to be depleted after 16.4 h of fasting. In conclusion, piglet size had a major impact on estimated glycogen pools, whereas sow nutrition in late gestation had a minor impact, if any. Furthermore, varying proportions of pools of glycogen present in liver and selected muscles were mobilized, and data indicate that newborn piglets are fatally depleted of energy after 16 h of

  5. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  6. Cerebral MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight and small-for-gestational-age children at 15 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skranes, Jon S.; Brubakk, Ann-Mari [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children' s and Women' s Health, Trondheim (Norway); Martinussen, Marit; Smevik, Olaug; Myhr, Gunnar [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Imaging, Trondheim (Norway); Indredavik, Marit [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Neuroscience, Trondheim (Norway); Vik, Torstein [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-08-01

    A high prevalence of abnormal cerebral MRI findings has been reported in low-birth-weight children. To compare MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children with controls in early adolescence. Cerebral MRI was used to examine 55 VLBW, 54 SGA and 66 controls at 15 years of age. The MR images were qualitatively assessed, and size of ventricles, white-matter and grey-matter abnormalities were reported. The VLBW teenagers had a higher prevalence of various MRI abnormalities than SGA children and controls. Dilation of the ventricular system, especially of the occipital horns, was found in 82% of the VLBW group, in 19% of the SGA group and in 21% of controls. White-matter reduction was found in 53% of the VLBW, in 6% of the SGA and in 2% of controls. Corpus callosum thinning was found in 47% of the VLBW, in 2% of the SGA and in 6% of controls. Periventricular gliosis was found in 29% of the VLBW, in 4% of the SGA and in 8% of controls. Cerebral MRI pathology in white matter is a common finding in VLBW teenagers. The findings may indicate minor perinatal PVL with resulting loss of white-matter tissue and ventricular dilation. (orig.)

  7. Cerebral MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight and small-for-gestational-age children at 15 years of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skranes, Jon S.; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Martinussen, Marit; Smevik, Olaug; Myhr, Gunnar; Indredavik, Marit; Vik, Torstein

    2005-01-01

    A high prevalence of abnormal cerebral MRI findings has been reported in low-birth-weight children. To compare MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children with controls in early adolescence. Cerebral MRI was used to examine 55 VLBW, 54 SGA and 66 controls at 15 years of age. The MR images were qualitatively assessed, and size of ventricles, white-matter and grey-matter abnormalities were reported. The VLBW teenagers had a higher prevalence of various MRI abnormalities than SGA children and controls. Dilation of the ventricular system, especially of the occipital horns, was found in 82% of the VLBW group, in 19% of the SGA group and in 21% of controls. White-matter reduction was found in 53% of the VLBW, in 6% of the SGA and in 2% of controls. Corpus callosum thinning was found in 47% of the VLBW, in 2% of the SGA and in 6% of controls. Periventricular gliosis was found in 29% of the VLBW, in 4% of the SGA and in 8% of controls. Cerebral MRI pathology in white matter is a common finding in VLBW teenagers. The findings may indicate minor perinatal PVL with resulting loss of white-matter tissue and ventricular dilation. (orig.)

  8. Modeling birth weight neonates and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonate with abnormal weight is at risk of increased mortality and morbidity. Many factors affect pregnancy outcome. Because of the importance and vital role in birth weight, in this study, some of the factors associated with birth weight in a sample of Iranians neonates were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 245 newborns in a sample of Iranians neonates in the year 2013 were selected, and characteristics of neonate and their mothers were derived. Birth weights were registered by the neonatal scale. To identify the direct and indirect factors affecting birth weight, we used path analysis (PA and IBM AMOS and SPSS software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of weight in girls (3200 ± 421 g less than boys (3310 ± 444 g significantly (P = 0.04. Gestational age (P < 0.001, birth rank (P = 0.012, distance from a previous pregnancy (P = 0.028, and mother weight (P = 0.04 had a statistical significant relationship with birth weight. In the final PA model, gestational age has a highest total effect, type of delivery with gestational age-mediated had the highest indirect effect and type of delivery, and gestational age had the greatest total impact on the birth weight. Conclusion: Gestational age, sex, distance from a previous pregnancy, maternal weight, type of delivery, number of abortion, and birth rank were related with birth weight. Due to the termination of pregnancy and avoid unnecessary deliveries through cesarean section and other related factors should be further consideration by childbirth experts. In addition, factors affecting these variables are carefully identified and prevented as much as possible.

  9. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows

  10. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipids related to preterm birth risk: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. J Clin ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta, GA 30329-4027, USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  11. Artificially extended photoperiod administered to pre-partum mares via blue light to a single eye: Observations on gestation length, foal birth weight and foal hair coat at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Margaret B; Walsh, Caroline M; Duff, Noelle; McCrarren, Conor; Prendergast, Ralph L; Murphy, Barbara A

    2017-09-15

    In seasonally breeding animals, photoperiod perception is crucial for timing of important physiological events. In the horse, long day photoperiod influences the onset of ovulation and cyclicity, shedding of the heavier winter coat and the timing of parturition. In this compilation of studies, conducted across three breeding seasons and two countries, the impact of artificially extended day length was investigated on gestation length, foal birth weight and foal hair coat at birth. The light therapy was administered to pre-partum mares via mobile head worn masks which provided short wavelength blue light to a single eye. In Study 1, reductions in gestation lengths were observed following administration of artificially extended day length (124.8 ± 15.11 days) in the final months of pregnancy to a group of Thoroughbred mares compared to controls (P coat condition of foals at birth with respect to hair weight (P < 0.0001) and hair length (P < 0.0001) compared to controls (0.34 ± 0.20 μg vs 0.59 ± 0.12 μg and 1.93 ± 0.56 cm vs 2.56 ± 0.32 cm, respectively). Collectively, these studies serve to highlight the influential role of the circa-annual changes in photoperiod length on the pre-partum mare for normal foetal development during the natural breeding season. It also emphasizes the potential that exists to improve breeding efficiency parameters by artificially simulating this important environmental cue in the latter stages of gestation against the backdrop of an economically driven early breeding season. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Heritability of gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elina Scheers; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a complex trait involving intrauterine environmental, maternal environmental, and genetic factors. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the total variation in GWG is unclear. We therefore examined the genetic and environmental influences on the...

  13. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E; Tynelius, P; Sørensen, T I A; Rasmussen, F

    2014-12-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery. Women with at least one child born before and one after bariatric surgery were identified in national Swedish registers. Series of weight (and height) measurements were collected from antenatal medical records, with data on the nearest pregnancies before and after bariatric surgery. The age-adjusted means of pre- and post-operative GWG of 124 women were 11.3 (standard deviation [SD] 7.2) and 8.3 (SD 6.4) kg, respectively (P = 0.01). Adjusted fixed effects regression models showed positive associations of differences in mean total GWG with differences in siblings' birth weight, 0.023 kg per 1-kg greater weight gain (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.014-0.069) and for second trimester 0.53 kg for each 1-kg greater weight per week (95% CI: 0.32-1.61), whereas no associations were found with BMI in pre-school age. This study showed positive associations between differences in total and second trimester maternal GWG and differences in children's birth weight, but no association with BMI scores in pre-school age. Maternal genetic, social and lifestyle factors fixed from one pregnancy to the next were taken into account in the analyses by the study design. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. 2-Hour Postload Serum Glucose Levels and Maternal Blood Pressure as Independent Predictors of Birth Weight in “Appropriate for Gestational Age” Neonates in Healthy Nondiabetic Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumana Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Increased neonatal birth weight (NBW, often associated with diabetic pregnancies, is a recognized indicator of childhood obesity and future metabolic risk. Predictors of NBW in healthy non-diabetic pregnancies are not yet established. Here, we investigated the association of maternal parameters of healthy non-diabetic mothers with NBW of their “appropriate-for-gestational age” neonates. Methods. The study involved 36 healthy mother/infant pairs. Examined parameters included NBW, maternal age, first and last trimester (BMI, weight gain, fasting serum lipids and glucose, 2-hour postload glucose levels and blood pressure. Results. Postload-glucose levels were significantly higher in mothers of heavier neonates. ANOVA results indicated that 15% increase in postload-glucose levels corresponded to more than 0.5 Kg increase in NBW in the third tertile. NBW correlated positively with postload glucose levels, and negatively with systolic blood pressure. Regression analysis showed that the main predictors of NBW were postload-glucose levels (B=0.455, P=0.003, followed by systolic blood pressure (B=−0.447, P=0.004, together predicting 31.7% NBW variation. Conclusion. This study highlights that increased maternal postload sugar levels and blood pressure, within the normal range, highly predicts NBW of healthy mothers. These findings may provide focus for early dietary intervention measures to avoid future risks to the mother and baby.

  15. Pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain and their effects on pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Hora; Lipoeto, Nur I; Fair, Frankie J; Kilner, Karen; Yusrawati, Y

    2017-11-09

    Indonesia has a considerably high incidence of maternal and infant mortality. The country has however been experiencing a social and economic transition, influencing its general population demographics and nutritional status including the state of health and nutrition of pregnant women. This study aimed to explore body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG), and their relationship with pregnancy outcomes in a sample of Indonesian pregnant women. This observational cohort study included a total of 607 pregnant women who were recruited in 2010 from maternity clinics in Western Sumatra, Indonesia. Multiple logistic and regression analyses were undertaken to compare pregnancy and birth outcomes for different BMI and GWG, using normal weight women and women with a recommended weight gain as the referent groups. The prevalence of underweight (BMI pregnancy was high at 20.1%; while 21.7% of women were overweight (BMI: 23.0-27.4 kg/m 2 ) and 5.3% obese (BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m 2 ) using the Asian BMI classifications. The incidence of overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ) and obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m 2 ) according to the international BMI classifications were 13.5% and 1.1% respectively. The majority of women gained inadequate weight in pregnancy compared to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, especially those who had a normal BMI. Birthweight adjusted mean difference aMD (95% confidence interval) 205 (46,365) and the odds of macrosomia adjusted odds ratio aOR 13.46 (2.32-77.99) significantly increased in obese women compared to those with a normal BMI. Birthweight aMD -139 (-215, -64) significantly decreased in women with inadequate GWG compared to those with recommended GWG, while SGA aOR 5.44 (1.36, 21.77) and prematurity aOR 3.55 (1.23, 10.21) increased. Low nutritional status and inadequate GWG remain a cause for concern in these women. The higher odds of macrosomia with increasing maternal BMI and higher odds of prematurity and small for

  16. Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Mahony, Rhona; Malone, Fergal D

    2011-07-01

    To establish the level of birth weight discordance at which perinatal morbidity increases in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancy. This prospective multicenter cohort study included 1,028 unselected twin pairs recruited over a 2-year period. Participants underwent two weekly ultrasonographic surveillance from 24 weeks of gestation with surveillance of monochorionic twins two-weekly from 16 weeks. Analysis using Cox proportional hazards compared a composite measure of perinatal morbidity (including any of the following: mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or sepsis) at different degrees of birth weight discordance with adjustment for chorionicity, gestational age, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, birth order, gender, and growth restriction. Perinatal outcome data were recorded for 977 patients (100%) who continued the study with both fetuses alive beyond 24 weeks, including 14 cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Adjusting for gestation at delivery, twin order, gender, and growth restriction, perinatal mortality, individual morbidity, and composite perinatal morbidity were all seen to increase with birth weight discordance exceeding 18% for dichorionic pairs (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.9, Pbirth weights were appropriate for gestational age. : The threshold for birth weight discordance established by this prospective study is 18% both for dichorionic twin pairs and for monochorionic twins without twin-twin transfusion syndrome. This threshold is considerably lower than that defined by many retrospective series as pathologic. We suggest that an anticipated difference of 18% in birth weight should prompt more intensive fetal monitoring.

  17. Gestational Weight Gain and Pregnancy Outcomes in 481 Obese Glucose-Tolerant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    .0-11.0]). There was no difference in rates of small-for-gestational-age infants. Significant predictors for birth weight (determined by multiple linear regression) were gestational weight gain, 2-h OGTT result, pre-gestational BMI, maternal age, gestational age, and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing weight gain in obese women...

  18. Prediction of low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Frøkjær, Jens B

    2017-01-01

    operating characteristic curves demonstrated a significantly higher performance of T2* (AUC of 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98) than UtA PI (AUC of 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89) in the prediction of low birth weight (p = 0.010). Placental pathological findings were closely related to the T2* values. CONCLUSIONS...... placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 100 singleton pregnancies included at 20-40 weeks......' gestation. Placental T2* was obtained using a gradient recalled multi-echo MRI sequence and UtA PI was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Placental pathological examination was performed in 57 of the pregnancies. Low birth weight was defined by a Z-score ≤ -2.0. RESULTS: The incidence of low birth weight...

  19. The role of serum and urinary urea in the evaluation of enteral protein intake in adequate and small-for-gestational-age very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Darcie

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight (VLBW infants have special nutritional needs. There is a current tendency to individualize their protein needs. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of serum and urinary urea as indicators for protein intake in adequate-for-gestational-age (AGA and small-for-gestational-age (SGA VLBW infants. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the nursery attached to the Maternity Ward of the "Prof. Pedro de Alcântara" Children's Institute, Hospital das Clínicas, Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Seventy-two VLBW infants (mean protein intake = 3.7 mg/kg/day were enrolled in a prospective cohort study in two groups: AGA (n = 34 and SGA (n = 38. Blood samples, six-hour urine (6hUr collections and urine sample tests (STUr were obtained for urea and creatinine assays at three and five weeks of life. Statistical analysis: Student's t test, Pearson correlation and linear regression (p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no differences between groups for serum urea, 6hUr and STUr, or between two assessments within each group. Serum urea correlated with 6hUr in both AGA and SGA, and to STUr in SGA; 6hUr correlated with STUr in both AGA and SGA. There was no correlation between protein intake and serum or urine urea. CONCLUSIONS: Serum and urinary urea did not reflect protein intake when mean intakes of 3.7 g/kg/day were used. Sample tests of urinary urea can be as reliable as urea from urine collected over longer periods.

  20. Socioeconomic disparities in small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Yang, Seungmi; Kaufman, Jay S; Kramer, Michael S; Wilkins, Russell

    2017-11-15

    Maternal socioeconomic disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. Few studies, however, have considered maternal education and income simultaneously to better understand the mechanisms underlying perinatal health disparities. This analysis examines both maternal education and income and their association with the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. The study is based on 127,694 singleton live births from the 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort, a national cohort of births registered from May 2004 to May 2006 that were linked to the 2006 long-form Census. Unadjusted rates of small-for-gestational-age birth (sex-specific birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age) and preterm birth (before 37 completed weeks of gestation) were estimated across selected maternal characteristics. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and covariate-adjusted risk ratios of both outcomes according to maternal education and income adequacy quintiles. Small-for-gestational-age birth was associated with both maternal education and income adequacy, while preterm birth was associated with maternal education only. These findings persisted after taking factors including maternal age, ethnicity, and marital status into account. The results suggest that the mechanism by which maternal education is associated with these outcomes is likely not through income, nor does income replace education as a potentially meaningful measure of socioeconomic position. The mechanisms underlying associations between socioeconomic position and perinatal health disparities are complex. The results of this study indicate that more than one socioeconomic factor may play a role.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight in Jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ademu

    The World Health. Organization (WHO) then conducted a study on eighteen different countries at different stages of development. This revealed that babies could be classified into three main groups based on their birth weight and gestational age: small for gestational age, appropriate for age, large for age. Low birth weight ...

  2. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18......-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as birth weight...... was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams...

  3. Prenatal supplementation with Corn Soya Blend Plus reduces the risk of maternal anemia in late gestation and lowers the rate of preterm birth but does not significantly improve maternal weight gain and birth anthropometric measurements in rural Cambodian women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janmohamed, Amynah; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Boungnasiri, Somchit; Chapman, Gwen E; Janssen, Patricia A; Brant, Rollin; Green, Timothy J; McLean, Judy

    2016-02-01

    Corn Soya Blend (CSB) Plus is a fortified dietary supplement used to help Cambodian women meet their nutritional requirements in pregnancy, although little is known about its ability to improve pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the effect of prenatal CSB Plus supplementation on birth weight and secondary outcomes of low birth weight (birth length and head circumference, preterm birth (birth weight between the CSB Plus and control group (46 g; 95% CI: -31, 123 g; P = 0.24). Significant reductions were observed in preterm birth (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.89) and anemia at 36-38 wk (OR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.77). There were no significant differences in low birth weight, small for gestational age, birth length, head circumference, or maternal weight gain. A higher rate of fetal loss was observed in the treatment group (10.2% compared with 3.7%; P birth size but did reduce maternal anemia in late gestation and preterm birth in comparison with women consuming a normal diet. The unexpectedly higher rate of fetal loss in the treatment group is concerning and warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01413776. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Free thyroxine values in dried blood spots on filter paper in newborns are related to both gestational age and birth body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, A; Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Falcone, M; Buratti, L; Ciampi, M; Giusti, L F; Grasso, L; Fenzi, G F; Martino, E

    1988-01-01

    The results of free thyroxine (FT4) measurements in dried blood spots on filter paper in 744 euthyroid newborns (616 at term, 128 preterm), 10 newborns with congenital hypothyroidism and 4 euthyroid newborns with congenital TBG deficiency are reported. FT4 was measured by column adsorption chromatography of free hormone followed by radioimmunoassay in the eluate. FT4 values averaged 24 +/- 0.2 pmol/L (mean +/- SE) in euthyroid newborns, 23.0 +/- 0.9 pmol/L in euthyroid newborns with TBG deficiency (p = NS), and 5.7 +/- 0.4 pmol/L in hypothyroid newborns (p less than 0.001 vs both groups). Total T4 (TT4) values in newborns with TBG deficiency were not different from those in hypothyroid newborns, but were significantly lower than those in euthyroid newborns without TBG abnormalities. FT4 values were higher in full-term newborns than in preterm newborns (25.2 +/- 0.3 vs 21.2 +/- 0.5 pmol/L, p less than 0.001). In both full-term and preterm newborns FT4 values in dried blood spots increased with birth body weight (bbw), virtually plateauing when bbw was greater than 2,500 g. The cut-off values established on the basis of the bbw (8.0 and 13.1 pmol/L for a bbw of less than or equal to 2,500 g and greater than 2,500 g, respectively) showed higher specificity and predictive value of positive results than the cut-off values based on the gestational age. In any case, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of FT4 determinations proved to be higher than those of TT4 and TSH measurements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Efficacy of a first course of Ibuprofen for patent ductus arteriosus closure in extremely preterm newborns according to their gestational age-specific Z-score for birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Madeleneau

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in very preterm infants remain controversial. To identify infants likely to benefit from treatment, we analysed the efficacy of a first course of ibuprofen in small-for-gestational age (SGA newborns.This single-centre retrospective study included 185 infants born at 24+0-27+6 weeks of gestation with haemodynamically significant PDA, who were treated by intravenous ibuprofen (Pedea: 10 mg/kg on day one and 5 mg/kg on days two and three. Birth weight and gestational age (GA were analysed with reference to the standard deviations from the Olsen growth curve to define GA-specific Z-scores for birth weights. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by echocardiography 48 hours after the last dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome was failure of the first course of ibuprofen associated in a composite criterion with the most severe outcomes.The risk of treatment failure increased according to a continuous gradient in SGA neonates. A higher risk was observed on multiple regression analysis (crude OR: 3.8; 95% CI [1.2-12.3] p = 0.02; adjusted OR: 12.8; 95% CI [2.3-70.5] p=0.003.There is a linear relationship between infant birth weight and PDA treatment: the failure rate of a first course of ibuprofen increases with increasing degree of growth restriction.

  6. Impaired kidney growth in low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Chellakooty, Marla; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is an important risk factor for hypertension and unfavorable prognoses of a number of renal diseases. It is also associated with reduced kidney size and nephron number. A differentiation between the effects of low birth weight versus being born premature or small...... for gestational age has, however, not been addressed. METHODS: The influence of weight for gestational age (percentage deviation from expected mean), gestational age, birth weight, and early diet on kidney growth was studied in 178 children born pre- or postmature and/or small or large for gestational age......, comparing them to 717 mature children, birth weight appropriate for gestational age. Kidney size was determined by bilateral ultrasonography measuring length, width and depth, using the equation of an ellipsoid for volume calculation. The examinations were performed at 0, 3, and 18 months of age together...

  7. Relationship Between Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Adiposity in Women With Mild Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Sean C; Landon, Mark B; Mele, Lisa; Reddy, Uma M; Casey, Brian M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Rouse, Dwight J; Thorp, John M; Sciscione, Anthony; Catalano, Patrick; Saade, George; Caritis, Steve N; Sorokin, Yoram; Grobman, William A

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the relationships among excessive gestational weight gain, neonatal adiposity, and adverse obstetric outcomes in women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. Based on self-reported prepregnancy body weight, gestational weight gain was categorized as excessive if it was greater than 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Maternal outcomes and neonatal anthropomorphic characteristics were compared between women with excessive weight gain and those without excessive weight gain. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to adjust for confounding factors. We studied 841 women who participated in the main trial and had prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and delivery information available (n=431 treatment group, n=410 no treatment). After adjustment for factors including treatment and prepregnancy BMI, excessive weight gain remained associated with large for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.81-4.93), birth weight greater than 4,000 g (adjusted OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.54-4.40), preeclampsia (adjusted OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.35-7.03), and cesarean delivery for labor arrest (adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.30-4.44). In addition, excessive weight gain was independently associated with increased total neonatal fat (Pweight (Pweight gain was independently associated with both greater birth weight and adiposity.

  8. Gestational weight gain in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudy, A M; Siega-Riz, A M; Engel, S M; Franceschini, N; Howard, A G; Clowse, M E B; Petri, M

    2017-05-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus meeting Institute of Medicine guidelines for gestational weight gain and determine correlates of adherence to guidelines. Methods Singleton, live births in the Hopkins Lupus Pregnancy Cohort 1987-2015 were included. Pre-pregnancy weight was the weight recorded 12 months prior to pregnancy/first trimester. Final weight was the last weight recorded in the third trimester. Adherence to Institute of Medicine guidelines (inadequate, adequate, or excessive) was based on pre-pregnancy body mass index. Fisher's exact test and analysis of variance determined factors associated with not meeting guidelines. Stepwise selection estimated predictors of gestational weight gain. Results Of the 211 pregnancies, 34%, 24% and 42% had inadequate, adequate and excessive gestational weight gain, respectively. In exploratory analyses, differences in Institute of Medicine adherence were observed by pre-pregnancy body mass index, race, elevated creatinine during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy blood pressure. Odds of inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain increased 12% with each 1 kg/m 2 increase in pre-pregnancy body mass index. Lower maternal education was associated with increased odds of inadequate and excessive gestational weight gain. Conclusions As in the general population, most women with systemic lupus erythematosus did not meet Institute of Medicine guidelines. Our results identified predictors of gestational weight gain to aid in targeted interventions to improve guideline adherence in this population.

  9. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). METHODS: First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations...... of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age childhood asthma outcomes. RESULTS: Younger gestational...... age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal...

  10. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men...... birth weight and adult height; for subjects with birth weight or = 4,501 g, mean height was 184.1 cm. A positive association was also found between birth length and adult height. For subjects with birth length ... adult height was 175.2 cm, increasing to 184.3 cm at birth length > 56 cm. The associations between birth length and adult height persisted after adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, and other confounders, while the associations between birth weight and adult height almost disappeared when...

  11. Maternal Obesity, Gestational Weight Gain, and Asthma in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Kristen J; Liu, Jihong; Boghossian, Nansi S; McLain, Alexander C

    2017-11-09

    Obesity is common among women of childbearing age; intrauterine exposure to maternal obesity or gestational weight gain may influence the development of asthma in early childhood. We examined the relationships of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain with asthma in offspring. We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, which has a nationally representative sample of children followed from birth in 2001 through age 4 (n = 6,450). Asthma was based on parental report of a medical professional's diagnosis. We used generalized estimating equation binomial models to compute adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood asthma with maternal obesity and 4 measures of gestational weight gain. Compared with children of normal-weight mothers, children of obese mothers had increased risk of asthma (adjusted OR, 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.12) by age 4, and children born to overweight mothers had similar risk (adjusted OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.99-1.59). Extreme-low weight gain (<5 kg) and extreme-high weight gain (≥25 kg) were associated with increased risk of asthma; however, the following measures were not significant predictors of asthma: meeting gestational weight gain recommendations of the Institute of Medicine, total gestational weight gain, and weekly rate of weight gain in the second and third trimesters. Extreme-low or extreme-high gestational weight gain and maternal obesity are risk factors for early childhood asthma, further evidence of the long-term impact of intrauterine exposure on children and the need to target preconception care to improve child health indicators.

  12. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  13. Factors influencing birth weights in Cameroon | Ngassa | Clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After gestational age has been shown to be significantly correlated with mean birth weights in Cameroon, the aim of this study was to determine other factors which can also influence birth weights. This was a cross sectional study carried out in the obstetrics and gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in Yaoundé during the ...

  14. Gestational Weight Gain and Breastfeeding Outcomes in Group Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumley, Jessica; Cain, M Ashley; Stern, Marilyn; Louis, Judette M

    2016-09-01

    This study sought to examine the differences in pregnancy outcomes with a focus on gestational weight gain for women attending group prenatal care compared to standard individual prenatal care. A matched case-control study was conducted including 65 women who chose group care and 130 women who chose standard individual care. Women were matched based on prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, eligibility for midwifery care, and age within 5 years. Women choosing group prenatal care and women choosing standard individual care had similar gestational weight gain, birth weight, gestational age at birth, and mode of birth. Women choosing group prenatal care did have a significantly higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum (odds ratio [OR], 4.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-9.15; P care. Group prenatal care participation resulted in equivalent gestational weight gain as well as pregnancy outcomes as compared to standard individual care. Breastfeeding rates were improved for women choosing group prenatal care. Randomized controlled trials are needed in order to eliminate selection bias. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on I. Average daily gain, feed intake, calf birth body weight, and rebreeding in pregnant beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Meyer, T L; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental protein source on ADG, feed intake, calf birth BW, and subsequent pregnancy rate in pregnant beef heifers. Crossbred, Angus-based, AI-pregnant heifers (yr 1, n = 38; yr 2, n = 40; and yr 3, n = 36) were stratified by BW (450 ± 10 kg) and placed in a Calan Broadbent individual feeding system at approximately d 142 of gestation. Following a 25-d adaptation period, an 84-d feeding trial was conducted. Heifers were offered ad libitum grass hay (8 to 11% CP, DM basis) and no supplement (CON), 0.83 kg/d distillers-based supplement (HI), or 0.83 kg/d dried corn gluten-based supplement (LO). Supplements were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous (28% CP, DM basis), and equal in lipid content but differed in RUP, with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). Dry matter intake was also calculated based on feed NE values to account for different energy levels of the supplement compared with the control diet. Control heifers tended (P = 0.09) to consume less total DM than either supplement treatment. However, forage-only DMI was greater (P heifers (9.94 ± 0.12 kg) compared with HI or LO heifers (8.50 and 8.34 ± 0.12 kg, respectively). Net energy DMI was less (P heifers (4.98 ± 0.23 kg) compared with HI or LO heifers (5.43 and 5.35 ± 0.23 kg, respectively). Control heifers gained less (P heifers (0.78 ± 0.14 kg/d), resulting in lower (501 ± 9 kg) BW (P heifers at the end of the feeding period. Calf birth BW was similar (P = 0.99) among treatments. At prebreeding, CON heifers weighed less (P heifers. Cow BW was similar (P = 0.48) among treatments at pregnancy diagnosis, and final pregnancy rate was also similar (87%; P = 0.22). Protein supplementation increased ADG in pregnant heifers; however, calf birth BW and subsequent pregnancy rates were similar.

  16. Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Godínez-Martínez, Estela; Sánchez-Jiménez, Bernarda; Montiel-Ojeda, Diana; Tolentino, Maricruz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads). An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497). Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011). Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722). Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with leptin

  17. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  18. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n=154 Blue-faced Leicester x Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ~147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n=856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n=283), the effect of the ewes' own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes.

  19. Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second phase LBW women (cases) were compared with a double number of women who gave birth to normal birth weight infants. Results: Among 939 women eligible for the study, the incidence of LBW was 7.8%. Reproductive age lower than 25 years, gestational age lower than 40 weeks, history of previous ...

  20. Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Eurídice; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2015-03-08

    Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standard gestation diet of 2.3 kg/day (30 MJ DE/day) from early to late gestation (day 25-110 gestation). E sows received 4.6 kg food/day in early gestation (day 25-50 gestation). M sows doubled their food intake in mid gestation (day 50-80 gestation). EM sows doubled their food intake during both early and mid gestation (day 25-80 gestation). L sows consumed 3.5 kg food/day in late gestation (day 80-110 gestation). Offspring body weight and food intake levels were measured from birth to adolescence. Markers of lipid metabolism, hypertrophy and inflammation were investigated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of adolescent offspring. The trajectory of gestational weight gain differed across treatments. However total gestational weight gain did not differ except for EM sows who were the heaviest and fattest mothers at parturition. Offspring birth weight did not differ across treatments. Subcutaneous adipose tissue from EM offspring differed significantly from controls, with elevated mRNA levels of lipogenic (CD36, ACACB and LPL), nutrient transporters (FABP4 and GLUT4), lipolysis (HSL and ATGL), adipocyte size (MEST) and inflammation (PAI-1) indicators. The subcutaneous adipose depot from L offspring exhibited elevated levels of CD36, ACACB, LPL, GLUT4 and FABP4 mRNA transcripts compared to control offspring. Increasing gestational weight gain in early gestation had the greatest impact on offspring postnatal growth rate. Increasing maternal food allowance in late gestation appeared to shift the offspring

  1. Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin d and preterm birth in twin gestations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-07-01

    To assess whether there was an independent association between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations at 24-28 weeks of gestation and preterm birth in a multicenter U.S. cohort of twin pregnancies.

  2. Genetic Associations with Gestational Duration and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ge; Feenstra, Bjarke; Bacelis, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that genetic factors contribute to the duration of gestation and the risk of preterm birth, robust associations with genetic variants have not been identified. We used large data sets that included the gestational duration to determine possible genetic associations. Me...

  3. Gestational weight gain and obesity: is 20 pounds too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Seligman, Neil S; Dolin, Cara; Gao, Weihua; Berghella, Vincenzo; Hoffman, Matthew; Hibbard, Judith U

    2013-09-01

    To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in obese women according to weight change and obesity class. Cohort study from the Consortium on Safe Labor of 20,950 obese women with a singleton, term live birth from 2002-2008. Risk for adverse outcomes was calculated by multiple logistic regression analysis for weight change categories (weight loss [9.0 kg]) in each obesity class (I 30.0-34.9 kg/m(2), II 35.0-39.9 kg/m(2), and III ≥40 kg/m(2)) and by predicted probabilities with weight change as a continuous variable. Weight loss was associated with decreased cesareans for class I women (nulliparas odds ratio [OR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.42; multiparas OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45-0.83) and increased small for gestational age infants (class I OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.5; class II OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5-3.2; class III OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6). High weight gain was associated with increased large for gestational age infants (class I OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.9-2.9; class II OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1; class III OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.1). As weight change increased, the predicted probability for cesareans and large for gestational age infants increased. The predicted probability of low birthweight never exceeded 4% for all obesity classes, but small for gestational age infants increased with decreased weight change. The lowest average predicted probability of adverse outcomes (cesarean, postpartum hemorrhage, small for gestational age, large for gestational age, neonatal care unit admission) occurred when women (class I, II, III) lost weight. Optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes appear to occur when weight gain is less than current Institute of Medicine recommendations for obese women. Further study of long-term outcomes is needed with respect to gestational weight changes. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight. Nondiabetic women were recruited after ultrasonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Maternal body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the strongest predictors of birth weight, with multiple logistic regression analysis performed to assess predictors of birth weight greater than 4 kg. Data were analyzed for 2,618 women, of whom 49.6% (n=1,075) were primigravid and 16.5% (n=432) were obese based on a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. In univariable analysis, maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, smoking, fat mass, and fat-free mass all correlated significantly with birth weight. In multivariable regression analysis, fat-free mass remained a significant predictor of birth weight (model R=0.254, standardized β=0.237; Prelationship was found between maternal fat mass and birth weight. After adjustment for confounding variables, women in the highest fat-free mass quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.64 (95% confidence interval 2.34-5.68) for a birth weight more than 4 kg compared with those in the lowest quartile. Based on direct measurements of body composition, birth weight correlated positively with maternal fat-free mass and not adiposity. These findings suggest that, in nondiabetic women, interventions intended to reduce fat mass during pregnancy may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates and revised guidelines for gestational weight gain in obese women may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates. : III.

  5. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  6. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of enteral feeds in the first days of their life in order to prevent NEC. Uhing reported that preterm infants ... where: SS = required sample size; Z = 95% confidence interval. (standard value of 1.96); P ... The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been.

  7. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  8. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight......, gestational age, TSH, and smoking) did not change the findings of nonsignificant regression coefficients. CONCLUSION: Low birth weight per se has no evident role in the etiology of thyroid autoimmunity....

  9. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Damm, Peter; Bech, Bodil H; Vaag, Allan A; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-05-01

    The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792 pregnancies for which a pregnancy interview for self-reported diabetes in pregnancy was available. From the randomly selected group the combined information from register and interviews could correctly identify 96% (95% CI 80-99.9%) of all cases in the entire Danish National Birth Cohort population. Positive predictive value, however, was only 59% (56-61%). The combined use of data from register and interview provided a high sensitivity for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis. The low positive predictive value, however, suggests that systematic validation by hospital record review is essential not to underestimate the health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus in future studies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  11. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight.

  12. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  13. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  14. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  15. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  17. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to id...

  18. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  19. Growth pattern and final height of very preterm vs. very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dommelen, P. van; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundBoth very preterm (VP; i.e., gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e., birth weight <1,500 g) are used as inclusion criteria by studies on preterm birth. We aimed to quantify the impact of these entities on postnatal growth until final height.MethodsSubjects born VP

  20. Estimating recurrence and incidence of preterm birth subject to measurement error in gestational age: A hidden Markov modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Paul S

    2018-02-21

    Prediction of preterm birth as well as characterizing the etiological factors affecting both the recurrence and incidence of preterm birth (defined as gestational age at birth ≤ 37 wk) are important problems in obstetrics. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) consecutive pregnancy study recently examined this question by collecting data on a cohort of women with at least 2 pregnancies over a fixed time interval. Unfortunately, measurement error due to the dating of conception may induce sizable error in computing gestational age at birth. This article proposes a flexible approach that accounts for measurement error in gestational age when making inference. The proposed approach is a hidden Markov model that accounts for measurement error in gestational age by exploiting the relationship between gestational age at birth and birth weight. We initially model the measurement error as being normally distributed, followed by a mixture of normals that has been proposed on the basis of biological considerations. We examine the asymptotic bias of the proposed approach when measurement error is ignored and also compare the efficiency of this approach to a simpler hidden Markov model formulation where only gestational age and not birth weight is incorporated. The proposed model is compared with alternative models for estimating important covariate effects on the risk of subsequent preterm birth using a unique set of data from the NICHD consecutive pregnancy study. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Correlation of periodontitis during pregnancy and incidence of low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Reddy

    2012-01-01

    After delivery, gestational age (in weeks and birth weight of baby (in kg were collected from hospital records. Infants were placed into following categories by gestational age (WHO and by birth weight preterm-3,900 gm. Results: Based on the findings of the study, a significant correlation was observed between periodontitis and low birth weight and preterm low birth weight (p<_0.001 and a significant relation was observed between periodontitis and gestational age (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Periodontitis was considered a risk indicator for reduced gestational age and birth weight. Multicentric trials will greatly help to establish the independent role of periodontal disease and their relationship in terms of pregnancy outcomes.

  2. [Outcome of newborn with birth weight less than or equal to 1500g and gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks, during the 2 first years of age corrected: comparison of two time periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Valdivieso, M J; Rodríguez López, J; Gómez Castillo, E; Bustos Lozano, G; Bergón Sendin, E; Pallás Alonso, C R

    2010-06-01

    Advances in perinatal care have resulted in increased survival rates for extremely low birth weight children, but it is fundamental to know if these improved survival rates have been accompanied by increased impairment rates. To compare, over two different time periods, the survival and disability rates at 2 years of corrected age, among newborns birth. Follow-up study that included 963 children born in the hospital between 1991 and 2004 who met the study criteria. Neonatal morbidity, mortality and disability to 2 years of corrected age in 2 time periods 1991-1998 (period I) and 1999-2004 (period II) have been evaluated and analysed by subgroups of weight (weight birth weight birth weight between 1000 and 1500 g ( 3,6% vs 9%). Analysing all children birth weight 1000-1500 g (67% vs 82%). In our study, globally analysing all children with birth weight birth weight 1000-1500 g subgroup. Copyright 2009 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction: a new population-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, H K; Grøttum, P; Økland, I; Eik-Nes, S H

    2017-04-01

    To develop a complete, population-based system for ultrasound-based fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction for use in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Using 31 516 ultrasound examinations from a population-based Norwegian clinical database, we constructed fetal size charts for biparietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference from 24 to 42 weeks' gestation. A reference curve of median birth weight for gestational age was estimated using 45 037 birth weights. We determined how individual deviations from the expected ultrasound measures predicted individual percentage deviations from expected birth weight. The predictive quality was assessed by explained variance of birth weight and receiver-operating characteristics curves for prediction of small-for-gestational age. A curve for intrauterine estimated fetal weight was constructed. Charts were smoothed using the gamlss non-linear regression method. The population-based approach, using bias-free ultrasound gestational age, produces stable estimates of size-for-age and weight-for-age curves in the range 24-42 weeks' gestation. There is a close correspondence between percentage deviations and percentiles of birth weight by gestational age, making it easy to convert between the two. The variance of birth weight that can be 'explained' by ultrasound increases from 8% at 20 weeks up to 67% around term. Intrauterine estimated fetal weight is 0-106 g higher than median birth weight in the preterm period. The new population-based birth-weight prediction model provides a simple summary measure, the 'percentage birth-weight deviation', to be used for fetal size monitoring throughout the third trimester. Predictive quality of the model can be measured directly from the population data. The model computes both median observed birth weight and intrauterine estimated fetal weight. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John

  4. Birth weight curves tailored to maternal world region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Joel G; Sgro, Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Glazier, Richard H; Bocking, Alan; Hilliard, Robert; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2012-02-01

    Newborns of certain immigrant mothers are smaller at birth than those of domestically born mothers. Contemporary, population-derived percentile curves for these newborns are lacking, as are estimates of their risk of being misclassified as too small or too large using conventional rather than tailored birth weight curves. We completed a population-based study of 766 688 singleton live births in Ontario from 2002 to 2007. Smoothed birth weight percentile curves were generated for males and females, categorized by maternal world region of birth: Canada (63.5%), Europe/Western nations (7.6%), Africa/Caribbean (4.9%), Middle East/North Africa (3.4%), Latin America (3.4%), East Asia/Pacific (8.1%), and South Asia (9.2%). We determined the likelihood of misclassifying an infant as small for gestational age (≤ 10th percentile for weight) or as large for gestational age (≥ 90th percentile for weight) on a Canadian-born maternal curve versus one specific to maternal world region of origin. Significantly lower birth weights were seen at gestation-specific 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles among term infants born to mothers from each world region, with the exception of Europe/Western nations, compared with those for infants of Canadian-born mothers. For example, for South Asian babies born at 40 weeks' gestation, the absolute difference at the 10th percentile was 198 g (95% CI 183 to 212) for males and 170 g (95% CI 161 to 179) for females. Controlling for maternal age and parity, South Asian males had an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.68) of being misclassified as small for gestational age, equivalent to approximately 116 in 1000 newborns; for South Asian females the OR was 2.41 (95% CI 2.34 to 2.48), equivalent to approximately 106 per 1000 newborns. Large for gestational age would be missed in approximately 61 per 1000 male and 57 per 1000 female South Asian newborns if conventional rather than ethnicity-specific birth weight curves were used. Birth weight curves

  5. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  6. Perceived psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Ai; Ferrara, Assiamira; Brown, Susan D.; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Crites, Yvonne; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence links perceived stress-a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor-with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestat...

  7. Updated birth weight centiles for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tom; Seaton, Sarah E; Manktelow, Brad N; Baker, Philip N; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Field, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Smith, Lucy K

    2017-12-07

    Construct updated birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts for use in the UK and compare these to the currently used UK-WHO charts. Secondary analysis of national birth data. Centiles were constructed using 1 269 403 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2013-2014 as part of the MBRRACE-UK national perinatal surveillance programme. These were then validated using 642 737 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2015. Sex-specific birth weight-for-gestational age centiles. Centiles were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method via the GAMLSS package in R. This method transforms the skewed birth weight distribution to approximate a normal distribution, allowing any birth weight centile to be produced. The new centiles performed well in the validation sample, with the observed and expected proportion of births below a given centile in agreement. Overall, driven by the predominance of term births, the UK-WHO charts classify a smaller proportion of infants as below a given centile. For example, the UK-WHO estimates classified only 1.32% (8035/606 430) of term infants born in 2015 as below the second centile, compared with 1.97% (11 975/606 430) using the new MBRRACE-UK centiles. At the earliest gestational ages, however, the opposite is observed, with the UK-WHO classifying a larger proportion of infants as below a given centile, particularly at the lower end of the birthweight distribution. We have constructed and validated updated birth weight-for-gestational age centiles using a contemporary sample of births occurring in England and Wales. The benefits of these updated centiles will be first to assist the national surveillance of perinatal mortality programme by improving the identification of the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by intrauterine growth restriction and, second, to aid clinicians by more accurately identifying babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth.

  8. GDM Women's Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Leng

    Full Text Available To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old.Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55, 2.98 (1.89-4.69, and 2.93 (2.07-4.13, respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84, 2.89 (1.78-4.70, and 2.84 (1.98-4.06, respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73, 1.96 (1.24-3.09, and 1.59 (1.15-2.21, respectively].Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG.

  9. Preventing Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Postpartum Weight Retention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, V

    2017-10-01

    regnancy and the postpartum period are unique opportunities to promote healthy lifestyle choices including a healthy diet and regular exercise. This is especially important for those who are overweight or obese. Women are weighed at their first antenatal visit and body mass index (BMI) calculated, but not all hospitals routinely weigh women throughout pregnancy. A qualitative Dublin study examined experiences of routine weighing during antenatal care. This study found that women expected to be weighed during pregnancy and postpartum. The benefits of this included providing reassurance and minimising postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, women were eager to receive more information about healthy lifestyle interventions and gestational weight gain (GWG) from healthcare professionals

  10. High birth weight babies: Incedence and foetal outcome in a Mission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with a history of delivery of a previous baby with birth weight of 4000g, a gestational weight gain of 13-15 kg and a height >1.63m had an increased tendency towards delivery of a HBW infant. High birth weight babies were at a higher risk of foetal death and delivery by Caesarean Section. Conclusion: Incidence of ...

  11. Association between Maternal Fish Consumption and Gestational Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sofus C; Ängquist, Lars; Laurin, Charles

    2016-01-01

    , and whether this relationship is dependent on molecular genetic predisposition to obesity. DESIGN: A nested case-cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) sampling the most obese women (n = 990) and a random sample of the remaining participants (n = 1,128). Replication of statistically......BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that fish consumption can restrict weight gain. However, little is known about how fish consumption affects gestational weight gain (GWG), and whether this relationship depends on genetic makeup. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between fish consumption and GWG...... significant findings was attempted in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n = 4,841). We included 32 body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5 SNPs found associated with GWG. BMI associated SNPs were combined in a genetic risk score (GRS...

  12. Gender- and Gestational Age-Specific Body Fat Percentage at Birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin P

    2011-08-08

    Background: There is increasing evidence that in utero growth has both immediate and far-reaching influence on health. Birth weight and length are used as surrogate measures of in utero growth. However, these measures poorly reflect neonatal adiposity. Air-displacement plethysmography has been validated for the measurement of body fat in the neonatal population. Objective: The goal of this study was to show the normal reference values of percentage body fat (%BF) in infants during the first 4 days of life. Methods: As part of a large population-based birth cohort study, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured within the first 4 days of life using air-displacement plethsymography. Infants were grouped into gestational age and gender categories. Results: Of the 786 enrolled infants, fat mass, fat-free mass, and %BF were measured in 743 (94.5%) infants within the first 4 days of life. %BF increased significantly with gestational age. Mean (SD) %BF at 36 to 37 weeks\\' gestation was 8.9% (3.5%); at 38 to 39 weeks\\' gestation, 10.3% (4%); and at 40 to 41 weeks\\' gestation, 11.2% (4.3%) (P < .001). Female infants had significantly increased mean (SD) %BF at 38 to 39(11.1% [3.9%] vs 9.8% [3.9%]; P = .012) and at 40 to 41 (12.5% [4.4%] vs 10% [3.9%]; P < .001) weeks\\' gestation compared with male infants. Gender- and gestational age-specific centiles were calculated, and a normative table was generated for reference. Conclusion: %BF at birth is influenced by gestational age and gender. We generated accurate %BF centiles from a large population-based cohort.

  13. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Comparative analysis of risk factors for preterm and small-for-gestational-age births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin-Qi; Cui, Qi-Liang

    2014-12-01

    To compare the risk factors between preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. A total of 1 270 newborns who had no obstetric risk factors or maternal diseases were enrolled in this study. Their mothers' stature, body weight, passive smoking, and history of abnormal pregnancy were investigated using the self-designed questionnaire. The infants were divided into four groups: preterm, appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA), SGA, and term infants. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the risk factors between preterm and SGA births. A weight gain less than 9 kg during pregnancy increased the risks of preterm (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.12-2.07) and SGA (OR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.56-2.58). The histories of abortion (OR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.09-1.93) and preterm birth (OR=2.63, 95% CI: 1.81-3.92) were independent risk factors for preterm births, while low pre-pregnancy body mass index (births. Due to different risk factors between preterm and SGA births, specific preventive measures should be taken pertinently to reduce the incidence of the two bad pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and placental weight determine birth weight in normal Jamaican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, J M; Davidson, S; Hall, J S; Jackson, A A

    1999-12-01

    Birth weight is related to neonatal health and long-term risk of chronic disease. Since animal studies have shown that birth outcome is related to placental function, the present project was designed to explore the relationship between birth weight and placental growth and composition with maternal factors during pregnancy among normal term pregnancies in 51 primiparous and 40 multiparous women delivering at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Both groups were followed from 15 weeks of gestation to term. The primiparous group was generally younger than the multiparous (mean age 22 +/- 4 versus 31 +/- 5 yr). They were significantly lighter (55 +/- 8 versus 61 +/- 9 kg) with a lower body mass index (21 +/- 3 versus 23 +/- 4 kg/m2) during early pregnancy, but gained more weight during pregnancy, 11 kg compared with 8 kg, respectively. The duration of pregnancy was similar for both groups. Although the size of the placenta was not significantly different between the two groups, the mean weight of the multiparous placentae was more than that of the primiparous placentae. Also, for all mothers both placental weight and initial maternal weight related directly to birth weight. Placental non collagen protein (NCP), sodium and potassium contents were significantly higher for multiparous women and were related to birth weight. The primiparous group had babies who were significantly lighter, 3.03 kg compared with 3.36 kg, for the multiparous and this could be attributed to differences in placental function and maternal weight. When account was taken of the difference in maternal weight at the start of pregnancy and the difference in placental weight, parity no longer explained any of the differences in birth weight. It is concluded that maternal body weight at the time of becoming pregnant and the early development of the placenta determine the efficiency with which nutrients might be delivered to the foetus and hence foetal growth. The difference in birth weight

  16. Weight, length and head circumference standards based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks 25 to 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, M; Høst, A; Kamper, J

    1997-01-01

    Growth standards of birth weight, birth length and birth head circumference were constructed based on a population of Danish newborn boys and girls in gestational weeks twenty-five to forty-three. Study populations were residents of the municipality of Odense for later gestational ages and reside...

  17. Birth Weight and Intelligence in Young Adulthood and Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-06-01

    We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow-up assessments, with intelligence scores increasing across 4 birth weight categories and declining for the highest birth weight category. The adjusted differences between those in the 5 IQ points at all 3 follow-up assessments, corresponding to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident across the normal birth weight range and so were not accounted for by low birth weight only. The association between birth weight and intelligence is stable from young adulthood into midlife. These long-term cognitive consequences may imply that even small shifts in the distribution of birth size, in normal-sized infants as well, may have a large impact at the population level. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Chinese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS in early pregnancy with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and adverse birth outcomes. Methods. In this retrospective cohort study including 2389 pregnant women, the medical records of 352 women diagnosed with PCOS were evaluated. Outcomes included GDM, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, and being small and large for gestational age. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of the risk for GDM and adverse birth outcomes with PCOS after adjusting for confounders. Results. Women previously diagnosed with PCOS had a higher risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–2.09. A strong association was seen between PCOS and preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08–2.67. On stratified analysis, the adjusted OR for GDM among women with PCOS undergoing assisted reproductive technology was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.03–1.92 and among women with PCOS who conceived spontaneously was 1.60 (1.18–2.15. No increased risk for other adverse birth outcomes was observed. Conclusions. Women with PCOS were more likely to experience GDM and preterm birth.

  19. Perceived psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Kubo

    Full Text Available Growing evidence links perceived stress-a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor-with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestational Diabetes's Effects on Moms (GEM study: 1,353 women with gestational diabetes who delivered a term singleton within Kaiser Permanente Northern California were included. Perceived stress near the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis was measured using the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10. Gestational weight gain was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Binomial regression analyses adjusted for gestational age and maternal age at the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis, and race/ethnicity and estimated rate ratios (RR and their 95% confidence interval (CI. Among women with a normal pregravid Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, there was a significant association between high (Q4 PSS score and risk of both exceeding and gaining below the Institute of Medicine recommendations compared to those with lower stress (Q1 [adjusted RR = 2.16 95% CI 1.45-3.21; RR = 1.39 95% CI 1.01-1.91, respectively.] Among women with pregravid overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2, there was no association. Although the temporal relationship could not be established from this study, there may be a complex interplay between psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. Further studies examining stress earlier in pregnancy, risk of developing gestational diabetes and excess/inadequate gestational weight gain are warranted to clarify these complex relationships.

  20. Perceived psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Ai; Ferrara, Assiamira; Brown, Susan D; Ehrlich, Samantha F; Tsai, Ai-Lin; Quesenberry, Charles P; Crites, Yvonne; Hedderson, Monique M

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence links perceived stress-a potentially modifiable psychosocial risk factor-with health behaviors and obesity. Yet little is known about the relationship between stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, particularly among women with pregnancy complications. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis to examine associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. We used baseline data from the Gestational Diabetes's Effects on Moms (GEM) study: 1,353 women with gestational diabetes who delivered a term singleton within Kaiser Permanente Northern California were included. Perceived stress near the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis was measured using the validated Perceived Stress Scale (PSS10). Gestational weight gain was categorized according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Binomial regression analyses adjusted for gestational age and maternal age at the time of gestational diabetes diagnosis, and race/ethnicity and estimated rate ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Among women with a normal pregravid Body Mass Index (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2), there was a significant association between high (Q4) PSS score and risk of both exceeding and gaining below the Institute of Medicine recommendations compared to those with lower stress (Q1) [adjusted RR = 2.16 95% CI 1.45-3.21; RR = 1.39 95% CI 1.01-1.91, respectively.] Among women with pregravid overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2), there was no association. Although the temporal relationship could not be established from this study, there may be a complex interplay between psychosocial stress and gestational weight gain among women with gestational diabetes. Further studies examining stress earlier in pregnancy, risk of developing gestational diabetes and excess/inadequate gestational weight gain are warranted to clarify these complex relationships.

  1. Birth weight and intelligence in young adulthood and midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident......OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. METHODS: The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members...... of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. RESULTS: Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow...

  2. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  3. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  4. Induced abortion and risk of small-for-gestational-age birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, F; Cipriani, S; Chiaffarino, F; Sandretti, F; Bortolus, R; Chiantera, V

    2007-11-01

    To investigate the possibility of an association between previous induced abortion and subsequent birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infant. Case-control study. General and university hospitals. Cases were 555 women who delivered SGA babies. Controls were 1966 women who gave birth at term (>37 weeks of gestation) to healthy infants of normal weight on randomly selected days at the hospital where cases had been identified. All women in the case and control categories were interviewed on the obstetric wards by one of a team of six interviewers. During the interviews, information was obtained regarding general socio-demographic factors, personal characteristics and habits, gynaecological and obstetric history, general anamnesis, family history of obstetric and gynaecological diseases, and the age of the father of the child. Further information on current pregnancy and delivery was also collected. We used conditional multiple logistic regression (with age as the matching variable), with maximum likelihood fitting, to obtain odds ratios and their corresponding 95% CIs. Included in the regression equations were terms for education, plus terms significantly associated in this data set with the risk of SGA birth (smoking in pregnancy, history of SGA, gestational hypertension and parity). Women admitted to a general and a university hospital. No significant increase in the risk of SGA birth was observed in women with a previous induced abortion [odds ratio (OR) 1.0; 95% CI 0.6-1.7]. The OR for SGA birth was 1.2 (95% CI 0.7-2.1) for preterm and 1.0 (95% CI 0.7-1.4) for term SGA births. This study found no association between risk of SGA birth and induced abortion.

  5. Representación gráfica del riesgo de mortalidad neonatal en un centro perinatal regional en Mérida, Yucatán, México The graphical display of neonatal mortality risk at a regional perinatal center in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico: The joint effect of birth weight and gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Osorno-Covarrubias

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el riesgo de mortalidad neonatal por edad gestacional y el peso al nacer. Material y métodos. Se estudió una cohorte de 19 668 neonatos que egresaron entre el 1 de enero de 1995 y el 31 de octubre de 1999 del Centro Médico Nacional Ignacio García Téllez, del tercer nivel de atención perinatal del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de la Península de Yucatán. Se registraron el peso al nacer, edad gestacional y condición de egreso. Se calculó el riesgo absoluto (RA de mortalidad para cada semana de edad gestacional y grupo de peso. Resultados. El RA de mortalidad observado en neonatos de entre 34 a 44 semanas y peso mayor o igual a 2 250 g fue de 0.4%, de 15% para aquellos de entre 26 a 32 semanas con peso mayor o igual a 1000 g, y de 73% para los de entre las 26 a las 34 semanas, con peso al nacimiento de entre 750 y 1 000 g. Conclusione. El RA de mortalidad neonatal aumentó a menor. edad gestacional y peso. Los datos pueden ser utilizados como valores de referencia para nuestro hospital y para comparación con otros hospitales.Objective. To determine the neonatal mortality risk according to gestational age and birth weight. Material and Methods. The cohort consisted of 19 668 newborns of Centro Médico Nacional (National Medical Center Ignacio García Téllez, a tertiary level healthcare institution of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (Mexican Institute of Social Security, IMSS of the Yucatan Peninsula. All new-borns discharged from the hospital between January 1 st , 1995 and October 31 st , 1999 were included in the study. Birth weight, gestational age, and conditions upon discharge were recorded. Absolute risk (AR of mortality was calculated for each week-of-gestation- and birth group. Results. Observed AR in newborns 34 to 44 weeks of gestational age and weighing at least 2 250 g was 0.4, while that for those 26 to 32 weeks of gestational age and weighing between 1000 g was 15%. Conclusions. AR of

  6. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  7. Down syndrome birth weight in England and Wales: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K; Cole, Tim J; Springett, Anna L; Dennis, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if syndrome-specific birth weight charts were beneficial for babies with Down syndrome in England and Wales. Birth weights of 8,825 babies with Down syndrome born in England and Wales in 1989-2010 were obtained from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register. Birth weight centiles for 30-42 weeks gestation by sex were fitted using the LMS method and were compared to those for unaffected babies from the UK-WHO growth charts. For babies born with Down syndrome the median birth weight from 37 to 42 weeks was 2,970 g (10th-90th centile: 2,115-3,680) for boys and 2930 g (2,100-3,629) for girls, and the modal age of gestation was 38 weeks, 2 weeks earlier than for unaffected babies. At 38 weeks gestation they were only slightly lighter than unaffected babies (159 g for boys and 86 g for girls). However at 40 weeks gestation the shortfall was much greater (304 g and 239 g, respectively). In neonates with Down syndrome there is little evidence of growth restriction before 38 weeks gestation, so up to this age it is appropriate to use the UK-WHO birth weight charts. Thereafter birth weight is below that of unaffected babies and it should be plotted on the UK Down syndrome growth charts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Elevated plasma urokinase receptor predicts low birth weight in maternal malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Shulman, C E; Peshu, N

    2007-01-01

    -suPAR and gestational age were the only independent predictors of birth weight in multivariate linear regression adjusted for maternal-suPAR, HIV-1 infection, age, BMI, haemoglobin, peripheral parasitaemia, parity and gestational age; 1 ng/mL higher maternal-suPAR predicted -56 g (95% CI -100 to -12, P = 0.016) reduced...... birth weight. Cord-suPAR could not predict birth weight after adjusting for gestational age. Future studies are warranted to investigate whether the maternal suPAR level is increased earlier in pregnancy in women with active placental malaria infection and whether early maternal suPAR measurements can...... predict birth weight. If so, measurements of maternal suPAR early in pregnancy might then potentially identify women with increased needs for antenatal care and intervention....

  9. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-07-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.

  10. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  11. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly puerto rican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the

  12. Maternal and cord blood fatty acid patterns with excessive gestational weight gain and neonatal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiyong; Ye, Kui; Han, Yanping; Sheng, Jie; Jin, Zhongxiu; Bo, Qinli; Hu, Chunqiu; Hu, Chuanlai; Li, Li

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the association of maternal excessive gestational weight gain with saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in maternal and cord serum. We included 77 pairs of women and their newborns and classified them into three groups as follows: mothers with normal gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group I (30 pairs), mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group II (30 pairs), and mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their macrosomic babies in group III (17 pairs). Serum fatty acid concentrations were determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No remarkable difference in maternal dietary intake was observed among the three groups. C16:0, C18:0, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group III mothers than in group I mothers. Compared with group I neonates, total saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower but total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group II neonates (ppattern.

  13. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...

  14. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on pregnancy outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with pregnancy outcomes in Tianjin, China. METHODS: Between June 2009 and May 2011, health care records of 33,973 pregnant women were collected and their children were measured for birth weight and birth length. The independent and joint associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines with the risks of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were examined by using Logistic Regression. RESULTS: After adjustment for all confounding factors, maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, preterm delivery, large-for-gestational age infant (LGA, and macrosomia, and inversely associated with risks of small-for-gestational age infant (SGA and low birth weight. Maternal excessive GWG was associated with increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia, and decreased risks of preterm delivery, SGA, and low birth weight. Maternal inadequate GWG was associated with increased risks of preterm delivery and SGA, and decreased risks of LGA and macrosomia, compared with maternal adequate GWG. Women with both prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG had 2.2-5.9 folds higher risks of GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia compared with women with normal prepregnancy BMI and adequate GWG. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, and greater infant size at birth. Health care providers should inform women to start the pregnancy with a BMI in the normal weight category and limit their GWG to the range specified for their prepregnancy BMI.

  15. Is low back pain in youth associated with weight at birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    they are still largely unaffected by the influence of working life. Possible associations between low back pain, birth weight, birth length, ponderal index, gestational age and Apgar scores are investigated by the use of logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio for the lifetime prevalence of low...

  16. The influence of gestational age and birth weight in the clinical assesment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns A influência da idade gestacional e do peso ao nascimento na avaliação clínica do tono muscular de recém nascidos a termo e prematuros hígidos

    OpenAIRE

    Edla S. da Silva; Magda Lahorgue Nunes

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) in the clinical assessment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns. METHOD: Cross sectional study. The muscle tone of healthy 42 preterm and 47 term newborns was quantified and measured with a goniometer (an instrument for measuring angles) respectively between 7th-14th day of life and 24-48 hours of life. Newborns were grouped according to GA and BW and evaluated at fixed time intervals by one ...

  17. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Magnus et al.[12] reported that paternal birth weight has a greater influence on offspring birth weight than maternal birth weight. In contrast, Grifith et al.,[13] in a more recent study, concluded that maternal weight contributed more significantly to offspring's birth weight than paternal weight. Such discrepancies might be a ...

  18. Low birth weight is associated with NIDDM in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, P; Vaag, Allan; Kyvik, K O

    1997-01-01

    between the putative "NIDDM susceptibility genotype" and a genetically determined low weight at birth. It is also unclear whether differences in gestational age, maternal height, birth order and/or sex could explain the association. Twins are born of the same mother and have similar gestational ages......Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low weight at birth and risk of later development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is not known whether this association is due to an impact of intrauterine malnutrition per se, or whether it is due to a coincidence....... Furthermore, monozygotic (MZ) twins have identical genotypes. Original midwife birth weight record determinations were traced in MZ and dizygotic (DZ) twins discordant for NIDDM. Birth weights were lower in the NIDDM twins (n = 2 x 14) compared with both their identical (MZ; n = 14) and non-identical (DZ; n...

  19. Associations of Meteorology with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Preeclampsia, Preterm Birth and Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa J. Beltran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension, gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  20. Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alyssa J; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-12-20

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  1. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  2. Slow fetal growth between first and early second trimester ultrasound scans and risk of small for gestational age (SGA birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Simic

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between fetal growth between first and early second trimester ultrasound scan and the risk of severe small for gestational age (SGA birth.This cohort study included 69 550 singleton pregnancies with first trimester dating and an early second trimester growth scan in Stockholm and Gotland Counties, Sweden between 2008 and 2014. Exposure was difference in biparietal diameter growth between observed and expected at the second trimester scan, calculated by z-scores. Risk of birth of a severe SGA infant (birth weight for gestational age by fetal sex less than the 3rd centile was calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis and presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR.Parietal growth less than 2.5 percentile between first and second trimester ultrasound examination was associated with elevated risk of being born severe SGA. (aOR 1.67; 95% Confidence Interval 1.28-2.18. The risks of preterm severe SGA (birth before 37 weeks and term severe SGA (birth 37 weeks or later were at similar levels, and risk of severe SGA were also elevated in the absence of preeclampsia, hypertensive diseases or gestational diabetes.Fetuses with slow growth of biparietal diameter at ultrasound examination in early second trimester exhibit increased risk of being born SGA independent of gestational age at birth and presence of maternal hypertensive diseases or diabetes mellitus.

  3. Slow fetal growth between first and early second trimester ultrasound scans and risk of small for gestational age (SGA) birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Marija; Stephansson, Olof; Petersson, Gunnar; Cnattingius, Sven; Wikström, Anna-Karin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between fetal growth between first and early second trimester ultrasound scan and the risk of severe small for gestational age (SGA) birth. This cohort study included 69 550 singleton pregnancies with first trimester dating and an early second trimester growth scan in Stockholm and Gotland Counties, Sweden between 2008 and 2014. Exposure was difference in biparietal diameter growth between observed and expected at the second trimester scan, calculated by z-scores. Risk of birth of a severe SGA infant (birth weight for gestational age by fetal sex less than the 3rd centile) was calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis and presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR). Parietal growth less than 2.5 percentile between first and second trimester ultrasound examination was associated with elevated risk of being born severe SGA. (aOR 1.67; 95% Confidence Interval 1.28-2.18). The risks of preterm severe SGA (birth before 37 weeks) and term severe SGA (birth 37 weeks or later) were at similar levels, and risk of severe SGA were also elevated in the absence of preeclampsia, hypertensive diseases or gestational diabetes. Fetuses with slow growth of biparietal diameter at ultrasound examination in early second trimester exhibit increased risk of being born SGA independent of gestational age at birth and presence of maternal hypertensive diseases or diabetes mellitus.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, F; Franchi, M; Balestreri, D; Lischetti, B; Mele, M C; Alberico, S; Bolis, P

    2001-10-01

    To generate reference ranges for bioelectrical impedance indices throughout pregnancy and to investigate whether a relationship exists between these indices and the neonatal birth weight. Pregnant women with a singleton gestation, gestational age lower than 12 weeks, and absence of medical diseases before pregnancy were enrolled. Patients with pregnancy complications, such as hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and antiphospholipides syndrome were excluded. Antrophometric maternal parameters and bioelectrical impedance measurements were performed during the first, second, third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and 60 days after delivery. Height(2)/resistance (cm(2)/Omega) and height(2)/reactance (cm(2)/Omega) were utilized to estimate the total and extracellular body water amounts, respectively. Spearman rank correlations and cox proportional hazard modelling were used for statistical purposes. 169 patients completed all measurements. Total and extracellular water amounts significantly increase as pregnancy advances and return to the pre-pregnancy values within 60 days after delivery. After adjustment for gestational age at delivery, fetal sex, and smoking habits, height(2)/resistance at 25 weeks (hazard=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.06, Pweight. We have provided reference ranges for bioimpedance analysis during pregnancy, an easy, fast and non invasive method to estimate the body water composition during pregnancy. Bioelectrical impedance indices during the second trimester of pregnancy are independently related to the birth weight.

  5. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  6. Association of Group Prenatal Care With Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominiarek, Michelle A; Crockett, Amy; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Simon, Melissa; Grobman, William A

    2017-04-01

    To compare gestational weight gain among women in group prenatal care with that of women in individual prenatal care. In this retrospective cohort study, women who participated in group prenatal care from 2009 to 2015 and whose body mass indexes (BMIs) and gestational weight gain were recorded were matched with the next two women who had the same payer type, were within 2-kg/m prepregnancy BMI and 2-week gestational age at delivery, and had received individual prenatal care. Bivariate comparisons of demographics and antenatal complications were performed for women in group and individual prenatal care, and weight gain was categorized as "below," "met," or "exceeded" goals according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Logistic regression analysis estimated the association between excessive weight gain and model of care, with adjustment for confounders, stratified by BMI. Women in group prenatal care (n=2,117) were younger and more commonly non-Hispanic black, nulliparous, and without gestational diabetes (P≤.005 for all). Women in group prenatal care more commonly exceeded the weight gain goals (55% compared with 48%, Pprenatal care, compared with individual prenatal care, is associated with excessive gestational weight gain.

  7. Association of Gestational Weight Gain With Maternal and Infant Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Rebecca F; Abell, Sally K; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva

    2017-01-01

    -11 kg for overweight women [BMI 25-29.9]; and 5-9 kg for obese women [BMI ≥30]) and maternal and infant outcomes. Data Sources and Study Selection: Search of EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, MEDLINE, and MEDLINE In-Process between January 1, 1999, and February 7, 2017, for observational studies...... gestational weight gain less than IOM recommendations. Gestational weight gain greater than or less than guideline recommendations, compared with weight gain within recommended levels, was associated with higher risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes....

  8. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  9. Effects of nutritional management intervention on gestational weight gain and perinatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Dong; Dong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Jin

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate whether nutritional management intervention can prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and improve perinatal outcomes. This cross-sectional study included 276 pregnant women undergoing prenatal care between June 2010 and December 2011 at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Second Affiliate Hospital of the ChongQing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing, China. Of them, 131 women received individualized nutritional management in addition to routine prenatal care (intervention group), and 145 women received only routine prenatal care (control group). The primary study outcome was gestational weight gain (GWG). Secondary outcomes included birth weight, Apgar score, and incidence of pregnancy complications. Baseline demographic characteristics of the 2 groups were the same. The average GWG was higher in the control group (12.57+/-4.62 kg) compared with the intervention group (7.58+/-1.59 kg; p=0.000). The incidence rate of preeclampsia was 3.1% and gestational diabetes was 3.8% for the intervention group, compared with 11% for preeclampsia and 14.5% gestational diabetes for the control group (p<0.05). The incidence rates of premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, birth weight, birth of a newborn, and major congenital anomalies did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Nutritional management intervention prevented excessive GWG and improved perinatal outcomes. These results support the hypothesis that nutritional management intervention can decrease the rate of complications experienced by expecting mothers. 

  10. Patterns of Gestational Weight Gain and Its Association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... PMID: XXX. INTRODUCTION. Gestational weight gain (GWG) is an important determinant of fetal growth, birthweight, and infant health outcomes.[1,2] In view of this, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the United States recommended limits of weight gain for women during pregnancy.[3]. This recommendation ...

  11. Influence of air pollution on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

  12. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr. faki

    birth weight data. This study was carried out to determine recall of birth weight and delivery complications among mothers in Unguja West District of Zanzibar. Methods: .... Considering confidence level of 95% and response rate of 90%, the ... delivery, delivery complications, child's birth date, birth's order and birth weight.

  13. Gestational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  14. Effect of correcting for gestational age at birth on population prevalence of early childhood undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Roth, Daniel E; Perdrizet, Johnna; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Bassani, Diego G

    2018-01-01

    Postmenstrual and/or gestational age-corrected age (CA) is required to apply child growth standards to children born preterm (age). Yet, CA is rarely used in epidemiologic studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), which may bias population estimates of childhood undernutrition. To evaluate the effect of accounting for GA in the application of growth standards, we used GA-specific standards at birth (INTERGROWTH-21st newborn size standards) in conjunction with CA for preterm-born children in the application of World Health Organization Child Growth Standards postnatally (referred to as 'CA' strategy) versus postnatal age for all children, to estimate mean length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) z scores at 0, 3, 12, 24, and 48-months of age in the 2004 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort. At birth (n = 4066), mean LAZ was higher and the prevalence of stunting (LAZ age (mean ± SD): - 0.36 ± 1.19 versus - 0.67 ± 1.32; and 8.3 versus 11.6%, respectively. Odds ratio (OR) and population attributable risk (PAR) of stunting due to preterm birth were attenuated and changed inferences using CA versus postnatal age at birth [OR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 (95% CI 0.95, 1.82) vs 14.7 (95% CI 11.7, 18.4); PAR 3.1 vs 42.9%]; differences in inferences persisted at 3-months. At 12, 24, and 48-months, preterm birth was associated with stunting, but ORs/PARs remained attenuated using CA compared to postnatal age. Findings were similar for weight-for-age z scores. Population-based epidemiologic studies in LMICs in which GA is unused or unavailable may overestimate the prevalence of early childhood undernutrition and inflate the fraction of undernutrition attributable to preterm birth.

  15. Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen

    2006-04-01

    Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.

  16. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paternal weight, parity and maternal weight might improve accuracy of prediction of low birth weight or macrosomic babies and therefore a reduction in perinatal failure. Keywords: Birth weight, anthropometrics, macrosomia, predictability, Nigeria ...

  17. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  18. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rupa; Harris, Maria; Sie, Lillian; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM 2.5 , which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM 2.5 mass and 23 PM 2.5 constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; 2.5 mass and several PM 2.5 constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM 2.5 constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM 2.5 , especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity

  19. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Birth weight is one of the key predictor for survival, health and future development of a child. In developing countries data on birth weights are limited to obtain due to difficulties in keeping records especially among rural women. Maternal recall of birth weight can therefore become a useful source of birth weight ...

  20. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  1. Effects of vitamin A and β-carotene supplementation on birth size and length of gestation in rural Bangladesh: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Klemm, Rolf; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Wu, Lee; Mehra, Sucheta; Labrique, Alain; Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies may be related to poor fetal growth and short gestation. Few studies have investigated the contribution of maternal vitamin A deficiency to these outcomes. In rural northwestern Bangladesh, we examined the effects of weekly antenatal vitamin A and β-carotene supplementation on birth weight, length, circumferential body measures, and length of gestation. With the use of a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial design, pregnant women were enrolled in the first trimester and began receiving their allocated supplements (vitamin A, β-carotene, or placebo) weekly until 3 mo postpartum. Birth anthropometric measures were made at home. Of 13,709 newborns whose birth weight was measured within 72 h of birth, mean (±SD) weight was 2.44 ± 0.42 kg, the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) was 54.4%, and that of small-for-gestational age (SGA) was 70.5%. Birth weight, length, and chest, head, and arm circumferences did not differ between supplementation and placebo groups nor did rates of LBW and SGA. Mean gestational age at birth was 38.3 ± 2.9 wk, and 25.6% of births occurred before 37 wk. Neither gestational age nor preterm birth rate differed with vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation. In this rural South Asian population with a high burden of LBW and preterm birth but modest levels of maternal vitamin A deficiency, antenatal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation did not benefit these birth outcomes. Other nutritional and nonnutritional interventions should be examined to reduce risks of these adverse outcomes in rural South Asia. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00198822.

  2. Actividad física durante embarazo, su relación con la edad gestacional materna y el peso de nacimiento. (Physical activity during pregnancy, its relationship to gestational age y birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Barakat Carballo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenHistóricamente la relación entre la actividad física y el embarazo no ha estado completamente clara. La gran cantidad de estudios científicos no han producido suficientes hallazgos que otorguen información clara y concreta sobre la dosis adecuada de ejercicio durante la gestación. El presente trabajo pretende conocer la relación entre los hábitos de actividad física durante el embarazo y la edad gestacional materna al momento del parto, así como el peso del recién nacido. Se ha utilizado un estudio de tipo transversal, de casos y controles, retrospectivo, 473 mujeres del área de Madrid han sido entrevistadas, edad entre 17 y 41 años, (media= 31,9±4. Todas ellas caucásicas y de origen hispano. Nuestros resultados muestran en el grupo de casos una edad gestacional similar (273±9,1 días al de control (278±9,5, y recién nacidos con pesos inferiores (3171±443 que las que no desarrollan ningún tipo de actividad física regular o programada (3289±583 (p=0,01. El ejercicio físico desarrollado durante el embarazo reduce aparentemente el peso del recién nacido y no tiene influencia en la edad gestacional materna.AbstractHistorically the relationship between physical activity and pregnancy has not been totally clear. Despite the large number of scientific studies carried out, the appropriate amount of exercise during pregnancy is still not clarified and the question remains open. The aim of the present study was to understand the relationship between the physical activity habits during pregnancy and the maternal gestational age at the moment of the childbirth, as well as the weight of the newborn. A transversal study type has been used, involving two groups of cases and control, retrospective, and 473 women of the city of Madrid (age between 17 y 41 - mean= 31,9±4 have been interviewed. All of them were Caucasian y with Hispanic origin. According to our results, the cases group shows a similar gestational age (273±9,1 days

  3. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  4. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  5. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-09-01

    Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500-4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother's Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother's job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother's poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother's job style had the most adverse effect (B=-0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother's level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother's job style and household income (B=-0.17). According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother's job situation in order to prevent any adverse effects.

  6. Effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation in preterm low birth weight newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alo, D; Shahidullah, M; Mannan, M A; Noor, K

    2010-07-01

    This interventional study was done to determine the effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation on weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis in preterm low birth weight newborns during their hospital stay. It was carried out during the period of June 2006-May 2007 in the Newborn unit of a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Sixty preterm (28-34weeks), low birth weight (1000-1800g) AGA (appropriate for gestational age) newborns were enrolled within 24 hours of birth. Intervention and control newborns were matched in terms of birth weight and gestational age. Samples were volunteers. Parenteral amino acid (5%) supplementation in addition to usual nutritional management until enteral feeding reached three fourth of total calorie intake. Usual nutritional management was 10% intravenous dextrose and subsequent enteral feeding. Main outcome measured with weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis. Weight change was observed by two parameters such as mean percentage of maximum postnatal weight loss and mean days to reach birth weight, both were significantly lower in intervention than control group (psupplementation investigated in this study has been shown to have no effect. There was no difference in incidence of sepsis between intervention and control group (p>0.05). Improved nutritional supplementation with parenteral amino acids resulted in better growth as evident by lesser degree of weight loss and earlier regaining of birth weight in the early neonatal period. Biochemical parameters are not affected by parenteral amino acid supplementation.

  7. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Gluconeogenesis is not regulated by either glucose or insulin in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 11 hou...

  9. Glycerin Suppositories Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shalinkumar; Dereddy, Narendra; Talati, Ajay J; Gaston, Kan; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To study the characteristics of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glycerin suppositories (GS) and evaluate the association of GS use with outcomes. Study Design  This is a retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Infants with birth weight between 500 and 1,499 g were evaluated. We evaluated the frequency of GS use and compared the characteristics and outcomes of the GS group with the no-GS group. Multivariate analyses controlling for gestational age and small for gestational age status were performed to study the effect of GS on outcomes. Results  A total of 1,073 infants were included in the study. Out of those, 527 (49.1%) infants received GS. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis was not significantly different between the two groups, while days to reach full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were significantly longer in the GS group. Conclusion  Frequent use of GS warrants further prospective studies to evaluate its safety and efficacy in view of our study showing association with longer time to reach full enteral feeds. We speculate that GS use could be a marker for gastrointestinal dysmotility and hence the association with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. The maternal periodontal disease as a risk factor of prematurity and low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Dulanto Vargas, Julissa; García Linares, Sixto; Docente del Dpto. Académico Médico Quirúrgico Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Carranza Samanez, Maynor

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the maternal periodontal disease (EP) and the premature delivery (PP) and the low birth weight (BP). The study was a case-control study with 69 mothers, 19 cases (mothers of newborns with premature deliveries and low birth weight (PPBP)), and 50 controls (mothers of babies with gestational age > 37 weeks and birth weight > 2500g) at the “Madre Niño San Bartolomé” Teaching Hospital. The mothers were interrogated and thei...

  11. Risks of small-for-gestational-age births in immigrants: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2012-11-01

    To examine if there is an association between country of birth in parents and small-for-gestational-age (defined as a birthweight of more than two standard deviations (SDs) below the mean) in first singletons births. In this follow-up study, national population and healthcare registers were used to identify small-for-gestational-age births in all first singleton births in Sweden between 1 January 1982 and 31 December 2006. Odds ratios, standardised with regard to maternal age at birth, period of birth, marital status, family income, geographical region, employment, maternal height, and smoking history, were estimated by maternal and paternal country of birth. Singletons with both parents born in Sweden were used as reference group. There were 1,060,467 records for first singletons births over the study period, of whom 3.5% were small-for-gestational-age. The rate was higher in newborns with non-Swedish born than in those with Swedish born mothers (4.1 and 3.3%, respectively). Immigrants from Southern European countries, Africa, and Asia had higher risks of small-for-gestational-age in than those in the reference group, and the risks were even higher in compatriot parents. Country of birth affected the risk of small-for-gestational-age. Maternity care should pay a special attention to pregnancies in certain population groups.

  12. Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Barbara; Coyle, Jeremy; Cohen, Alison K; Headen, Irene; Hubbard, Alan; Ritchie, Lorrene; Rehkopf, David H

    2017-09-01

    To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults. We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009). A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births. Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.

  13. Birthweight percentiles by gestational age for births following assisted reproductive technology in Australia and New Zealand, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuoyang; Wang, Yueping A; Ledger, William; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2014-08-01

    What is the standard of birthweight for gestational age for babies following assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment? Birthweight for gestational age percentile charts were developed for singleton births following ART treatment using population-based data. Small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) births are at increased risks of perinatal morbidity and mortality. A birthweight percentile chart allows the detection of neonates at high risk, and can help inform the need for special care if required. This population study used data from the Australian and New Zealand Assisted Reproduction Database (ANZARD) for 72 694 live born singletons following ART treatment between January 2002 and December 2010 in Australia and New Zealand. A total of 69 315 births (35 580 males and 33 735 females) following ART treatment were analysed for the birthweight percentile. Exact percentiles of birthweight in grams were calculated for each gestational week between Week 25 and 42 for fresh and thaw cycles by infant sex. Univariate analysis was used to determine the exact birthweight percentile values. Student t-test was used to examine the mean birthweight difference between male and female infants, between single embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET) and between fresh and thaw cycles. Preterm births (birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) and low birthweight (fetal growth standards but only the weight of live born infants at birth. The comparison of birthweight percentile charts for ART births and general population births provide evidence that the proportion of SGA births following ART treatment was comparable to the general population for SET fresh cycles and significantly lower for thaw cycles. Both fresh and thaw cycles showed better outcomes for singleton births following SET compared with DET. Policies to promote single embryo transfer should be considered in order to minimize the adverse perinatal outcomes associated

  14. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612......) answered a questionnaire during 12th to 16th gestational week about their exposure to ETS at home and outside the home. RESULTS: Pregnant nonsmokers exposed to ETS both at home and outside the home gave birth to children with a birth weight of 78.9 g (95% CI -143.7 to -14.1) (P=0.02) lower than the weight...... of children born to women unexposed to ETS. There was no significant reduction in birth weight among women exposed to ETS at home only or outside the home only. A nonsignificant dose-response association was seen between increasing daily exposure to ETS and reduction in birth weight. CONCLUSION: Nonsmoking...

  15. Maternal and fetal genetic contribution to gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrington, N M; Richmond, R; Fenstra, B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical recommendations to limit gestational weight gain (GWG) imply high GWG is causally related to adverse outcomes in mother or offspring, but GWG is the sum of several inter-related complex phenotypes (maternal fat deposition and vascular expansion, placenta, amniotic fluid and f...

  16. Patterns of gestational weight gain and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite the increasing global importance of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its impact on birthweight, little is known about the patterns of GWG in African populations. Objectives: To determine the pattern of GWG and its association with birthweight in Nigeria. Methods: It was a longitudinal study of 200 ...

  17. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  18. Respiratory morbidity in twins by birth order, gestational age and mode of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Tul, Natasa; Lasic, Mateja; Bregar, Andreja Trojner; Verdenik, Ivan; Lucovnik, Miha; Blickstein, Isaac

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between respiratory morbidity in twins by gestational age, birth order and mode of delivery. All twin deliveries at birth order and to the mode of delivery. In contrast, RDS was more frequent among the second born twins in the vaginal birth groups born at 30-36 weeks [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.1 and OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.5 for 33-36 weeks and 30-32 weeks, respectively], whereas this trend was seen in the cesarean birth groups born earlier (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.0 for 28-29 weeks). Cesarean delivery significantly increased the frequency of RDS in twin A as well as in twin B compared with vaginal birth, but only at gestational ages birth order have a gestational age dependent effect on the incidence of RDS.

  19. Newborn skin reflection: Proof of concept for a new approach for predicting gestational age at birth. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Zilma Silveira Nogueira; Vitral, Gabriela Luiza Nogueira; de Souza, Ingrid Michelle Fonseca; Rego, Maria Albertina Santiago; Guimaraes, Rodney Nascimento

    2017-01-01

    Current methods to assess the gestational age during prenatal care or at birth are a global challenge. Disadvantages, such as low accessibility, high costs, and imprecision of clinical tests and ultrasonography measurements, may compromise health decisions at birth, based on the gestational age. Newborns' organs and tissues can indirectly indicate their physical maturity, and we hypothesized that evolutionary changes in their skin, detected using an optoelectronic device meter, may aid in estimating the gestational age. This study analyzed the feasibility of using newborn skin reflectance to estimate the gestational age at birth noninvasively. A cross-sectional study evaluated the skin reflectance of selected infants, preferably premature, at birth. The first-trimester ultrasound was the reference for gestational age. A prototype of a new noninvasive optoelectronic device measured the backscattering of light from the skin, using a light emitting diode at wavelengths of 470 nm, 575 nm, and 630 nm. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis models were employed to predict gestational age, combining skin reflectance with clinical variables for gestational age estimation. The gestational age at birth of 115 newborns from 24.1 to 41.8 weeks of gestation correlated with the light at 630 nm wavelength reflectance 3.3 mm/6.5 mm ratio distant of the sensor, at the forearm and sole (Pearson's correlation = 0.505, P skin reflectance at wavelengths of 630 nm and 470 nm in combination with birth weight, phototherapy, and adjusted to include incubator stay, and sex (R2 = 0.828, P skin reflectometer device, in combination with clinical variables, was able to predict the gestational age and could be useful when the information is in doubt or is unknown. Multivariable predictive models associated the skin reflectance with easy to obtain clinical parameters, at the birth scenario. External validation needs to be proven in an actual population with the real incidence of

  20. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, E M; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, K

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated whether newborn body composition is influenced by prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) and explored any associations between body composition and birthweight standard score (z-score), categorised by size for gestational age. METHODS: We recruited 231...... the offspring of normal weight mothers. The infants' fat mass increased by 11 g (p associations between prepregnancy obesity and fat-free mass. The fat percentage was significantly higher in infants who were large for gestational age (15.3%) than small...... for gestational age (5.2%) and appropriate for gestational age (9.8%) (p associated with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Infants born to obese mothers had higher fat mass at birth, with abdominal fat accumulation. Low birthweight...

  1. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  2. Risk factors for preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth retardation in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving zidovudine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, JS; Watts, DH; Mofenson, L; Stiehm, ER; Harris, DR; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, MJ; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, WT; Hammill, H; van Dyke, R; Maupin, R; Silio, M; Fowler, MG

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate independent contributions of maternal factors to adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Risk factors for preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation), low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g), and intrauterine growth retardation

  3. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  4. Risk for developmental coordination disorder correlates with gestational age at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Olsen, Jørn; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that children born very preterm have a high risk of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). We examined the relation between the larger spectrum of gestational age at birth and the risk of DCD. METHODS:   We used the 7-year follow-up data from 22898 singletons...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort. We calculated a total score from the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ), incorporated in the 7-year follow-up, and defined children with a score of 46 or below as having probable DCD. Information on gestational age was obtained from the Medical Birth...... of DCD was seen for children born post-term. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that short gestational age at birth in a range up to gestational week 37 is related to an increased risk of DCD....

  5. Avaliação dos fatores associados ao estado nutricional na idade corrigida de termo em recém-nascidos de muito baixo peso Evaluation of the nutritional status at 40 weeks corrected gestational age in a cohort of very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M. Gianini

    2005-02-01

    at term (corrected gestational age showed a direct correlation with birth weight, but an indirect correlation with the length of stay, gestational age at birth, time to regain birth weight and CRIB score (p < 0.05. Small for gestational age infants had a 12.19 times greater chance of being malnourished at term. Being born at a Type I unit reduced the risk of malnutrition at term by 2.17 times, male sex reduced this risk by 0.4 times and achieving total enteral nutrition by the 10th day of life reduced it by 1.97 times (p < 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The most effective means of preventing babies being born malnourished is by encouraging perinatal practices aimed at preventing restricted intrauterine growth, in addition to giving priority to aggressive nutritional management.

  6. Gestational age at initiation of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate and recurrent preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Angela; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Goodnight, William H; Manuck, Tracy A

    2017-09-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in nonanomalous neonates in the United States. Women with a previous early spontaneous preterm birth are at highest risk for recurrence. Weekly intramuscular 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate reduces the risk of recurrent prematurity. Although current guidelines recommend 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate initiation between 16 and 20 weeks, in clinical practice, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate is started across a spectrum of gestational ages. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between the gestational age at 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate initiation and recurrent preterm birth among women with a prior spontaneous preterm birth 16-28 weeks' gestation. This was a retrospective cohort study of women from a single tertiary care center, 2005-2016. All women with ≥1 singleton preterm births because of a spontaneous onset of contractions, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, or painless cervical dilation between 16 and 28 weeks followed by a subsequent singleton pregnancy treated with 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate were included. Women were grouped based on quartiles of gestational age of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate initiation (quartile 1, 14 0/7 to 16 1/7 ; quartile 2, 16 2/7 to 17 0/7 ; quartile 3, 17 1/7 to 18 6/7 ; and quartile 4, 19 0/7 to 27 5/7 ). Women with a gestational age of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate initiation in quartiles 1 and 2 were considered to have early-start 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate; those in quartiles 3 and 4 were considered to have late-start 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate. The primary outcome was recurrent preterm birth preterm birth preterm birth preterm birth preterm birth preterm birth preterm birth among women with a prior spontaneous preterm birth 16-28 weeks are high. Women beginning 17-alpha

  7. Gestational age at birth and brain white matter development in term-born infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies on infants/children born preterm have shown that adequate gestational length is critical for brain white matter development. Less is known regarding how variations in gestational age at birth in term infants/children affect white matter development, which was evaluated in this study. Using d...

  8. Early neonatal deaths with perinatal asphyxia in very low birth weight Brazilian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M F B; Moreira, L M O; Vaz dos Santos, R M; Kawakami, M D; Anchieta, L M; Guinsburg, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of early deaths associated with birth asphyxia of very low birth weight infants between 2005 and 2010, in Brazil. This population study enrolled all live births with birth weight from 400 to 1499 g, gestational age ⩾ 22 weeks, without malformations that died up to 6 days after birth with perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was defined if intrauterine hypoxia, asphyxia at birth or meconium aspiration syndrome were written in any line of the death certificate. Active search was carried out in 27 Brazilian federative units. For every 1000 live births of very low birth weight infants without congenital malformations, 40.25 and 32.38 died with birth asphyxia in the first week after birth, respectively, in 2005 and 2010 (Pasphyxia to early neonatal death of these infants was approximately 10 to 12% all study years. Reduction of birth asphyxia in very low birth weight infants is essential to reducing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

  9. A STUDY OF MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel Kumar Kaushal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight is defined as the live births with less than 2.5 kg weight. LBW is one of the serious challenges in maternal and child health in both developed and developing countries. Objective: (1 To study the proportion of low birth weight neonates among hospital based deliveries. (2 To evaluate selected maternal factors associated with low birth weight in institutionally delivered newborn. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in S.N. Hospital, Agra from 1st September, 2007 to 31st August, 2009 from medical record section of Obstetrics & Gynaecology department. Mode of delivery, birth weight and sex of baby, age of mother, parity, gestational period were taken as variables. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was applied to observe the significance of association. Results: Proportion of LBW was found to be 38% and was higher in teenage pregnancy, in Muslim females, in high parity and among newborn females. Conclusion: Relationship of birth weight with sex of new born, birth order of new born, mode of delivery, gestational period and with parity of mother was found to be significant..

  10. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  11. Persisting behavior problems in extremely low birth weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Hack, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    To describe behavior problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) adolescents born 1992 through 1995 based on parent ratings and adolescent self-ratings at age 14 years and to examine changes in parent ratings from ages 8-14. Parent ratings of behavior problems and adolescent self-ratings were obtained for 169 ELBW adolescents (mean birth weight 815 g, gestational age 26 wk) and 115 normal birth weight (NBW) controls at 14 years. Parent ratings of behavior at age 8 years were also available. Behavior outcomes were assessed using symptom severity scores and rates of scores above DSM-IV symptom cutoffs for clinical disorder. The ELBW group had higher symptom severity scores on parent ratings at age 14 years than NBW controls for inattentive attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and social problems (all p's < .01). Rates of parent ratings meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for inattentive ADHD were also higher for the ELBW group (12% vs. 1%, p < .01). In contrast, the ELBW group had lower symptom severity scores on self-ratings than controls for several scales. Group differences in parent ratings decreased over time for ADHD, especially among females, but were stable for anxiety and social problems. Extremely low birth weight adolescents continue to have behavior problems similar to those evident at a younger age, but these problems are not evident in behavioral self-ratings. The findings suggest that parent ratings provide contrasting perspectives on behavior problems in ELBW youth and support the need to identify and treat these problems early in childhood.

  12. Divergence of estimated fetal weight and birth weight in singleton fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadis, Alexandros; Eleftheriades, Makarios; Papadopoulos, Vassileios; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate differences in distribution of estimated fetal weight (EFW) and birth weight (BW) of ongoing fetuses and neonates of the same gestational age. Reference curves for EFW (Hadlock BPD-HC-AC-FL formula, N = 1191) and BW (N = 1036) in singleton pregnancies from 24 +0 to 40 +6 gestational weeks were calculated. Multiple pregnancies, fetuses with major or multiple abnormalities or syndromes and iatrogenic preterm deliveries due to preeclampsia or abnormal fetal Doppler were excluded. The standardized residuals for EFW and BW were calculated and compared. EFW and BW can be accurately described by quadratic equations (R 2  = 0.944 and 0.807, respectively). The distribution of standardized residuals for BW using the EFW formula was negative from 28 +0 to 35 +6 weeks. The 50th and 5th centiles of BW were lower than those of EFW throughout prematurity, and they converged at approximately 38 gestational weeks. The 5th centile for BW was 30% lower than the 5th centile for EFW at 27 weeks, 27.5% lower at 30 weeks and 19.4% at 34 weeks. Preterm infants have lower BW distribution compared to the expected EFW of ongoing pregnancies of the same gestational age, supporting the concept of hidden intrauterine morbidity for a proportion of these infants.

  13. Birth weight, sex, and celiac disease: a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuja-Halkola R

    2017-11-01

    =1.11–2.02. However, the association was not significant in within-pair analyses for both dizygotic and monozygotic twins and for both sexes.Conclusion: This population-based study found that in male twins, higher birth weight was associated with higher risk of CD. However, when comparing discordant twin pairs in within-twin pair analyses, there was no statistically significant association between birth weight, intrauterine growth, and future risk of CD. Keywords: autoimmune, gestational age, gluten, registries, risk factors, twins

  14. Associations of Maternal Vitamin B12 Concentration in Pregnancy With the Risks of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogne, T.; Tielemans, M.J.; Chong, M.F.; Yajnik, C.S.; Krishnaveni, G.V.; Poston, L.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Steegers, E.A.; Joshi, S.; Chong, Y.S.; Godfrey, K.M.; Yap, F.; Yahyaoui, R.; Thomas, T.; Hay, G.; Hogeveen, M.; Demir, A.; Saravanan, P.; Skovlund, E.; Martinussen, M.P.; Jacobsen, G.W.; Franco, O.H.; Bracken, M.B.; Risnes, K.R.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (hereafter referred to as B12) deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent and has been associated with both lower birth weight (birth weight <2,500 g) and preterm birth (length of gestation <37 weeks). Nevertheless, current evidence is contradictory. We performed a systematic review and a

  15. Construction of the birth weight by gestational age population reference curves of Catalonia (Spain: Methods and development Elaboración de las curvas poblacionales de referencia del peso al nacer, según la edad gestacional, de Cataluña: métodos y desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Infant size at birth is a useful indicator to evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational age. There is no standard model to create anthropometric reference curves in neonates, but the method chosen could determine the reference values estimated. We describe the methods used to construct population-based reference curves of birth weight for gestational age in Catalonia, Spain. These methods included detection of implausible values of birth weight for gestational age by a probabilistic cluster model, utilization of the Generalized Additive Model for Location and Scale method to obtain smoothed percentiles and z-scores, and calculation of 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping. To our knowledge, these are the first reference curves in neonates constructed through a method allowing asymmetric distributions with kurtosis to be modelled. Estimation of confidence intervals is useful to determine which reference intervals can be employed to assess newborn size.La evaluación del tamaño en el nacimiento es uni ndicador útil para evaluar elcrecimiento fetal en relación con la edad gestacional. No hay un modelo estándar para crear curvas de referencia antropométricas en recién nacidos, pero el método escogido podría determinar los valores de referencia estimados. Describimos los métodos utilizados para elaborar las curvas de referencia poblacionales del peso al nacer según la edad gestacional en Cataluña, España. Estos métodos incluyen la detección de los valores inverosímiles de peso al nacer para la edad gestacional mediante un modelo probabilístico de agrupaciones, la utilización del modelo Generalized Additive Model for Location and Scale para la obtención de los percentiles alisados, y las puntuaciones z y el cálculo de los intervalos de confianza del 95% mediante remuestreos. Hasta donde conocemos, éstas son las primeras curvas de referencia en recién nacidos en las cuales se ha utilizado un método que permite modelar

  16. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charact...

  17. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  18. Birth weight and risk of asthma in 3-9-year-old twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindlund, Karin; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2010-01-01

    length and Apgar score, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.65), p=0.027. The risk tended to be higher in monozygotic co-twins compared with dizygotic co-twins, especially for high birth weight differences. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight is a risk factor for asthma independently of gestational age, sex, birth...... length and Apgar score, but this may be due, in part, to residual non-genetic confounding factors. This finding lends support to the "fetal origins hypothesis" suggesting undisclosed prenatal determinants for the risk of asthma....

  19. Aquatic Activities During Pregnancy Prevent Excessive Maternal Weight Gain and Preserve Birth Weight: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F; Perales, Maria; Refoyo, Ignacio; Barakat, Ruben

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. A randomized clinical trial. Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG). The intervention program consisted of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic and resistance aquatic activities from weeks 10 to 12 until weeks 38 to 39 of gestation. Maternal weight gain, birth weight, and other maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained by hospital records. Student unpaired t test and χ 2 test were used; P values ≤.05 indicated statistical significance. Cohen's d was used to determinate the effect size. There was a higher percentage of women with excessive maternal weight gain in the CG (45.2%; n = 28) than in the EG (24.5%; n = 12; odds ratio = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.89; P = .02). Birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes showed no differences between groups. Three weekly sessions of water activities throughout pregnancy prevents excessive maternal weight gain and preserves birth weight. The clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT 02602106.

  20. Preterm birth and low birth weight continue to increase the risk of asthma from age 7 to 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Melanie C; D Olhaberriague, Ana López-Polín; Burgess, John A; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Johns, David P; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-08-01

    Perinatal events can influence the development of asthma in childhood but current evidence is contradictory concerning the effects on life-time asthma risk. To assess the relationship between birth characteristics and asthma from childhood to adulthood. All available birth records for the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort, born in 1961 were obtained from the Tasmanian State Archives and Tasmanian hospitals. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as less than 2500 grams. Preterm birth was defined as delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a birth weight below the 10 th percentile for a given gestational age. Multivariate logistic and cox regression were used to examine associations between birth characteristics and lifetime risk of current and incident asthma, adjusting for confounders. The prevalence of LBW was 5.2%, SGA was 13.8% and preterm was 3.3%. LBW (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.12,2.44) and preterm birth (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 0.99, 3.31) were both associated with an increased risk of current asthma between the ages of 7 to 43 years. There was no association between SGA and current asthma risk. However, SGA was associated with incident asthma (HR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.00, 1.74), and there was an interaction with sex (p value = 0.08), with males having a greater risk of incident asthma (HR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.16-2.49) than females (HR = 1.04, 95%CI 0.70-1.54). Preterm birth and LBW were associated with an increased risk of current asthma into middle-age. These findings are the first to demonstrate the continuing impact of these characteristics on asthma risk into middle-age.

  1. A centile chart for birth weight for an urban population of the Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    id inary en in rgence. Afr Med iology of. Infect ral. SAMJ. ARTICLES. A centile chart for birth weight for an urban population of the Western. Cape. G. B. Theron, M. L. Thompson. Evidence from large epidemiological studies has .... fitted by smooth linear and quadratic functions of gestational age by the method of maximum ...

  2. Growth of preterm low birth weight infants until 24 months corrected age: effect of maternal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. Kiy

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Preterm low birth weight born infants to hypertensive mothers have an increased risk of overweight at 24 months CA. Being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the 1st year of life are risk factors for growth disorders at 24 months CA.

  3. Birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The severity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome was compared in pregnant gilts originating from high and low birth weight litters. One-hundred and eleven pregnant gilts experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus on gestation day 85 (±1) were necrop...

  4. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  5. Defining smallness for gestational age in the early years of the Danish Medical Birth Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    á Rogvi, Rasmus; Mathiasen, Rene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Being born small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity and increased blood pressure in childhood, but the association with clinical disease in early adulthood is less certain. The Danish Medical Birth Registry has registered all births in Denmark since 1973, b...

  6. Sports and leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and birth weight: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, H K; Petersson, K; Hedegaard, M

    2010-01-01

    , light, and moderate to heavy) and birth weight were examined by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as smoking, parity, schooling, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational age. The results showed that pregnant women who practiced sports or were...... no association between sports and leisure-time physical activity and low-birth weight, high-birth weight, or average-birth weight.......We examined the association between sports and other leisure-time physical activities during pregnancy and birth weight of babies born after 37 completed weeks of gestation. All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics, Aarhus University...

  7. Association of gestational weight gain and pre-pregnancy body mass index with adverse pregnancy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munim, S.; Maheen, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between gestation weight gain (GWG) and adverse pregnancy outcome in a Pakistani population. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from February 2003 to 2007. Methodology: This study used secondary data of 4,735 women from a large cohort study on fetal growth. Pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the recommendations from the institute of medicine (IOM, 2009) and gestation weight gain (GWG) was noted. Chi-square test was used to find the association of GWG and pre-pregnancy BMI with low birth, large for gestational age (LGA), and caesarean section. Logistic regression analysis was weight (LBW), preterm delivery performed to control for confounders like age, parity, working status and ethnicity. Results: The prevalence of LBW decreased with increasing BMI. GWG of the population was noted as 8.5 kg. LBW was omen below the age of 19 were twice more likely to have LBW than observed to have an inverse relationship with GWG. W above 35 years of age. Weight gain above the recommended range were twice more likely to have large for dates. Overweight women were 1.5 times more likely to deliver preterm whereas obese women were 1.4 times more likely to undergo caesarean section than women with normal BMI. Conclusion: The optimal weight gain was estimated to be 8.5 kg to prevent low birth weight in our population. Obese women are more likely to have LGA, caesarean sections and pre-term deliveries. (author)

  8. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  9. Gestational weight gain and perinatal outcomes of subgroups of Asian-American women, Texas, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Rong; Walker, Lorraine O; Brown, Adama; Lee, Ju-Young

    2015-01-01

    Asian-American subgroups are heterogeneous, but few studies had addressed differences on gestational weight gain (GWG) and perinatal outcomes related to GWG among this growing and diverse population. The purposes of this study were to examine whether Asian-American women are at higher risk of inadequate or excessive GWG and adverse perinatal outcomes than non-Hispanic White (NH-White) women, and to compare those risks among Asian-American subgroups. This retrospective study included all singleton births to NH-Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnam, and NH-White women documented in 2009 Texas birth certificate data (N = 150,674). Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, multinomial logistic regression, and binary logistic regression. Chinese women were the reference group in the comparisons among Asian subgroups. Asian women had a higher risk of inadequate GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than NH-White women. No difference in the odds of excessive GWG was found among Asian subgroups, although Japanese women had the highest risk of inadequate GWG. After adjusting for confounders, Korean women had the lowest risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.49), whereas Filipino women and Asian Indian had the highest risks of gestational hypertension (AOR, 2.01 and 1.61), cesarean birth (AOR, 1.44 and 1.39), and low birth weight (AOR, 1.94 and 2.51) compared with Chinese women. These results support the heterogeneity of GWG and perinatal outcomes among Asian-American subgroups. The risks of adverse perinatal outcomes should be carefully evaluated separately among Asian-American subpopulations. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... determine the effect of the year and season, age of the lamb, weight of the lamb, birth type and sex on the birth weight ... lambs, while sheep in the middle age (4 to 5 years) gave birth to lambs with the heaviest body weight. However, the ..... extensive lamb production systems in New Zealand. Livest. Prod.

  11. Sports and leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Petersson, K; Hedegaard, M

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sports and other leisure-time physical activities during pregnancy and birth weight of babies born after 37 completed weeks of gestation. All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics, Aarhus University...... Hospital, Denmark, from August 1989 to September 1991 were invited to participate in the study. A total of 4458 healthy women who delivered after 37 completed gestational weeks participated in this study. The associations between sports (0, 1-2, 3+ h/week) or leisure-time physical activity (sedentary......, light, and moderate to heavy) and birth weight were examined by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as smoking, parity, schooling, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational age. The results showed that pregnant women who practiced sports or were...

  12. Work activities and risk of prematurity, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Harris, E Clare

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the evidence relating preterm delivery (PTD), low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension to five occupational exposures (working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and physical workload). We conducted a systematic search...... effect estimates abstracted. Where similar definitions of exposure and outcome existed we calculated pooled estimates of relative risk (RR) in meta-analysis. Results Analysis was based on 86 reports (32 cohort investigations, 57 with usable data on PTD, 54 on birth weight and 11 on pre......-eclampsia/gestational hypertension); 33 reports were new to this review. For PTD, findings across a substantial evidence base were generally consistent, effectively ruling out large effects (eg, RR>1.2). Larger and higher quality studies were less positive, while meta-estimates of risk were smaller than in previous analyses...

  13. Is dietary macronutrient composition during pregnancy associated with offspring birth weight? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sukshma S; Greenwood, Darren C; Simpson, Nigel A B; Cade, Janet E

    2018-02-01

    There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for alcohol and smoking in trimester 1, showed that each additional 10 g/d CHO consumption was associated with an increase of 4 g (95 % CI 1, 7; P=0·003) in birth weight. Conversely, an additional 10 g/d fat intake was associated with a lower birth weight of 8 g (95 % CI 0, 16; P=0·04) when we accounted for energy contributing macronutrients in each model, and maternal height, weight, parity, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery and sex of the baby. There was no evidence of an association between protein intake and birth weight. Maternal diet in trimester 2 suggested that higher intakes of glucose (10 g/d) and lactose (1 g/d) were both associated with higher birth weight of 52 g (95 % CI 4, 100; P=0·03) and 5 g (95 % CI 2, 7; P<0·001) respectively. These results show that dietary macronutrient composition during pregnancy is associated with birth weight outcomes. An appropriately balanced intake of dietary CHO and fat during pregnancy could support optimum birth weight.

  14. Association of Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Cord Blood Nitric Oxide Level with Birth Weight of Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naghavi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy affects the birth weight of neonates. Some of the undesirable pregnancy outcomes are linked to lower birth weights. This study aimed to assess the relationship between maternal dietary patterns, weight gain during pregnancy and nitric oxide (NO, as an endothelial relaxing factor, and the possible effects on birth weight.Materials and Methods: At first, a pilot study was done, and finally a number of 233 mothers who referred to 4 public and private hospitals in Isfahan, the Central of Iran, during March 2014 to March 2015 via a convenience sampling method, were elected and participant in this study. Dietary patterns were assessed using a Persian version of Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Gestational weight gain was measured, too. Cord blood nitric oxide (NO level, and neonate’s anthropometric characteristics were measured after delivery.Results: The study participants consisted of 233 mother-neonate pairs. Overall, 4.3% of boys and 11.8% of girls, had low birth weight (< 2.500 gr. Mean gestational weight gain was 12.85 ± 4.37 kg, and there was a statistically significant between three birth-weight categories (Low birth weight, normal birth weight and high birth weight (P

  15. Kangaroo position in low birth weight preterm newborns: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samilly Rodrigues Farias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To describe the number of periods that very low birth weight preterm newborns were in kangaroo position during admission in the neonatal unit and to look for relations between maternal and neonatal variables with kangaroo position. A retrospective and descriptive study with all preterm newborns admitted in 2012, weighing 1500g or less and, gestational age lower than 31 weeks, classified as high clinical risk patients according to the Clinical Risk Index for Babies. We identified 38 babies whose admittance time ranged from 18 to 136 days. The beginning of kangaroo position occurred on average at 30.8 days of post-natal life (SD=18.5 and the number of periods in kangaroo position was on average 10.7 times. The occurrence of kangaroo position was less frequent than opportunities from the maternal presence, and the position was related to a higher offering of free milk demand.

  16. Comparison of gestational weight gain-related pregnancy outcomes in American primiparous and multiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan-Pidhainy, Xiaomiao; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Danish data, the tradeoffs between mother and infant in the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes were reached at lower gestational weight gain (GWG) among multiparous than among primiparous women. It is unknown whether the same difference exists among American women. OBJECTIVE......: The objective was to determine whether these tradeoffs also differ by parity among women in a contemporary American birth cohort. DESIGN: Data from 822 primiparous and 2055 multiparous American women who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2005-2007), a national cohort study, were analyzed......: These findings extend the concept of a lower optimal GWG among multiparous than primiparous women to American women....

  17. Association between prenatal care and small for gestational age birth: an ecological study in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Savard

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Quebec, women living on low income receive a number of additional prenatal care visits, determined by their area of residence, of both multi-component and food supplementation programs. We investigated whether increasing the number of visits reduces the odds of the main outcome of small for gestational age (SGA birth (weight o 10th percentile on the Canadian scale. Methods: In this ecological study, births were identified from Quebec’s registry of demographic events between 2006 and 2008 (n ¼ 156 404; 134 areas. Individual characteristics were extracted from the registry, and portraits of the general population were deduced from data on multi-component and food supplement interventions, the Canadian census and the Canadian Community Health Survey. Mothers without a high school diploma were eligible for the programs. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted using generalized estimating equations to account for the correlation between individuals on the same territory. Potential confounders included sedentary behaviour and cigarette smoking. The odds ratios (ORs were adjusted for mother’s age, marital status, parity, program coverage and mean income in the area. Results: Mothers eligible for the programs remain at a higher odds of SGA than noneligible mothers (OR ¼ 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30–1.51. Further, areas that provide more visits to eligible mothers (4–6 food supplementation visits seem more successful at reducing the frequency of SGA birth than those that provide 1–2 or 3 visits (OR ¼ 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75–0.99. Conclusions: Further studies that validate whether an increase in the number of prenatal care interventions reduces the odds of SGA birth in different populations and evaluate other potential benefits for the children should be done.

  18. Interpregnancy weight gain and cesarean delivery risk in women with a history of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Lin, Yvonne S; Kernic, Mary A; Foster-Schubert, Karen E

    2009-04-01

    Along with the rising prevalence of obesity, rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated adverse outcomes also have increased. We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study to assess the association of weight gain between pregnancies with cesarean delivery for the subsequent pregnancy among women with a history of GDM. Using linked birth-certificate data for women with at least two singleton births in Washington State during the period from 1992-2005, we identified 2,753 women with GDM who delivered vaginally at the baseline pregnancy (first pregnancy on record). The interpregnancy weight change (subsequent-baseline prepregnancy weight) for each woman was calculated and assigned to one of three categories: weight loss (more than 10 lb), weight stable (+/-10 lb), or weight gain (more than 10 lb). Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the risk (odds ratio [OR]) of cesarean delivery at the subsequent pregnancy among the weight-gain and weight-loss groups relative to the weight-stable category. Among 2,581 eligible women, 10.9% lost more than 10 lb between pregnancies, 54.0% were weight-stable, and 35.1% gained more than 10 lb. Women who gained more than 10 lb had an adjusted OR for subsequent cesarean delivery of 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.49, 9.7% of women who gained weight), whereas the adjusted OR for women who lost weight was 0.55 (95% CI 0.28-1.10, 4.7% of women who lost weight). Women with a history of GDM who gained more than 10 lb between pregnancies are at increased risk of future cesarean delivery. Appropriate weight management among women with a history of GDM may result in decreased cesarean delivery rates along with decreases in associated excess risks and costs. II.

  19. Replication of a Genome-Wide Association Study of Birth Weight in Preterm Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Feenstra, Bjarke; Shaffer, John R.; Bream, Elise NA; Geller, Frank; Feingold, Eleanor; Weeks, Daniel E; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Saleme, Cesar; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Merrill, David; Fong, Chin-To; Busch, Tamara; Berends, Susan K; Comas, Belen; Camelo, Jorge L; Boyd, Heather; Laurie, Cathy; Crosslin, David; Zhang, Qi; Doheny, Kim F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Melbye, Mads; Marazita, Mary L; Dagle, John M; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine associations in a preterm population between rs9883204 in ADCY5 and rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 with birth weight. Both markers were associated with birth weight in a term population in a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study by Freathy et al. Study design A meta-analysis of mother and infant samples was performed for associations of rs900400 and rs9883204 with birth weight in 393 families from the U.S., 265 families from Argentina and 735 mother-infant pairs from Denmark. Z scores adjusted for infant sex and gestational age were generated for each population separately and regressed on allele counts. Association evidence was combined across sites by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Results Each additional C allele of rs900400 (LEKR1/CCNL1) in infants was marginally associated with a 0.069 standard deviation (SD) lower birth weight (95% CI = −0.159 – 0.022, P = 0.068). This result was slightly more pronounced after adjusting for smoking (P = 0.036). There were no significant associations identified with rs9883204 or in maternal samples. Conclusions These results indicate the potential importance of this marker on birth weight irrespective of gestational age. PMID:21885063

  20. Early Zinc Supplementation and Enhanced Growth of the Low-Birth Weight Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Farghali, Ola; El-Wahed, Mohamed Abd; Hassan, Nayera E; Imam, Safaa; Alian, Khadija

    2015-03-15

    Nutritional deficits are almost universal in Low-Birth Weight babies. Zinc is essential for normal infant growth and its supplementation assists growth probably through insulin-like growth factor-1. This double-blind randomized-controlled trial aimed at evaluating the role of zinc in catch-up growth of low-birth-weight infants and investigating its proposed mediator. The study was conducted in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. Two hundred low-birth-weight neonates were simply randomized to either oral zinc therapy or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth, 3, 6, and 12 months; including weight, recumbent length, head, waist, chest, and mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps and sub-scapular skin fold thickness. We found that initial and 3-months measurements, except weight, were comparable in the 2 groups. All measurements at 6- and 12-months, except sub-scapular skin-fold-thickness, were significantly higher in zinc group than placebo. Catch-up growth, at 12-months, was significant in zinc group and was significantly higher in appropriate-for-gestational-age vs. small-for-gestational-age, in preterm vs. term, and in male vs. female infants. The median 6-months insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly higher in zinc group. We conclude that early start of oral zinc supplementation in low-birth-weight neonates assists catch-up growth, probably through rise of insulin-like growth factor-1.

  1. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Lindenmeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight <1,500 g and gestational age <32 weeks admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7 ± 1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7 ± 222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.0035. The mean intraocular pressure (P10-P90 decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.5222.16 at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28-18.92 at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased.

  2. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 3 years old for infants with birth weights under 500 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagara, Syunsuke; Kouwaki, Masanori; Togawa, Takao; Sugiura, Tokio; Okada, Mayumi; Koyama, Norihisa

    2017-09-21

    Marked improvements have been achieved in the survival of extremely low birth weight infants, but survival rates and prognoses of extremely small infants with birth weights ≤500 g remain poor. The aim of this study was to clarify long-term outcomes for surviving infants with birth weights ≤500 g. The study population comprised fetuses of gestational age ≥22 weeks, expected live- or stillbirth weight ≤500 g, and birth date between 2003 and 2012. Developmental assessments were performed prospectively at 3 years old. Data were obtained for 21 fetuses, including 10 live births and 11 stillbirths. Of the 10 live births, median gestational age was 25.2 weeks (range, 22.4-27.1 weeks), median birth weight was 426 g (range, 370-483 g), and two neonates died before discharge. One infant with severe asphyxia died within 12 h and another infant with Down syndrome died at 34 days. The survival rate was thus 80%. All surviving infants were small for gestational age. Seven of the 8 surviving infants (88%) weighed less than 2500 g at a corrected age of 40 weeks. Seven infants were available for developmental assessments at 3 years old. One infant could not be followed. Two of those seven infants (29%) showed normal development, three infants (42%) showed mild neurodevelopmental disability, and two infants (29%) showed severe neurodevelopmental disability. One infant had periventricular leukomalacia and cerebral palsy. Two of the seven infants (29%) had short stature (g. Further large studies are needed to assess long-term outcomes for extremely small infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Cyst(e)ine requirements in enterally fed very low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedijk, Maaike A; Voortman, Gardi; van Beek, Ron H T; Baartmans, Martin G A; Wafelman, Leontien S; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2008-03-01

    Optimal nutrition is of utmost importance for the preterm infant's later health and developmental outcome. Amino acid requirements for preterm infants differ from those for term and older infants, because growth rates differ. Some nonessential amino acids, however, cannot be sufficiently synthesized endogenously. Cyst(e)ine is supposed to be such a conditionally essential amino acid in preterm infants. The objective of this study was to determine, at 32 and 35 weeks' postmenstrual age, cyst(e)ine requirements in fully enterally fed very low birth weight preterm infants with gestational ages of ine requirement was determined with the indicator amino acid oxidation technique ([1-(13)C]phenylalanine) after 24-hour adaptation. Fractional [1-(13)C]phenylalanine oxidation was established in 47 very low birth weight preterm infants (mean gestational age: 28 weeks +/- 1 week SD; birth weight: 1.07 kg +/- 0.21 kg SD). Increase in dietary cyst(e)ine intake did not result in a decrease in fractional [1-(13)C]phenylalanine oxidation. These data do not support the hypothesis that endogenous cyst(e)ine synthesis is limited in very low birth weight preterm infants with gestational ages of ine requirement is ine is probably not a conditionally essential amino acid in these infants.

  4. Contribution of low BirthWeight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between low and very low birth weight infants and perinatal mortality at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: A retrospective study of the hospital records in the labour ward and the Newborn Special Care Unit (N.B.S.C.U), of the UNTH was carried out for the ...

  5. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, D.J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Vink, J.M.; Haak, M.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on

  6. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Haak, Monique C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background

  7. Hypoglycaemia in fasting low birth weight infants in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) infants are commonly at risk of hypoglycaemia. The prevalence of hypoglycaemia and its neurological features in fasting LBW infants below 24 hours of age was assessed. Methods: Low birth weight (LBW) infants seen within 24 hours of birth who had not fed or received ...

  8. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-08-15

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional

  9. The relative proportion of preterm births complicated by premature rupture of membranes in multifetal gestations: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrashi, Tarita; Defranco, Emily A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the relative contribution of premature rupture of membranes (PROM) to preterm births in singleton compared with multifetal gestations. A population-based retrospective cohort study of 291,782 nonanomalous live births in the state of Ohio from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2007, identified through birth certificate data. Frequency of PROM was compared between singleton and multifetal gestations and then stratified by gestational age at birth. Multivariate regression analysis estimated the risk of PROM by plurality in each gestational age group, accounting for influential risk factors. The frequency of PROM increased with increasing plurality of gestation. The relative proportion of preterm birth < 37 weeks complicated by PROM increased with gestational plurality 13.2% singletons, 16.8% twins, 20.0% triplets, 19.6% quadruplets, and 100% for higher-order multiples (p < 0.001). The frequency of PROM increased with earlier gestational age at birth, regardless of plurality. The increased risk of PROM in multifetal gestation persisted even after adjustment for influential concomitant risk factors. The proportion of preterm birth attributable to PROM increases by plurality of gestation, with its most significant contribution in higher-order multiples and at earliest gestational ages when outcomes are the poorest. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Vaccine schedule compliance among very low birth weight infants in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Zea-Vera, Alonso; Bautista, Rossana; Davila, Carmen; Salazar, José Antonio; Bazán, Carlos; López, Luis; Ecker, Lucie

    2015-01-03

    There is little information about vaccine schedule compliance in very-low-birth-weight infants in developing countries. The aim of the study was to describe the compliance with the vaccine schedule among this population in Lima, Peru. We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima in infants with a birth-weight of less than 1500 g, followed from birth up to 12 months of age every 2 weeks. The date and age at administration of each vaccine was recorded 222 infants were enrolled. The median birth-weight was 1250 g (range 550-1499 g) and the median gestational age was 30.0 weeks (range 23-37 weeks). The mean age for the first pentavalent (DPT, Hib, HepB) and oral polio vaccine administration was 4.3 ± 1.4 months in infants with a birth-weight of vaccine. Only 35% had received the three doses of oral polio and pentavalent vaccine by seven months, although by nine months 81% had received these vaccines. Vaccination of very-low-birth-weight infants in Peru is significantly delayed, especially in infants with a birth-weight of vaccination rates and timing in these high risk populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Are there differences in birth weight between neighbourhoods in a Nordic welfare state?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremberg Sven

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this cohort study was to examine the effect on birth weight of living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in a Nordic welfare state. Birth weight is a health indicator known to be sensitive to political and welfare state conditions. No former studies on urban neighbourhood differences regarding mean birth weight have been carried out in a Nordic country. Methods A register based on individual data on children's birth weight and maternal risk factors was used. A neighbourhood characteristic, i.e. an aggregated measure on income was also included. Connections between individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants and the outcome were analysed using multi-level regression technique. The study covered six hundred and ninety-six neighbourhoods in the three major cities of Sweden, Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, during 1992–2001. The majority of neighbourhoods had a population of 4 000–10 000 inhabitants. An average of 500 births per neighbourhood were analysed in this study. Results Differences in mean birth weight in Swedish urban neighbourhoods were minor. However, gestational length, parity and maternal smoking acted as modifiers of the neighbourhood effects. Most of the observed variation in mean birth weight was explained by individual risk factors. Conclusion Welfare institutions and benefits in Sweden might buffer against negative infant outcomes due to adverse structural organisation of urban neighbourhoods.

  12. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  13. Gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rates for assisted reproductive technology (ART) and other births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Abrar A; Wang, Alex Y; Hilder, Lisa; Li, Zhuoyang; Lui, Kei; Farquhar, Cindy; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2018-02-01

    Is perinatal mortality rate higher among births born following assisted reproductive technology (ART) compared to non-ART births? Overall perinatal mortality rates in ART births was higher compared to non-ART births, but gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births was lower for very preterm and moderate to late preterm births. Births born following ART are reported to have higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to non-ART births. This population-based retrospective cohort study included 407 368 babies (391 952 non-ART and 15 416 ART)-393 491 singletons and 10 877 twins or high order multiples. All births (≥20 weeks of gestation and/or ≥400 g of birthweight) in five states and territories in Australia during the period 2007-2009 were included in the study, using National Perinatal Data Collection (NPDC). Primary outcome measures were rates of stillbirth, neonatal and perinatal deaths. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the likelihood of perinatal death. Rates of multiple birth and low birthweight were significantly higher in ART group compared to the non-ART group (P ART births (16.5 per 1000 births, 95% CI 14.5-18.6), compared to non-ART births (11.3 per 1000 births, 95% CI 11.0-11.6) (AOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.26-1.68). However, gestational age-specific perinatal mortality rate of ART births (including both singletons and multiples) was lower for very preterm (ART births. Congenital abnormality and spontaneous preterm were the most common causes of neonatal deaths in both ART and non-ART group. Due to different cut-off limit for perinatal period in Australia, the results of this study should be interpreted with cautions for other countries. Australian definition of perinatal period commences at 20 completed weeks (140 days) of gestation and ends 27 completed days after birth which is different from the definition by World Health Organisation (commences at 22 completed weeks (154 days) of

  14. Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L

    2017-06-12

    Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (prematurity (RRR: 15.4, CI: 9.18-25.9); no antenatal follow-up (RRR: 6.78, CI: 2.39-19.25); and female sex (RRR: 1.77, CI: 1.13-2.77). Predictors for macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post

  15. Maternal prepregnancy waist circumference and BMI in relation to gestational weight gain and breastfeeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Helene; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that gestational weight gain (GWG) and breastfeeding behavior may influence long-term maternal abdominal fat mass. However, this could be confounded by abdominal fat mass before pregnancy because it is unknown whether abdominal fat mass, independently of body size......, affects GWG and breastfeeding behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated how maternal prepregnancy fat distribution, described by waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), is associated with GWG and breastfeeding behavior. DESIGN: We analyzed 1371 live births to 1024 women after enrollment...... in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (1985-1996). For each birth, maternal prepregnancy BMI and WC were measured at year 0 (baseline), 2, 5, or 7 examinations. Recalled GWG and breastfeeding behavior were collected at years 7 and 10. GWG was analyzed by using linear regression...

  16. Birth Weight of Infants of Mothers With Aggressive Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A.; Koertge, Thomas E.; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N.; Gunsolley, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Background It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Methods Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers’ periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. Results There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported pregnancy outcomes, we used a compromised approach using prospective data as well as weaker retrospective data assuming that disease onset was likely before the births. Our results, within the limitations of this approach, indicate no evidence that AgP in the mother predisposes low birth weights. AgP has many unique biologic characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic. PMID:21819247

  17. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  18. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Low socio-economic status is the underlying cause of low birth weight. Other causes include maternal malnutrition; maternal diseases like antepartum hemorrhage, anaemia, cervical incompetence; adolescent pregnancies; short birth intervals; intrauterine infections; multiple pregnancy; congenital malformations; placental.

  19. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term...... the effect of ambient air pollution. The aim of this commentary is to review the published literature on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW regarding increased vulnerability for the above-mentioned subgroups.  Results: Although more than fifty epidemiological studies have examined...... the associations between ambient air pollution and TLBW to date, we only identified six studies that examined the potential effect modification of the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW by the above listed maternal risk factors. Two studies assessed effect modification caused by smoking...

  20. Psychosocial determinants of adequacy of gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Siega-Riz, Anna M; Dole, Nancy

    2009-02-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time window for evaluating weight gain on subsequent risk for obesity among women of childbearing age. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, and fetal health locus of control (FHLC) beliefs were significant risk factors for adequacy of gestational weight gain (GWG) when maternal sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors were considered. A total of 1,605 women were prospectively followed from relationships were attenuated when adjusted for covariates. The relationship between psychosocial status and adequacy of GWG is significantly impacted by maternal sociodemographic factors and health practices engaged in during pregnancy. Women who tend to believe that external factors primarily determine fetal health appear to be more vulnerable to nonadherence to clinical GWG guidelines. These results have important implications for targeting prevention and intervention efforts for improving maternal and fetal outcomes secondary to GWG patterns.

  1. Association between soluble (Prorenin receptor concentration in cord blood and small for gestational age birth: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyoshi Watanabe

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The (prorenin receptor [(PRR] has been recognized as a multifunctional receptor. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between plasma soluble (PRR [s(PRR] concentration in human cord blood (i.e., neonatal blood at birth and small for gestational age (SGA birth. METHODS: Participants were women with a singleton pregnancy who delivered at the National Center for Child Health and Development between January 2010 and December 2011. Inclusion criteria were availability of maternal pre-pregnancy and paternal body mass index, and the absence of structural anomalies in neonates. s(PRR concentration in cord blood was measured in 621 neonates. The 621 pairs of mothers and neonates were categorized into four groups based on quartiles of s(PRR concentrations in cord blood. SGA was defined as a birth weight below the 10(th percentile for gestational age. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between cord plasma s(PRR concentration (quartiles and incidence of SGA births. RESULTS: Among 621 neonates, 55 (8.9% were diagnosed as SGA (SGA group and 566 (91.1% were not (non-SGA group. Average s(PRR concentration in cord blood was 66.1±12.6 ng/ml (mean±standard deviation. There were 155 pairs in the first plasma s(PRR concentration quartile (Q1: 73.1 ng/ml. The distribution of SGA births was 18 (11.6% in Q1, 14 (9.2% in Q2, 16 (10.2% in Q3 and 7 (4.5% in Q4, respectively. The odds ratio of SGA births was 0.24 (95% confidence interval: 0.08-0.71 for the fourth quartile compared to the first quartile in multivariate models. The P-value for trend was also significant (P = 0.020. CONCLUSION: High s(PRR concentration is associated with a lower SGA birth likelihood.

  2. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  3. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Shyam V; Kulkarni, Madhav B; Sadavarte, Vaishali S; Ashtekar, Ratna S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg) over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby’s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades. PMID:20922101

  4. Impact of maternal body mass index and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes among healthy Middle-Eastern females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Papazian

    Full Text Available Studies on the relative impact of body mass index in women in childbearing age and gestational weight gain on neonatal outcomes are scarce in the Middle East.The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of maternal body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG on neonatal outcomes. The effect of maternal age and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy was also examined.This is a retrospective cross sectional observational study of 1000 full term deliveries of women enrolled thru the National Collaborative Perinatal Neonatal Network, in Lebanon. Maternal characteristics such as age, BMI and GWG and neonatal outcomes such as weight, height, head circumference and Apgar score were the primary studied variables in this study. Total maternal weight gain were compared to the guidelines depicted by the Institute of Medicine (IOM.The negative outcomes of newborns such as lean body weight and macrosomia were significantly present in women who gained respectively below or above the IOM's cut-off points. Pregestational body mass index influenced significantly the infants' birth weight, in both the underweight and obese categories. Birth height, head circumference and Apgar score were not influenced by pregestational body mass index or gestational weight gain. No significant associations were found between maternal age and pregestational body mass index and gestational weight gain.Studies evaluating the impact of weight before and during pregnancy on neonatal outcomes and anthropometrics measurements are lacking in the Middle East. Our results highlight the importance of nutritional counseling in order to shed the extra weights before conceiving and monitor weight gain to avoid the negative impact on feto-maternal health.

  5. Placental expression profile of imprinted genes impacts birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappil, Maya A; Green, Benjamin B; Armstrong, David A; Sharp, Andrew J; Lambertini, Luca; Marsit, Carmen J; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of imprinted genes in regulating feto-placental development has been long established. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of placental imprinted gene expression on fetal growth has yet to be conducted. In this study, we examined the association between the placental expression of 108 established and putative imprinted genes and birth weight in 677 term pregnancies, oversampled for small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants. Using adjusted multinomial regression analyses, a 2-fold increase in the expression of 9 imprinted genes was positively associated with LGA status: BLCAP [odds ratio (OR) = 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 7.82], DLK1 [OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.09], H19 [OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.77, 4.42], IGF2 [OR = 1.43, 95% CI:1.31, 2.40], MEG3 [OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.71], MEST [OR = 4.78, 95% CI: 2.64, 8.65], NNAT [OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.86], NDN [OR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.72, 3.68], and PLAGL1 [OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.44]. For SGA status, a 2-fold increase in MEST expression was associated with decreased risk [OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.58], while a 2-fold increase in NNAT expression was associated with increased risk [OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1]. Following a factor analysis, all genes significantly associated with SGA or LGA status loaded onto 2 of the 8 gene-sets underlying the variability in the dataset. Our comprehensive placental profiling of imprinted genes in a large birth cohort supports the importance of these genes for fetal growth. Given that abnormal birth weight is implicated in numerous diseases and developmental abnormalities, the expression pattern of placental imprinted genes has the potential to be developed as a novel biomarker for postnatal health outcomes.

  6. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Kelly R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Seidel, Frank G. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study. (orig.)

  7. [Relationship between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and birth weight of term singleton live-birth newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L Q; Zhang, Q; Zhao, D D; Wang, L L; Chen, Y; Mi, B B; Dang, S N; Yan, H

    2017-10-10

    Objective: This study explored the association between air pollution exposure and birth weight by using the multilevel linear model, after controlling related meteorological factors and individual differences of both mothers and babies. Methods: Women of childbearing age who were pregnant in Xi'an from 2010 to 2013, were selected as objects of this study. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 4 631 subjects followed by a self-designed questionnaire survey. Data related to quality of air and meteorology were gathered from routine monitoring system. Gestational age and date of birth, together with the average levels of air pollution were calculated for each trimester on each mother, and then the impact of air pollution on birth weight was assessed. A multilevel linear model was employed to investigate the association between the levels of exposure to air pollution by birth weight. Confounding factors were under control. We established three models in this study: Model 1 which involving the variable of air pollution exposure. Model 2 was adjusted for variables in Model 1 plus some other individual differences of both mother and baby. Model 3 was adjusted for variables in Model 2 plus meteorological factors. Results: There were significant differences seen in birth weight within the subgroups of gender, gestational age, mother's reproductive age, maternal education, residential areas and family incomes ( P 0.05). Data from Model 3 indicated that a decrease of 13.3 g(10.9 g in Model 2) and 6.6 g (5.9 g in Model 2) in birth weight that were associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester; A decrease of 13.7 g (9.8 g in Model 2) in birth weight was associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) during the third trimester. Conclusion: After controlling for meteorological factors, the levels of exposure to NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester and NO(2) during the

  8. Maternal dental radiography during pregnancy is not associated with term low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Center for Radiation Research, Shiraz University, Shiraz; Aminzadeh, F.; Manshouri, A.; Kamali, M.; Rezaiean, M.; Vazirinejad, R.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: In a report published in JAMA in 2004, Hujoel and colleagues indicated that maternal dental radiography during pregnancy may be associated with term low birth weight. Interestingly, they concluded that dental radiographies cause measurable radiation doses to the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis and the radiation effects on this axis is the reason for term low birth weight. On the other hand, low birth weight is the second leading cause of infant death. In this paper the results obtained in a 2 year study conducted at a midwifery hospital in Rafsanjan, IR Iran are reported. Methods: Four hundred seventy-five singleton infants with gestational periods of 37-44 wk born between 2006 and 2007 at the Niknafs Teaching Hospital affiliated with Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences and met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Demographic data and clinical findings at birth including gestation age, sex of infant, birth order, season of birth, maternal age, and maternal education were collected from maternal and newborn hospital records and by interviews with parents. Maternal history of exposure to common sources of man-made ionizing and non-ionizing (exposure to radiations emitted by mobile phones, CRTs, cordless phones) radiation before and during pregnancy were carefully recorded. Results: Among the 475 infants who were studied, there were only 15 cases with a history of maternal dental radiography during pregnancy. The average newborn infants' birth weight in non-exposed and exposed (maternal dental radiography during pregnancy) groups were 3166.69±481.31 g and 3118.67±341.42 g respectively. This difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions: In this study, low birth weight was not associated with maternal dental radiography during pregnancy. These results are generally inconsistent with those reported by Hujoel and colleagues.

  9. Relationship between birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood and adolescent lung function: A path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balte, Pallavi; Karmaus, Wilfried; Roberts, Graham; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh; Mitchell, Frances; Arshad, Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Low birth weight and gestational maternal smoking have been linked with reduced lung function in children in many cross sectional studies. However, these associations have not yet been assessed with repeated measurements of lung function. Our aim was to investigate the effects of birth weight, gestational age, and gestational maternal smoking on lung function in children at age 10 and 18 years. In the Isle of Wight birth cohort spirometry was performed at age 10 and 18 years. Information on birth weight and gestational age were obtained from hospital records. Mothers were asked about smoking during pregnancy. We employed linear mixed models to estimate the effect of these risk factors on repeated measurements of lung function. We considered maternal asthma, sex, neonatal intensive care unit admission, height, socio-economic status, personal smoking in participants at age 18, body mass index and environmental tobacco smoke exposure as potential confounders. Finally, we used path analysis to determine links between birth weight, gestational age and gestational maternal smoking on lung function at age 10 and 18 years. Linear mixed models showed that with every 1 kg increase in birth weight, Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) increased by 42.6 ± 17.2 mL and Forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% (FEF 25-75 ) of Forced vital capacity (FVC) increased by 95.5 ± 41.2 mL at age 18 years after adjusting for potential confounders. Path analysis suggested that birth weight had positive direct effects on FEV 1 and FEF 25-75 and positive indirect effect on FVC at 10 years which were carried forward to 18 years. Additionally, results also suggested a positive association between gestational age and FEV 1 , FVC and FEF 25-75  at ages 10 and 18 years and an inverse association between gestational smoke exposure and FEV 1 /FVC ratio and FEF 25-75  at age 18 years. Higher birth weight and gestational age were associated with higher FEV 1 , FVC and FEF 25

  10. Effect of creatine supplementation during the last week of gestation on birth intervals, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, J L; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that creatine supplementation would reduce birth intervals, stillbirth rate, and preweaning survival in pigs because of its reported improvement of athletic performance in humans. In Exp. 1, gilts (n = 42) and first parity sows (n = 75) were mated at estrus. Beginning on d 110 of gestation, dams received either no treatment or 20 g creatine daily until farrowing. At farrowing in November 2008, pigs were monitored by video camera to determine individual piglet birth intervals. On d 1, piglets were weighed, euthanized, and the cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were collected from the largest and smallest piglets in each litter to measure myelin basic proteins, myelin cholesterol, glucocerebrosides, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin. Preweaning mortality of the remaining piglets was recorded, including whether a piglet had been overlayed by the dam. A second experiment was performed using gilts (n = 90), farrowing in July 2010, to test differential effects of creatine supplementation during hot, humid weather when dams typically have more difficulty farrowing. Once again, gilts were provided either no supplementation or 20 g creatine daily from d 110 to the day of farrowing. Gilts were video recorded during farrowing, piglets were weighed on d 1, and preweaning mortality (including overlays) was recorded. In Exp. 1, creatine supplementation had no effect on birth intervals or stillbirth rate. Creatine supplementation improved the amount of myelin lipids in brain regions of piglets, particularly the brain stem. Creatine supplementation also reduced overlays of low birth weight piglets from gilts but not second parity sows. Data from Exp. 2 were combined with gilt data from Exp. 1 to examine the effect of creatine, season, and their interaction. There were no effects of treatment or season on birth intervals, stillbirth rates, or overall preweaning mortality. Creatine treatment reduced the incidence of overlays in low

  11. Neonatal morbidity in term neonates is related to gestational age at birth and level of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, A.S.; van Elburg, R.M.; Kostense, P.J.; van Geijn, H.P.; Bolte, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to assess whether the incidence of neonatal morbidity of neonates born at term and admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs by gestational age and level of care. Methods: This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study of singleton term births

  12. Neonatal morbidity in term neonates is related to gestational age at birth and level of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Kostense, Pieter J.; van Geijn, Herman P.; Bolte, Antoinette C.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether the incidence of neonatal morbidity of neonates born at term and admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) differs by gestational age and level of care. This is a 5-year retrospective cohort study of singleton term births admitted to the NICU

  13. Food intake and gestational weight gain in Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Brembeck, Petra; Löf, Marie; Brekke, Hilde K; Winkvist, Anna; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if food intake (dairy, snacks, caloric beverages, bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables) is associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) in Swedish women. Four day food records from 95 pregnant Swedish women were collected in the last trimester. GWG was calculated as weighed body weight in the last trimester (median gestational week 36) minus self-reported pre-pregnancy body weight. Excessive GWG was defined according to the guidelines by the Institute of Medicine. Food groups tested for association with GWG were dairy (milk, yoghurt and sour milk), snacks (sweets, crisps, popcorn, ice cream and cookies, but not nuts and seeds), caloric beverages (soft drinks, juice, lemonade and non-alcoholic beer), bread, cheese, margarine/butter, potato/rice/pasta/grains, red meat, fish and fruit/berries/vegetables. Median (lower-upper quartiles) GWG was 12.1 kg (10.0-15.3). In total, 28 % had an excessive GWG. Excessive GWG was most common among pre-pregnancy overweight and obese women, where 69 % had an excessive GWG. Median daily intake of fruits and vegetables was 352 g (212-453), caloric beverages was 238 g (100-420) and snacks was 111 g (69-115). Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, bread and dairy in the last trimester of pregnancy were positively related to GWG (R(2) = 0.32). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish, and bread was associated with higher odds ratios for excessive GWG. Intake of caloric beverages, snacks, fish and bread were positively related to excessive GWG. Thus, these results indicate that maternal dietary intake should be given higher attention in the antenatal care.

  14. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  15. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  16. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2014-01-01

    between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....

  17. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  18. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  19. Pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and the gut microbiota of mothers and their infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawski, Maggie A; Dabelea, Dana; Wagner, Brandie D; Sontag, Marci K; Lozupone, Catherine A; Eggesbø, Merete

    2017-09-04

    Recent evidence supports that the maternal gut microbiota impacts the initial infant gut microbiota. Since the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity, it is important to understand how pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) impact the gut microbiota of mothers at the time of delivery and their infants in early life. In this study, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on gut microbiota samples from 169 women 4 days after delivery and from the 844 samples of their infants at six timepoints during the first 2 years of life. We categorized the women (1) according to pre-pregnancy body mass index into overweight/obese (OW/OB, BMI ≥ 25) or non-overweight/obese (BMI diversity and taxonomic composition of the maternal and infant samples by exposure groups. We also compared taxonomic similarity between maternal and infant gut microbiota. Maternal OW/OB was associated with lower maternal alpha diversity. Maternal pre-pregnancy OW/OB and excessive GWG were associated with taxonomic differences in the maternal gut microbiota, including taxa from the highly heritable family Christensenellaceae, the genera Lachnospira, Parabacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Blautia. These maternal characteristics were not associated with overall differences in the infant gut microbiota over the first 2 years of life. However, the presence of specific OTUs in maternal gut microbiota at the time of delivery did significantly increase the odds of presence in the infant gut at age 4-10 days for many taxa, and these included some lean-associated taxa. Our results show differences in maternal gut microbiota composition at the time of delivery by pre-pregnancy weight and GWG, but these changes were only associated with limited compositional differences in the early life gut microbiota of their infants. Further work is needed to determine the degree to which these maternal microbiota differences at time of birth with OW/OB and GWG may affect the

  20. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  1. Medical, nutritional, and dental considerations in children with low birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Susan

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that 8 to 26 percent of infants are born with low birth weight (LBW) worldwide. These children are at risk for medical problems in childhood and adulthood and often have poor oral health. The influence of fetal growth on birth weight and its relevance to childhood growth and future adult health is controversial. Evidence now indicates that the postnatal period is a critical time when nutrition may predispose the child to lifelong metabolic disturbance and obesity. Given the lack of consensus on optimum infant nutrition for LBW, premature, and small-for-gestational-age infants, many such infants may be suboptimally managed. This may result in rapid postnatal weight gain and ongoing health problems. The purpose of this review was to summarize medical terminology and issues related to fetal growth, morbidity associated with being born low birth weight, premature, or small for gestational age, and the importance of appropriate nutrition in such infants. Pediatric dentists can play an important role in supporting healthy feeding practices and improving long-term health in these children. Early integrated medical and dental care should be encouraged for all children with low birth weight.

  2. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Col-Araz, Nilgun

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine's Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth, and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r = 0.115, p history of disease during pregnancy (p computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p computers during pregnancy (p computers may have an effect on pre-term birth.

  3. Health coaching to prevent excessive gestational weight gain: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; McPhie, Skye; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette; Kent, Bridie; Bruce, Lauren; Herring, Sharon; Gale, Janette; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Shih, Sophy; Teale, Glyn; Lachal, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of a health coaching (HC) intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), and promote positive psychosocial and motivational outcomes in comparison with an Education Alone (EA) group. Randomized-controlled trial. Two hundred and sixty-one women who were <18 weeks pregnant consented to take part. Those allocated to the HC group received a tailored HC intervention delivered by a Health Coach, whilst those in the EA group attended two education sessions. Women completed measures, including motivation, psychosocial variables, sleep quality, and knowledge, beliefs and expectations concerning GWG, at 15 weeks of gestation (Time 1) and 33 weeks of gestation (Time 2). Post-birth data were also collected at 2 months post-partum (Time 3). There was no intervention effect in relation to weight gained during pregnancy, rate of excessive GWG or birth outcomes. The only differences between HC and EA women were higher readiness (b = 0.29, 95% CIs = 0.03-0.55, p < .05) and the importance to achieve a healthy GWG (b = 0.27, 95% CIs = 0.02-0.52, p < .05), improved sleep quality (b = -0.22, 95% CIs = -0.44 to -0.03, p < .05), and increased knowledge for an appropriate amount of GWG that would be best for their baby's health (b = -1.75, 95% CI = -3.26 to -0.24, p < .05) reported by the HC at Time 2. Whilst the HC intervention was not successful in preventing excessive GWG, several implications for the design of future GWG interventions were identified, including the burden of the intervention commitment and the use of weight monitoring. What is already known on the subject? Designing interventions to address gestational weight gain (GWG) continues to be a challenge. To date, health behaviour change factors have not been the focus of GWG interventions. What does this study add? Our health coaching (HC) intervention did not reduce GWG more so than education alone (EA). There was an intervention effect

  4. Nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vamsi Sivarama Raju, Jayashree Purkayastha, Leslie Lewis, Ramesh Bhat Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to find out the incidence and risk factors of nosocomial infections in VLBW neonates and to explore the microbiologic flora, sensitivity pattern and outcome. Methods: A prospective, observational study was performed in a neonatal intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. VLBW infants excluding those diagnosed with early onset sepsis, admitted to the unit between August 2012 and March 2013 were followed up for evidence of nosocomial sepsis. Results: Of 92 VLBW infants, 23 developed nosocomial sepsis, incidence rate being 25%. Decreasing birth weight (1251-1500 g, 10.9%; 1001-1250 g, 28%; 751-1000 g, 50%; P33wks, 0%; 29-32wks, 21.3%; 26-28 wks, 66.7%; p<.001 were found to be associated with statistically significant increase in nosocomial sepsis rate. On multivariate logistic regression, only peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line was independently associated with increased risk of nosocomial sepsis (aOR 13.33, 95% CI 3.58-49.5 in VLBW. A predominance of Gram negative over Gram positive nosocomial sepsis (75% vs. 25% with higher mortality in the Gram negative group (55% vs. 0% was observed. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant microbe (33.4%. All microbes were sensitive to first line antibiotics except Elizabeth kingia meningoseptica and one episode of K. pneumoniae. Seven (30.4% VLBW neonates with nosocomial sepsis died. Conclusions: Among VLBW infants, the incidence of nosocomial sepsis was 25%. Lower birth weight, lesser gestational age and PICC line were important risk factors. Gram negative nosocomial sepsis was associated with higher mortality compared to Gram positive sepsis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(1: 7-12

  5. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, J.F.; Oosterlaan, J.; van Zwol, A.; Boehm, G.; Lafeber, H.N.; van Elburg, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    In very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g birth weight) children, serious neonatal infections are among the main causes of poor developmental outcomes later in childhood. The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the incidence of serious neonatal

  6. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Zwol, Annelies; Boehm, Guenther; Lafeber, Harrie N.; van Elburg, Ruurd M.

    2012-01-01

    In very preterm ( < 32 weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g birth weight) children, serious neonatal infections are among the main causes of poor developmental outcomes later in childhood. The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the incidence of serious neonatal

  7. Birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction and nutritional status in childhood in relation to grip strength in adults: from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among birth weight, intrauterine growth, and nutritional status in childhood with grip strength in young adults from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. In 1982, the hospital live births of Pelotas were followed. In 2012, grip strength was evaluated using a hand dynamometer and the best of the six measurements was used. Birth weight was analyzed as z-score for gestational age according to Williams (1982) curve. Weight-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and length/height-for-age at 2 and 4 y were analyzed in z-scores according to 2006 World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Lean mass at 30 y was included as possible mediator using the g-computation formula. In 2012, 3701 (68.1%) individuals were interviewed and 3470 were included in the present analyses. An increase of 1 z-score in birth weight was associated with an increase of 1.5 kg in grip strength in males (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.9). Positive effect of birth weight on grip strength was found in females. Grip strength was greater in individuals who were born with appropriate size for gestational age and positively associated with weight- and length/height-for-age z-score at 2 and 4 y of age. A positive association between birth weight and grip strength was only partially mediated by adult lean mass (50% and 33% of total effect in males and females), whereas direct effect of weight at 2 y was found only in males. It is suggested that good nutrition in prenatal and early postnatal life has a positive influence on adult muscle strength. The results from birth weight were suggestive of fetal programming on grip strength measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Pokusaeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  9. Initial Resuscitation at Delivery and Short Term Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Su Jin; Shin, Jeonghee; Namgung, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Survival of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) depends on professional perinatal management that begins at delivery. Korean Neonatal Network data on neonatal resuscitation management and initial care of VLBWI of less than 33 weeks gestation born from January 2013 to June 2014 were reviewed to investigate the current practice of neonatal resuscitation in Korea. Antenatal data, perinatal data, and short-term morbidities were analyzed. Out of 2,132 neonates, 91.7% needed resuscitation at birt...

  10. Birth weight of infants of mothers with aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A; Koertge, Thomas E; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N; Gunsolley, John C

    2012-03-01

    It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers' periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported periodontal examination. For periodontally healthy controls, 13.2% of babies born to siblings of AgP patients and 12.8% of babies born to unrelated mothers weighed characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic.

  11. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Survival of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants: A Multicenter, Prospective, Cohort Study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghorbani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: The survival rate of preterm and low-birth-weight (LBW infants depends on various factors such as birth weight, gestational age, and quality of care. The present study aimed at evaluating the survival rate of preterm and LBW infants, predictive factors, and the risk of mortality in three training hospitals of Mashhad and Tabriz cities.Methods: This prospective, cohort study was conducted during six months from 2013 to 2014. Infants with birth weight ≤1500 g or gestational age ≤32 weeks were enrolled. Their information was gathered by using data collection forms and clinical risk index for infants (CRIB II was calculated for each participant. Infants were followed up until discharge from the hospital and their outcomes were determined. Kaplan-Meier and Log rock tests were used for survival analysis. Cox regression was also applied in order to find out the factors associated with infants’ survival.Results: Among the 338 followed up infants, 97 (28.7% died and 241 (71.3% remained alive. The median of preterm and LBW infants’ overall survival rate was 76 days (CI: 60.4-91.5. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that three factors of birth weight, base excess, and fifth minute Apgar score had a significant relationship with the survival rate of infants (P

  13. Effect of maternal periodontitis and low birth weight--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luise Maria; Cruz, Simone Seixas da; Gomes-Filho, Isaac Suzart; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Passos-Soares, Johelle Santana; Trindade, Soraya Castro; Figueiredo, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy; Alves, Claúdia Maria Coêlho; Coelho, Julita Maria Freitas; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, evidence has been raised that there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and undesirable gestational events, for example low birth weight; this issue is controversial. To evaluate whether there is an association between maternal periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was carried out on 951 mothers that had been cared for by the Brazilian Unified Health System in Petrolina-PE and Juazeiro-BA, Brazil. The case group (n = 269) consisted of mothers of newborns with birth weight <2500 g and a control group (n = 682) of mothers of newborns with birth weight ≥2500 g. An interview was realized, using a questionnaire as well as a full mouth examination to diagnose the periodontal condition. Women who had at least four teeth with probing depth ≥4 mm and clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm, with bleeding on probing at the same site, were diagnosed with periodontitis. The birth weight was obtained through the hospital book record. The main association was evaluated using the multivariate regression model, considering confounders. The frequency of periodontitis was 16.4% (case group) and 17.4% (control group). Periodontitis did not show an association with LBW (ORcrude = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.63-1.35), even after adjustment for the following confounders: maternal age, pre-gestational body mass index, number of pre-natal consultations, number of pregnancies, maternal schooling level, smoking habit during pregnancy and hypertension (ORadjusted = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.61-1.68). The findings of this study showed no association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight, even after appropriate adjustments for confounding factors.

  14. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  15. Infusoabdomen with abdominal compartment in extremely low birth weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin-Johannes Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheters (CVCs are frequently used in neonatal care. The rate of complications upon CVC use is high and the spectrum ranges from catheter tip dislocation to cardiac tamponade and death. Here we present an explanation model to the phenomenon of paravasate into human anatomical cavities based on two illustrative cases: Extremely low birth weight twins suffering from abdominal compartment syndromes due to different pathologies – one with a trans-peritoneal and one with intra-abdominal effusion. In both siblings the peripherally introduced central catheter (PICC perforated the vessel without clinical signs of bleeding and contributed to abdominal and thoracal complications. Case I (23 + 5 gestational week; 770 g; female showed clinical signs of an abdominal compartment syndrome without respective intestinal pathology upon open surgical procedure with ileostomy. Radiographic contrast examination showed retroperitoneal leakage when administered through the catheter. Replacement into the subclavian vein led to cardio-respiratory misbalance due to severe pleural effusion. Re-replacement finally led to clinical restitution after 60 days of intensive care. Case II (23 + 5 gestational week; 690 g; female showed clinical signs of an abdominal compartment syndrome, too. Radiographic contrast examination showed leakage from the PICC into the abdomen. Replacement of the PICC and invasive care led to improvement after 3 days. The 2 cases reveal that the displacement of a PICC can occur without direct clinical signs of hemodynamic imbalance i.e. bleeding or hematoma. Displacement of the catheter tip from intra-vascular, retro-peritoneal position can cause abdominal compartment syndromes either via trans-peritoneal migration of fluids or after perforation of the peritoneum via intra-abdominal administration of given infusion. Both options caused life threatening complications. Watchfulness and intensive surgical and non-surgical care are

  16. GWAS on prolonged gestation (post-term birth): analysis of successive Finnish birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierding, William; Antony, Jisha; Karhunen, Ville; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Franks, Steve; Elliott, Paul; Kajantie, Eero; Sebert, Sylvain; Blakemore, Alex; Horsfield, Julia A; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Sullivan, Justin M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2018-01-01

    Gestation is a crucial timepoint in human development. Deviation from a term gestational age correlates with both acute and long-term adverse health effects for the child. Both being born preterm and post-term, that is, having short and long gestational ages, are heritable and influenced by the prenatal and perinatal environment. Despite the obvious heritable component, specific genetic influences underlying differences in gestational age are poorly understood. We investigated the genetic architecture of gestational age in 9141 individuals, including 1167 born post-term, across two Northern Finland cohorts born in 1966 or 1986. Here we identify one globally significant intronic genetic variant within the ADAMTS13 gene that is associated with prolonged gestation (p=4.85×10 -8 ). Additional variants that reached suggestive levels of significance were identified within introns at the ARGHAP42 and TKT genes, and in the upstream (5') intergenic regions of the B3GALT5 and SSBP2 genes. The variants near the ADAMTS13 , B3GALT5 , SSBP2 and TKT loci are linked to alterations in gene expression levels (cis-eQTLs). Luciferase assays confirmed the allele specific enhancer activity for the BGALT5 and TKT loci. Our findings provide the first evidence of a specific genetic influence associated with prolonged gestation. This study forms a foundation for a better understanding of the genetic and long-term health risks faced by induced and post-term individuals. The long-term risks for induced individuals who have a previously overlooked post-term potential may be a major issue for current health providers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Birth-weight, insulin levels, and HOMA-IR in newborns at term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Castañeda-Chacón, Argelia; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha; Guerrero-Romero, Fernando

    2012-07-07

    Recent studies have demonstrated that low and high birth-weight at birth are risk factors of developing diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if the abnormal birth-weight is related with hyperinsulinemia and elevated index of the Homeostasis Model assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) at birth, in at term newborns. Newborns with gestational age between 38 and 41 weeks, products of normal pregnancies of healthy mothers aged 18 to 39 years, were eligible to participate. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) and large-for-gestational age (LGA) newborns were compared with appropriate-for-gestational (AGA) age newborns. Incomplete or unclear data about mother's health status, diabetes, gestational diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and other conditions that affect glucose metabolism were exclusion criteria. Hyperinsulinemia was defined by serum insulin levels ≥13.0 μU/mL and IR by HOMA-IR ≥2.60. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) that computes the association between birth-weight (independent variable) with hyperinsulinemia and HOMA-IR index (dependent variables). A total of 107 newborns were enrolled; 13, 22, and 72 with SGA, LGA, and AGA, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia was identified in 2 (15.4%), 6 (27.3%), and 5 (6.9%) with SGA, LGA, and AGA (p=0.03), whereas IR in 3 (23.1%), 8 (36.4%), and 10 (13.9%) newborns with SGA, LGA and AGA (p=0.06). The LGA showed a strong association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 5.02; CI 95%, 1.15-22.3; p=0.01) and HOMA-IR (OR 3.54; CI 95%, 1.03-12.16; p=0.02); although without statistical significance, the SGA showed a tendency of association with hyperinsulinemia (OR 2.43; CI 95%, 0.43-17.3 p=0.29) and HOMA-IR (OR 1.86; CI 95%, 0.33-9.37; p=0.41). Our results suggest that LGA is associated with hyperinsulinemia and elevated HOMA-IR at birth whereas the SGA show a tendency of association.

  18. Birth weight effects on children's mental, motor, and physical development: evidence from twins data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Jacknowitz, Alison

    2009-11-01

    To determine the effect of very low birth weight (VLBW; motor development and physical growth during the first 2 years of life and whether VLBW and MLBW babies catch up to normal birth weight (NBW; > or =2500 g) children by age 2. We use data on dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twins and singleton births from the first two waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative dataset of children born in the US in 2001. We estimate the effects of VLBW and MLBW on children's mental and motor development scores, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height, and length-for-age z-scores at 9 months and 2 years. We examine whether differences in outcomes within twin pairs are related to differences in their birth weights. The within-twins analysis is conducted on samples of DZ and MZ twins. For comparison, we also estimate birth weight effects on child outcomes from multivariate linear regression models using the full singleton and twins' sample. We also estimate the effect of being small-for-gestational age (SGA; birth weight development, motor development, and growth at 9 months and 2 years of age. However, results from within-twin models with DZ twins that control for shared maternal and environmental factors showed much less effect of birth weight on mental or motor development, but continued large effects on growth for the VLBW group. Within-twin models with MZ twins that control for shared maternal, environmental, and genetic factors showed statistically insignificant effects of birth weight on mental and motor development, but continued effects on growth. Similar patterns were found when examining the effects of SGA. After controlling for the influence of maternal, environmental, and genetic factors, low birth weight has at most a small negative effect on children's mental and motor development in their first 2 years of life. However, low birth weight is a major risk factor for children's physical growth in

  19. Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a a a print email share Facebook Twitter Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight ... Article Body ​​​​​​​​A study in Pediatrics found giving iron supplements to low birth weight infants reduces the ...

  20. Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight. HE Onah, ACC Ikeme, PO Nkwo. Abstract. In a prospective cross-sectional study, the correlation between symphysiofundal height (SFH) and birth weight was evaluated in 2646 consecutive parturients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, ...

  1. Parental socioeconomic status and birth weight distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Birth weight is one of the most impor- tant determinants of perinatal well. -being and survival. It may be influenced by socioeconomic status among other factors. Objective: To evaluate the influ- ence of parental socioeconomic status on birth weight distribution of term infants. Patients ...

  2. Factors predisposing to low birth weight in Jimma Hospital South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight continues to remain a major public health problem in Ethiopia in contrast to what is observed in many developing countries. Objectives: To assess some of the predisposing factors to low birth weight among deliveries in Jimma hospital. Design: Cross-sectional case referent study.

  3. Intrapartum prediction of birth weight using maternal anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This prospective study was conducted at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Nigeria, between April 1st and 31st of July, 2013 to predict birth weight in labour using four clinical methods and ultrasound scan independently and comparatively to determine which is closest to the actual birth weight. The four clinical methods are ...

  4. Patterns of birth weight at a community level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    fill this gap and issues related to representativeness a community based study that identified a one-year live ... and type of latrine facility showed variation in low birth weight rates. These factors also showed independent and significant effect on birth weight patterns. ... were based on health facility records. According the ...

  5. Effects of gestational age at birth on cognitive performance: a function of cognitive workload demands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jaekel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits have been inconsistently described for late or moderately preterm children but are consistently found in very preterm children. This study investigates the association between cognitive workload demands of tasks and cognitive performance in relation to gestational age at birth. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a prospective geographically defined whole-population study of neonatal at-risk children in Southern Bavaria. At 8;5 years, n = 1326 children (gestation range: 23-41 weeks were assessed with the K-ABC and a Mathematics Test. RESULTS: Cognitive scores of preterm children decreased as cognitive workload demands of tasks increased. The relationship between gestation and task workload was curvilinear and more pronounced the higher the cognitive workload: GA² (quadratic term on low cognitive workload: R²  = .02, p<0.001; moderate cognitive workload: R²  = .09, p<0.001; and high cognitive workload tasks: R²  = .14, p<0.001. Specifically, disproportionally lower scores were found for very (<32 weeks gestation and moderately (32-33 weeks gestation preterm children the higher the cognitive workload of the tasks. Early biological factors such as gestation and neonatal complications explained more of the variance in high (12.5% compared with moderate (8.1% and low cognitive workload tasks (1.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The cognitive workload model may help to explain variations of findings on the relationship of gestational age with cognitive performance in the literature. The findings have implications for routine cognitive follow-up, educational intervention, and basic research into neuro-plasticity and brain reorganization after preterm birth.

  6. Paternal and maternal obesity but not gestational weight gain is associated with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Granstrom, Charlotta; Lund-Blix, Nicolai A; Svensson, Jannet; Johannesen, Jesper; Fraser, Abigail; Skrivarhaug, Torild; Joner, Geir; Njølstad, Pål R; Størdal, Ketil; Stene, Lars C

    2018-02-05

    Our objective was to examine the associations of parental body mass index (BMI) and maternal gestational weight gain with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Comparing the associations of maternal and paternal BMI with type 1 diabetes in the offspring will provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding by characteristics linked to BMI in both parents. We studied 132 331 children participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) who were born between February 1998 and July 2009. Exposures of interest included parental BMI and maternal gestational weight gain obtained by maternal report. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression to examine the risk of type 1 diabetes (n=499 cases), which was ascertained by national childhood diabetes registers. The incidence of type 1 diabetes was 32.7 per 100 000 person-years in MoBa and 28.5 per 100 000 person-years in DNBC. Both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.89] and paternal obesity, adjusted HR 1.51 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.04), were associated with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. The associations were similar after mutual adjustment. In contrast, maternal total gestational weight gain was not associated with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes, adjusted HR 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.02) per kilogram increase. Our study suggests that the association between maternal obesity and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes is not likely explained by intrauterine mechanisms, but possibly rather by unknown environmental factors influencing BMI in the family. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  7. Sleep disruption and duration in late pregnancy is associated with excess gestational weight gain among overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Caryl L; Richoux, Sarah E; Beebe, Kathleen R; Lee, Kathryn A

    2017-06-01

    Poor sleep during pregnancy has been associated with poorer birth outcomes. High body mass index (BMI) is often associated with poor sleep, but little is known about the relationship between gestational weight gain and sleep in late pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships of both gestational weight gain and pre-pregnancy BMI to objective and subjective measures of sleep during late pregnancy. Pregnant women (n=128) were recruited from prenatal clinics and childbirth classes primarily serving low-income women. Their sleep (disruption and duration) was objectively assessed in their last month of pregnancy with 72 hours of wrist actigraphy monitoring. Their perceived sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Pre-pregnancy and late pregnancy height and weight were assessed by self-report and used to calculate BMI and gestational weight gain, which were then grouped into standardized categories. Mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was 6.8 ± 3.1 (range 2-16). Sixty percent had excess gestational weight gain and it was associated with poorer perceived sleep quality, but was unrelated to objective measures of sleep duration and disruption. Pre-pregnancy BMI was unrelated to all sleep parameters. However, analyses of the interaction of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain indicated that excess weight gain was associated with shorter sleep duration and more sleep disruption, but only among women who were overweight before pregnancy. Pregnancy is an opportunity to promote long-term women's health with a better understanding of the relationship between weight management and healthy sleep habits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Idiopathic severe hypermagnesemia in an extremely low birth weight infant on the first day of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sun Hyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A preterm female infant born at 27 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 990 g developed acute hypotonia, apnea, hypotension and bradycardia mimicking septic shock syndrome at 14h after birth. Laboratory tests indicated a severe hypermagnesemia of 45 mg/dL. The renal function, complete blood count and maternal blood concentrations of magnesium were normal, and the blood cultures were negative. The patient recovered with treatment including exchange transfusion. However, the etiology of the severe hypermagnesemia remains unknown.

  9. Epigenetic Consequences of Low Birth-Weight and Preterm Birth in Adult Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua

    2018-01-01

    Adverse birth outcomes including low birth-weight and preterm birth are associated with long-term morbidity and health consequences at adult ages. Molecular mechanisms including epigenetic modification may have been involved in the adaptation to the stressful condition in peridelivery period whic...

  10. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  11. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  12. Early Gestational Weight Gain Rate and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Korean Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Cho

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, many women gain excessive weight, which is related to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this study, we evaluated whether rate of gestational weight gain (RGWG in early, mid, and late pregnancy is strongly associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective chart review of 2,789 pregnant Korean women was performed. Weights were recorded at the first clinic visit, during the screening test for fetal anomaly, and during the 50g oral glucose challenge test and delivery, to represent early, mid, and late pregnancy, respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes. At early pregnancy, the RGWG was significantly associated with high risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH, large for gestational age (LGA infants, macrosomia, and primary cesarean section (P-CS. The RGWG of mid pregnancy was not significantly associated with any adverse pregnancy outcomes. The RGWG at late pregnancy was significantly associated with a lower risk of developing GDM, preterm birth and P-CS, but with a higher risk of developing LGA infants and macrosomia. When the subjects were divided into three groups (Underweight, Normal, and Obese, based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, the relationship between early RGWG and adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly different across the three BMI groups. At early pregnancy, RGWG was not significantly associated to adverse pregnancy outcomes for subjects in the Underweight group. In the Normal group, however, early RGWG was significantly associated with GDM, PIH, LGA infants, macrosomia, P-CS, and small for gestational weight (SGA infants, whereas early RGWG was significantly associated with only a high risk of PIH in the Obese group. The results of our study suggest that early RGWG is significantly associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes

  13. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been several publications from different countries on the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, such reports from Nigeria are lacking in literature. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight ...

  14. No association between periodontitis and preterm low birth weight: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogacci, Mariana Fampa; Cardoso, Elaine de O C; Barbirato, Davi da S; de Carvalho, Denise Pires; Sansone, Carmelo

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between periodontitis in pregnant women and adverse pregnancy outcomes by heeding confounding risk factors for preterm low birth weight infants. This study was reported according to The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement. A case-control study was conducted. Medical records of all pregnant women attending a prenatal care clinic were screened. Those between 21 and 34 years and gestational age of 28-32 weeks were initially enrolled in the study. The exclusion criteria were then applied: diabetes mellitus, genitourinary tract infections, or HIV infection; previous multiple gestations; previous preterm birth/low birth weight infants; in vitro fertilization procedures; placental, cervical/uterine abnormalities; history of infertility; history of drug abuse; and any medical conditions that required antibiotics prophylaxis. Patients' anthropometric, demographic, and behavioral characteristics were collected. The periodontal clinical parameters were obtained from six sites per tooth: clinical attachment level, probing pocket depth, dental plaque index, and gingival bleeding index. Women were then allocated into two groups: mothers of preterm and/or low birth weight newborns (cases) and mothers of full-term and normal birth weight newborns (controls). Periodontal clinical parameters were analyzed and reported separately for each group, and no significant differences were observed (p > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that periodontal clinical parameters were not associated with the adverse pregnancy outcomes. After controlling for confounding factors, our results suggest that maternal periodontal disease is not a risk factor associated with preterm low birth weight infants.

  15. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are modestly associated with umbilical cord DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakali, Keshari M; Faske, Jennifer B; Ishwar, Arjun; Alfaro, Maria P; Cleves, Mario A; Badger, Thomas M; Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik

    2017-09-01

    Maternal obesity (OB) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong independent contributors that augment obesity risk in offspring. However, direct evidence of epigenetic changes associated with maternal habitus remains sparse. We utilized Bisulfite Amplicon Sequencing (BSAS) to conduct targeted DNA methylation association analysis of maternal obesity and excessive GWG with DNA methylation of select metabolism-related and imprinted genes. Umbilical cord (UC) tissue from infants born to normal weight and overweight/obese women from the Glowing study were utilized (n = 78). In multivariable linear regression adjusted for relevant confounders, Institute on Medicine (IOM) GWG category and infant sex were significantly associated with UC IGFBP1 methylation, while gestation length was significantly associated with UC PRKAA1 methylation. In addition, infant fat mass (%) at 2 weeks of age was significantly associated with umbilical cord methylation of RAPTOR. While regression tree analysis confirmed findings from multivariable models demonstrating that maternal early pregnancy BMI and IOM GWG category are associated with fetal UC DNA methylation patterns for select metabolic and imprinted genes, in general, effect sizes were quite small and statistical significance was not maintained when accounting for multiple testing. Our findings suggest that maternal obesity and excessive GWG are weakly correlated with offspring DNA methylation patterns at birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  17. Prenatal arsenic exposure, child marriage, and pregnancy weight gain: Associations with preterm birth in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad L; Kile, Molly L; Rodrigues, Ema G; Valeri, Linda; Raj, Anita; Mazumdar, Maitreyi; Mostofa, Golam; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hauser, Russ; Baccarelli, Andrea; Liang, Liming; Christiani, David C

    2017-12-12

    Preterm birth is a disease of multifactorial etiologies that has environmental, social, and maternal health components. Individual studies have shown that exposure to arsenic contaminated drinking water, child marriage, and low maternal weight gain during pregnancy contribute to preterm birth. These factors are highly prevalent and often co-exist in Bangladesh, a country in South Asia with one of the world's highest prevalences of preterm birth. To evaluate the individual and interactive effects of prenatal arsenic exposure, child marriage, and pregnancy weight gain on preterm birth in a prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh. During 2008-2011, we recruited 1613 pregnant women aged ≥18years at ≤16weeks of gestation and followed them until 1-month post-partum. We measured total arsenic in drinking water (n=1184) and in maternal toenails (n=1115) collected at enrollment and ≤1-month post-partum, respectively using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Child marriage (child marriage, and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.42-0.97) for a pound per week increase in maternal weight during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. In stratified analysis by child marriage, pregnancy weight gain was inversely associated with preterm birth among women with a history of child marriage (RR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.37-0.92), but not among women with no history of child marriage (RR=86; 95% CI: 0.37-2.01). Mediation analysis revealed that both arsenic exposure and child marriage had small but significant associations with preterm birth via lowering pregnancy weight gain. Similar associations were observed when arsenic exposure was assessed using maternal toenail arsenic concentrations. Reducing arsenic exposure and ending child marriage could reduce the risk of preterm birth in Bangladesh. Furthermore, enhancing nutritional support to ensure adequate weight gain during pregnancy may provide additional benefits especially for women with a history of child marriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Mothers, places and small for gestational age births: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Li, Xinjun; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2011-04-01

    This study examines whether neighbourhood deprivation increases the risk of giving birth to a small for gestational age (SGA) infant, after accounting for individual-level maternal socioeconomic characteristics. An open cohort of women, aged 20-44 years, was followed from 1 January 1992 through 31 December 2004 for first singleton births. The women's residential addresses during the two consecutive years preceding the birth of their infants were geocoded and classified into three levels of neighbourhood deprivation. Gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound examinations. Multilevel logistic regression models were used in the statistical analysis. Sweden. During the study period, women gave birth to 720 357 infants, of whom 20 487 (2.8%) were SGA. Age-adjusted incidence rates of SGA births increased with increasing level of neighbourhood deprivation. In the total population, 2.5% of births in the least deprived neighbourhoods and 3.5% of births in the most deprived neighbourhoods were SGA. A similar pattern of higher incidence with increasing level of neighbourhood-level deprivation was observed across all individual-level sociodemographic categories, including maternal age, marital status, family income, educational attainment, employment, mobility and urban/rural status. High neighbourhood-level deprivation remained significantly associated with SGA risk after adjusting for maternal sociodemographic characteristics (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.34). This study is the largest to date of the influence of neighbourhood on SGA birth, with SGA confirmed by ultrasound examination. Results suggest that the characteristics of a mother's neighbourhood affect the risk of delivering an SGA infant independently of maternal sociodemographic characteristics.

  19. Maternal reproductive experience enhances early postnatal outcome following gestation and birth of rats in hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Baer, L. A.; Daunton, N. G.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    A major goal of space life sciences research is to broaden scientific knowledge of the influence of gravity on living systems. Recent spaceflight and centrifugation studies demonstrate that reproduction and ontogenesis in mammals are amenable to study under gravitational conditions that deviate considerably from those typically experienced on Earth (1 x g). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal reproductive experience determines neonatal outcome following gestation and birth under increased (hyper) gravity. Primigravid and bigravid female rats and their offspring were exposed to 1.5 x g centrifugation from Gestational Day 11 either through birth or through the first postnatal week. On the day of birth, litter sizes were identical across gravity and parity conditions, although significantly fewer live neonates were observed among hypergravity-reared litters born to primigravid dams than among those born to bigravid dams (82% and 94%, respectively; 1.0 x g controls, 99%). Within the hypergravity groups, neonatal mortality was comparable across parity conditions from Postnatal Day 1 through Day 7, at which time litter sizes stabilized. Maternal reproductive experience ameliorated neonatal losses during the first 24 h after birth but not on subsequent days, and neonatal mortality was associated with changes in maternal care patterns. These results indicate that repeated maternal reproductive experience affords protection against neonatal losses during exposure to increased gravity. Differential mortality of neonates born to primigravid versus bigravid dams denotes gravitational load as one environmental mechanism enabling the expression of parity-related variations in birth outcome.

  20. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Govarts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures.

  1. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  2. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality Among Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004 were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02, low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001, Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001, resuscitation at birth (P=0.001, respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001 need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001, neurological complications (P=0.001 and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  3. Maternal Factors for Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth At Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neebha Ojha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight and preterm birth are the major community health problems in developing countries. They are the major determinants of perinatal survival and infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and the maternal risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth among hospital deliveries in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of TUTH. Maternal risk factors like age, parity, ethnicity, history of previous abortion, history of previous cesarean section, antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were studied. Information on all births that occurred was extracted from maternity case notes and delivery registers.  Results: During the study period, there were 685 singleton live births. Among these 78(11.4% were low birth weight and 47(6.9% were preterm birth. The mean birth weight was 2950±488 gm. The mean weight of female was statistically less compared to male babies (p=0.032. The signi cant risk factors for LBW were primiparity (OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.25-3.58, Indo-Aryan ethnicity (OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.12-3.45 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.08; 95%CI 1.17-8.12. As for PTB antepartum hemorrhage (OR 8.63; 95%CI 1.99-37.30 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.04-.89 were signi cant risk factors.  Conclusions: Parity, ethnicity, and medical disorders were the main risk factors for low birth weight. Antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were signi cant risk factors for preterm birth. Keywords: low birth weight; preterm birth; risk factors.

  4. Correlation between several anthropometric measurements to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nur

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality remains one of the factors leading to child mortality, even for crude death as a whole. Therefore, good perinatal care is considered to be useful for reducing this mortality. Low birth weight is one of neonatal morbidity cause; previous studies reported correlation between birth weight to several anthropometric measurements and their predictive value. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between birth length, head, chest, abdominal, calf and mid arm circumferences as well as to foot length to birth weight. A cross sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital Medan between November 1st 1998 to January 31st 1999. All babies without clear moulage, caput succedaneum or cephal hematoma were studied. Birth weight was measured by TANITA weighing scale within the first 24 hours after delivery. Birth length by somatometer and head, chest, abdominal, calf and mid arm circumferences as well as foot length were measured 3 times by using plastic measuring tape. It was evident a positive correlation of birth weight to all such anthropometric measurements with the highest correlation coefficient for calf circumference (r : 0.92. Calf circumference of 9,8 cm is predictor of low birth weight.

  5. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish.......039) when correcting for gestational age (premature birth), but was lost in the group with both disorders. Premature birth per se was found to be associated with a significantly elevated risk of developing both affective disorder and schizophrenia (p = 0.00018), an effect that remained significant after...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  6. Does the impact of a plant-based diet during pregnancy on birth weight differ by ethnicity? A dietary pattern analysis from a prospective Canadian birth cohort alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulyniak, Michael A; de Souza, Russell J; Shaikh, Mateen; Desai, Dipika; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piush; Turvey, Stuart E; Beyene, Joseph; Atkinson, Stephanie; Morrison, Katherine M; McDonald, Sarah; Teo, Koon K; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S

    2017-11-14

    Birth weight is an indicator of newborn health and a strong predictor of health outcomes in later life. Significant variation in diet during pregnancy between ethnic groups in high-income countries provides an ideal opportunity to investigate the influence of maternal diet on birth weight. Four multiethnic birth cohorts based in Canada (the NutriGen Alliance). 3997 full-term mother-infant pairs of diverse ethnic groups who had principal component analysis-derived diet pattern scores-plant-based, Western and health-conscious-and birth weight data. No associations were identified between the Western and health-conscious diet patterns and birth weight; however, the plant-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with birth weight (β=-67.6 g per 1-unit increase; P<0.001), and an interaction with non-white ethnicity and birth weight was observed. Ethnically stratified analyses demonstrated that among white Europeans, maternal consumption of a plant-based diet associated with lower birth weight (β=-65.9 g per 1-unit increase; P<0.001), increased risk of small-for-gestational age (SGA; OR=1.46; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.54;P=0.005) and reduced risk of large-for-gestational age (LGA; OR=0.71; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.95;P=0.02). Among South Asians, maternal consumption of a plant-based diet associated with a higher birth weight (β=+40.5 g per 1-unit increase; P=0.01), partially explained by cooked vegetable consumption. Maternal consumption of a plant-based diet during pregnancy is associated with birth weight. Among white Europeans, a plant-based diet is associated with lower birth weight, reduced odds of an infant born LGA and increased odds of SGA, whereas among South Asians living in Canada, a plant-based diet is associated with increased birth weight. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Prenatal, transplacental uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene in humans. Pt. 3.. Personal characteristics (gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, smoking habits of the parents) and geographic differences; Praenatale, transplazentare Uebertragung von polychlorierten Biphenylen und Hexachlorbenzol beim Menschen. T. 3. Personenbezogene Einflussfaktoren (Gestationsalter, Geburtsgewicht, muetterliches Alter, Tabakkonsum der Eltern) und geographische Unterschiede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackmann, G.M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Kinderheilkunde

    2001-07-01

    It was the aim of the present study to investigate the influence of personal characteristics, like gestational age, birth weight, maternal age, smoking habits of the parents, and geographic origin, on the neonatal pollution with these harmful substances. Methods: Cord blood samples were taken from 200 full-term, healthy neonates born in Fulda or Duesseldorf, respectively, in 1998. The samples were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored at-20 C up to analysis, which was performed in 1999. The parents must have lived life-long in each town and should never accidentally or at their working places have been exposed to high concentrations of PCBs or HCB. Six PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) and HCB were analysed with capillary gas-chromatography with electron capture detection. Results: We could demonstrate a statistically significant correlation between the prenatal uptake of PCBs and HCB and the gestational age of the newborns as well as the maternal age in the study group of 199 newborns (one child was excluded because of unusually high PCB values). Thereby, neonates born in the 42. week had 3.5-fold higher PCB values than children born in the 38. week, and newborns of a 50-year-old mother showed up to 500% higher values than children of a 20-year-old woman (p < 0.0001). A correlation with birth weight was not found. Furthermore, newborns of active smoking women exhibited significantly higher PCB and HCB values than children of passive smoking or non-smoking mothers. Prenatal uptake of PCBs was not different with regard to the geographic origin of the newborns, i.e. Fulda or Duesseldorf, whereas newborns from Duesseldorf showed about 62% higher HCB concentrations. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, den Einfluss personenbezogener Charakteristika, wie des Gestationsalters, des Geburtsgewichts, des muetterlichen Alters und des Tabakkonsums der Eltern, sowie geographischer Unterschiede auf die neonatale Schadstoffbelastung zu

  8. Impact of gestational weight gain on obstetric and neonatal outcomes in obese diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gante, Inês; Amaral, Njila; Dores, Jorge; Almeida, Maria C

    2015-10-08

    Both obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus are increasing in prevalence, being a major health problem in pregnancy with independent and additive impact on obstetrics outcomes. It is recognized that inadequate gestational weight gain is an independent risk factor for pregnancy-related morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gestational weight gain on obstetric and neonatal outcomes in obese women with gestational diabetes. Retrospective multicenter study of obese women with gestational diabetes. The assessed group was divided into three categories: women who gained below (9 kg) the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared and adjusted odds ratios calculated controlling for confounders. Only 35,1 % of obese women with gestational diabetes (n = 634) achieved the recommended gestational weight gain; 27,8 % (n = 502) gained below and 37,1 % (n = 670) above the recommendations. There was a positive correlation between gestational weight gain and neonatal birthweight (r = 0,225; p obstetric and neonatal outcomes than an excessive or even an adequate weight gain. Therefore, specific recommendations should be created since gestational weight gain could be a modifiable risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes.

  9. Gestational weight gain in relation to offspring body mass index and obesity from infancy through adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2010-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood.......Gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with childhood obesity. We analyzed whether this effect persists into adulthood and is mediated by effects in childhood....

  10. Gestational weight gain by reduced brain melanocortin activity affects offspring energy balance in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, A. C. M.; van Dijk, G.

    Introduction: Excessive gestational body weight gain of mothers may predispose offspring towards obesity and metabolic derangements. It is difficult to discern the effects of maternal obesogenic factors-such as diet and/or thrifty genetic predisposition-from gestational weight gain per se. Methods:

  11. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araz, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)

  12. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk: A meta-analysis of 147,000 European children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, A. M. M.; Arends, L. R.; de Jongste, J. C.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Arshad, S. H.; Barros, H.; Basterrechea, M.; Bisgaard, H.; Chatzi, L.; Corpeleijn, E.; Correia, S.; Craig, L. C.; Devereux, G.; Dogaru, C.; Dostál, Miroslav; Duchen, K.; Eggesbø, M.; van der Ent, C. K.; Fantini, M. P.; Forastiere, F.; Frey, U.; Gehring, U.; Gori, D.; van der Gugten, A. C.; Hanke, W.; Henderson, A. J.; Heude, B.; Iniguez, C.; Inskip, H. M.; Keil, T.; Kelleher, C.; Kogevinas, M.; Kreiner-Moller, E.; Kuehni, C. E.; Kuepers, L. K.; Lancz, K.; Larsen, P. S.; Lau, S.; Ludvigsson, J.; Mommers, M.; Andersen, A. M. N.; Palkovicova, L.; Pike, K. C.; Pizzi, C.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Roberts, G.; Schmidt, A.; Šrám, Radim; Sunyer, J.; Thijs, C.; Torrent, M.; Viljoen, K.; Wijga, A. H.; Vrijheid, M.; Jaddoe, V. W. V.; Duijts, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 5 (2014), s. 1317-1329 ISSN 0091-6749 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : gestational age * low birth weight * infant growth Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 11.476, year: 2014

  13. Birth Weight, Apgar Scores, Labor and Delivery Complications and Prenatal Characteristics of Southeast Asian Adolescents and Older Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined 337 adolescents and 876 older mothers who delivered live-born, single infants between 1980-1982. Absence of alcohol and tobacco consumption among Southeast Asian subjects may have contributed to generally favorable Apgar scores, length of gestation, and birth weights. High frequencies of alcohol and tobacco consumption among White…

  14. Meta-analysis of neurobehavioral outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Sequelae of academic underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor executive function (EF) have been extensively reported for very preterm (≤33 weeks' gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW) (≤1500 g) children. Great variability in the published results, however,

  15. Pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and breast-feeding: a cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xing-Yong; Huang, Kun; Yan, Shuang-Qin; Zuo, A-Zhu; Tao, Rui-Wen; Cao, Hui; Gu, Chun-Li; Tao, Fang-Biao

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study. Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models. Urban city in China. Women with infants from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196). The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes. The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.

  16. Trends in the distribution of gestational age and contribution of planned births in New South Wales, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Nassar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is concern that the rate of planned births (by pre-labour caesarean section or induction of labour is increasing and that the gestation at which they are being conducted is decreasing. The aim of this study was to describe trends in the distribution of gestational age, and assess the contribution of planned birth to any such changes. METHODS: We utilised the New South Wales (NSW Perinatal Data Collection to undertake a population-based study of all births in NSW, Australia 1994-2009. Trends in gestational age were determined by year, labour onset and plurality of birth. RESULTS: From 1994-2009, there was a gradual and steady left-shift in overall distribution of gestational age at birth, with a decline in the modal gestational age from 40 to 39 weeks. For singletons, there was a steady but significant reduction in the proportion of spontaneous births. Labour inductions increased in the proportion performed, with a gradual and changing shift in the distribution from a majority at 40 weeks to an increase at both 37-39 weeks and 41 weeks gestation. The proportion of pre-labour caesareans also increased steadily at each gestational age and doubled since 1994, with most performed at 39 weeks in 2009 compared with 38 weeks up to 2001. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest a changing pattern towards births at earlier gestations, fewer births commencing spontaneously and increasing planned births. Factors associated with changing clinical practice and long-term implications on the health and well-being of mothers and babies should be assessed.

  17. Birth weight and obstetric complications determine age at onset in first episode of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Abadal, E; Ochoa, S; Barajas, A; Baños, I; Dolz, M; Sanchez, B; Del Cacho, N; Carlson, J; Huerta-Ramos, E; Usall, J

    2015-06-01

    Earlier age at onset of psychosis (AOP) has been associated with poor social adjustment and clinical outcome. Genetic and environmental factors such as obstetric complications, parental history of psychosis, advanced paternal age at time of birth, low birth weight and gestational age, and use of drugs have been described as bringing AOP forward. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between AOP and these factors in a sample of first episode of psychosis (FEP) patients. Clinical and sociodemographic data, age at FEP, age of parents at birth, parental history of psychosis, drug-use habits of the mother during pregnancy and of the patient before psychotic onset, and Lewis and Murray obstetric complication scale were obtained from 90 patients with FEP. Statistical analysis was performed by means of Pearson correlations, Chi-square tests, Student T-test analyses and a linear regression model using SPSS version 22. Pre-eclampsia, need for incubator at birth, use of forceps, parental history of psychosis, and low birth weight were associated with an earlier AOP. Use of forceps and birth weight are the variables which best predict AOP in FEP. Stimulant drugs, which were mostly used together with cannabis and cocaine, were the only substances associated with an earlier AOP. Our findings are consistent with previous study results and underline the role of the prenatal period in the development of psychosis and the importance of careful monitoring of pregnancy and delivery, especially in cases with familial history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C

    2006-01-01

    Scientific interest in morbidity in children born small for gestational age (SGA) has increased considerably over the last few decades. The elevated risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adulthood in individuals born SGA has been well documented, whereas data on gonadal development are...... of individual study results, the combined evidence from all data leaves little doubt that fetal growth restriction is associated with increased risk of male reproductive health problems, including hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer....

  19. Characterizing gestational weight gain in a cohort of Indigenous Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Weatherall, Loretta; Keogh, Lyniece; Sutherland, Kathryn; Collins, Clare E; Pringle, Kirsty G; Rae, Kym M

    2018-01-31

    to determine the adequacy of gestational weight gain for a cohort of Indigenous Australian women and investigate whether it is associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index. analysis of observational data collected from a longitudinal cohort study that follows Indigenous Australian women through pregnancy. women recruited through antenatal clinics in regional and remote towns in NSW, Australia to the Gomeroi gaaynggal program. 110 pregnant women who either identified as being an Indigenous Australian or as carrying an Indigenous child. measurements included weight and height, self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and smoking status, parity and health conditions that may contribute to gestational weight gain, such as hypertensive or diabetic disorders. Compared to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations for gestational weight gain and based on prepregnancy body mass index, the rate of adequate gestational weight gain in this cohort was very low (15%). 32% of women had inadequate weight gain and 54% had excessive weight gain. The highest rate of excessive gestational weight gain was found in overweight women (74%), with rates of 48% and 50% found in healthy and obese (all classes) categories, respectively. Parity (coefficient 4.5, p<0.01) and hypertension (coefficient 4.8, p = 0.04) were found to be significantly associated with gestational weight gain in mixed model linear regression. few women gained adequate gestational weight gain in this study. Culturally acceptable ways of addressing this issue are needed for this group of women, as inadequate and excessive rates of gestational weight gain have health implications for women and their offspring. a systematic approach to addressing gestational weight gain within antenatal care is required, including asking about diet and exercise, for all women identifying as Indigenous Australian. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and its association with preterm birth and low birth weight in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalla, Geofrey Nimrod; Mushi, Declare; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that affects millions of women worldwide. The role of violence as an underlying factor in poor birth outcomes remains an area where strong evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the association between...... intimate partner violence (IPV) and preterm delivery (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 1112 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Moshi–Tanzania. The women were enrolled before 24 weeks gestation, followed-up at week 34 to determine...... analysis based on previous history of adverse pregnancy outcome was performed. Results: One-third of the women experienced IPV during pregnancy, 22.3% reported emotional, 15.4% sexual and 6.3% physical violence. Women exposed to physical IPV were three times more likely to experience PTB (AOR = 2.9; CI 95...

  1. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  2. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Velusamy Saravana; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Sebastian, Tunny; Regi, Annie; Mathew, Jiji; Jose, Ruby

    2013-02-14

    The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20-39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box-Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively.In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116 grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams

  3. Second trimester cervical length and risk of preterm birth in women with twin gestations treated with 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Durnwald, Celeste P

    2010-12-01

    To compare rates of preterm birth before 35 weeks based on cervical length measurement at 16-20 weeks in women with twin gestations who received 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) or placebo.

  4. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2012-12-23

    Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  5. Evaluation of within-litter birth weight variation in piglets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VaZindove

    2014-03-23

    Mar 23, 2014 ... Canario, L., Lundgren, H., Haandlykken, M. & Rydhmer, L., 2010. Genetics of growth in piglets and the association with homogeneity of weight within litters. J. Anim. Sci. 88, 1240-1247. Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K. & Bhebhe, E., 2006. Genetic determination of individual birth weight, litter weight and litter size ...

  6. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a specialized health coaching intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention in women: the HIPP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skouteris Helen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a time of significant physiological and physical change for women. In particular, it is a time at which many women are at risk of gaining excessive weight. We describe the rationale and methods of the Health in Pregnancy and Post-birth (HIPP Study, a study which aims primarily to determine the effectiveness of a specialized health coaching (HC intervention during pregnancy, compared to education alone, in preventing excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention 12 months post birth. A secondary aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanisms by which our HC intervention impacts on weight management both during pregnancy and post birth. Methods/Design The randomized controlled trial will be conducted with 220 women who have a BMI > 18.5 (American IOM cut-off for normal weight, are 18 years of age or older, English speaking, no history of disordered eating or diabetes and are less than 18 weeks gestation at recruitment. Women will be randomly allocated to either a specialized HC intervention group or an Education Alone group. Our specialized HC intervention has two components: (1 one-on-one sessions with a Health Coach, and (2 two by two hour educational group sessions led by a Health Coach. Women in the Education Alone group will receive two by two hour educational group sessions with no HC components. Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and psychological factors including motivation, readiness to change, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and body dissatisfaction will be assessed at baseline (14-16 weeks gestation, and again at follow-up: 32 weeks gestation, 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Discussion Our study responds to the urgent need to design effective interventions in pregnancy to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Our pregnancy HC intervention is novel and innovative and has been designed to be easily adopted by health professionals

  7. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight.The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight.Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors.Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7.Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  8. biostatistical analysis of birth weight and head circumference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    URCHMAN

    maturity of the neonate and health status of the mother. It is also an important determinant of prenatal mortality, it is known to increase with successive birth order up to the fourth or fifth rank in other words, and babies tend to outweigh their immediate elder siblings. The birth weight of a newborn infant is influenced by various ...

  9. Hyponatraemia in very low birth weight infants | Ndwiga | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. Design: Comparative cohort study. Setting: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during ...

  10. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random-effects m...

  11. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  12. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...

  13. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, Stephen; Mens, Pètra F.; Karema, Corine; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Kaligirwa, Nadine; Vyankandondera, Joseph; de Vries, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence

  14. Associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with neonatal adiposity in the Healthy Start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Anne P; Brinton, John T; Glueck, Deborah H; Shapiro, Allison L; Harrod, Curtis S; Lynch, Anne M; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2015-02-01

    Maternal obesity and weight gain during pregnancy are risk factors for child obesity. Associations may be attributable to causal effects of the intrauterine environment or genetic and postnatal environmental factors. We estimated associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) overall and in early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy with neonatal adiposity. Participants were 826 women enrolled in a Colorado prebirth cohort who delivered term infants (2010-2013). GWG to 39 wk of gestation was predicted by using mixed models, and early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy rates of GWG (0-17, 17-27, and 27 wk to delivery) were calculated from repeated weight measures. Neonatal body composition was measured by using air-displacement plethysmography ≤3 d after birth. Each1-kg/m(2) increase in maternal BMI was associated with increased neonatal fat mass (5.2 g; 95% CI: 3.5, 6.9 g), fat-free mass (7.7 g; 95% CI: 4.5, 10.9 g), and percentage of body fat (0.12%; 95% CI: 0.08%, 0.16%). Each 0.1-kg/wk increase in predicted GWG was associated with increased fat mass (24.0 g; 95% CI: 17.4, 30.5 g), fat-free mass (34.0 g; 95% CI: 21.4, 46.6 g), and percentage of body fat (0.55%; 95% CI: 0.37%, 0.72%). No interaction was detected between BMI and GWG in their effects on neonatal body composition. Early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy rates of GWG were independently associated with fat mass and percentage of body fat. Midpregnancy and late pregnancy GWGs were associated with fat-free mass. An observed GWG that exceeded recommendations was associated with higher neonatal fat mass and fat-free mass but not percentage of body fat relative to adequate GWG. Maternal prepregnancy BMI and GWG, including period-specific GWG, were positively and independently associated with neonatal adiposity. Associations of early and midpregnancy weight gain with neonatal adiposity support the hypothesis that greater maternal

  15. Relation between Birth Weight and Intraoperative Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section in Pregnancy with Placenta Previa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Soyama

    Full Text Available Placenta previa, one of the most severe obstetric complications, carries an increased risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Several risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage have been identified to date. However, the correlation between birth weight and intraoperative hemorrhage has not been investigated. Here we estimate the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage in placenta previa.We included all 256 singleton pregnancies delivered via cesarean section at our hospital because of placenta previa between 2003 and 2015. We calculated not only measured birth weights but also standard deviation values according to the Japanese standard growth curve to adjust for differences in gestational age. We assessed the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage (>1500 mL blood loss. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the cutoff value of intraoperative massive hemorrhage.Of 256 pregnant women with placenta previa, 96 (38% developed intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curve of the combination variables between the standard deviation of birth weight and intraoperative massive hemorrhage was 0.71. The cutoff value with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 55.6% was -0.33 standard deviation. The multivariate analysis revealed that a standard deviation of >-0.33 (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-12.00, need for hemostatic procedures (odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-6.25, and placental adhesion (odds ratio, 12.68; 95% confidence interval, 2.85-92.13 were independent risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage.In patients with placenta previa, a birth weight >-0.33 standard deviation was a significant risk indicator of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section. Based on this result, further studies are required to

  16. Relation between Birth Weight and Intraoperative Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section in Pregnancy with Placenta Previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Morikazu; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Takano, Masashi; Sasa, Hidenori; Furuya, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Placenta previa, one of the most severe obstetric complications, carries an increased risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Several risk factors for intraoperative hemorrhage have been identified to date. However, the correlation between birth weight and intraoperative hemorrhage has not been investigated. Here we estimate the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage in placenta previa. We included all 256 singleton pregnancies delivered via cesarean section at our hospital because of placenta previa between 2003 and 2015. We calculated not only measured birth weights but also standard deviation values according to the Japanese standard growth curve to adjust for differences in gestational age. We assessed the correlation between birth weight and the occurrence of intraoperative massive hemorrhage (>1500 mL blood loss). Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the cutoff value of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Of 256 pregnant women with placenta previa, 96 (38%) developed intraoperative massive hemorrhage. Receiver-operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curve of the combination variables between the standard deviation of birth weight and intraoperative massive hemorrhage was 0.71. The cutoff value with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 55.6% was -0.33 standard deviation. The multivariate analysis revealed that a standard deviation of >-0.33 (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% confidence interval, 3.04-12.00), need for hemostatic procedures (odds ratio, 3.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-6.25), and placental adhesion (odds ratio, 12.68; 95% confidence interval, 2.85-92.13) were independent risk of intraoperative massive hemorrhage. In patients with placenta previa, a birth weight >-0.33 standard deviation was a significant risk indicator of massive hemorrhage during cesarean section. Based on this result, further studies are required to investigate whether

  17. Sex Specific Genetic and Environmental Trends in Birth Weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant. Estimation of sex specific variance components had no significant influence on the direction and magnitude of genetic trends indicating of homogeneity of variance by sex for birth weight in this population. Keywords: Breeding values ...

  18. Association of newborn diseases with weight/length ratio and the adequacy of weight for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequencies of newborn diseases in thosenewborns classified according to a weight/length rate and thoseclassified by the adequacy weight for gestational age. Methods: Aretrospective cross-sectional study by record assessment was carriedout enclosing all the live newborns at Hospital Geral do Grajaú, fromSeptember to December, 2009 (n =577 classified according to therate weight/length and also to the adequacy weight for gestationalage. The 10 and 90 percentiles of the weight/length distribution, nowdesignated as “indices” were calculated leading to the followingclassification: low index, for newborns below 54.8 g/cm; high index,for those over 75.8 g/cm; and average index, for the remainingnewborns. According to the adequacy weight for gestational age thenewborns were designated as pre-term for gestational age; term smallfor gestational age; appropriate term and large term. In this samplethere were no small and large pre-term or post-term newborns. Majordiseases were related to the index and adequacy extracts by the χ2test for a contingency table. Results: A significant association wasfound among low index, pre-term for gestational age newborns andterm small for gestational age; between average index and appropriatefor gestational age term newborns; and high index with large termappropriate for gestational age newborns (p< 0.001. Hypoglycemia(3.4% was associated to both low and high indices, to appropriatefor gestational age preterm newborns and to small for gestational ageterm newborns. Sepsis (3.1% was associated to both low index andpre-term appropriate for gestational age newborns. The respiratorydistress syndrome (1.3% was associated to low index and pre-termappropriate for gestational age newborns. Other respiratory distresssyndromes (3.8% were associated to low and high indices but notto the adequacy for gestational age classification. Jaundice (14.9%was not associated to the studied classifications

  19. Living in violence: Neighborhood domestic violence and small for gestational age births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker-Kantor, Erica; Wallace, Maeve; Theall, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    To determine the association between neighborhood domestic violence and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to examine if there is a differential impact of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births by race in a high crime community. This analysis includes all birth records issued in New Orleans, Louisiana from 2011 to 2012 geocoded by census tract (N=177 census tracts, N=8322 women). Hierarchical modeling and ecologic spatial analysis were used to examine the area-effect of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births, independent of individual-level predictors and accounting for the propensity to live in high domestic violence neighborhoods. Tests for spatial autocorrelation reveled area-level clustering and overlap of SGA and domestic violent rates. Pregnant women living in high domestic violence areas were more likely to give birth to an SGA infant compared to women in low-domestic violence areas (OR=1.04, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.08), net of the effects of individual-level factors and propensity scores. Neighborhood-level attributes including rates of domestic violence may increase women's risk for SGA birth, highlighting a policy-relevant and potentially amenable exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  1. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E; Mendola, Pauline; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L

    2015-08-01

    We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor's or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur.

  2. Sports and leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and birth weight: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, H K; Petersson, K; Hedegaard, M

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sports and other leisure-time physical activities during pregnancy and birth weight of babies born after 37 completed weeks of gestation. All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics, Aarhus University...... Hospital, Denmark, from August 1989 to September 1991 were invited to participate in the study. A total of 4458 healthy women who delivered after 37 completed gestational weeks participated in this study. The associations between sports (0, 1-2, 3+ h/week) or leisure-time physical activity (sedentary......, light, and moderate to heavy) and birth weight were examined by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as smoking, parity, schooling, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational age. The results showed that pregnant women who practiced sports or were...

  3. Delivery mode and intraventricular hemorrhage risk in very-low-birth-weight infants: Observational data of the German Neonatal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberg, Alexander; Härtel, Christoph; Paul, Pia; Hanke, Kathrin; Bossung, Verena; Hartz, Annika; Fasel, Laura; Rausch, Tanja K; Rody, Achim; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) are frequently delivered by cesarean section (CS). However, it is unclear at what gestational age the benefits of spontaneous delivery outweigh the perinatal risks, i.e. intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or death. To assess the short-term outcome of VLBWI on IVH according to mode of delivery in a population-based cohort of the German Neonatal Network (GNN). A total cohort of 2203 singleton VLBWI with a birth weight 30 weeks of gestation prevalence for IVH was not significantly different in VD and planned CS (5.3% vs. 4.4%). Our observational data demonstrate that elective cesarean section is associated with a reduced risk of IVH in preterm infants <30 weeks gestational age when presenting with preterm labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Intraventricular hemorrhage in a very low birth weight infants: Associated risk factors in Isfahan, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiee, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Prematurely born infants with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) suffer significant morbidity and mortality, particularly with those infants with high-grade hemorrhage. Previous studies have proposed a number of risk factors for IVH; however, lack of adequate matching for gestational age and birth weight may have confounded the results. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that affect the risk of IVH. We identified 31 preterm infants with gestational age < 32 weeks and birth weight < 1500 g, with IVH, from November 2003 to January 2005 at Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A control group of 90 infants, matched for gestational age and birth weight was selected. Maternal factors, labor and delivery characteristics and neonatal parameters were collected in both groups. Results of cranial ultrasound examinations were also collected. The significant risk factors for IVH were found to be: patent ductus artreiosus arteriosus (PDA) [4 (13.3%) versus 3(3.3%) (p=0.01)], longer duration of assisted ventilation [4 (2.8+-5.8 days versus 0.5+-2.1 days (p=0.002)], a higher number of endotracheal suctioning [9.7+-18.4 versus 3.06+-13.7 (p=0.004)], surfactant use, [7(22.6%) versus 3(3.4%) (p=0.003)], positive pressure ventilation at birth [12 (38.7%) versus 12(13.3%), (p=0.004)] and low Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes. Whereas antenatal steroid treatments and cesarean sections have protective effect on the occurrence of IVH. Our data emphasize the importance of obstetric and prenatal care to improve outcomes of premature infants. (author)

  5. A weight-gain-for-gestational-age z score chart for the assessment of maternal weight gain in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Platt, Robert W; Abrams, Barbara; Himes, Katherine P; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2013-05-01

    To establish the unbiased relation between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and perinatal health, a classification for maternal weight gain is needed that is uncorrelated with gestational age. The goal of this study was to create a weight-gain-for-gestational-age percentile and z score chart to describe the mean, SD, and selected percentiles of maternal weight gain throughout pregnancy in a contemporary cohort of US women. The study population was drawn from normal-weight women with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies who delivered at the Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA, 1998-2008. Analyses were based on a randomly selected subset of 648 women for whom serial prenatal weight measurements were available through medical chart record abstraction (6727 weight measurements). The pattern of maternal weight gain throughout gestation was estimated by using a random-effects regression model. The estimates were used to create a chart with the smoothed means, percentiles, and SDs of gestational weight gain for each week of pregnancy. This chart allows researchers to express total weight gain as an age-standardized z score, which can be used in epidemiologic analyses to study the association between pregnancy weight gain and adverse or physiologic pregnancy outcomes independent of gestational age.

  6. Fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parellada, C B; Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Ringholm, Lene

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fetal growth in relation to gestational weight gain in women with Type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 142 consecutive pregnancies in 28 women of normal weight, 39 overweight women and 75 obese women with Type 2 diabetes (pre-pregnancy BMI ... was almost 0.5 kg higher in women with Type 2 diabetes and excessive gestational weight gain than in women with Type 2 diabetes and non-excessive weight gain....... kg/m2, respectively). Gestational weight gain was categorized as excessive (exceeding the US Institute of Medicine recommendations) or as non-excessive (within or below the Institute of Medicine recommendations). RESULTS: Excessive and non-excessive gestational weight gain were seen in 61 (43...

  7. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84%

  8. Birth body length, birth body weight and birth head circumference in neonates born in a single centre between 2011 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlus, Beata; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Kubik, Paweł; Milde, Katarzyna; Gmyrek, Leszek; Pęsko, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Access to updated and accurate standards for local populations is important for the interpretation of body measurements in neonates and may have an impact on the doctor's recommendations for monitoring early childhood development. to present individual mean values for the most prevalent body measurements (i.e. birth body length (BBL), birth body weight (BBW) and birth head circumference (BHC)) in neonates and compare them to the duration of pregnancy. The measurements (BBL, BBW and BHC) were collected and analyzed from over 27,000 neonates born in a single center. All women with single pregnancies with gestation ranging from 33 to 42 weeks were included in the study. Mean values and statistically significant standard deviation values from population standards of BBL, BBW, and BHC were evaluated for neonates that were born between the 33rd and 42nd week of gestation. Analysis was conducted for the lower limit (10th percentile), average (50th percentile) and upper limit (90th percentile). This was the first time in Polish literature when population standards were presented for three body meas-urements of neonates. With the size of the cohort, these standards can be successfully implemented into routine clinical practice, especially for screening children with body size deficits.

  9. Evaluation of Modified Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening Guidelines Using Birth Weight as the Sole Inclusion Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalam, Kakarla V.; Lin, Selina; Murthy, Ravi K.; Brar, Vikram S.; Gupta, Shailesh K.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to determine if birth weight (BW) alone can be the sole criterion for screening infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Materials and Methods: In this retrospective, observational case series, 208 infants were screened for ROP using the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) Guidelines (1997). Variables examined included gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), and a composite variable BWGA Index [(grams × weeks)/1000], which takes into consideration both the birth weight and gestational age of the infant. Infants were divided into two groups: Group 1, BW ≤1250 g, and Group 2, BW >1250 g. Multivariate analysis was performed to detect factors predictive of ROP. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the efficacy of screening using the BW, GA, and BWGA Index. Statistical analyses were performed with logistic regression with a P-value of 0.05 or less indicating statistical significance. Results: Varying stages of ROP were present in 116 of 416 eyes. Of the 105 eyes in Group 2, only 1 eye developed stage 1 ROP. Only Group 1 eyes developed stage 3 or higher ROP. The ROC curve for BW alone gave an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.797 (standard error [SE] = 0.0329, P premature infants at risk for ROP. PMID:21887076

  10. Weight growth of triplet infants from birth to twelve years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed the characteristics associated with the growth in weight of Japanese triplets from birth to 12 years of age. The study included 376 mothers and their 1,128 triplet children, who were born between 1978 and 2006. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to the mothers asking for information recorded in medical records. For these births, data on triplets' weight growth, gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age at delivery, maternal height, and maternal body mass index were obtained from records in the Maternal and Child Health Handbooks and records in the school where children receive health check-ups. The weight deficit of the triplets compared to the general population of Japan remained between 10% and 17% until 12 years of age. Moreover, at 12 years of age, the differences of weight between the general population and triplets were approximately -4.75 kg for boys and -6.00 kg for girls. Very low birth weight had the strongest contribution to body weight until 8 years of age. After 8 years of age, maternal body mass index was a significant factor affecting the weight of triplets until 12 years of age.

  11. The influence of psychological factors on postpartum weight retention 12 months post-birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Rhian; Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen

    2018-04-01

    Background During the first postpartum year 20% of women retain excessive weight from pregnancy (postpartum weight retention; PPWR), which predicts long-term overweight/obesity. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the associations between psychological factors (depression, anxiety and stress symptoms and body attitudes) in late gestation and at 12-months postpartum with PPWR one-year post-birth. Methods Pregnant women (N = 176) completed questionnaires in early-mid pregnancy (Time 1; mean (SD) = 16.97 (1.35) weeks), late pregnancy (Time 2; mean (SD) = 33.33 (2.05) weeks), and one year postpartum (Time 3; mean (SD) = 53.12 (3.34) weeks). Women provided demographic characteristics, height and pre-pregnancy weight at Time 1. At Times 2 and 3, weight, depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms and body attitudes (salience of weight and shape, attractiveness, feeling fat, and strength and fitness) were assessed in addition to physiological, socio-contextual and lifestyle factors. Gestational weight gain and PPWR were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were conducted to explore variance in 12-month PPWR. Results Overall, models explained 26-39% variance in PPWR. Gestational weight gain in late pregnancy and low attractiveness at 12 months postpartum were the only variables associated significantly with 12-month PPWR. Conclusion While psychological factors did not appear to be important direct contributors to PPWR at 12 months, the overall contribution of all variables suggests that such factors may be implicated in a small and incremental way. Exploration of the interactions between variables will help unpack potential mechanisms of the development of PPWR at 12 months post-birth.

  12. Implications of Lipids in Neonatal Body Weight and Fat Mass in Gestational Diabetic Mothers and Non-Diabetic Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio; Ortega-Senovilla, Henar

    2018-02-05

    Maternal lipid metabolism greatly changes during pregnancy and we review in this article how they influence fetal adiposity and growth under non-diabetic and gestational diabetic conditions. In pregnant women without diabetes (control), maternal glycemia correlates with neonatal glycemia, neonatal body weight and fat mass. In pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), maternal glucose correlates with neither neonatal glycemia, neonatal birth weight nor fat mass, but maternal triacylglycerols (TAG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol do correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity. The proportions of maternal plasma arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids decrease from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, and at term these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are higher in cord blood plasma than in mothers, indicating efficient placental transfer. In control or pregnant women with GDM at term, the maternal concentration of individual fatty acids does not correlate with neonatal body weight or fat mass, but cord blood fatty acid levels correlate with birth weight and neonatal adiposity-positively in controls, but negatively in GDM. The proportion of AA and DHA in umbilical artery plasma in GDM is lower than in controls but not in umbilical vein plasma. Therefore, an increased utilization of those two fatty acids by fetal tissues, rather than impaired placental transfer, is responsible for their smaller proportion in plasma of GDM newborns. In control pregnant women, maternal glycemia controls neonatal body weight and fat mass, whereas in mothers with GDM-even with good glycemic control-maternal lipids and their greater utilization by the fetus play a critical role in neonatal body weight and fat mass. We propose that altered lipid metabolism rather than hyperglycemia constitutes a risk for macrosomia in GDM.

  13. Prematurity and Low Birth Weight did not Correlate with Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Maternal Serum Profiles--a Brazilian Report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Machado Lemos Fochi

    Full Text Available Gestational Toxoplasma gondii infection is considered a major risk factor for miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight in animals. However, studies focusing on this topic in humans are scarce. The objective of this study is to determine whether anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles correlate prematurity and low birth weight in humans. The study examined 213 pregnant women seen at the High-Risk Pregnancy Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. All serological profiles (IgM-/IgG+; IgM-/IgG-; IgM+/IgG+ were determined by ELISA commercial kits. Maternal age, gestational age and weight of the newborn at birth were collected and recorded in the Statement of Live Birth. Prematurity was defined as gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight ≤ 2499 grams. The t-test was used to compare values (p < 0.05. The mean maternal age was 27.6±6.6 years. Overall, 56.3% (120/213 of the women studied were IgM-/IgG+, 36.2% (77/213 were IgM-/IgG- and 7.5% (16/213 were IgM+/IgG+. The average age of the women with serological profile IgM+/IgG+ (22.3±3.9 years was different from women with the profile IgM-/IgG+ (27.9±6.7 years, p = 0.0011 and IgM-/IgG- (27.9±6.4 years, p = 0.0012. There was no statistically significant difference between the different serological profiles in relation to prematurity (p = 0.6742 and low birth weight (p = 0.7186. The results showed that prematurity and low birth weight did not correlate with anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles.

  14. Prematurity and Low Birth Weight did not Correlate with Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Maternal Serum Profiles--a Brazilian Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochi, Mariana Machado Lemos; Baring, Sabrina; Spegiorin, Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós; Galão, Eloisa Aparecida; Oliani, Antonio Hélio; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão

    2015-01-01

    Gestational Toxoplasma gondii infection is considered a major risk factor for miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight in animals. However, studies focusing on this topic in humans are scarce. The objective of this study is to determine whether anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles correlate prematurity and low birth weight in humans. The study examined 213 pregnant women seen at the High-Risk Pregnancy Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. All serological profiles (IgM-/IgG+; IgM-/IgG-; IgM+/IgG+) were determined by ELISA commercial kits. Maternal age, gestational age and weight of the newborn at birth were collected and recorded in the Statement of Live Birth. Prematurity was defined as gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight ≤ 2499 grams. The t-test was used to compare values (p < 0.05). The mean maternal age was 27.6±6.6 years. Overall, 56.3% (120/213) of the women studied were IgM-/IgG+, 36.2% (77/213) were IgM-/IgG- and 7.5% (16/213) were IgM+/IgG+. The average age of the women with serological profile IgM+/IgG+ (22.3±3.9 years) was different from women with the profile IgM-/IgG+ (27.9±6.7 years, p = 0.0011) and IgM-/IgG- (27.9±6.4 years, p = 0.0012). There was no statistically significant difference between the different serological profiles in relation to prematurity (p = 0.6742) and low birth weight (p = 0.7186). The results showed that prematurity and low birth weight did not correlate with anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles.

  15. Placental Growth Measures in Relation to Birth Weight in a Latin American Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Carlos; Veiga, Angélica; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso, Viviane

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The placenta, translates how the fetus experiences the maternal environment and is a principal influence on birth weight (BW). Objective To explore the relationship between placental growth measures (PGMs) and BW in a public maternity hospital. Methods Observational retrospective study of 870 singleton live born infants at Hospital Maternidad Sardá, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, between January 2011 and August 2012 with complete data of PGMs. Details of history, clinical and obstetrical maternal data, labor and delivery and neonatal outcome data, including placental measures derived from the records, were evaluated. The following manual measurements of the placenta according to standard methods were performed: placental weight (PW, g), larger and smaller diameters (cm), eccentricity, width (cm), shape, area (cm(2)), BW/PW ratio (BPR) and PW/BW ratio (PBR), and efficiency. Associations between BW and PGMs were examined using multiple linear regression. Results Birth weight was correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.001), whereas gestational age was moderately correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.001). By gestational age, there was a positive trend for PW and BPR, but an inverse relationship with PBR (p < 0.001). Placental weight alone accounted for 49% of birth weight variability (p < 0,001), whereas all PGMs accounted for 52% (p < 0,001). Combined, PGMs, maternal characteristics (parity, pre-eclampsia, tobacco use), gestational age and gender explained 77.8% of BW variations (p < 0,001). Among preterm births, 59% of BW variances were accounted for by PGMs, compared with 44% at term. All placental measures except BPR were consistently higher in females than in males, which was also not significant. Indices of placental efficiency showed weakly clinical relevance. Conclusions Reliable measures of placental growth estimate 53.6% of BW variances and project this outcome to a

  16. The birth weight of apparently healthy Nigerian newborns in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 253 babies were enrolled. Results: There were 131 males and 122 females giving a male: female ratio of 1.1:1. Gestational age by maternal dates ranged from 28 to 44 weeks. There was a consistent increase in mean values of weight as the ...

  17. Prevalence and determinants of low birth weight in Jimma zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of maternal obstetric history revealed that those mothers who delivered before 37 weeks of gestation, had weight loss, and who did not receive additional diet during pregnancy had higher risk of delivering LBW babies and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.01, 0.00, 0.00) respectively. Similarly, those ...

  18. Prevalence and determinants of low birth weight in Jimma zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mothers residing in the urban setting had higher risk of delivering LBW babies and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.00). Analysis of maternal obstetric history revealed that those mothers who delivered before 37 weeks of gestation, had weight loss, and who did not receive additional diet during pregnancy ...

  19. Efficacy of Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine Varies by Infant Birth Weight with Greatest Relative Efficacy in Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Gupte

    Full Text Available Latest World Health Organization guidelines recommend weight-based nevirapine prophylaxis for all HIV-exposed infants in resource-limited settings, yet low birth weight (LBW infants (2000 g and ≤ 2500 g, and normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g. Outcomes were HIV-1 infection, HIV-1 infection or death by 12 months, and severe adverse events (SAEs. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate probability of efficacy outcomes in birth weight groups, and differential effects of SWEN by birth weight group were examined using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for independent risk factors for HIV maternal-to-child transmission and significant covariates. Among 50 VLBW, 249 MLBW, and 433 NBW infants, 50% were randomized to SWEN; median gestational age was 36, 38 and 38 weeks, respectively; and there was no difference in breastfeeding duration (p = 0.99. Compared to SD: SWEN-treated VLBW had lower estimates of HIV-1 infection (13% vs. 38%, p = 0.004 and HIV-1 infection or death (13% vs. 41%, p = 0.002; SWEN-treated MLBW had lower estimated HIV-1 infection (13% vs. 17%, p = 0.042; and efficacy endpoints were similar by treatment arm in NBW. In multivariate analysis, SWEN was associated with reduced risk of HIV-1 infection or death by 83% (p = 0.03 in VLBW versus 45% (p = 0.05 in MLBW. SAE frequency was similar by treatment arm in VLBW (68% vs. 76%, p = 0.53 and MLBW (37% vs. 36%, p = 0.93. SWEN may safely increase HIV-free survival among HIV-exposed LBW infants with greatest protective advantage among infants ≤ 2000 g.

  20. Genetic factors associated with small for gestational age birth and the use of human growth hormone in treating the disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenger Paul

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term small for gestational age (SGA refers to infants whose birth weights and/or lengths are at least two standard deviation (SD units less than the mean for gestational age. This condition affects approximately 3%–10% of newborns. Causes for SGA birth include environmental factors, placental factors such as abnormal uteroplacental blood flow, and inherited genetic mutations. In the past two decades, an enhanced understanding of genetics has identified several potential causes for SGA. These include mutations that affect the growth hormone (GH/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 axis, including mutations in the IGF-1 gene and acid-labile subunit (ALS deficiency. In addition, select polymorphisms observed in patients with SGA include those involved in genes associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and deletion of exon 3 growth hormone receptor (d3-GHR polymorphism. Uniparental disomy (UPD and imprinting effects may also underlie some of the phenotypes observed in SGA individuals. The variety of genetic mutations associated with SGA births helps explain the diversity of phenotype characteristics, such as impaired motor or mental development, present in individuals with this disorder. Predicting the effectiveness of recombinant human GH (hGH therapy for each type of mutation remains challenging. Factors affecting response to hGH therapy include the dose and method of hGH administration as well as the age of initiation of hGH therapy. This article reviews the results of these studies and summarizes the success of hGH therapy in treating this difficult and genetically heterogenous disorder.

  1. O impacto do baixo peso ao nascer relacionado à depressão gestacional para o financiamento federal da saúde pública: uma análise do Município de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil The impact of low birth weight related to gestational depression on Federal funding of public health: a study in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Oliveira de Menezes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O baixo peso ao nascer está relacionado com morbimortalidade e sequelas no desenvolvimento infantil, impactando nos custos dos sistemas de saúde, por isso é importante avaliar fatores que o influenciam, estimando seu impacto no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Este é um estudo prospectivo aninhado a uma coorte de gestantes que realizaram pré-natal e parto exclusivamente pelo SUS nos hospitais com UTI da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Entre os resultados, concluiu-se que mães com episódios de depressão gestacional apresentam quase quatro vezes mais chances de ter um filho com baixo peso ao nascer (RP = 3,94; IC: 1,49-10,36. Valendo-se do cálculo da fração atribuível na população, estima-se que, na população geral, 36,17% dos bebês com baixo peso ao nascer são filhos de mães que tiveram episódio depressivo, estimando-se um custo que pode chegar a mais de R$ 76 milhões no Brasil. Sugere-se que se ampliem as ações preventivas e curativas para as gestantes na área da saúde mental, possibilitando melhor desfecho de saúde dos recém-nascidos, e que se utilizem adequadamente os recursos do SUS.Low birth weight is related to morbidity and mortality and sequelae during infant development, thereby impacting health system costs. It is thus important to evaluate factors that influence low birth weight and to estimate their impact on the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. This was a nested prospective study in a cohort of pregnant women who received prenatal care and gave birth in the National Health System in hospitals with ICUs in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Gestational depression was associated with a fourfold risk of low birth weight (PR = 3.94; CI: 1.49-10.36. Based on the population-attributable fraction, in the overall population an estimated 36.17% of low birth weight infants are born to mothers with an episode of depression during pregnancy, with an estimated cost of more

  2. Eruption chronology of the first deciduous teeth in children born prematurely with birth weight less than 1500g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia F. Neto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the eruption chronology of the first deciduous teeth in premature infants with birth weight less than 1500g and to compare it according to gender and nutritional status at birth. Methods: Longitudinal study including 40 low birth weight premature infants of both genders. The tooth was considered erupted when the crown went through the gum and became part of the oral environment. The comparison of the eruption chronology in relation to gender and among children appropriate or small for gestational age was done by Student's t-test, being significant p<0.05. Results: The eruption of the first tooth (teeth occurred, on average, with 11.0±2.1 months of chronological age and with 9.6±1.9 months corrected for prematurity. The first erupted teeth were the lower central incisors. The average eruption for males was 9.7±1.9 and, for females, 9.5±1.9 months, both corrected for prematurity (p=0.98. The average eruption in children with birth weight appropriate for gestational age was 10.1±1.4 months; for small for gestational age, it was 9.4±2.2, also corrected for prematurity (p=0.07. Conclusions: The average eruption age of the first teeth, corrected for prematurity, was 9.6 months. Sex and nutritional status at birth did not change the eruption chronology.

  3. Relationships between prenatal smoking cessation, gestational weight gain and maternal lifestyle characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Rossner, Stephan; Neovius, Martin; Lourenço, Paulo Mauricio C; Linné, Yvonne

    2010-03-01

    To describe maternal characteristics and lifestyle factors associated with prenatal smoking habits and to appraise the effect of quitting smoking in early gestation on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. This is a follow-up study of 1753 women who gave birth in 1984/1985 in Stockholm, Sweden. Multivariate logistic models were used to evaluate the association between smoking cessation and weight gain above the American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, based on pre-pregnancy BMI. About 22% of all participants identified themselves as current smokers and 11.6% reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Smokers were more likely to be single mothers and reported low quality of breakfast (e.g. eating only 1 food group at breakfast). Non-smokers were older, more likely to be married and have a healthier lifestyle. Quitters also adopted healthier eating habits (e.g. improvement in their breakfast quality). Women who quit smoking gained, on average, 15.3 kg (SD 4.4) during pregnancy, non-smokers gained 14.1 kg (SD 4.0) and smokers gained 13.8 kg (SD 4.3). Quitters gained significantly more weight than both non-smokers and smokers (pSmoking cessation was significantly associated with gaining weight above IOM recommendations, even after controlling for potential confounders (OR: 2.0; 95%CI: 1.4-3.0; psmoking cessation in early pregnancy doubled the likelihood of gaining excess weight. This finding highlights the need for supportive measures to help control weight gain among women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Copyright 2009 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. First-trimester uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in the prediction of birth weight in a low-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Andres; Casasbuenas, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Nadiezhda; Angarita, Ana M; Sarmiento, Piedad; Sepulveda, Waldo

    2013-01-01

    To study the relationship between first-trimester uterine artery (UtA) Doppler velocimetry and birth weight in an unselected, low-risk obstetric population. This is a prospective study of 415 low-risk pregnant women who underwent a first-trimester ultrasound evaluation between 11 and 13 weeks of gestation. Blood flow velocimetry waveforms from both UtAs were obtained and the pulsatility index (PI) measured and recorded. Clinical records were reviewed for pregnancy outcomes. Birth weight was expressed as z-scores, and the Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) was used to calculate the relationship between the mean, delta, and lowest UtA PI values and birth weight. There was no correlation between the mean and delta UtA PI values and birth weight. However, a significant correlation between the lowest UtA PI value and birth weight (ρ = -0.121; p = 0.013) was noted. Our study found a clinically significant correlation between the lowest UtA PI value and birth weight in an unselected, low-risk pregnant population. Because fetal growth is a multifactorial process in which placentation is only one of the factors involved, the use of a single parameter such as Doppler velocimetry remote from the delivery to predict birth weight in a low-risk population seems to be less useful than in the high-risk population. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Associations between maternal weekly air pollutant exposures and low birth weight: a distributed lag non-linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Jiang, Baofa; Zhu, Ping; Geng, Xingyi; Liu, Zhong; Cui, Liangliang; Yang, Liping

    2018-02-01

    When discussing the association between birth weight and air pollution, previous studies mainly focus on the maternal trimester-specific exposures during pregnancy, whereas the possible associations between birth weight and weekly-specific exposures have been largely neglected. We conducted a nested 1:4 matched case-control study in Jinan, China to examine the weekly-specific associations during pregnancy between maternal fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter maternity and child care hospital of this city during 2014–2016. Individual exposures to PM2.5, NO2, and SO2 during pregnancy were estimated using an inverse distance weighting method. Birth weight for gender-, gestational age-, and parity-specific standard score (BWGAP z-score) was calculated as the outcome of interest. Distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) were applied to estimate weekly-specific relationship between maternal air pollutant exposures and birth weight. For an increase of per inter-quartile range in maternal PM2.5 exposure concentration during pregnancy, the BWGAP z-score decreased significantly during the 27th–33th gestational weeks with the strongest association in the 30th gestational weeks (standard deviation units decrease in BWGAP z-score: ‑0.049, 95% CI: ‑0.080 ‑0.017, in three-pollutant model). No significant association between maternal weekly NO2 or SO2 BWGAP z-score was observed. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that maternal PM2.5 exposure during the 27th–33th gestational weeks may reduce the birth weight in the context of very high pollution level of PM2.5.

  6. Temporal evolution of the risk factors associated with low birth weight rates in Brazilian capitals (1996-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Buriol, Viviane Costa; Hirakata, Vânia; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; da Silva, Clécio Homrich

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the trend of low birth weight (LBW) and its determinants in Brazilian state capitals between 1996 and 2011. We intended to determine which variables are associated with LBW during the period studied. This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the National Information System of Live Births from 26 state capitals and Brasilia (the federal capital), divided into five geographical regions. The Average Annual Percentage of Change (AAPC) was used to assess the possible time trend in the low birth weight rates for considering all regions together and each region separately, according to each variable, and the Poisson regression was calculated in order to demonstrate time trends in low birth weight and the impact of variables (age and educational maternal level, antenatal visits, type of delivery, and gestational age) during the period. All variables were analyzed together using the Poisson regression as well. From the total of 11,200,255 live births used in this study, there was a significant reduction in the number of live births, especially in the more developed regions. The low birth weight rate was 8 %, and it was stable during the period. Considering regional trends, the rate was higher in the Southeast and South regions, and significantly higher in the North, Northeast, and Central West regions. Improvements in maternal education and antenatal care coverage reduced the risk for low birth weight in all regions. Also, there was an increase in caesarean sections in all regions, with a small impact on low birth weight rates. Improvements in education and health care reduced the risk for low birth weight in all Brazilian regions during the period of study. Trends in low birth weight rates and the associated factors differ from region to region, showing different stages of demographic, epidemiological and developmental transition in Brazil. The present study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre

  7. Gender differences in neonatal subcutaneous fat store in late gestation in relation to maternal weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihard-Costa, A M; Papiernik, E; Grangé, G; Richard, A

    2002-01-01

    To study gender differences in fat store in human newborns and their relation to duration of gestation and maternal weight gain. The ratios subscapular skinfold thickness/body weight (SST/BW) and tricipital skinfold thickness/body weight (TST/BW) were calculated in a sample of 13609 premature and term neonates from the maternity hospital of Clamart, Hauts-de-Seine, France. Whereas BW, SST and TST increased with gestational age, SST/BW and TST/BW ratios decreased regularly, in males as in females. This result reflects a progressive reduction of subcutaneous fat store per body weight unit as the duration of gestation increases. Males had smaller values of SST/BW and TST/BW ratios than females whatever the gestational age. Increasing maternal weight gain during the third gestational trimester did not improve the subcutaneous fatness per body weight unit of the newborn. Earlier amount of maternal weight gain had an effect on the TST/BW index exclusively in females. In newborns, a gender difference was observed in the ratio of subcutaneous fat per unit of body weight; this ratio is lower in males than in females. This result argues for a gender difference in mobilization of fat store to ensure normal growth in the last weeks of pregnancy: males lose more fat but gain more weight than females in this period. Late maternal weight gain does not affect the proportion of subcutaneous fatness by body weight unit in both genders.

  8. Small-for-Gestational-Age Births in Pregnant Women with HIV, due to Severity of HIV Disease, Not Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine rate and factors associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA births to women with HIV. Methods. Prospective data were collected from 183 pregnant women with HIV in an urban HIV prenatal clinic, 2000–2011. An SGA birth was defined as less than the 10th or 3rd percentile of birth weight distribution based upon cut points developed using national vital record data. Bivariate analysis utilized chi-squared and t-tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used. Results. The prevalence of SGA was 31.2% at the 10th and 12.6% at the 3rd percentile. SGA at the 10th (OR 2.77; 95% CI, 1.28–5.97 and 3rd (OR 3.64; 95% CI, 1.12–11.76 percentiles was associated with cigarette smoking. Women with CD4 count >200 cells/mm3 at the first prenatal visit were less likely to have an SGA birth at the 3rd percentile (OR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10–0.86. Women taking NNRTI were less likely to have an SGA infant at the 10th (OR 0.28; 95% CI, 0.10–0.75 and 3rd (OR 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03–0.91 percentiles compared to those women on PIs. Conclusions. In this cohort with high rates of SGA, severity of HIV disease, not ART, was associated with SGA births after adjusting for sociodemographic, medication, and disease severity.

  9. The influence of gestational age and birth weight in the clinical assesment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns A influência da idade gestacional e do peso ao nascimento na avaliação clínica do tono muscular de recém nascidos a termo e prematuros hígidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edla S. da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of gestational age (GA and birth weight (BW in the clinical assessment of the muscle tone of healthy term and preterm newborns. METHOD: Cross sectional study. The muscle tone of healthy 42 preterm and 47 term newborns was quantified and measured with a goniometer (an instrument for measuring angles respectively between 7th-14th day of life and 24-48 hours of life. Newborns were grouped according to GA and BW and evaluated at fixed time intervals by one examiner. Preterm newborns were matched to term at 40 weeks postconceptional age (PCA. RESULTS: The evolution of muscle tone in the preterm occurred gradually, following PCA, independent of birth weight. Preterm newborns had lower scores in all muscle tone indicators when compared to term at the first assessment. Differences were observed among preterm small for GA and adequate to GA for the indicator heel to ear (pOBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da idade gestacional (IG e do peso ao nascimento (PN na avaliação do tono muscular de recém nascidos (RN a termo e prematuros hígidos. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal. O tono muscular de 42 RN prematuros e 47 termo foi quantificado e mensurado com goniômetro (instrumento para medir ângulos, respectivamente entre 7-14 dias de vida e 24-48 horas de vida. Os RN foram agrupados de acordo com IG e PN, sendo avaliados em intervalos fixos. RN prematuros foram comparados aos a termo na 40ª semana de idade concepcional (IC. RESULTADOS: A evolução do tono muscular nos RN prematuros ocorreu de forma gradual de acordo com IC e independente do PN. RN prematuros, na primeira avaliação apresentaram escores de tono muscular inferiores aos de RN a termo em todos os indicadores. Foram observadas diferenças entre RN prematuros pequenos e adequados para a IG em relação ao indicador calcanhar-orelha (p<0,001. O pareamento dos grupos na 40ª semana de IC mostra, exceto pela postura, diferença significativa entre os grupos (p< 0

  10. Assessment of Fetal Kidney Growth and Birth Weight in an Indigenous Australian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Diehm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indigenous Australians experience higher rates of renal disease and hypertension than non-Indigenous Australians. Low birth weight is recognized as a contributing factor in chronic disease and has been shown to increase the risk of renal failure in adulthood. A smaller kidney volume with fewer nephrons places an individual at risk of hypertension and renal failure. Indigenous Australians have fewer nephrons than non-Indigenous Australians. In this study, intrauterine fetal and kidney growth were evaluated in 174 Indigenous Australian babies throughout gestation in order to record and evaluate fetal growth and kidney size, within a population that is at high risk for chronic illness.Methods: Pregnant women that identified as Indigenous, or non-Indigenous women that were pregnant with a partner who identified as an Indigenous Australian were eligible to participate. Maternal history, smoking status, blood and urine samples and fetal ultrasounds were collected throughout pregnancy. Fetal kidney measurements were collected using ultrasound. Statistical analysis was performed using the Stata 14.1 software package.Results: 15.2% of babies were born prematurely. 44% of the mothers reported smoking in pregnancy. The median birth weight of this cohort was 3,240 g. Male fetuses had higher kidney to body weight ratios than female fetuses (P = 0.02. The birth weights of term neonates whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were lower (327 g, P < 0.001 than the birth weights of term babies from non-smoking mothers. The kidney volumes of babies whose mothers smoked were also smaller (P = 0.02, but were in proportion to body weight.Conclusion: In this cohort of Indigenous women smoking was associated with both increased number of preterm births and with a reduction in birth weights, even of term infants. Since kidney volume is a surrogate measure of nephron number and nephrogenesis is complete at birth, babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy

  11. The Effect of Gestational Age at Birth on Post-Term Maturation of Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Karinna L.; Yiallourou, Stephanie R.; Wong, Flora Y.; Odoi, Alexsandria; Walker, Adrian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: Preterm birth delays maturation of autonomic cardiovascular control, reflected in reduced heart rate variability (HRV) in preterm compared to term infants at term-equivalent age. It has been suggested that immature cardiovascular control contributes to the increased risk for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in preterm infants. However, the effects of prone sleeping, the major SIDS risk factor, and of gestational age (GA) at birth on HRV have not been assessed in preterm infants beyond term-equivalent age. Subjects and Methods: Very preterm (n = 21; mean GA 29.4 ± 0.3 weeks), preterm (n = 14; mean GA 33.5 ± 0.3 weeks), and term (n = 17; mean GA 40.1 ± 0.3 weeks) infants were recruited and underwent daytime polysomnography at 2–4 weeks, 2–3 months, and 5–6 months post-term corrected age (CA). Infants slept both supine and prone. HRV was assessed in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) ranges. Results: There was no effect of prone sleeping on HRV parameters in either preterm group. In term infants LF/HF was significantly elevated in the prone position in AS at 2–4 weeks (P preterm compared to both preterm and term infants at 2–3 months CA. Conclusion: Prone sleeping did not significantly impact on heart rate variability (HRV) in preterm infants. However, reduced maturation of high frequency HRV in very preterm infants resulted in significantly altered sympathovagal balance at 2–3 months corrected age, the age of peak sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) risk. This may contribute to the increased risk of SIDS in infants born at earlier gestational age. Citation: Fyfe KL, Yiallourou SR, Wong FY, Odoi A, Walker AM, Horne RS. The effect of gestational age at birth on post-term maturation of heart rate variability. SLEEP 2015;38(10):1635–1644. PMID:25902805

  12. Benefits of iron supplementation for low birth weight infants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hui; Yi, Jing-Mei; Hu, Pei-Li; Li, Zhi-Bin; Qiu, Wei-Ya; Wang, Fang; Zhu, Sing

    2012-07-16

    A number of studies have reported on the effects of iron supplementation in low birth weight infants; however, no systematic review of the available evidence has been conducted to date. Hence, we performed a systematic review of the literature to examine the effects of iron supplementation on hematologic iron status, growth, neurodevelopment, and adverse effects in low birth weight/premature infants. We searched the Cochrane Library, Medline, and PubMed for articles reporting on the effects of iron supplementation in low weight infants. The following search terms were used: "preterm born infant(s)/children"; "preterm infants"; "prematurely born children" "weight less than 1500 g at birth"; "born prematurely"; "low birth weight infant(s)"; "infants born preterm"; "prematurity"; "small-for-gestational age"; "very small gestational age infants"; "iron supplementation"; "iron intake"; "iron supplements"; "ferric and/or ferrous compounds"; and "ferrous sulphate/fumarate/sulfate". A total of 15 studies were identified and included in the systematic review. Supplemental iron was given orally or as an iron-fortified formula in 14/15 studies. The duration of treatment ranged from 1 week to 18 months. Iron supplementation significantly increased hematologic measures of iron status (including hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin) relative to placebo or over time in most studies. All controlled studies that examined iron-deficiency anemia (IDA)/ID reported a decreased prevalence of IDA/ID with iron supplementation. Dose dependent decreases in the prevalence of IDA/ID were reported in several studies. Of the 5 studies reporting on growth, none found any significant effect on growth-related parameters (length, height, weight, and head circumference). Only 2 studies reported on neurodevelopment; no marked effects were reported. There were no consistently reported adverse effects, including oxidative stress, inhibited nutrient absorption, morbidity, or the requirement for blood

  13. Gestational age at birth and risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelman, Hein; Abel, Kathryn; Wicks, Susanne; Gardner, Renee; Johnstone, Edward; Lee, Brian; Magnusson, Cecilia; Dalman, Christina; Rai, Dheeraj

    2017-12-06

    Preterm birth is linked to intellectual disability and there is evidence to suggest post-term birth may also incur risk. However, these associations have not yet been investigated in the absence of common genetic causes of intellectual disability, where risk associated with late delivery may be preventable. We therefore aimed to examine risk of intellectual disability without a common genetic cause across the entire range of gestation, using a matched-sibling design to account for unmeasured confounding by shared familial factors. We conducted a population-based retrospective study using data from the Stockholm Youth Cohort (n = 499,621) and examined associations in a nested cohort of matched outcome-discordant siblings (n = 8034). Risk of intellectual disability was greatest among those born extremely early (adjusted OR 24 weeks  = 14.54 [95% CI 11.46-18.44]), lessening with advancing gestational age toward term (aOR 32 weeks  = 3.59 [3.22-4.01]; aOR 37 weeks  = 1.50 [1.38-1.63]); aOR 38 weeks  = 1.26 [1.16-1.37]; aOR 39 weeks = 1.10 [1.04-1.17]) and increasing with advancing gestational age post-term (aOR 42 weeks  = 1.16 [1.08-1.25]; aOR 43 weeks  = 1.41 [1.21-1.64]; aOR 44 weeks  = 1.71 [1.34-2.18]; aOR 45 weeks  = 2.07 [1.47-2.92]). Associations persisted in a cohort of matched siblings suggesting they were robust against confounding by shared familial traits. Risk of intellectual disability was greatest among children showing evidence of fetal growth restriction, especially when birth occurred before or after term. Birth at non-optimal gestational duration may be linked causally with greater risk of intellectual disability. The mechanisms underlying these associations need to be elucidated as they are relevant to clinical practice concerning elective delivery around term and mitigation of risk in post-term children.

  14. Prenatal risk factors influencing childhood BMI and overweight independent of birth weight and infancy BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, C S; Ängquist, L; Baker, J L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prenatal risk factors for childhood overweight may operate indirectly through development in body size in early life and/or directly independent hereof. We quantified the effects of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI), maternal age, socioeconomic position (SEP......), parity, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, caesarean section, birth weight, and BMI at 5 and 12 months on BMI and overweight at 7 and 11 years. METHODS: Family triads with information on maternal, paternal and child BMI at ages 7 (n=29 374) and 11 years (n=18 044) were selected...... from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information originated from maternal interviews and medical health examinations. Path analysis was used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of prenatal risk factors on childhood BMI z-scores (BMIz per unit score of the risk factor). Logistic regression...

  15. Fish Consumption during Pregnancy, Mercury Transfer, and Birth Weight along the Madeira River Basin in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata S. Leão

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Birth weight can be a predictor of maternal health issues related to nutrition and environmental contaminants. Total hair mercury (HHg concentration was studied as an indicator of both fish consumption and methylmercury exposure in mothers (and newborns living in selected low income areas of the Madeira River basin, Amazonia, Brazil. This cohort study (n = 1,433 consisted of traditional riverines (n = 396, riverines who had moved to urban (n = 676 and rural (n = 67 settings, and tin miner settlers (n = 294. Median maternal HHg was significantly different (p = 0.00001 between riverine (12.1 µg·g−1, rural (7.82 µg·g−1, urban (5.4 µg·g−1, and tin miner (4.5 µg·g−1 groups studied. The same trend (of medians was observed for newborns’ HHg which also showed significant differences between riverine (3.0 µg·g−1, rural (2.0 µg·g−1, urban (1.5 µg·g−1, and tin miner (0.8 µg·g−1 groups. The correlation between maternal and newborn HHg was statistically significant in the riverine (r = 0.8952; p = 0.0001, urban (r = 0.6744; p = 0.0001, and rural (r = 0.8416; p = 0.0001 groups but not in the mother-infant pairs in the tin miner group (r = 0.0638; p = 0.2752. Birth weight was significantly different among groups but did not show a pattern consistent with that of fish consumption (and HHg. A multiple regression analysis showed that only family income and gestational age had a significant impact on birth weight. Conclusions: Maternal HHg is an important biomarker of maternal fish consumption and of methylmercury exposure during pregnancy. However, in these Amazonian groups, only maternal education and gestational age seemed to affect birth weight positively.

  16. Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are modestly associated with umbilical cord DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal obesity (OB) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are strong independent contributors that augment obesity risk in offspring. However, direct evidence of epigenetic changes associated with maternal habitus remains sparse. We utilized Bisulfite Amplicon Sequencing (BSAS) to conduct t...

  17. Maternal fat mass at mid-pregnancy and birth weight in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ramos, Tatiana; Sichieri, Rosely; Hoffman, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between maternal body composition and foetal development is unclear. To determine the relationship between maternal body composition [fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)] and foetal growth and birth weight, independent of potential confounding factors. This study consisted of 92 women, normal and overweight/obese, recruited from the Instituto Fernandes Figueira in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Body composition (FM and FFM) was estimated using bioelectrical impedance. Foetal growth was assessed using serial ultrasound measurements at the second and third trimester and infant's weight and length were measured at birth. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between maternal FM and FFM and birth weight adjusted for gestational age (BWt) and change in estimated foetal weight (ΔEFW), controlling for infant gender, maternal serum glucose, energy intake, parity, height and income. Maternal FM, but not FFM, was positively associated with BWt (p = 0.02) and borderline with ΔEFW (p = 0.05). FM expressed as a percentage of body weight (%FM) showed a significant positive association with BWt (p maternal FM at mid-pregnancy is associated with neonatal BW and foetal growth.

  18. Prematurity and Low Birth Weight did not Correlate with Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Maternal Serum Profiles ? a Brazilian Report

    OpenAIRE

    Fochi, Mariana Machado Lemos; Baring, Sabrina; Spegiorin, L?gia Cosentino Junqueira Franco; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina M?s; Gal?o, Eloisa Aparecida; Oliani, Antonio H?lio; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos; de Mattos, Cinara C?ssia Brand?o

    2015-01-01

    Gestational Toxoplasma gondii infection is considered a major risk factor for miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight in animals. However, studies focusing on this topic in humans are scarce. The objective of this study is to determine whether anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles correlate prematurity and low birth weight in humans. The study examined 213 pregnant women seen at the High-Risk Pregnancy Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. All serological ...

  19. Risk factors for low birth-weight in areas with varying malaria transmission in Korogwe, Tanzania: implications for malaria control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Cole-Lewis, H; Sembuche, S

    2008-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is a risk factor for infant mortality, morbidity, growth retardation, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases. Maternal exposure to diseases such as malaria, HIV, and syphilis has been shown to have a significant impact on birth weight (BW). This study was aimed...... babies compared to first parity women (OR=0.44, 95% CI 0.19-0.98, P=0.045). Similarly, the risk of LBW was higher in women who had delayed MCH gestational booking and in women who conceived during high malaria transmission seasons. There was high degree of preference of digits ending with 0...

  20. Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status predicts excessive gestational weight gain: findings from a US cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive

  1. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  2. Is hyperemesis gravidarum associated with placental weight and the placental weight-to-birth weight ratio? A population-based Norwegian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandraas, K F; Vikanes, Å V; Støer, N C; Vangen, S; Magnus, P; Grjibovski, A M

    2013-11-01

    Studies have suggested a link between placental weight, placental weight-to-birth weight ratio (PW/BW) and adult health. Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) may also have implications for adult health. No studies on HG and placental characteristics have been identified. We therefore explored the relationship between HG, placental weight and the PW/BW-ratio in a population-based cohort. Singleton births to primiparous women between 1999 and 2009 with data on HG, placental weight and birth weight in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN) comprised the study base (n = 200,390). HG was defined through ICD-10 code 021.0, 021.1 and 021.9. Gender and gestational age specific percentile curves for placenta weight and PW/BW ratio were used to define those below the 10th and above the 90th percentile of both outcomes. Associations between HG and dichotomous outcomes were studied by multiple logistic regression. Multiple linear regression was applied to study placental weight as a continuous variable. Male and female offspring were analyzed separately. The prevalence of HG was 1.2%. Women with HG and female offspring had significantly higher risk of a PW/BW-ratio above the 90th percentile (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.34). HG and PW/BW-ratio below the 10th percentile were inversely associated (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56-0.89). For male offspring no association was observed for HG and PW/BW-ratio below the 10th or above the 90th percentile. We observed positive associations between HG and high PW/BW ratio limited to female offspring only. The high PW/BW-ratio suggests that there may be a possible link between HG and adult health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low birth weight: risk factors in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Y.S.A.; Bataineh, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights (LBW) in Irbid, Jordan, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in Prince Rashed Hospital (PRH). Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 15-45 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive in PRH during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is also a need to discourage early pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy. (author)

  4. Relationship Among Mothers' Glycemic Level, Periodontitis, and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Eliesita C; Cruz, Simone S; Adan, Luis Fernando F; Vianna, Maria Isabel P; Passos-Soares, Johelle S; Trindade, Soraya C; Oliveira, Ernesto P; Oliveira, Michelle T; Cerqueira, Eneida de M M; Pereira, Antonio Luis; Barreto, Maurício L; Seymour, Gregory John

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of glycemic level on the relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was conducted with 372 females divided into cases (109 mothers of newborns with birth weight periodontal status. Results were analyzed using logistic regression. The likelihood of having children with LBW among the mothers with periodontitis was six times greater than that observed among mothers without periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR adjusted] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47 to 15.17), even after adjustment. There was also a strong, statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and LBW in both the normal glycemic-level group (HbA1c levels Periodontitis and glycemic levels appeared to have opposing influences on birth weight, with periodontitis being associated with LBW and the magnitude of the association being altered depending on maternal blood glucose level.

  5. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamal, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)

  6. Is Biology Destiny? Birth Weight and Differential Parental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Time diaries of sibling pairs from the PSID-CDS are used to determine whether maternal time investments compensate for or reinforce birth-weight differences among children. The findings demonstrate that the direction and degree of differential treatment vary by mother's education. Less-educated mothers devote more total time and more educationally oriented time to heavier-birth-weight children, whereas better-educated mothers devote more total and more educationally oriented time to lower-birth-weight children. The compensating effects observed among highly educated mothers are substantially larger than the reinforcing effects among the least-educated mothers. The findings show that families redistribute resources in ways that both compensate for and exacerbate early-life disadvantages. PMID:22865101

  7. Smoking Ban and Small-For-Gestational Age Births in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zubair; Daly, Sean; Clarke, Vanessa; Keogan, Sheila; Clancy, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Background Ireland introduced a comprehensive workplace smoke-free legislation in March, 2004. Smoking-related adverse birth outcomes have both health care and societal cost implications. The main aim of this study was to determine the impact of the Irish smoke-free legislation on small-for-gestationa- age (SGA) births. Methods and Findings We developed a population-based birthweight (BW) percentile curve based on a recent study to compute SGA (BW <5th percentile) and very SGA (vSGA - BW<3rd percentile) for each gestational week. Monthly births born between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed linking with monthly maternal smoking rates from a large referral maternity university hospital. We ran individual control and CUSUM charts, with bootstrap simulations, to pinpoint the breakpoint for the impact of ban implementation ( = April 2004). Monthly SGA rates (%) before and after April 2004 was considered pre and post ban period births, respectively. Autocorrelation was tested using Durbin Watson (DW) statistic. Mixed models using a random intercept and a fixed effect were employed using SAS (v 9.2). A total of 588,997 singleton live-births born between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed. vSGA and SGA monthly rates declined from an average of 4.7% to 4.3% and from 6.9% to 6.6% before and after April 2004, respectively. No auto-correlation was detected (DW = ∼2). Adjusted mixed models indicated a significant decline in both vSGA and SGA rates immediately after the ban [(−5.3%; 95% CI −5.43% to −5.17%, p<0.0001) and (−0.45%; 95% CI: −0.7% to −0.19%, p<0.0007)], respectively. Significant gradual effects continued post the ban periods for vSGA and SGA rates, namely, −0.6% (p<0.0001) and −0.02% (p<0.0001), respectively. Conclusions A significant reduction in small-for-gestational birth rates both immediately and sustained over the post-ban period, reinforces the mounting evidence of the positive health effect of a successful

  8. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  9. [Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. There were 972 subjects (males: 50.7%, mean age: (46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data analysis. The 2 h PG in low birth weight group was (7.6±3.2) mmol/L , which was higher than that in normal birth weight group (6.9±2.1) mmol/L and high birth weight group (6.4±1.3) mmol/L (F=3.88, P=0.021). After adjustment for genders, age, body length, gestation age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and duration of follow-up, subjects with overweight and obesity at adulthood had 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) =2.06- 3.62) times risk

  10. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul; Lequin, Maarten; Pul, Carola van; Buijs, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm 2 ) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  11. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pul, Carola van [Maxima Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  12. Continuity of midwifery care and gestational weight gain in obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Denise

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased prevalence of obesity in pregnant women in Australia and other developed countries is a significant public health concern. Obese women are at increased risk of serious perinatal complications and guidelines recommend weight gain restriction and additional care. There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of dietary and physical activity lifestyle interventions in preventing adverse perinatal outcomes and new strategies need to be evaluated. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of continuity of midwifery care on restricting gestational weight gain in obese women to the recommended range. The secondary aims of the study are to assess the impact of continuity of midwifery care on: women's experience of pregnancy care; women's satisfaction with care and a range of psychological factors. Methods/Design A two arm randomised controlled trial (RCT will be conducted with primigravid women recruited from maternity services in Victoria, Australia. Participants will be primigravid women, with a BMI≥30 who are less than 17 weeks gestation. Women allocated to the intervention arm will be cared for in a midwifery continuity of care model and receive an informational leaflet on managing weight gain in pregnancy. Women allocated to the control group will receive routine care in addition to the same informational leaflet. Weight gain during pregnancy, standards of care, medical and obstetric information will be extracted from medical records. Data collected at recruitment (self administered survey and at 36 weeks by postal survey will include socio-demographic information and the use of validated scales to measure secondary outcomes. Discussion Continuity of midwifery care models are well aligned with current Victorian, Australian and many international government policies on maternity care. Increasingly, midwifery continuity models of care are being introduced in low risk maternity care, and

  13. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kloog Itai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008. Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01–1.13 for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in

  14. The role of gestational diabetes, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain on the risk of newborn macrosomia: results from a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberico, Salvatore; Montico, Marcella; Barresi, Valentina; Monasta, Lorenzo; Businelli, Caterina; Soini, Valentina; Erenbourg, Anna; Ronfani, Luca; Maso, Gianpaolo

    2014-01-15

    It is crucial to identify in large population samples the most important determinants of excessive fetal growth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the independent role of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes on the risk of macrosomia. A prospective study collected data on mode of delivery and maternal/neonatal outcomes in eleven Hospitals in Italy. Multiple pregnancies and preterm deliveries were excluded. The sample included 14109 women with complete records. Associations between exposure variables and newborn macrosomia were analyzed using Pearson's chi squared test. Multiple logistic regression models were built to assess the independent association between potential predictors and macrosomia. Maternal obesity (adjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.2), excessive gestational weight gain (adjusted OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2) and diabetes (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.0 for gestational; adjusted OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2-7.6 for pre-gestational) resulted to be independent predictors of macrosomia, when adjusted for other recognized risk factors. Since no significant interaction was found between pre-gestational BMI and gestational weight gain, excessive weight gain should be considered an independent risk factor for macrosomia. In the sub-group of women affected by gestational or pre-gestational diabetes, pre-gestational BMI was not significantly associated to macrosomia, while excessive pregnancy weight gain, maternal height and gestational age at delivery were significantly associated. In this sub-population, pregnancy weight gain less than recommended was not significantly associated to a reduction in macrosomia. Our findings indicate that maternal obesity, gestational weight gain excess and diabetes should be considered as independent risk factors for newborn macrosomia. To adequately evaluate the clinical evolution of pregnancy all three variables need to be carefully assessed and monitored.

  15. Association of maternal serum concentrations of 2,2', 4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) levels with birth weight, gestational age and preterm births in Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Rabczenko, Daniel; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on the association between maternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and fetal growth alteration report inconsistent findings which weights in favor of additional studies....

  16. Increment of absolute neutrophil count in the third trimester and increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth: Hirakata Risk Associated with Pregnancy Assessment Research (HIRAPAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harita, Nobuko; Kariya, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Nakamura, Kimihiko; Endo, Ginji; Narimoto, Katsuhiko

    2012-09-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants, who have growth restriction, have higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Excessive inflammatory reaction such as neutrophil activation has been observed in pregnant women whose offspring had restricted fetal growth, but the association between white blood cell (WBC) counts and SGA birth has not yet been assessed. We therefore examined the association of WBC count and its change with the risk of SGA birth. We enrolled 2356 pregnant women who had full-term singleton delivery at a private maternity hospital in Hirakata, Japan. SGA was defined as under the 10th percentile of birthweight for gestational age, baby sex, and mother's parity according to the Japanese neonatal anthropometric charts renewed in 2010. Blood samples were measured in the first and third trimesters. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to assess associations between total and differential WBC counts and SGA birth. Women with SGA birth tended to have higher total WBC count in the third trimester compared with women who did not have SGA birth. This tendency was not observed for total WBC count in the first trimester. After adjustment for age, height, body mass index at entry, smoking habit, weekly gestational weight gain, and pregnancy-induced hypertension, higher total WBC count in the third trimester was associated with an increased risk of SGA birth. Total WBC count in the first trimester did not show any significant association with SGA birth. The ratio of total WBC count in the third trimester to that in the first trimester was associated with SGA birth; the odds ratio for 1 unit increase was 3.02 (95% CI: 1.54-5.92). Regarding differential WBC counts in the third trimester, neutrophil count but not lymphocyte count was associated positively with SGA birth. Higher total WBC and absolute neutrophil counts in the third trimester were associated with SGA birth. In addition, greater ratio of increase in total WBC counts during pregnancy

  17. Enteral zinc supplementation and growth in extremely-low-birth-weight infants with chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhkhalil, Ala K; Curtiss, Jennifer; Puthoff, Teresa D; Valentine, Christina J

    2014-02-01

    Zinc deficiency causes growth deficits. Extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants with chronic lung disease (CLD), also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, experience growth failure and are at risk for zinc deficiency. We hypothesized that enteral zinc supplementation would increase weight gain and linear growth. A cohort of infants was examined retrospectively at a single center between January 2008 and December 2011. CLD was defined as the need for oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. Zinc supplementation was started in infants who had poor weight gain. Infants' weight gain and linear growth were compared before and after zinc supplementation using the paired t test. A total of 52 ELBW infants with CLD met entry criteria. Mean birth weight was 682 ± 183 g, and gestational age was 25.3 ± 2 weeks. Zinc supplementation started at postmenstrual age 33 ± 2 weeks. Most infants received fortified human milk. Weight gain increased from 10.9 before supplementation to 19.9 g · kg(-1) · day(-1) after supplementation (P supplementation improved growth in ELBW infants with CLD receiving human milk. Further investigation is warranted to reevaluate zinc requirements, markers, and balance.

  18. Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: a clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a Gender Identity Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Garzon, Luisa C; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    This study tested predictions regarding two hypothesized maternal immune responses influencing sexual orientation: one affecting homosexual males with high fraternal birth order and another affecting firstborn homosexual individuals whose mothers experience repeated miscarriage after the birth of the first child. Low birth weight was treated as a marker of possible exposure to a maternal immune response during gestation. Birth weight was examined relative to sibship characteristics in a clinical sample of youth (N = 1,722) classified as heterosexual or homosexual based on self-reported or probable sexual orientation. No female sexual orientation differences in birth weight were found. Homosexual, compared to heterosexual, males showed lower birth weight if they had one or more older brothers--and especially two or more older brothers--or if they were an only-child. These findings support the existence of two maternal immune responses influencing male sexual orientation and possibly also cross-gender behavior and identity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Psychosocial Characteristics and Gestational Weight Change among Overweight, African American Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe psychosocial factors identified as contributors of weight gain in the general population and to examine the relationship between these factors and gestational weight gain among low socioeconomic status, African American, overweight pregnant women. Methods. African American women (n=120 with a pregravid body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 completed measures of eating, sleep, and depressed mood between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation. Weight was tracked. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and linear regression modeling were used to characterize the sample and examine predictors of gestational weight gain. Results. Four percent screened positive for night eating syndrome, with 32% consuming at least 25% of their daily caloric intake after dinner (evening hyperphagia. None met criteria for binge eating disorder; 4% reported occasional binge episodes. Cognitive restraint over eating was low. Participants slept 7.1 (SD=1.9 h per night and reported 4.3 (SD=3.6 awakenings per week; 18% reported some level of depressed mood. Night and binge eating were related to each other, sleep quality, and depressed mood. Eating due to cravings was the only psychosocial variable to predict gestational weight gain. Conclusions. Depressed mood, night eating, and nighttime awakenings were common in this cohort, while cognitive restraint over eating was low. Most psychosocial variables were not predictive of excess gestational weight gain.

  20. Association of maternal periodontitis with low birth weight in newborns in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.S.; Ashraf, R.N.; Rahman, M.U.; Mashhadi, S.F.; Rashid, Z.; Nazar, A.F.; Syed, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight is a major public health problem in Pakistan. So there is a need for identification of its modifiable risk factors like periodontitis which will reduce its burden on the society. The objectives of the study were to find out the association between maternal periodontitis and low birth weight in new-borns of all gestational ages delivered in a tertiary care hospital of Abbottabad as well as to see the frequency of periodontitis severity in these subjects. Methods: A hospital-based matched case-control study was conducted among 160 postpartum mothers in Gynaecology/Obstetrics-B ward Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. The 80 cases were mothers of low birth weight babies (<2,500 g), the 80 controls were mothers of normal weight babies (=2,500 g) matched with maternal age and gestational age. Data was collected through the hospital records, interview and a periodontal examination. Results: Periodontitis was more in the cases than in the controls (OR: 4.167, 95 percentage CI: 2.142-8.109, ρ=0.000). On multivariate logistic regression, periodontitis was found to be a significant independent risk factor for low birth weight (aOR: 3.173, 95 percentage CI: 1.429-7.047, ρ=0.005). Other significant risk factors were educational level (aOR: 3.408, 95 percentage CI: 1.452-7.996, ρ=0.005), socioeconomic status (aOR: 3.173, 95 percentage CI: 1.366-7.368, ρ=0.007), maternal nutrition (aOR: 3.071, 95 percentage CI: 1.392-6.778, ρ=0.005) and moderate/severe anaemia (aOR: 3.035, 95 percentage CI: 1.052-8.756, p=0.040). Conclusions: Periodontitis is found to be a strong, independent, and clinically significant risk factor for low birth weight. So periodontal therapy should form a part of the antenatal care of the pregnant women in Abbottabad. (author)

  1. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro de; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 23(0/7)-31(6/7) weeks, birth weight of 500-1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Low birth weight in a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Carolina Queiroz de Souza; Cacella, Bruna Cristina de Almeida; Mandetta, Myriam Aparecida; Balieiro, Maria Magda Ferreira Gomes

    2015-01-01

    to identify the prevalence of low birth weight in the city of São Paulo. epidemiological cross-sectional study with data collected by means of the Brazilian Live Birth Information System related to births occurred in the city of São Paulo between 2007 and 2013. Maternal, gestational, childbirth, and neonatal variables were analyzed descriptively and by association. 9.65% (1,342,655) of live births were underweight (mean of 3234.55 grams in the term group and 2312.17 in the pre-term group) with a mean maternal age of 27.53 years old. The risk factors identified include maternal age, not having a partner, low maternal level of education, other race rather than white, pre-term pregnancy, multiple births, low number of prenatal check-ups, and cesarean delivery. knowledge of this evidence favors planning the care provided by defining strategies to reduce it and consequently improve maternal and infant health care.

  4. Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain, and risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Bager, Peter

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are suggested to influence risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of BMI and GWG on risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic eczema (AE), and hay fever in children...... during the first 7 years of life. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 38,874 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort (enrollment 1996-2002) with information from the 16th week of pregnancy and at age 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of the child. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were...... calculated by logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: During the first 7 years of life, 10.4% of children developed doctor-diagnosed asthma, 25.8% AE, and 4.6% hay fever. Maternal BMI and to a lesser extent GWG were associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma ever. In particular...

  5. Maternal obesity, gestational weight gain, and risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Basit, Saima; Bager, Peter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are suggested to influence risk of asthma and atopic disease in offspring. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effect of BMI and GWG on risk of asthma, wheezing, atopic eczema (AE), and hay fever in children...... during the first 7 years of life. METHODS: This was a cohort study of 38,874 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort (enrollment 1996-2002) with information from the 16th week of pregnancy and at age 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of the child. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs were...... calculated by logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: During the first 7 years of life, 10.4% of children developed doctor-diagnosed asthma, 25.8% AE, and 4.6% hay fever. Maternal BMI and to a lesser extent GWG were associated with doctor-diagnosed asthma ever. In particular...

  6. NEONATAL SEPTICAEMIA IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... Conclusion: Case fatality rate for low birth weight infants with sepsis is high. Gram negative organisms are the predominant pathogens. No maternal risk factors were identified. Antibiotic sensitivity shows adequate sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins. INTRODUCTION.

  7. Periventricular-intraventricular haetnorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAN 1994. Periventricular-intraventricular haetnorrhage in low-birth-weight infants at Baragwanath Hospital ... dation,IO while many women delivering premature infants have not received proper antenatal care. .... required mechanical ventilation and one-third of those who did not, allocated by random number generation,.

  8. Ramadan during pregnancy and birth weight of newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I.; Amelia, Dwirani; Painter, Rebecca C.; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    P= 0·44), although there was a non-significant trend towards lower birth weight with fasting in the second and third trimester. Women who fasted had significantly lower total energy, macronutrient and water intake as compared with women who did not. Women's intake was also lower during Ramadan

  9. Combating low birth weight due to malaria infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, James G; Scoullar, Michelle J L; Boeuf, Philippe

    2018-03-07

    Decreased l-arginine and nitric oxide bioavailability in pregnant women with malaria contributes to low birth weight, suggesting that l-arginine supplementation could be a potential treatment (McDonald et al ). Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Direct Maternal Genetic Effects and Birth Weight Trends of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correlation between direct and maternal effects was negative implying that selection should be directed at both components, considering the maternal heritability estimate, which was moderate. The environmental parameter records of the study area suggest that birth weight was not depressed by the tropical semi arid ...

  11. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    :: We investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years...

  12. Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital in Atwima ... Journal of the Ghana Science Association ... pregnancy. Intensification of health education efforts to improve maternal nutrition at ANC (Ante natal clinic) is recommended.

  13. Variation in individual piglet birth weights in a Large White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CVBWT) was 17.6% and ranged from 0.47% to 50.7%. The distribution of CVBWT in the herd was positively skewed. CVBWT increased as NBA increased. Multiparous sows farrowed litters with higher ...

  14. Improved appetite of pregnant rats and increased birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition and pathogenic colonization of the vagina are two major contributors to preterm labour, newborn survival and low birth weight babies. Hypothetically, the use of probiotics as food supplements might improve the appetite and health of the mother and their newborn babies. Sprague-Dawley albino rats were ...

  15. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2 Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa. University ... Conclusion: - The association of low birth weight with substance use was strong, particularly, with maternal khat chewing, cigarette ... the magnitude of alcohol drinking habit among women in reproductive ...

  16. Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We, therefore, investigated effects of exposure to biomass fuels on reduced birth weight in the Malawian population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using secondary data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey with a total of 9124 respondents. Information on exposure to biomass fuels, ...

  17. Successful management of a set of preterm, low birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: We report a case of successful management of preterm, low birth weight quadruplets (QI, QII, QIII, and QIV) delivered at 32 weeks by Caesarean section to a 30 year old primiparous mother. QIII and QIV developed septicaemia with conjugated bilirubinaemia and were managed with intravenous antibiotics, and ...

  18. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (PV-IVH) aInong very-low-birthweight infants at Baragwanath Hospital has not been well docwnented. In this prospective study, a total of 282 live-born infants with birth weights of 1 000 - 1 749 g were studied over a 41/2-month period. Every infant had at least ...

  19. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...

  20. Prediction of low birth weight from other anthropometric parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight is a global problem but presents a major burden on the neonatal services in developing countries such as Nigeria, and brings to bear a greater strain on the meagre resources available for health care delivery and family financing. In a resourceconstrained setting as ours, proper weighing of all ...

  1. Association between maternal gingivitis, low birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between maternal gingivitis and pregnancy outcome, including low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery. This prospective study was conducted among 300 randomly selected pregnant women aged 20-34 years attending the antenatal clinic, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ...

  2. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; P= 0.01). There is need of increasing promotion of reproductive health services in relation to safe motherhood at community level in order to reduce risk fac- tors of LBW. Key words: Low birth weight, pregnancy, risk factors, hospital, Tanzania.

  3. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder