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  1. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  2. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  4. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight. Nondiabetic women were recruited after ultrasonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Maternal body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the strongest predictors of birth weight, with multiple logistic regression analysis performed to assess predictors of birth weight greater than 4 kg. Data were analyzed for 2,618 women, of whom 49.6% (n=1,075) were primigravid and 16.5% (n=432) were obese based on a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. In univariable analysis, maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, smoking, fat mass, and fat-free mass all correlated significantly with birth weight. In multivariable regression analysis, fat-free mass remained a significant predictor of birth weight (model R=0.254, standardized β=0.237; Prelationship was found between maternal fat mass and birth weight. After adjustment for confounding variables, women in the highest fat-free mass quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.64 (95% confidence interval 2.34-5.68) for a birth weight more than 4 kg compared with those in the lowest quartile. Based on direct measurements of body composition, birth weight correlated positively with maternal fat-free mass and not adiposity. These findings suggest that, in nondiabetic women, interventions intended to reduce fat mass during pregnancy may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates and revised guidelines for gestational weight gain in obese women may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates. : III.

  5. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  6. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  7. Maternal lean body mass may be the major determinant of birth weight: A study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, B; Shatrugna, V; Balakrishna, N

    2006-11-01

    This study explored the relationship of maternal body composition parameters to the birth weight of the offspring. Maternal anthropometric parameters (weight, height) and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured in 76 women from low-income group during 12-21 days postpartum. The mean+/-s.d. height, weight of the mothers and birth weight of the newborns were 151.5+/-5.29 cm, 46.7+/-6.04 and 2.84+/-0.358 kg, respectively. When the relationship of maternal anthropometric and body composition parameters to the infants' birth weight was studied, maternal lean body mass was found to be the most important determinant of birth weight (R2 (%) = 21.3) (P < 0.001). This study highlights the importance of increasing lean body mass in young women for better pregnancy outcome.

  8. Birth Weight, Nutritional Status and Body Composition among Malaysian Children Aged 7 to 10 Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ang, Yeow Nyin

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Studies have indicated that lower birth weight is associated with lower body mass index, but the use of birth weight in predicting later nutritional status and adiposity remains inconsistent. Hence, this paper aimed to examine the relationship between birth weight and nutritional status with body composition among Malaysian children. This study is part of the Nutritional Survey of Malaysian Children, which is part of the four-country South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS). Subjects comprising 398 boys and 389 girls from the main ethnic groups, namely Malays, Chinese, Indians, Sabah and Sarawak natives, were recruited using a stratified random sampling. Anthropometric measurements comprised body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and body fat (BF). Body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) adjusted with height were included, and birth weight was obtained by parental report. Nutritional status such as weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were determined using the WHO growth reference for 5–19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Mean birth weight, height, weight, and BF were 3.1±0.5kg, 128.0±8.1cm, 28.4±8.9kg, and 27.9±9.1% respectively. Boys (20.4±4.2kg) had higher FFM (p<0.05) as compared to girls (19.4±4.9kg). Overall, the prevalence of stunting, underweight and thinness were 6.7%, 9.8% and 6.4%, respectively; while the prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher at 11.9% and 15.6%, respectively. Significant differences between the sexes (p<0.05) were found in HAZ (boys: -0.43±0.99; girls: -0.42±1.17) and BAZ (boys: 0.26±1.76; girls: 0.09±1.48). Children born low birth weight (<2.5kg) had lower nutritional status (WAZ:0.59±1.62; HAZ:-0.83±0.96) as compared to those with normal birth weight (WAZ: -0.05±1.62; HAZ: -0.40±1.09) and high birth weight (>4.0kg) (WAZ: 0.51±1.35; HAZ: -0.07 ± 0.67) at p<0

  9. Birth body length, birth body weight and birth head circumference in neonates born in a single centre between 2011 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlus, Beata; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Kubik, Paweł; Milde, Katarzyna; Gmyrek, Leszek; Pęsko, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Access to updated and accurate standards for local populations is important for the interpretation of body measurements in neonates and may have an impact on the doctor's recommendations for monitoring early childhood development. to present individual mean values for the most prevalent body measurements (i.e. birth body length (BBL), birth body weight (BBW) and birth head circumference (BHC)) in neonates and compare them to the duration of pregnancy. The measurements (BBL, BBW and BHC) were collected and analyzed from over 27,000 neonates born in a single center. All women with single pregnancies with gestation ranging from 33 to 42 weeks were included in the study. Mean values and statistically significant standard deviation values from population standards of BBL, BBW, and BHC were evaluated for neonates that were born between the 33rd and 42nd week of gestation. Analysis was conducted for the lower limit (10th percentile), average (50th percentile) and upper limit (90th percentile). This was the first time in Polish literature when population standards were presented for three body meas-urements of neonates. With the size of the cohort, these standards can be successfully implemented into routine clinical practice, especially for screening children with body size deficits.

  10. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Eriksson, Johan G

    2010-01-01

    Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI) is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood.......Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI) is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood....

  11. Weight concerns in male low birth weight adolescents: relation to body mass index, self-esteem, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blond, Anna; Whitaker, Agnes H; Lorenz, John M; Feldman, Judith F; Nieto, Marlon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Paneth, Nigel

    2008-06-01

    To compare weight concerns and self-reported body mass index (BMI) of low birth weight (LBW) adolescent boys to those of a normative sample and examine relationships among BMI, weight concerns, self-esteem, and depression in the LBW cohort. LBW boys (n = 260; mean age, 16.0) belong to the Neonatal Brain Hemorrhage Study birth cohort. Normative boys (n = 305; mean age, 16.5) belong to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Both samples were assessed in 2001-2004 with self-report questionnaires. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Weight perception and weight dissatisfaction were assessed with the Eating Symptoms Inventory. In LBW boys, self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory. Based on self-reported height and weight, LBW boys were more likely to be healthy weight or underweight and less likely to be overweight than normative boys. Despite having healthier self-reported BMIs, LBW boys reported more weight concerns than the normative sample. A total of 46.9% of LBW boys perceived their weight as abnormal, and 76.5% desired weight change. Weight concerns in LBW boys mostly reflected a perception of being underweight (31.2% of the cohort) and a desire to gain weight (47.5% of the cohort), although only 6.5% were clinically underweight. Weight concerns, but not BMI, were related to clinical depression and lower self-esteem. LBW adolescent boys are at high risk of experiencing weight concerns. Weight concerns rather than BMI are associated with emotional problems in LBW boys.

  12. Correlates of antenatal body mass index (bmi as a determinant of birth weight – a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Rambiharilal Shrivastava

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI in antenatal period and birth weight of child, along with the socio-demographic determinants of birth weight. Methods: A longitudinal study of one-year duration, from June 2010 to May 2011, was conducted in an urban slum of Mumbai, India. Universal sampling method was employed, including as subjects all pregnant women with minimum two Antenatal Care (ANC visits - and at least one in the third trimester - registered at an urban health centre from June to August 2010. Subjects with any pre-existing co-morbid illness or with past history of giving birth to twins or to any congenitally malformed child, or else, with outcome of still births or home delivery, were excluded. These women were followed up for the next months until delivery. Maternal weight was recorded at each visit and BMI was calculated, or the average BMI, in case of more than one visit in any trimester. Birth weight was recorded using hospital or maternity home records. Results: Prevalence of low birth weight was 26.7%. Correlation between maternal BMI of third trimester and neonatal birth weight was moderately positive. 60.8% of variability in birth weight can be predicted by maternal BMI in third trimester. Conclusions: Third trimester BMI can be used as a predictor of neonatal birth weight. Information, Education and Counseling (IEC activities regarding utilization of Antenatal Care (ANC services can help reducing the incidence of Low Birth Weight (LBW.

  13. Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Gestational Weight Gain, and Birth Weight: A Cohort Study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoping Yang

    Full Text Available To assess whether pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI modify the relationship between gestational weight gain (GWG and child birth weight (specifically, presence or absence of low birth weight (LBW or presence of absence of macrosomia, and estimates of the relative risk of macrosomia and LBW based on pre-pregnancy BMI were controlled in Wuhan, China.From June 30, 2011 to June 30, 2013. All data was collected and available from the perinatal health care system. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the independent association among pregnancy weight gain, LBW, normal birth weight, and macrosomia within different pre-pregnancy BMI groups. We built different logistic models for the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM Guidelines and Chinese-recommended GWG which was made from this sample. The Chinese-recommended GWG was derived from the quartile values (25th-75th percentiles of weight gain at the time of delivery in the subjects which comprised our sample.For LBW children, using the recommended weight gain of the IOM and Chinese women as a reference, the OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a positive relationship for lean and normal weight women, but not for overweight and obese women. For macrosomia, considering the IOM's recommended weight gain as a reference, the OR magnitude for pregnancy weight gain above recommendations resulted in a positive correlation for all women. The OR for a pregnancy weight gain below recommendations resulted in a negative relationship for normal BMI and lean women, but not for overweight and obese women based on the IOM recommendations, significant based on the recommended pregnancy weight gain for Chinese women. Of normal weight children, 56.6% were above the GWG based on IOM recommendations, but 26.97% of normal weight children were above the GWG based on Chinese recommendations.A GWG above IOM recommendations might not be helpful for Chinese women. We need unified criteria to

  14. Very low birth weight infants who are fed human milk have decreased body fat as assessed by air displacement plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to evaluate body composition in infants have recently been enhanced. There are few data regarding body composition in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Our objective was to evaluate body composition in VLBW infants consuming human milk or formula using novel techniques. Using air-displac...

  15. Age-dependent nongenetic influences of birth weight and adult body fat on insulin sensitivity in twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rikke Nygaard; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Rasmussen, Eva Lind

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized a nongenetic influence of birth weight (BW) and twin and zygosity status on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry determined adult total and regional body composition and a quantitative equal, although independent, importance of adult body composition and BW for insulin sensitivity....

  16. Post-discharge body weight and neurodevelopmental outcomes among very low birth weight infants in Taiwan: A nationwide cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Ting; Chen, Chao-Huei; Wang, Teh-Ming; Hsu, Ya-Chi

    2018-01-01

    Background Premature infants are at high risk for developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction. Besides medical conditions, growth restriction is regarded as an important risk factor for cognitive and neurodevelopmental dysfunction throughout childhood and adolescence and even into adulthood. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between post-discharge body weight and psychomotor development using a nationwide dataset. Materials and methods This was a nationwide cohort study conducted in Taiwan. Total of 1791 premature infants born between 2007 and 2011 with a birth weight of less than 1500 g were enrolled into this multi-center study. The data were obtained from the Taiwan Premature Infant Developmental Collaborative Study Group. The growth and neurodevelopmental evaluations were performed at corrected ages of 6, 12 and 24 months. Post-discharge failure to thrive was defined as a body weight below the 3rd percentile of the standard growth curve for Taiwanese children by the corrected age. Results The prevalence of failure to thrive was 15.8%, 16.9%, and 12.0% at corrected ages of 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. At corrected ages of 24 months, 12.9% had low Mental Developmental Index (MDI) scores (MDIfailure to thrive was significantly associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. After controlling for potential confounding factors (small for gestational age, extra-uterine growth retardation at discharge, cerebral palsy, gender, mild intraventricular hemorrhage, persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, surfactant use and indomethacin use), post-discharge failure to thrive remained a risk factor. Conclusion This observational study observed the association between lower body weight at corrected age of 6, 12, and 24 months and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes among VLBW premature infants. There are many adverse factors

  17. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  18. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Geisler Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years were available in 216,771 Danish and Finnish individuals born 1924-1976. Linkage to national registers for hospitalization and causes of death identified 8,805 CHD events during up to 33 years of follow-up (median = 24 years after age 25 years. Analyses were conducted with Cox regression based on restricted cubic splines. Using median birth weight of 3.4 kg as reference, a non-linear relation between birth weight and CHD was found. It was not significantly different between cohorts, or between men and women, nor was the association altered by childhood BMI. For birth weights below 3.4 kg, the risk of CHD increased linearly and reached 1.28 (95% confidence limits: 1.13 to 1.44 at 2 kg. Above 3.4 kg the association weakened, and from about 4 kg there was virtually no association. BMI at age seven years was strongly positively associated with the risk of CHD and the relation was not altered by birth weight. The excess risk in individuals with a birth weight of 2.5 kg and a BMI of 17.7 kg/m(2 at age seven years was 44% (95% CI: 30% to 59% compared with individuals with median values of birth weight (3.4 kg and BMI (15.3 kg/m(2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years appeared independently associated with the risk of CHD in adulthood. From a public health perspective we suggest that particular attention should be paid to children with a birth weight below the average in combination with excess relative weight in childhood.

  19. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

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    Sonja Stutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01. Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05, but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.. In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001. Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05, whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05. Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children.

  20. Comparative Effect of Massage Therapy versus Kangaroo Mother Care on Body Weight and Length of Hospital Stay in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

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    Priya Singh Rangey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy (MT and kangaroo mother care (KMC are both effective in increasing the weight and reducing length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm infants but they have not been compared. Aim. Comparison of effectiveness of MT and KMC on body weight and length of hospital stay in low birth weight preterm (LBWPT infants. Method. 30 LBWPT infants using convenience sampling from Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, V.S. hospital, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. Group 1 received MT and Group 2 received KMC for 15 minutes, thrice daily for 5 days. Medically stable babies with gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight < 2500 g were included. Those on ventilators and with congenital, orthopedic, or genetic abnormality were excluded. Outcome measures, body weight and length of hospital stay, were taken before intervention day 1 and after intervention day 5. Level of significance was 5%. Result. Data was analyzed using SPSS16. Both MT and KMC were found to be effective in improving body weight (P = 0.001, P = 0.001. Both were found to be equally effective for improving body weight (P = 0.328 and reducing length of hospital stay (P = 0.868. Conclusion. MT and KMC were found to be equally effective in improving body weight and reducing length of hospital stay. Limitation. Long term follow-up was not taken.

  1. Post-discharge body weight and neurodevelopmental outcomes among very low birth weight infants in Taiwan: A nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Ting Hsu

    Full Text Available Premature infants are at high risk for developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction. Besides medical conditions, growth restriction is regarded as an important risk factor for cognitive and neurodevelopmental dysfunction throughout childhood and adolescence and even into adulthood. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between post-discharge body weight and psychomotor development using a nationwide dataset.This was a nationwide cohort study conducted in Taiwan. Total of 1791 premature infants born between 2007 and 2011 with a birth weight of less than 1500 g were enrolled into this multi-center study. The data were obtained from the Taiwan Premature Infant Developmental Collaborative Study Group. The growth and neurodevelopmental evaluations were performed at corrected ages of 6, 12 and 24 months. Post-discharge failure to thrive was defined as a body weight below the 3rd percentile of the standard growth curve for Taiwanese children by the corrected age.The prevalence of failure to thrive was 15.8%, 16.9%, and 12.0% at corrected ages of 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. At corrected ages of 24 months, 12.9% had low Mental Developmental Index (MDI scores (MDI<70, 17.8% had low Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI scores (PDI<70, 12.7% had cerebral palsy, and 29.5% had neurodevelopmental impairment. Post-discharge failure to thrive was significantly associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. After controlling for potential confounding factors (small for gestational age, extra-uterine growth retardation at discharge, cerebral palsy, gender, mild intraventricular hemorrhage, persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, surfactant use and indomethacin use, post-discharge failure to thrive remained a risk factor.This observational study observed the association between lower body weight at corrected age

  2. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, child...

  3. Socioeconomic disparities in birth weight and body mass index during infancy through age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2017-01-01

    -scores at age 7 for boys (0.198; 95% CI 0.154 to 0.242) and girls (0.218; 95% CI 0.173 to 0.264). There was not a similarly clear pattern in the tracking between different household income groups. However, a low household income level was associated with higher z-scores of both birth weight and BMI at age 7...... 1997 and 2003, for whom information on body size from at least 1 of 4 time points (n=85 062) was recorded. We examined the associations using linear mixed-effects modelling. RESULTS: Children from families with a low maternal and paternal educational level changed their body size z-scores upwards...... between birth and age 7 years. At age 5 and 12 months, there were no educational gradient. A low maternal educational level was associated with lower birth weight for gestational age z-scores at birth for boys (-0.199; 95% CI -0.230 to -0.169) and girls (-0.198; 95% CI -0.229 to -0.167) and higher BMI z...

  4. SECULAR CHANGES IN BIRTH WEIGHTS AND WOMEN'S BODY SIZE IN KRAKÓW AND POZNAŃ (POLAND) DURING THE LAST CENTURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryst, Łukasz; Bilińska, Inez

    2017-05-01

    Changing socioeconomic conditions over the last century have left their mark on neonatal size and final body size of individuals born in those days. The main aim of this study was to investigate how the historical, political and economic changes occurring from the late 19th century to the 2000s have affected the birth weight of newborns. Additionally, changes in weight and body height in the case of young women (potential mothers) were analysed. Data were from two cities in Poland (Kraków and Poznań) covering 15,884 newborns and 3612 women aged 18 years, derived from 1900 to 2010. Despite short-term fluctuations, the results showed significant increasing trends in all studied features. Changes in birth weight were similar in both cities: in Kraków it increased by 184 g (males) and 206 g (females), and in Poznań by 216 g (males) and 120 g (females). Changes in women's body size were also significant, but the level was different depending on place of residence. In the last century, women's body height increased by 8.2 cm in Kraków and by 10.2 cm in Poznań, and their body weight increased by 1 kg and 5 kg respectively. The considered period covered the years of socioeconomic change that occurred as a result of the political system transformation. Crises, periods of prosperity and other factors that determine standard of living and health care have influenced the development of the Polish population's physical features.

  5. Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants Lack Vasomotor Response in Relationship to Cold Body Temperatures at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Knobel, Robin B.; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Schwartz, Todd A.; Wimmer, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated peripheral vasoconstriction in ELBW infants when body temperature decreased during the first 12-hours of life. Design An exploratory, within-subjects design with 10 ELBW infants. Abdominal and foot temperatures were measured every minute. Peripheral vasoconstriction (abdominal > peripheral temperature by 2? C) and abdominal-peripheral temperature difference were also evaluated. Results Abdominal and peripheral temperatures were significantly correlated within ea...

  6. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  7. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth...... and differentiation. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register includes data on 320,425 Danish schoolchildren born between 1930 and 1989, with height and weight measurements from ages 7-13 years and parentally recorded birth weights. We prospectively evaluated associations between childhood height and BMI, birth...... weight, and adult glioma risk. During follow-up (1968-2010), 355 men and 253 women aged ≥18 years were diagnosed with glioma. In boys, height at each age between 7 and 13 years was positively associated with glioma risk; hazard ratios per standard-deviation score at ages 7 (approximately 5.1 cm) and 13...

  8. The influence of birth weight and body mass in early adulthood on early coronary heart disease risk among Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the joint and separate influence of birth weight and body mass in young adulthood on subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cohort of 9,143 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1953, for whom information on birth weight and body weight and height around age 19 years were...... retrieved from birth certificates and conscript records, respectively, were followed from 1978 until 2005 (between age 25 and 52 years) for incident fatal and non-fatal CHD. Data on CHD were obtained through record linkage to the Cause of Death Registry and the National Patient Registry. During follow......-up, a total of 475 men had a CHD diagnosis. Men with low birth weight, high body mass index (BMI) at age 19, a father from the working class, and low educational level at age 19 had an increased risk for CHD. Birth weight was inversely associated with CHD only in men with BMI of 25 kg/m(2) or above...

  9. The influence of birth weight and body mass in early adulthood on early coronary heart disease risk among Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the joint and separate influence of birth weight and body mass in young adulthood on subsequent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. A cohort of 9,143 men born in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1953, for whom information on birth weight and body weight and height around age 19 years were...... retrieved from birth certificates and conscript records, respectively, were followed from 1978 until 2005 (between age 25 and 52 years) for incident fatal and non-fatal CHD. Data on CHD were obtained through record linkage to the Cause of Death Registry and the National Patient Registry. During follow......-up, a total of 475 men had a CHD diagnosis. Men with low birth weight, high body mass index (BMI) at age 19, a father from the working class, and low educational level at age 19 had an increased risk for CHD. Birth weight was inversely associated with CHD only in men with BMI of 25 kg/m2 or above. Adjustment...

  10. The 2014 Danish references from birth to 20 years for height, weight and body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    in body mass index (BMI) above median levels was found. Reference curves for height were superimposable with standard curves based on the selective WHO criteria. Danish children were longer/taller and heavier and they had larger head circumferences than those reported in the recent multiethnic WHO......AIM: To construct new Danish growth charts for 0- to 20-year-olds and to compare them with Danish references from 1982 and with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for children aged 0-5 years from 2006, by applying similar inclusion and exclusion criteria. METHODS: Anthropometric data from...... three contemporary Danish population-based studies were combined. References for height were based on healthy Caucasian children born at term. A total of 12,671 height measurements (8055 in boys and 4616 in girls) were included. Reference charts were developed using the generalised additive models...

  11. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  12. The 2014 Danish references from birth to 20 years for height, weight and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Aksglaede, Lise; Sørensen, Kaspar; Mouritsen, Annette; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Hagen, Casper P; Mieritz, Mikkel G; Jørgensen, Niels; Wolthers, Ole D; Heuck, Carsten; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M; Juul, Anders

    2014-02-01

    To construct new Danish growth charts for 0- to 20-year-olds and to compare them with Danish references from 1982 and with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for children aged 0-5 years from 2006, by applying similar inclusion and exclusion criteria. Anthropometric data from three contemporary Danish population-based studies were combined. References for height were based on healthy Caucasian children born at term. A total of 12,671 height measurements (8055 in boys and 4616 in girls) were included. Reference charts were developed using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape. From prepubertal ages, a secular increase in height was observed for both genders. The differences were most pronounced in puberty, and final heights were increased by 1.4 cm in boys and 2.9 cm in girls compared to 1982 references. In boys, but not girls an upward shift in body mass index (BMI) above median levels was found. Reference curves for height were superimposable with standard curves based on the selective WHO criteria. Danish children were longer/taller and heavier and they had larger head circumferences than those reported in the recent multiethnic WHO standards. We recommend national implementation of these contemporary 2014 Danish references for anthropometric measurements. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Estimation of genetic parameters and genetic trends for weight and body measurements at birth in sheep populations in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    China Supakorn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters and genetic trends for birth weight (BW,heart girth (HG, and body length (BL at birth of sheep populations in Thailand. Data were collected during 1998 to 2011 fromfour livestock research and testing stations. Fixed effect testing showed that sex, herd, contemporary group and breed groupgreatly influenced on the investigated traits (P<0.05. The log likelihood ratio test showed that all traits significantly affectedby maternal additive genetic effect as well as covariance between animal effects. Estimated direct heritabilities from multivariate analysis of the model for BW, HG and BL were 0.32, 0.52 and 0.54, while estimated maternal heritabilities were 0.23,0.14 and 0.14, respectively. Positive correlations were found among direct additive genetic (0.29 to 0.97, maternal additivegenetic (0.23 to 0.95, and phenotype (0.18 to 0.96. Direct-maternal correlations within traits (-0.68 for BW, -0.92 for HG and-0.89 for BL and between traits (-0.89 to -0.08 were antagonistic effect. Direct additive genetic trends for BW, HG and BL inthe second period (2005 to 2011 were significantly increased (0.02 kg/year, 0.89 and 0.73 cm/year while maternal additivegenetic trends characteristically depicted significantly decreased (-0.01 kg/year, -0.92 and -0.72 cm/year.

  14. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Prioreschi

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity.To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa.Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females. Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM, fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT were recorded.Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, p<0.01 and β = 0.10, p<0.01 respectively. Relative weight gain from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM, fat mass, VAT, and SAT at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 2 was positively associated with VAT at year 22. Being born small for gestational age and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22.The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  15. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioreschi, Alessandra; Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were recorded. Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, page and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22. The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  16. Adolescent self-control behavior predicts body weight through the life course: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, S; Hardy, R; Richards, M

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain has become one of the biggest issues for healthy aging in middle- and high-income countries. Self-control of emotional reward cues is an important behavioral factor for regulation of weight gain through voluntary diet control and physical activity. We tested the associations between teacher-rated self-control at ages 13 and 15 years, and measured body mass index (BMI) between ages 15 and 60-64 years, controlling for confounding factors such as affective symptoms and cognition, using 3873 study members in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, also known as the British 1946 birth cohort. Multivariable regression analysis after adjustment for all covariates showed that lower self-control was associated with higher BMI in all measure points (P<0.05). Multilevel modeling using a cubic model showed that there was an association between self-control and BMI at 15 years in females (male: BMI=-0.00 kg m(-2) per 1 s.d. on the self-control score (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.12 to 0.11), P =0.94; female: BMI=-0.27 (-0.42 to -0.11), P<0.001). The association became stronger with age in both sexes (BMI=-0.065 (-0.082 to -0.048), P<0.001; BMI=-0.036 (-0.057 to -0.015), P<0.001). By age 60-64 years, the association between self-control and BMI in men had increased to -0.70 (-0.96 to -0.44) and -0.67 (-1.04 to -0.30) in women. Lower adolescent self-control was associated with higher BMI through the life course, and this becomes stronger with age. Investigations to test whether intervention to self-control improves obesity are recommended.

  17. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... determine the effect of the year and season, age of the lamb, weight of the lamb, birth type and sex on the birth weight ... lambs, while sheep in the middle age (4 to 5 years) gave birth to lambs with the heaviest body weight. However, the ..... extensive lamb production systems in New Zealand. Livest. Prod.

  18. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW), a surrogate marker of an adverse fetal milieu, is linked to muscle insulin resistance, impaired insulin-stimulated glycolysis, and future risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle mass, fiber composition, and capillary density are important determinants of muscle f...... was not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSION: Alterations in fiber composition and size may contribute to development of type 2 diabetes in individuals with LBW....

  19. Association between maternal weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal weight gain and birth weight less than 3,000 g and greater than or equal to 4,000 g in underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 19.8 kg/m(2)), normal weight (BMI 19.8-26.0 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 26.1-29.0 kg/m(2)), and obese (BMI greater than...

  20. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multiple linear regression showed a negative association between ZSW at discharge and number of days nil per os without parenteral nutrition (PN). Antenatal steroids were associated with poor GV. There were no factors associated with regaining birth weight after 21 days on multiple logistic regression. Conclusion.

  1. Birth weight recovery among very low birth weight infants surviving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of enteral feeds in the first days of their life in order to prevent NEC. Uhing reported that preterm infants ... where: SS = required sample size; Z = 95% confidence interval. (standard value of 1.96); P ... The recommended growth velocity (GV) of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is 15 g/kg/day. Several factors have been.

  2. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E

    2013-01-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on...... on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery.......Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters...

  3. Associations between Prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure and birth weight: Modification by sex and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coull, Brent A.; Just, Allan C.; Maxwell, Sarah L.; Schwartz, Joel; Gryparis, Alexandros; Kloog, Itai; Wright, Rosalind J.; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prenatal traffic-related air pollution exposure is linked to adverse birth outcomes. However, modifying effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) and infant sex remain virtually unexplored. Objectives We examined whether associations between prenatal air pollution and birth weight differed by sex and maternal BMI in 670 urban ethnically mixed mother-child pairs. Methods Black carbon (BC) levels were estimated using a validated spatio-temporal land-use regression (LUR) model; fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was estimated using a hybrid LUR model incorporating satellite-derived Aerosol Optical Depth measures. Using stratified multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, we examined whether associations between prenatal air pollution and calculated birth weight for gestational age (BWGA) z-scores varied by sex and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Results Median birth weight was 3.3±0.6 kg; 33% of mothers were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m3). In stratified analyses, the association between higher PM2.5 and lower birth weight was significant in males of obese mothers (−0.42 unit of BWGA z-score change per IQR increase in PM2.5, 95%CI: −0.79 to −0.06) ( PM2.5 × sex × obesity Pinteraction=0.02). Results were similar for BC models (Pinteraction=0.002). Conclusions Associations of prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and reduced birth weight were most evident in males born to obese mothers. PMID:25601728

  4. Gestational weight gain among minority adolescents predicts term birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekambaram, Maheswari; Irigoyen, Matilde; DeFreitas, Johelin; Rajbhandari, Sharina; Geaney, Jessica Lynn; Braitman, Leonard Edward

    2018-03-07

    In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records. Gestational weight gain was related to infant birth weight (ρ = 0.36, P < 0.0001), but BMI was not (ρ = 0.025, P = 0.61). On regression analysis, gestational weight gain, gestational age and Hispanic ethnicity were independent predictors of birth weight, controlling for maternal age, BMI, parity, tobacco/drug use and preeclampsia. The probability of having an LGA infant increased with weight gain [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.21] but not with BMI. Mothers who gained weight in excess of 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had a greater risk of having an LGA infant compared to those who gained within recommendations (aOR 5.7, 95% CI 1.6-19.5). Minority adolescents with greater gestational weight gain had infants with higher birth weight and greater risk of LGA; BMI was not associated with either outcome. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the 2009 BMI-specific IOM gestational weight gain recommendations to adolescents in minority populations.

  5. Prediction of low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Frøkjær, Jens B

    2017-01-01

    operating characteristic curves demonstrated a significantly higher performance of T2* (AUC of 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98) than UtA PI (AUC of 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89) in the prediction of low birth weight (p = 0.010). Placental pathological findings were closely related to the T2* values. CONCLUSIONS...... placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 100 singleton pregnancies included at 20-40 weeks......' gestation. Placental T2* was obtained using a gradient recalled multi-echo MRI sequence and UtA PI was measured using Doppler ultrasound. Placental pathological examination was performed in 57 of the pregnancies. Low birth weight was defined by a Z-score ≤ -2.0. RESULTS: The incidence of low birth weight...

  6. Prospective associations of maternal betaine status with offspring weight and body composition at birth: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lee, Linde; Tint, Mya Thway; Aris, Izzuddin M; Quah, Phaik Ling; Fortier, Marielle V; Lee, Yung Seng; Yap, Fabian Kp; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-11-01

    Betaine supplementation results in lower body weight and fat mass and higher lean mass in animals and adult humans. However, the relation between maternal betaine status and offspring birth weight and body composition is less known. The aim was to examine the association between maternal betaine status and neonatal birth size and adiposity in an Asian mother-offspring cohort. We included 955 pregnant women whose plasma betaine concentrations were measured at 26-28 wk of gestation. Neonatal anthropometric values were measured at birth, and abdominal adipose tissue compartments were assessed by MRI in a subset of infants (n = 307) in the first 14 d after birth. Multivariate general linear models were used to adjust for gestational age; fetal sex; and maternal age, height, education, ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, and plasma folate, vitamin B-12, and choline concentrations. The mean ± SD plasma concentration of betaine was 13.2 ± 2.7 μmol/L (range: 5.3-25.0 μmol/L). After adjustment for covariates, higher maternal plasma betaine was associated with lower birth weight (β: -57.6 g; 95% CI: -109.9, -5.3 g), shorter birth length (β: -0.29 cm per 5-μmol/L increment; 95% CI: -0.55, -0.03 cm), smaller head circumference (-0.20 cm; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.02 cm), smaller midupper arm circumference (-0.16 cm; 95% CI: -0.30, -0.03 cm), lower volumes of abdominal superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (-4.53 mL; 95% CI: -8.70, -0.36 mL), and a higher risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.35). Higher maternal betaine status was generally associated with smaller infant birth size and less abdominal fat mass. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to understand their biological mechanisms. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria

    2011-01-01

    of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. METHOD: In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n=203) and at 6 to11......) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount......, and effects on body fat content at school age was potentiated by maternal smoking in pregnancy....

  8. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  9. Catch-up growth in the first two years of life in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW infants is associated with lower body fat in young adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Raaijmakers

    Full Text Available To investigate growth patterns and anthropometrics in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 0.67 SDS. At 11 years, anthropometrics, neurocognitive performance, body composition, grip strength and puberty scores were assessed.ELBW neonates displayed extra-uterine growth restriction with mean Z-scores for height, weight and head circumference of -0.77, -0.93 and -0.46 at birth, -1.61, -1.67 and -0.72 at 9 months, -1.22, -1.61 and -0.84 at 24 months, and -0.42, -0.49 and -1.09 at 11 years. ELBW children performed consistently worse on neurocognitive testing with an average intelligence quotient equivalent at 11 years of 92.5 (SD 13.1. Catch-up growth was not associated with neurocognitive performance. Compared to controls, ELBW cases had lower grip strength (13.6 vs. 15.9 kg and percentage lean body weight (75.1 vs. 80.5%, but higher body fat (24.6 vs. 19.2% and advanced puberty scores at 11 years (all P≤0.025. Catch-up growth for weight and height in the first two years of life in cases was associated with a lower percentage body fat compared to cases without catch-up growth (16.8% catch-up growth for weight vs. 25.7%, P<0.001; 20.9% catch-up for height vs. 25.8%, P = 0.049.In young adolescence, former ELBW children still have difficulties to reach their target height. Compared to normal birth weight controls, ELBW adolescents show lower neurocognitive performance and grip strength and a higher percentage body fat, a potential risk factor for adverse health outcomes in adulthood. Our key finding is that catch-up growth in ELBW children in the first two years of life is associated with a lower percentage body fat and is therefore likely to be beneficial.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF EARLY USE OF SPONTANEOUS RESPIRATION UNDER CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE IN PREMATURE INFANTS WITH VERY LOW BODY WEIGHT AT BIRTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Khasanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of various methods of respiratory therapy for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants with very low body weight at birth. The studies were conducted in the Republican perinatal center of the Ministry of health of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The study included newborns with very low body weight (1000-1500 g and with a gestation age of 29-31 weeks, with respiratory distress syndrome at birth. Two groups of newborns were compared. Children of the 1st group have been treated by early, stage delivery room use of CPAP technique; premature infants of the 2nd group were born prior to the application of this technique. In a compative study of the cohorts of newborns treated in the department for two time periods, characterized by different approaches to respiratory therapy, results have been obtained indicating that the majority of premature infants with very low body weight and respiratory distress can be successfully treated with nasal CPAP, without the use of mechanical ventilation, especially in its early use.

  11. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  12. Interaction of cholesterol ester transfer protein polymo- rphisms, body mass index, and birth weight with the risk of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahar Heidari-Beni

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study aims to investigate joint association between cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP polymorphisms and body mass index (BMI or birth weight with the risk of dyslipidemia in Iranian children and adolescents. Materials and Methods:This study was conducted as a sub-study of the “school-based nationwide health survey” (CASPIAN-III. We randomly selected 750 samples from the whole blood samples. Real-time PCR and high resolution melt (HRM analysis were performed to determine Taq1B (rs708272 and A373P (rs5880 polymorphisms. Results:Taq1B polymorphism increased HDL-C, and total cholesterol (TC as well as decreased triglyceride and LDL-C concentrations. LDL-C and triglyceride levels were significantly higher and HDL-C and TC levels were significantly lower among those with A373P polymorphism. CT/TT genotype in Taq1B polymorphism showed a protective effect on dyslipidemia (OR= 0.12, 95%CI: 0.07-0.20. G allele of A373P polymorphism increased the risk of dyslipidemia (OR=4.10, 95%CI: 2.14, 7.83 after adjusting the confounders. We observed interactive effects of CETP gene polymorphisms and BMI or birth weight on dyslipidemia. Conclusion:Findings showed Taq1B polymorphism might have a protective effect and A373P polymorphism had deleterious effect on dyslipidemia in Iranian children and adolescents. These associations interacted with BMI and birth weight.

  13. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  14. Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a a a print email share Facebook Twitter Iron Supplements Reduce Behavior Problems in Low Birth Weight ... Article Body ​​​​​​​​A study in Pediatrics found giving iron supplements to low birth weight infants reduces the ...

  15. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n=154 Blue-faced Leicester x Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ~147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n=856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n=283), the effect of the ewes' own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes.

  16. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E; Tynelius, P; Sørensen, T I A; Rasmussen, F

    2014-12-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery. Women with at least one child born before and one after bariatric surgery were identified in national Swedish registers. Series of weight (and height) measurements were collected from antenatal medical records, with data on the nearest pregnancies before and after bariatric surgery. The age-adjusted means of pre- and post-operative GWG of 124 women were 11.3 (standard deviation [SD] 7.2) and 8.3 (SD 6.4) kg, respectively (P = 0.01). Adjusted fixed effects regression models showed positive associations of differences in mean total GWG with differences in siblings' birth weight, 0.023 kg per 1-kg greater weight gain (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.014-0.069) and for second trimester 0.53 kg for each 1-kg greater weight per week (95% CI: 0.32-1.61), whereas no associations were found with BMI in pre-school age. This study showed positive associations between differences in total and second trimester maternal GWG and differences in children's birth weight, but no association with BMI scores in pre-school age. Maternal genetic, social and lifestyle factors fixed from one pregnancy to the next were taken into account in the analyses by the study design. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Body Weight - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Body Weight: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  18. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Body Weight and Body Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Traci

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs than men, a lower incidence of being overweight and a higher incidence of being underweight. However, women across all weight categories are more dissatisfied with their bodies. Sixty percent of women are inactive, and women with a BMI of 27 or higher are more likely to be inactive than women with lower BMIs. The data show that women are aware of the health benefits of exercise, but there is a gap between knowledge and practice. When asked about barriers to health improvement, 39.7% of women cited lack of time and 39.2% lack of willpower. Data Gaps and Recommendations Weight prejudice must be made unacceptable and positive body image should be encouraged and diversity valued. Health policies should encourage healthy eating and healthy activity. Health curricula for young students should include information about healthy eating, active lifestyle, and self-esteem. Physical activities that mothers can participate in with their families should be encouraged. Research should be funded to elucidate the most effective methods of getting women to become and remain physically active without focusing on appearance.

  20. Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006-2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves.Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants.There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes.

  1. Analysis of the parameters of postnatal growth in infants with very low body weight at birth in neonatal intensive care and special care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunko Ye.Ye.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the rates of increase in body weight (BW, body length (BL and head circumference (HC in infants with VLBW; define significant factors affecting the rates of postnatal growth (PG for each parameter; identify correlations between the factors and PG parameters. Patients and methods. The assessment of PG of infants with VLBW (n=92 and ELBW (n=34 was carried out during three time intervals: in the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU, in the special care nursery and from birth until the hospital discharge. Results. Average PG rates in infants with VLBW and ELBW (the growth of BW, BL and HC in NICU amounted to 8.63 g/day, 0.89 cm/week and 0.4 cm/week respectively; in the special care nursery: 24.2 g/day, 0.94 cm/week, 0.7 cm/week respectively; during the entire treatment period: 18.23 g/day, 0.92 cm/week and 0.6 cm/week respectively. The growth of BW and HC in infants with VLBW and ELBW during the entire treatment period was directly proportional to the growth of BW, BL and HC in NICU; the growth of BW, BL and HC in the special care nursery, as well as the BL growth during the entire treatment period. The growth of PG parameters was inversely proportional to the BW, BL and HC at birth. Conclusion. The PG rates are directly proportional to the growth of all PG parameters and inversely proportional to the PG parameters at birth.

  2. Anthropometry and body composition of south Indian babies at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, S; Dwarkanath, P; Thomas, T; Vaz, M; Mhaskar, A; Mhaskar, R; Thomas, A; Bhat, S; Kurpad, Av

    2006-10-01

    To assess the consequences on body composition of increasing birth weight in Indian babies in relation to reported values in Western babies, and to assess the relationship between maternal and neonatal anthropometry and body composition. Prospective observational study. Bangalore City, India. A total of 712 women were recruited at 12.5+/-3.1 weeks of gestation (mean+/-standard deviation, SD) and followed up until delivery; 14.5% were lost to follow-up. Maternal body weight, height, mid upper-arm circumference and skinfold thicknesses were measured at recruitment. Weight and body composition of the baby (skinfold thicknesses, mid upper-arm circumference, derived arm fat index and arm muscle index; AFI and AMI, respectively) were measured at birth in hospital. The mean+/-SD birth weight of all newborns was 2.80+/-0.44 kg. Birth weight was significantly related to the triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness of the baby. In a small number of babies with large birth weight for gestational age, there was a relatively higher normalised AFI relative to AMI than for babies with lower or appropriate birth weight for gestational age. Maternal height and fat-free mass were significantly associated with the baby's length at birth. Skinfold thicknesses in Indian babies were similar to those reported in a Western population with comparable birth weights, and the relationship of AFI to birth weight appeared to be steeper in Indian babies. Thus, measures to increase birth weight in Indian babies should take into account possible adverse consequences on body composition. There were no significant relationships between maternal anthropometry and body composition at birth on multivariate analysis, except for sum of the baby's skinfold thicknesses and maternal fat-free mass (P<0.02).

  3. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18......-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as birth weight...... was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams...

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, David; Johnson, William; Li, Leah; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2018-03-20

    Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood body-mass index (BMI) have been documented in high-income countries; however, uncertainty exists with regard to how they have changed over time, how inequalities in the composite parts (ie, weight and height) of BMI have changed, and whether inequalities differ in magnitude across the outcome distribution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent weight, height, and BMI have changed over time in Britain. We used data from four British longitudinal, observational, birth cohort studies: the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (1946 NSHD), 1958 National Child Development Study (1958 NCDS), 1970 British Cohort Study (1970 BCS), and 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (2001 MCS). BMI (kg/m 2 ) was derived in each study from measured weight and height. Childhood socioeconomic position was indicated by the father's occupational social class, measured at the ages of 10-11 years. We examined associations between childhood socioeconomic position and anthropometric outcomes at age 7 years, 11 years, and 15 years to assess socioeconomic inequalities in each cohort using gender-adjusted linear regression models. We also used multilevel models to examine whether these inequalities widened or narrowed from childhood to adolescence, and quantile regression was used to examine whether the magnitude of inequalities differed across the outcome distribution. In England, Scotland, and Wales, 5362 singleton births were enrolled in 1946, 17 202 in 1958, 17 290 in 1970, and 16 404 in 2001. Low socioeconomic position was associated with lower weight at childhood and adolescent in the earlier-born cohorts (1946-70), but with higher weight in the 2001 MCS cohort. Weight disparities became larger from childhood to adolescence in the 2001 MCS but not the earlier-born cohorts (p interaction =0·001). Low socioeconomic position was also associated with shorter height in

  5. Modeling birth weight neonates and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonate with abnormal weight is at risk of increased mortality and morbidity. Many factors affect pregnancy outcome. Because of the importance and vital role in birth weight, in this study, some of the factors associated with birth weight in a sample of Iranians neonates were investigated. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 245 newborns in a sample of Iranians neonates in the year 2013 were selected, and characteristics of neonate and their mothers were derived. Birth weights were registered by the neonatal scale. To identify the direct and indirect factors affecting birth weight, we used path analysis (PA and IBM AMOS and SPSS software. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of weight in girls (3200 ± 421 g less than boys (3310 ± 444 g significantly (P = 0.04. Gestational age (P < 0.001, birth rank (P = 0.012, distance from a previous pregnancy (P = 0.028, and mother weight (P = 0.04 had a statistical significant relationship with birth weight. In the final PA model, gestational age has a highest total effect, type of delivery with gestational age-mediated had the highest indirect effect and type of delivery, and gestational age had the greatest total impact on the birth weight. Conclusion: Gestational age, sex, distance from a previous pregnancy, maternal weight, type of delivery, number of abortion, and birth rank were related with birth weight. Due to the termination of pregnancy and avoid unnecessary deliveries through cesarean section and other related factors should be further consideration by childbirth experts. In addition, factors affecting these variables are carefully identified and prevented as much as possible.

  6. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight and placental weight determine birth weight in normal Jamaican infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, J M; Davidson, S; Hall, J S; Jackson, A A

    1999-12-01

    Birth weight is related to neonatal health and long-term risk of chronic disease. Since animal studies have shown that birth outcome is related to placental function, the present project was designed to explore the relationship between birth weight and placental growth and composition with maternal factors during pregnancy among normal term pregnancies in 51 primiparous and 40 multiparous women delivering at the University Hospital of the West Indies. Both groups were followed from 15 weeks of gestation to term. The primiparous group was generally younger than the multiparous (mean age 22 +/- 4 versus 31 +/- 5 yr). They were significantly lighter (55 +/- 8 versus 61 +/- 9 kg) with a lower body mass index (21 +/- 3 versus 23 +/- 4 kg/m2) during early pregnancy, but gained more weight during pregnancy, 11 kg compared with 8 kg, respectively. The duration of pregnancy was similar for both groups. Although the size of the placenta was not significantly different between the two groups, the mean weight of the multiparous placentae was more than that of the primiparous placentae. Also, for all mothers both placental weight and initial maternal weight related directly to birth weight. Placental non collagen protein (NCP), sodium and potassium contents were significantly higher for multiparous women and were related to birth weight. The primiparous group had babies who were significantly lighter, 3.03 kg compared with 3.36 kg, for the multiparous and this could be attributed to differences in placental function and maternal weight. When account was taken of the difference in maternal weight at the start of pregnancy and the difference in placental weight, parity no longer explained any of the differences in birth weight. It is concluded that maternal body weight at the time of becoming pregnant and the early development of the placenta determine the efficiency with which nutrients might be delivered to the foetus and hence foetal growth. The difference in birth weight

  7. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent body-mass index, weight, and height from 1953 to 2015: an analysis of four longitudinal, observational, British birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bann, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in childhood body-mass index (BMI have been documented in high-income countries; however, uncertainty exists with regard to how they have changed over time, how inequalities in the composite parts (ie, weight and height of BMI have changed, and whether inequalities differ in magnitude across the outcome distribution. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how socioeconomic inequalities in childhood and adolescent weight, height, and BMI have changed over time in Britain. Methods: We used data from four British longitudinal, observational, birth cohort studies: the 1946 Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (1946 NSHD, 1958 National Child Development Study (1958 NCDS, 1970 British Cohort Study (1970 BCS, and 2001 Millennium Cohort Study (2001 MCS. BMI (kg/m2 was derived in each study from measured weight and height. Childhood socioeconomic position was indicated by the father's occupational social class, measured at the ages of 10–11 years. We examined associations between childhood socioeconomic position and anthropometric outcomes at age 7 years, 11 years, and 15 years to assess socioeconomic inequalities in each cohort using gender-adjusted linear regression models. We also used multilevel models to examine whether these inequalities widened or narrowed from childhood to adolescence, and quantile regression was used to examine whether the magnitude of inequalities differed across the outcome distribution. Findings: In England, Scotland, and Wales, 5362 singleton births were enrolled in 1946, 17 202 in 1958, 17 290 in 1970, and 16 404 in 2001. Low socioeconomic position was associated with lower weight at childhood and adolescent in the earlier-born cohorts (1946–70, but with higher weight in the 2001 MCS cohort. Weight disparities became larger from childhood to adolescence in the 2001 MCS but not the earlier-born cohorts (pinteraction=0·001. Low socioeconomic

  9. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2015-01-01

    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...

  10. Birth weight, body silhouette over the life course, and incident diabetes in 91,453 middle-aged women from the French Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Balkau, Beverley; Charles, Marie-Aline; Romieu, Isabelle; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2010-02-01

    Obesity and increases in body weight in adults are considered to be among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Low birth weight is also associated with a higher diabetes incidence. We aimed to examine to what extent the evolution of body shape, from childhood to adulthood, is related to incident diabetes in late adulthood. Etude Epidemiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale (E3N) is a cohort study of French women born in 1925-1950 and followed by questionnaire every 2 years. At baseline, in 1990, women were asked to report their current weight, height, and body silhouette at various ages. Birth weight was recorded in 2002. Cases of diabetes were self-reported or obtained by drug reimbursement record linkage and further validated. Of the 91,453 women who were nondiabetic at baseline, 2,534 developed diabetes over the 15 years of follow-up. Birth weight and body silhouette at 8 years, at menarche, and in young adulthood (20-25 years) were inversely associated with the risk of diabetes, independently of adult BMI during follow-up (all P(trend) < 0.001). In mid-adulthood (35-40 years), the association was reversed, with an increase in risk related to a larger body silhouette. An increase in body silhouette from childhood to mid-adulthood amplified the risk of diabetes. Low birth weight and thinness until young adulthood may increase the risk of diabetes, independently of adult BMI during follow-up. Young women who were lean children should be especially warned against weight gain.

  11. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years...... of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer...... statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited...

  12. Pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain and their effects on pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Hora; Lipoeto, Nur I; Fair, Frankie J; Kilner, Karen; Yusrawati, Y

    2017-11-09

    Indonesia has a considerably high incidence of maternal and infant mortality. The country has however been experiencing a social and economic transition, influencing its general population demographics and nutritional status including the state of health and nutrition of pregnant women. This study aimed to explore body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG), and their relationship with pregnancy outcomes in a sample of Indonesian pregnant women. This observational cohort study included a total of 607 pregnant women who were recruited in 2010 from maternity clinics in Western Sumatra, Indonesia. Multiple logistic and regression analyses were undertaken to compare pregnancy and birth outcomes for different BMI and GWG, using normal weight women and women with a recommended weight gain as the referent groups. The prevalence of underweight (BMI pregnancy was high at 20.1%; while 21.7% of women were overweight (BMI: 23.0-27.4 kg/m 2 ) and 5.3% obese (BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m 2 ) using the Asian BMI classifications. The incidence of overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ) and obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m 2 ) according to the international BMI classifications were 13.5% and 1.1% respectively. The majority of women gained inadequate weight in pregnancy compared to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, especially those who had a normal BMI. Birthweight adjusted mean difference aMD (95% confidence interval) 205 (46,365) and the odds of macrosomia adjusted odds ratio aOR 13.46 (2.32-77.99) significantly increased in obese women compared to those with a normal BMI. Birthweight aMD -139 (-215, -64) significantly decreased in women with inadequate GWG compared to those with recommended GWG, while SGA aOR 5.44 (1.36, 21.77) and prematurity aOR 3.55 (1.23, 10.21) increased. Low nutritional status and inadequate GWG remain a cause for concern in these women. The higher odds of macrosomia with increasing maternal BMI and higher odds of prematurity and small for

  13. Definition of intertwin birth weight discordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Fionnuala M; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Geary, Michael; Daly, Sean; Higgins, John R; Dornan, James; Morrison, John J; Burke, Gerard; Higgins, Shane; Dicker, Patrick; Manning, Fiona; Mahony, Rhona; Malone, Fergal D

    2011-07-01

    To establish the level of birth weight discordance at which perinatal morbidity increases in monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancy. This prospective multicenter cohort study included 1,028 unselected twin pairs recruited over a 2-year period. Participants underwent two weekly ultrasonographic surveillance from 24 weeks of gestation with surveillance of monochorionic twins two-weekly from 16 weeks. Analysis using Cox proportional hazards compared a composite measure of perinatal morbidity (including any of the following: mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or sepsis) at different degrees of birth weight discordance with adjustment for chorionicity, gestational age, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, birth order, gender, and growth restriction. Perinatal outcome data were recorded for 977 patients (100%) who continued the study with both fetuses alive beyond 24 weeks, including 14 cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Adjusting for gestation at delivery, twin order, gender, and growth restriction, perinatal mortality, individual morbidity, and composite perinatal morbidity were all seen to increase with birth weight discordance exceeding 18% for dichorionic pairs (hazard ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-2.9, Pbirth weights were appropriate for gestational age. : The threshold for birth weight discordance established by this prospective study is 18% both for dichorionic twin pairs and for monochorionic twins without twin-twin transfusion syndrome. This threshold is considerably lower than that defined by many retrospective series as pathologic. We suggest that an anticipated difference of 18% in birth weight should prompt more intensive fetal monitoring.

  14. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Magnus et al.[12] reported that paternal birth weight has a greater influence on offspring birth weight than maternal birth weight. In contrast, Grifith et al.,[13] in a more recent study, concluded that maternal weight contributed more significantly to offspring's birth weight than paternal weight. Such discrepancies might be a ...

  15. Increased rate of whole body lipolysis before and after 9 days of bed rest in healthy young men born with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alibegovic, Amra Ciric; Hojbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Background: Individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), which may be precipitated by physical inactivity. Methods: 22 LBW and 23 controls were studied before and after bed rest by the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp combined with indire...... insulin resistance when exposed to bed rest in LBW subjects. Nine days of bed rest causes severe peripheral insulin resistance, reduced WBL and skeletal muscle HSL activity, as well as a compensatory increased insulin secretion, with no differences in LBW subjects and controls....... calorimetry, infusion of stable isotope tracers, preceded by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results: LBW subjects had similar BMI, but elevated abdominal obesity compared with controls. The basal rate of whole body lipolysis (WBL) was elevated in LBW subjects with and without correction for abdominal...... obesity before and after bed rest (all P = 0.01). Skeletal muscle hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression and phosphorylation at ser 565 were similar in the two groups. Bed rest resulted in a decrease in WBL and an increased skeletal muscle HSL Ser565 phosphorylation indicating a decreased HSL...

  16. Marijuana and Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patien...

  17. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat...

  18. Pre-pregnancy body mass index in relation to infant birth weight and offspring overweight/obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangbin Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity in women of childbearing age is a serious public-health problem. In China, the incidence of maternal overweight/obesity has been increasing. However, there is not a meta-analysis to determine if pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI is related to infant birth weight (BW and offspring overweight/obesity. METHODS: Three electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched systematically from January 1970 to November 2012. The dichotomous data on pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and BW or offspring overweight/obesity were extracted. Summary statistics (odds ratios, ORs were used by Review Manager, version 5.1.7. RESULTS: After screening 665 citations from three electronic databases, we included 45 studies (most of high or medium quality. Compared with normal-weight mothers, pre-pregnancy underweight increased the risk of small for gestational age (SGA (odds ratios [OR], 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76-1.87; low BW (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27-1.71. Pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increased the risk of being large for gestational age (LGA (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.08; 95% CI; 1.95-2.23, high BW (OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.44-1.63; and OR, 2.00; 95% CI; 1.84-2.18, macrosomia (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.42-1.97; and OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.39-4.37, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.77-2.13; and OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 2.68-3.49, respectively. Sensitivity analyses revealed that sample size, study method, quality grade of study, source of pre-pregnancy BMI or BW had a strong impact on the association between pre-pregnancy obesity and LGA. No significant evidence of publication bias was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-pregnancy underweight increases the risk of SGA and LBW; pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity increases the risk of LGA, HBW, macrosomia, and subsequent offspring overweight/obesity. A potential effect modification by maternal age, ethnicity, gestational weight gain, as

  19. Influence of air pollution on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Epidemiological studies point out that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is a risk for low birth weight. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of outdoor and indoor air pollution on the occurrence of low birth weight. Methods. The measurement of outdoor air pollutants, sulphur dioxide and black smoke was carried out daily at the Institute for Public Healthcare of Niš at two measuring locations, in Niš and Niška Banja during 2003. Subjects were 367 pregnant women, nonsmokers and who were not profesionally exposed to air pollution. Data on exposure to source of indoor air pollution (passive smoking and mode of heating was determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Data on the characteristics of newborns were taken from the register of Obstetrics and Gyanecology Clinic of Niš. Results. We determined that exposure of pregnant women to outdoor air pollution and wood heating systems had influence on the occurence of low birth weight. Exposure to passive smoking had no influence on neonatal low birth weight. Conclusion. Exposure of pregnant women to outdoor and indoor air pollutants can have negative influence on the occurrence of low birth weight.

  20. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic...... has not been studied. Aim We aimed to investigate the association between BW, GA, and infantile colic. Methods We studied 62,785 singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information on infantile colic symptoms and possible confounders was collected by computer-assisted telephone......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...

  1. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr. faki

    birth weight data. This study was carried out to determine recall of birth weight and delivery complications among mothers in Unguja West District of Zanzibar. Methods: .... Considering confidence level of 95% and response rate of 90%, the ... delivery, delivery complications, child's birth date, birth's order and birth weight.

  2. Predictability of offspring birth weight using simple parental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paternal weight, parity and maternal weight might improve accuracy of prediction of low birth weight or macrosomic babies and therefore a reduction in perinatal failure. Keywords: Birth weight, anthropometrics, macrosomia, predictability, Nigeria ...

  3. Free thyroxine values in dried blood spots on filter paper in newborns are related to both gestational age and birth body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, A; Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Falcone, M; Buratti, L; Ciampi, M; Giusti, L F; Grasso, L; Fenzi, G F; Martino, E

    1988-01-01

    The results of free thyroxine (FT4) measurements in dried blood spots on filter paper in 744 euthyroid newborns (616 at term, 128 preterm), 10 newborns with congenital hypothyroidism and 4 euthyroid newborns with congenital TBG deficiency are reported. FT4 was measured by column adsorption chromatography of free hormone followed by radioimmunoassay in the eluate. FT4 values averaged 24 +/- 0.2 pmol/L (mean +/- SE) in euthyroid newborns, 23.0 +/- 0.9 pmol/L in euthyroid newborns with TBG deficiency (p = NS), and 5.7 +/- 0.4 pmol/L in hypothyroid newborns (p less than 0.001 vs both groups). Total T4 (TT4) values in newborns with TBG deficiency were not different from those in hypothyroid newborns, but were significantly lower than those in euthyroid newborns without TBG abnormalities. FT4 values were higher in full-term newborns than in preterm newborns (25.2 +/- 0.3 vs 21.2 +/- 0.5 pmol/L, p less than 0.001). In both full-term and preterm newborns FT4 values in dried blood spots increased with birth body weight (bbw), virtually plateauing when bbw was greater than 2,500 g. The cut-off values established on the basis of the bbw (8.0 and 13.1 pmol/L for a bbw of less than or equal to 2,500 g and greater than 2,500 g, respectively) showed higher specificity and predictive value of positive results than the cut-off values based on the gestational age. In any case, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of FT4 determinations proved to be higher than those of TT4 and TSH measurements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppetti, Debora; Pecile, Alessandro; Palestrini, Clara; Marelli, Stefano P.; Boracchi, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Birth weight is a key factor for neonatal mortality and morbidity in most mammalian species. The great morphological variability in size, body weight and breed, as well as in skeletal and cranial conformation makes it challenging to define birth weight standards in dogs. A total of 3293 purebred pups were surveyed to study which maternal aspects can determine birth weight considering head and body shape, size, body weight and breed in bitches, as well as litter size and sex in pups. In our sample, multivariate analysis outcomes suggested that birth weight and litter size were directly proportional to maternal size. The maternal body shape influenced both birth weight and litter size, whereas the maternal head shape had impact only on birth weight. Sex differences in birth weight were found. Birth weight and litter size also varied among breeds. The results of the present study could have practical implications allowing one to identify pups in need of admission to intensive nursing care, as occurs in humans. A deeper knowledge of the factors that significantly influence birth weight could positively affect the canine breeding management helping to prevent and reduce neonatal mortality. Abstract Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001) and litter size (p < 0.05) increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and

  5. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  6. Accuracy of maternal recall of birth weight and selected delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Birth weight is one of the key predictor for survival, health and future development of a child. In developing countries data on birth weights are limited to obtain due to difficulties in keeping records especially among rural women. Maternal recall of birth weight can therefore become a useful source of birth weight ...

  7. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  8. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael

    2007-01-01

    prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...

  9. Body weight measurements and correlation relationship in Savanna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age at castration, type of birth and sex on body weight, body linear measurements and correlation between body weight and body length, chest length, height-at-withers, facial length and fore and hind leg lengths of semi-intensively managed Savanna Brown goats.

  10. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  11. The association between higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and increased birth weight, adiposity and inflammation in the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, K; Ponsonby, A-L; Collier, F; Allen, K; Tang, M L K; Carlin, J B; Saffery, R; Skilton, M R; Cheung, M; Ranganathan, S; Dwyer, T; Burgner, D; Vuillermin, P

    2018-01-01

    Excess adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; however, little is known regarding the determinants of adiposity-related inflammation at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn adiposity and inflammation. Paired maternal (28-week gestation) and infant (umbilical cord) blood samples were collected from a population-derived birth cohort (Barwon Infant Study, n = 1074). Data on maternal comorbidities and infant birth anthropomorphic measures were compiled, and infant aortic intima-media thickness was measured by trans-abdominal ultrasound. In a selected subgroup of term infants (n = 161), matched maternal and cord lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and maternal soluble CD14 were measured. Analysis was completed by using pairwise correlation and linear regression. Because of their non-normal distribution, pathology blood measures were log transformed prior to analysis. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with increased birth weight (mean difference 17.8 g per kg m -2 , 95% CI 6.6 to 28.9; p = 0.002), newborn mean skin-fold thickness (mean difference 0.1 mm per kg m -2 , 95% CI 0.0 to 0.1; p pregnancy BMI, 95% CI 0.6 to 7.7%, p = 0.02), but not cord blood soluble CD14. Inclusion of maternal hsCRP as a covariate attenuated the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and both newborn skin-fold thickness and cord blood hsCRP. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with increased newborn adiposity and inflammation. These associations may be partially mediated by maternal inflammation during pregnancy. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S; Felden, Érico P G; Silva, Diego A S; Pelegrini, Andreia

    To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eating less or cutting calories, fasting for 24h, taking medications, vomiting, or taking laxatives), and measured body weight and height to calculate the body mass index and then classify the weight status. Associations were tested by multinomial logistic regression analysis. Adolescents of both sexes who perceived their body weight as below the expected weight took more initiatives to gain weight, and those who perceived themselves as overweight made more efforts to lose weight. In adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight, the behavior of not taking medication was associated with the outcome only in boys (Odds Ratio=8.12), whereas in girls, an association was observed with the variables eating less, cutting calories, or avoiding fatty foods aiming to lose or avoid increasing body weight (Odds Ratio=3.39). Adolescents of both sexes who practiced exercises were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (male Odds Ratio=2.00; Odds Ratio=1.93 female). The perception of the body weight as above and below one's expected weight was associated with weight control behaviors, which were more likely to result in initiatives to lose and gain weight, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors affecting birth weight and growth rate in Friesian X Bunaji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calving records from 1984 - 1989 were studied to determine the influence of rearing method, sex of calf, season of birth, dam breed and year· of birth on body weight at birth, 3, 6 and 12 montl1s of age in Friesian x Bunaji calves. The mean weights of calves at birth, 3, 6 and 12 months of age were 22.0, 68.2, 96.7 and 137.4 ...

  14. Obesity-susceptibility loci have a limited influence on birth weight: a meta-analysis of up to 28,219 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpelaeinen, T. O.; den Hoed, M.; Ong, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    High birth weight is associated with adult body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that birth weight and BMI may partly share a common genetic background.......High birth weight is associated with adult body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that birth weight and BMI may partly share a common genetic background....

  15. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal charact...

  16. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight.

  17. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  18. A National Census of Birth Weight in Purebred Dogs in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Groppetti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing professionalism in dog breeding, the physiological range of birth weight in this species remains unclear. Low birth weight can predispose to neonatal mortality and growth deficiencies in humans. To date, the influence of the morphotype on birth weight has never been studied in dogs. For this purpose, an Italian census of birth weight was collected from 3293 purebred pups based on maternal morphotype, size, body weight and breed, as well as on litter size and sex of pups. Multivariate analysis outcomes showed that birth weight (p < 0.001 and litter size (p < 0.05 increased with maternal size and body weight. Birth weight was also influenced by the maternal head and body shape, with brachycephalic and brachymorph dogs showing the heaviest and the lightest pups, respectively (p < 0.001. Birth weight decreased with litter size (p < 0.001, and male pups were heavier than females (p < 0.001. These results suggest that canine morphotype, not only maternal size and body weight, can affect birth weight and litter size with possible practical implications in neonatal assistance.

  19. Validity of Self-Reported Birth Weight: Results from a Norwegian Twin Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Thomas S; Kutschke, Julia; Brandt, Ingunn; Harris, Jennifer R

    2017-10-01

    The association between birth weight and later life outcomes is of considerable interest in life-course epidemiology. Research often relies on self-reported measures of birth weight, and its validity is consequently of importance. We assessed agreement between self-reported birth weight and official birth records for Norwegian twins born 1967-1974. The intraclass correlation between self-reported birth weight and register-based birth weight was 0.91 in our final sample of 363 twins. It could be expected that 95% of self-reported birth-weight values will deviate from official records within a maximum of +446 grams and a minimum of -478 grams - around a mean deviation of 16 grams. Self-reported birth weight had a sensitivity of 0.78-0.89 and a positive predictive value of 0.59-0.85, and an overall weighted kappa of 0.71. We further assessed agreement by conducting two linear regression models where we respectively regressed self-reported birth weight and register-based birth weight on adult body mass index, a known association. The two models were not significantly different; however, there were different levels of significance in parameter estimates that warrant some caution in using self-reported birth weight. Reliability of self-reported birth weight was also assessed, based on self-reports in another sample of twins born 1935-1960 who had reported their birth weight in two questionnaires 34 years apart. The intraclass correlation was 0.86, which indicates a high degree of reliability. In conclusion, self-reported birth weight, depending on context and age when birth weight was reported, can be cautiously used.

  20. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  1. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  2. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.

    1999-01-01

    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men...... birth weight and adult height; for subjects with birth weight or = 4,501 g, mean height was 184.1 cm. A positive association was also found between birth length and adult height. For subjects with birth length ... adult height was 175.2 cm, increasing to 184.3 cm at birth length > 56 cm. The associations between birth length and adult height persisted after adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, and other confounders, while the associations between birth weight and adult height almost disappeared when...

  3. Nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseri Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in preterm infants, we studied in a prospectively 64 preterm infants of birth weight :5 1500 g from February 2006 to November 2007. Data were collected on gestation, birth weight, gender and family history of renal calculi, respiratory support, and use of nephrotoxic drugs. The parameters of mineral meta-bolism were assessed in blood and spot urine samples at the end of 2 nd and 4 th weeks of age. Forty-nine babies completed the study, and nephrocalcinosis was observed in 13 (26.5% babies and was bilateral in 7 (14.3% infants. The mean age of diagnosis of nephrocalcinosis was 52.58 days (range 30-123 days. Gestational age, birth weight, and sex were not significantly associated with increased risk of nephrocalcinosis. The mean duration of ventilation was significantly less in babies with than without nephrocalcinosis (P= 0.020, and the mean levels of urine calcium and phosphate at 4 weeks of age, respectively (P= 0.013, P= 0.048. There were also significant diffe-rences in urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.001, mean plasma levels of calcium at 2 weeks of age (P= 0.047 and plasma levels of phosphate at 4 weeks of age (P= 0.016 between babies with and without nephrocalcinosis. Using logistic regression analysis, family history of renal stone (P= 0.002 and urine calcium/creatinine ratio (P= 0.011 were significant predictors of nephrocalci-nosis. However, there were no significant differences in the length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of total parenteral nutrition, and duration and cumulative doses of nephrotoxic drugs between these two groups. We conclude that the incidence of nephrocalcinosis was similar in our population to the previous studies. Family history of renal stone and urine calcium/ creatinine ratio are the major risk factors of nephrocalcinosis in very low birth weight neonates.

  4. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  5. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The neglected sociobehavioral risk factors of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the most important health indicators in the world. It has certain known and unknown causes. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of socio-behavioral factors on neonatal birth weight.Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on 300 eligible neonates (150 LBW infants as cases and 150 normal body weight infants as controls in 2015. The national pregnancy care forms of the neonates kept in heath care centers in Kerman were used. The data was analyzed running Independent samples t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher’s Exact test in SPSS. The significance level was set as 0.05.Results: Preterm birth (P<0.001, number of primary care during pregnancy (P=0.001, mother’s age (P=0.049, consumption of supplements during pregnancy (P=0.03, and history of substance abuse in mothers (P=0.03 were found to have significant roles in having LBW neonate.Conclusion: Identifying the sociobehavioral risk factors of Preterm labor and modifying them to prevent preterm birth are essential approaches to prevent LBW. Governments should pay special attention to nutritional status of teenage and young girls to have healthy mothers and babies in the future. Women of childbearing age should be screened and educated about risky behaviors. Pregnancy care and support should be delivered to all pregnant women according to the standard methods.Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Risk Factors; Behavior; Preterm Labor

  7. [The effect of birth weight on the early postnatal vitality of piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Wähner, M; Puppe, B

    1994-10-01

    Investigations with 1248 newborn piglets in 7 farms showed a high significant influence of birth weight on parameters of early postnatal vitality. The duration between birth and first standing up was by two times, the time between birth and first udder contact by 3.5 times and the duration between birth and first colostrum intake was by 4 times longer in piglets with a low birth weight ( 2200 g). The drop in rectal temperature up to 30 minutes after birth reached 4.5 Kelvin in lightweight piglets, whereas their litter mates with a high body weight at birth had a value of 0.85 K (p vitality of newborn piglets and has a high prognostic value in relation to the risk of losses and the live weight development of neonates.

  8. Contribution of low BirthWeight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between low and very low birth weight infants and perinatal mortality at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: A retrospective study of the hospital records in the labour ward and the Newborn Special Care Unit (N.B.S.C.U), of the UNTH was carried out for the ...

  9. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, D.J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Vink, J.M.; Haak, M.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on

  10. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Haak, Monique C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background

  11. Hypoglycaemia in fasting low birth weight infants in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) infants are commonly at risk of hypoglycaemia. The prevalence of hypoglycaemia and its neurological features in fasting LBW infants below 24 hours of age was assessed. Methods: Low birth weight (LBW) infants seen within 24 hours of birth who had not fed or received ...

  12. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  14. Birth Weight of Infants of Mothers With Aggressive Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A.; Koertge, Thomas E.; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N.; Gunsolley, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Background It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Methods Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers’ periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. Results There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported pregnancy outcomes, we used a compromised approach using prospective data as well as weaker retrospective data assuming that disease onset was likely before the births. Our results, within the limitations of this approach, indicate no evidence that AgP in the mother predisposes low birth weights. AgP has many unique biologic characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic. PMID:21819247

  15. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  16. Relationship between gestational age, birth weight and deciduous tooth eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Mohamed Khalifa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Delayed tooth eruption was related to lower birth weight and prematurity. The delayed eruption in preterm babies may be related to premature birth and not to a delay in dental development.

  17. Low birth weight in relation to maternal age and multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Low socio-economic status is the underlying cause of low birth weight. Other causes include maternal malnutrition; maternal diseases like antepartum hemorrhage, anaemia, cervical incompetence; adolescent pregnancies; short birth intervals; intrauterine infections; multiple pregnancy; congenital malformations; placental.

  18. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. RESULTS: Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty......BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated...... regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log-transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: -87 g (95% CI: -137, -340 per 1.70 ng/mL), -43 g (95% CI: -108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and -135 g (95% CI: -192, -78 per 1...

  19. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term...... the effect of ambient air pollution. The aim of this commentary is to review the published literature on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW regarding increased vulnerability for the above-mentioned subgroups.  Results: Although more than fifty epidemiological studies have examined...... the associations between ambient air pollution and TLBW to date, we only identified six studies that examined the potential effect modification of the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW by the above listed maternal risk factors. Two studies assessed effect modification caused by smoking...

  20. Analysis of birth weights of a rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashtekar Shyam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007 were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby′s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades.

  1. Analysis of Birth Weights of a Rural Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Shyam V; Kulkarni, Madhav B; Sadavarte, Vaishali S; Ashtekar, Ratna S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight remains a major reason behind childhood malnutrition. The NFHS findings show no dent in this problem. Objective: This study was undertaken to explore change in birth weights in a period from 1989 to 2007 and any associations thereof. Materials and Methods: All birth records of a private rural hospital spanning two decades (1989-2007) were analyzed for birth weight, age of mother, gender, birth order of the baby, proportion of pre-term babies and low birth weight babies. Results: No change was observed in the average birth weights (average 2.71 kg) over the period. Although the birth weight shows some expected variance with the age of mother, it was found to have no relation with the baby’s birth order and gender. The low birth weight proportion is about 24% and shows little difference before and after the series midpoint of year 1998. Conclusion: The birth weights have hardly changed in this population in the two decades. PMID:20922101

  2. Relationship between physical activity and physical performance in later life in different birth weight groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, H; Wasenius, N S; Salonen, M K; Perälä, M-M; Kautiainen, H; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Kajantie, E; von Bonsdorff, M B; Eriksson, J G

    2018-02-01

    There is strong evidence that physical activity (PA) has an influence on physical performance in later life. Also, a small body size at birth has been associated with lower physical functioning in older age and both small and high birth weight have shown to be associated with lower leisure time physical activity. However, it is unknown whether size at birth modulates the association between PA and physical performance in old age. We examined 695 individuals from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. At a mean age of 70.7 years PA was objectively assessed with a multisensory activity monitor and physical performance with the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). Information on birth weight and gestational age was retrieved from hospital birth records. The study participants were divided in three birth weight groups, that is birth weight groups. However, the effect size of the association was large and significant only in men with a birth weight confidence interval 0.37-0.81, Pbirth weight. Our results suggest that men with low birth weight might benefit most from engaging in PA in order to maintain a better physical performance.

  3. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  4. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  5. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T

    2014-01-01

    between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... profiling did not reveal epigenetic signatures of birth weight discordance although some sites displayed age-dependent intra-pair differential methylation in the extremely discordant twin pairs....

  6. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...... on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... psychological workload and body mass index. Only weak positive associations were found, and only between elements of psychological workload and overall body weight. For body fat distribution, two out of three studies showed a positive association in men, but the associations became insignificant after...

  7. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Col-Araz, Nilgun

    2013-04-01

    To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine's Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth, and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r = 0.115, p history of disease during pregnancy (p computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p computers during pregnancy (p computers may have an effect on pre-term birth.

  8. GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF WEANING WEIGHT, YEARLING WEIGHT, BODY WEIGHT GAIN AND BODY DIMENSION OF BALI CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    A. Supriyantono; L. Hakim; S. Suyadi; I. Ismudiono

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the genetic improving of production traits selected of Bali cattle. Four hundred and twenty eight data of weaning weight, yearling weight and body weight gain were used to estimate genetic improvement for those traits. One hundred and seven data of body dimension (body weight, chest circumference, body length and withers height) at 24 months old were used to estimate genetic improving for those traits. The estimation of genetic and environmental varianc...

  9. Birth weight and risk of adiposity among adult Inuit in Greenland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Falberg Rønn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Inuit population in Greenland has undergone rapid socioeconomic and nutritional changes simultaneously with an increasing prevalence of obesity. Therefore, the objective was to examine fetal programming as part of the aetiology of obesity among Inuit in Greenland by investigating the association between birth weight and measures of body composition and fat distribution in adulthood. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from a total of 1,473 adults aged 18-61 years in two population-based surveys conducted in Greenland between 1999-2001 and 2005-2010. Information on birth weight was collected from birth records. Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI, and visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT estimated by ultrasound. The associations to birth weight were analyzed using linear regression models and quadratic splines. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, birthplace, ancestry and family history of obesity. RESULTS: Spline analyses showed linear relations between birth weight and adult adiposity. In multiple regression analyses, birth weight was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, FMI, FFMI and SAT with generally weaker associations among women compared to men. Birth weight was only associated with VAT after additional adjustment for waist circumference and appeared to be specific and inverse for men only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher birth weight among Inuit was associated with adiposity in adulthood. More studies are needed to explore a potential inverse association between birth size and VAT.

  10. PHENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS AND BODY WEIGHTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    imply that selection for these morphometric traits will lead to improvement of hatchling body weights. Keywords: Correlation, Quantitative traits, ... commands high price in the restaurants and markets than other conventional meat such as ... breeding objective and development of selection programme for effective planning.

  11. Birth weight of infants of mothers with aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkein, Harvey A; Koertge, Thomas E; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N; Gunsolley, John C

    2012-03-01

    It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers' periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported periodontal examination. For periodontally healthy controls, 13.2% of babies born to siblings of AgP patients and 12.8% of babies born to unrelated mothers weighed characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic.

  12. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that woman's risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother's own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant's birth weight, mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3, anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years 31 women (7.6% were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR, 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.2-5.2; P = 0.012. The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6; P = 0.021. An infant's birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother's serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships.Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother's own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression.

  13. Oral Ibuprofen versus Intravenous Indomethacin for Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Han Lee

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: In infants with VLBW, oral ibuprofen is as effective as intravenous indomethacin for closure of PDA and is associated with significantly fewer cases of necrotizing enterocolitis among infants with birth body weights <1250 g and significantly lower rates of elevated creatinine levels among neonates with birth body weights ranging from 1000 to 1500 g.

  14. Bioelectrical impedance analysis during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, F; Franchi, M; Balestreri, D; Lischetti, B; Mele, M C; Alberico, S; Bolis, P

    2001-10-01

    To generate reference ranges for bioelectrical impedance indices throughout pregnancy and to investigate whether a relationship exists between these indices and the neonatal birth weight. Pregnant women with a singleton gestation, gestational age lower than 12 weeks, and absence of medical diseases before pregnancy were enrolled. Patients with pregnancy complications, such as hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and antiphospholipides syndrome were excluded. Antrophometric maternal parameters and bioelectrical impedance measurements were performed during the first, second, third trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and 60 days after delivery. Height(2)/resistance (cm(2)/Omega) and height(2)/reactance (cm(2)/Omega) were utilized to estimate the total and extracellular body water amounts, respectively. Spearman rank correlations and cox proportional hazard modelling were used for statistical purposes. 169 patients completed all measurements. Total and extracellular water amounts significantly increase as pregnancy advances and return to the pre-pregnancy values within 60 days after delivery. After adjustment for gestational age at delivery, fetal sex, and smoking habits, height(2)/resistance at 25 weeks (hazard=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.06, Pweight. We have provided reference ranges for bioimpedance analysis during pregnancy, an easy, fast and non invasive method to estimate the body water composition during pregnancy. Bioelectrical impedance indices during the second trimester of pregnancy are independently related to the birth weight.

  15. Estimates Of Genetic Parameters Of Body Weights Of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    four (44) farrowings were used to estimate the genetic parameters (heritability and repeatability) of body weight of pigs. Results obtained from the study showed that the heritability (h2) of birth and weaning weights were moderate (0.33±0.16 ...

  16. Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation Between Intrapartum Fundal Height and Birth Weight. HE Onah, ACC Ikeme, PO Nkwo. Abstract. In a prospective cross-sectional study, the correlation between symphysiofundal height (SFH) and birth weight was evaluated in 2646 consecutive parturients at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, ...

  17. Parental socioeconomic status and birth weight distribution of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-03-17

    Mar 17, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Birth weight is one of the most impor- tant determinants of perinatal well. -being and survival. It may be influenced by socioeconomic status among other factors. Objective: To evaluate the influ- ence of parental socioeconomic status on birth weight distribution of term infants. Patients ...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of low birth weight in Jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ademu

    The World Health. Organization (WHO) then conducted a study on eighteen different countries at different stages of development. This revealed that babies could be classified into three main groups based on their birth weight and gestational age: small for gestational age, appropriate for age, large for age. Low birth weight ...

  19. Factors predisposing to low birth weight in Jimma Hospital South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight continues to remain a major public health problem in Ethiopia in contrast to what is observed in many developing countries. Objectives: To assess some of the predisposing factors to low birth weight among deliveries in Jimma hospital. Design: Cross-sectional case referent study.

  20. Intrapartum prediction of birth weight using maternal anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This prospective study was conducted at Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Nigeria, between April 1st and 31st of July, 2013 to predict birth weight in labour using four clinical methods and ultrasound scan independently and comparatively to determine which is closest to the actual birth weight. The four clinical methods are ...

  1. Factors influencing birth weights in Cameroon | Ngassa | Clinics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After gestational age has been shown to be significantly correlated with mean birth weights in Cameroon, the aim of this study was to determine other factors which can also influence birth weights. This was a cross sectional study carried out in the obstetrics and gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in Yaoundé during the ...

  2. Birth Weight does not Associate with Gestational Physical Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise during pregnancy has been a subject of debate and whether gestational physical activity profile affects birth weight is an important issue as birth weight is an indicator of fetal, neo-natal and post-natal mortality. This study was carried at three hospitals in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria to determine the difference between ...

  3. Patterns of birth weight at a community level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    fill this gap and issues related to representativeness a community based study that identified a one-year live ... and type of latrine facility showed variation in low birth weight rates. These factors also showed independent and significant effect on birth weight patterns. ... were based on health facility records. According the ...

  4. Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L

    2017-06-12

    Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (prematurity (RRR: 15.4, CI: 9.18-25.9); no antenatal follow-up (RRR: 6.78, CI: 2.39-19.25); and female sex (RRR: 1.77, CI: 1.13-2.77). Predictors for macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post

  5. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight......, gestational age, TSH, and smoking) did not change the findings of nonsignificant regression coefficients. CONCLUSION: Low birth weight per se has no evident role in the etiology of thyroid autoimmunity....

  6. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  7. Birth weight of twins: 2. Fetal genetic effect on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Beiguelman

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for the birth weights of twins born at three southeastern Brazilian hospitals, after adjustment of the natural logarithms of these weights for gestational age, its quadratic and cubic terms, sex, and their interactions. The data indicate that fetal genetic effect on birth weight might have the opportunity to be demonstrated by children born to undernourished women. Undernourishment, acting as a selective force, might enhance the existence of genotypes that determine less need of food for normal development.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para o peso de gêmeos nascidos em três maternidades do sudeste brasileiro, depois de ajustar os logaritmos naturais desses pesos para a idade gestacional, seus termos quadrático e cúbico, sexo e interações dessas variáveis. Os dados obtidos indicaram que o efeito genético fetal sobre o peso ao nascer teria a oportunidade de ser demonstrado por recém-nascidos de mães subnutridas. A subnutrição, atuando como força seletiva, realçaria a existência de genótipos que determinam menor necessidade nutricional para o desenvolvimento normal.

  8. Epigenetic Consequences of Low Birth-Weight and Preterm Birth in Adult Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua

    2018-01-01

    Adverse birth outcomes including low birth-weight and preterm birth are associated with long-term morbidity and health consequences at adult ages. Molecular mechanisms including epigenetic modification may have been involved in the adaptation to the stressful condition in peridelivery period whic...

  9. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  10. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  11. The relationship between the weight of the placenta and birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been several publications from different countries on the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight of the neonate. However, such reports from Nigeria are lacking in literature. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the placental weight and birth weight ...

  12. Is obesity a risk factor for impaired cognition in young adults with low birth weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, M; Morgården, E; Gustafsson, J

    2014-10-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There is also an association between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive ability. Since low birth weight is associated with adult metabolic disease, particularly in obese subjects, the question emerges whether obesity has an additional negative effect on cognitive function in subjects with low birth weight. The aim was to analyse whether overweight or obesity influence intellectual performance in young adults with particular focus on those with a low birth weight. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 620,834 males born between 1973 and 1988 and matched to results on intellectual performance and BMI at conscription. The risk for low intellectual performance was higher for those with high BMI compared to those with normal. The highest risk was found among subjects with low birth weight and overweight or obesity in young adulthood (odds ratios, 1.98 [1.73-2.22] and 2.59 [2.00-3.34], respectively). However, subjects with further high birth weight and a high BMI at conscription had no further increased risk. Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of subnormal intellectual performance in young adult males. Subjects with low birth weight and adolescent overweight/obesity are at particular risk of subnormal performance. A high birth weight increases the risk for obesity, but a high adult BMI does not further increase the risk for subnormal performance. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  13. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    birth cohort studies to determine the associations of birth and infant growth characteristics with the risks of preschool wheezing (1-4 years) and school-age asthma (5-10 years). METHODS: First, we performed an adjusted 1-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the combined associations...... of gestational age, birth weight, and infant weight gain with childhood asthma. Second, we performed an adjusted 2-stage random-effect meta-analysis to assess the associations of preterm birth (gestational age childhood asthma outcomes. RESULTS: Younger gestational...... age at birth and higher infant weight gain were independently associated with higher risks of preschool wheezing and school-age asthma (P childhood asthma were explained by gestational age at birth. Compared with term-born children with normal...

  14. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on I. Average daily gain, feed intake, calf birth body weight, and rebreeding in pregnant beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Meyer, T L; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental protein source on ADG, feed intake, calf birth BW, and subsequent pregnancy rate in pregnant beef heifers. Crossbred, Angus-based, AI-pregnant heifers (yr 1, n = 38; yr 2, n = 40; and yr 3, n = 36) were stratified by BW (450 ± 10 kg) and placed in a Calan Broadbent individual feeding system at approximately d 142 of gestation. Following a 25-d adaptation period, an 84-d feeding trial was conducted. Heifers were offered ad libitum grass hay (8 to 11% CP, DM basis) and no supplement (CON), 0.83 kg/d distillers-based supplement (HI), or 0.83 kg/d dried corn gluten-based supplement (LO). Supplements were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous (28% CP, DM basis), and equal in lipid content but differed in RUP, with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). Dry matter intake was also calculated based on feed NE values to account for different energy levels of the supplement compared with the control diet. Control heifers tended (P = 0.09) to consume less total DM than either supplement treatment. However, forage-only DMI was greater (P heifers (9.94 ± 0.12 kg) compared with HI or LO heifers (8.50 and 8.34 ± 0.12 kg, respectively). Net energy DMI was less (P heifers (4.98 ± 0.23 kg) compared with HI or LO heifers (5.43 and 5.35 ± 0.23 kg, respectively). Control heifers gained less (P heifers (0.78 ± 0.14 kg/d), resulting in lower (501 ± 9 kg) BW (P heifers at the end of the feeding period. Calf birth BW was similar (P = 0.99) among treatments. At prebreeding, CON heifers weighed less (P heifers. Cow BW was similar (P = 0.48) among treatments at pregnancy diagnosis, and final pregnancy rate was also similar (87%; P = 0.22). Protein supplementation increased ADG in pregnant heifers; however, calf birth BW and subsequent pregnancy rates were similar.

  15. Low Birth Weight in the Offspring of Women With Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Solmi, Francesca; Sallis, Hannah; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of literature has investigated the association between maternal anorexia nervosa and pregnancy outcomes. Infant low birth weight is associated with a number of neurodevelopmental and physical sequelae; however, consistent results on its association with maternal anorexia nervosa are scant. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature were undertaken. PubMed, Embase, and PsychInfo were searched for studies comparing the mean birth weight of babies ...

  16. Baseline ICIQ-UI score, body mass index, age, average birth weight, and perineometry duration as promising predictors of the short-term efficacy of Er:YAG laser treatment in stress urinary incontinent women: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Fistonić, Nikola

    2018-01-23

    A growing body of evidence indicates that a non-invasive erbium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser may be an effective and highly tolerable treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. The primary objective was to identify pre-intervention predictors of short-term Er:YAG outcomes. The secondary objective was to identify patient segments with the best Er:YAG laser treatment short-term outcomes. A prospective cohort study performed in 2016 at Ob/Gyn Clinic, Zagreb, Croatia, recruited 85 female patients who suffered from SUI. The intervention was performed with a 2940 nm wave length Er:YAG laser (XS Dynamis, Fotona, Slovenia). Outcomes were absolute change in the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) and a relative decrease in ICIQ-UI score of ≥30% 2-6 months after the intervention. Age and pre-intervention ICIQ-UI values were independent significant predictors of laser treatment efficacy for SUI. A decrease in ICIQ-UI score (minimum important difference, MID) of ≥30% was independently significantly associated with body mass index and ICIQ-UI values before the intervention. All patients with four or five positive predictors saw a clinically relevant decrease in ICIQ-UI of ≥30%. The total accuracy of the predictive model defined by the area under the curve was 0.83 (95%CI 0.74-0.91). At the cut-off ≥3 positive predictors, C-index was 0.80 (95%CI 0.71-0.90), positive predictive value was 0.97 (95%CI 0.87-0.99), and negative predictive value was 0.53 (95%CI 0.45-0.55). A relevant decrease in ICIQ-UI (MID) of ≥30% can be predicted based on age, body mass index, average birth weight, perineometer squeeze duration, and ICIQ-UI scores before the intervention. The association between Q-tip test and treatment outcome was moderated by age. Q-tip was a significant predictor for patients between 44 and 53 years of age. The best results should be expected in younger women with a body mass index of ≤23

  17. Maternal Factors for Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth At Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neebha Ojha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight and preterm birth are the major community health problems in developing countries. They are the major determinants of perinatal survival and infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and the maternal risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth among hospital deliveries in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of TUTH. Maternal risk factors like age, parity, ethnicity, history of previous abortion, history of previous cesarean section, antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were studied. Information on all births that occurred was extracted from maternity case notes and delivery registers.  Results: During the study period, there were 685 singleton live births. Among these 78(11.4% were low birth weight and 47(6.9% were preterm birth. The mean birth weight was 2950±488 gm. The mean weight of female was statistically less compared to male babies (p=0.032. The signi cant risk factors for LBW were primiparity (OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.25-3.58, Indo-Aryan ethnicity (OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.12-3.45 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.08; 95%CI 1.17-8.12. As for PTB antepartum hemorrhage (OR 8.63; 95%CI 1.99-37.30 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.04-.89 were signi cant risk factors.  Conclusions: Parity, ethnicity, and medical disorders were the main risk factors for low birth weight. Antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were signi cant risk factors for preterm birth. Keywords: low birth weight; preterm birth; risk factors.

  18. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  19. Correlation between several anthropometric measurements to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nur

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality remains one of the factors leading to child mortality, even for crude death as a whole. Therefore, good perinatal care is considered to be useful for reducing this mortality. Low birth weight is one of neonatal morbidity cause; previous studies reported correlation between birth weight to several anthropometric measurements and their predictive value. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between birth length, head, chest, abdominal, calf and mid arm circumferences as well as to foot length to birth weight. A cross sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital Medan between November 1st 1998 to January 31st 1999. All babies without clear moulage, caput succedaneum or cephal hematoma were studied. Birth weight was measured by TANITA weighing scale within the first 24 hours after delivery. Birth length by somatometer and head, chest, abdominal, calf and mid arm circumferences as well as foot length were measured 3 times by using plastic measuring tape. It was evident a positive correlation of birth weight to all such anthropometric measurements with the highest correlation coefficient for calf circumference (r : 0.92. Calf circumference of 9,8 cm is predictor of low birth weight.

  20. Evaluation of factors affecting birth weight and preterm birth in southern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araz, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors affecting birth weight and pre-term birth, and to find associations with electromagnetic devices such as television, computer and mobile phones. Methods: The study was conducted in Turkey at Gazintep University, Faculty of Medicine Outpatient Clinic at the Paediatric Ward. It comprised 500 patients who presented at the clinic from May to December 2009. All participants were administered a questionnaire regarding their pregnancy history. SPSS 13 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study, 90 (19%) patients had pre-term birth , and 64 (12.9%) had low birth weight rate Birth weight was positively correlated with maternal age and baseline maternal weight (r= 0.115, p= 0.010; r= 0.168, p=0.000, respectively). Pre-term birth and birth weight less than 2500g were more common in mothers with a history of disease during pregnancy (p=0.046 and p=0.008, respectively). The habit of watching television and using mobile phones and computer by mothers did not demonstrate any relationship with birth weight. Mothers who used mobile phones or computers during pregnancy had more deliveries before 37 weeks (p=0.018, p=0.034; respectively). Similarly, pregnancy duration was shorter in mothers who used either mobile phone or computers during pregnancy (p=0.005, p=0.048, respectively). Conclusion: Mobile phones and computers may have an effect on pre-term birth. (author)

  1. Relationships between neonatal weight, limb lengths, skinfold thicknesses, body breadths and circumferences in an Australian cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available Low birth weight has been consistently associated with adult chronic disease risk. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis assumes that reduced fetal growth impacts some organs more than others. However, it remains unclear how birth weight relates to different body components, such as circumferences, adiposity, body segment lengths and limb proportions. We hypothesized that these components vary in their relationship to birth weight.We analysed the relationship between birth weight and detailed anthropometry in 1270 singleton live-born neonates (668 male from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (Brisbane, Australia. We tested adjusted anthropometry for correlations with birth weight. We then performed stepwise multiple regression on birth weight of: body lengths, breadths and circumferences; relative limb to neck-rump proportions; or skinfold thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for sex and gestational age, and used logged data.Circumferences, especially chest, were most strongly related to birth weight, while segment lengths (neck-rump, thigh, upper arm, and especially lower arm and lower leg were relatively weakly related to birth weight, and limb lengths relative to neck-rump length showed no relationship. Skinfolds accounted for 36% of birth weight variance, but adjusting for size (neck-rump, thigh and upper arm lengths, and head circumference, this decreased to 10%. There was no evidence that heavier babies had proportionally thicker skinfolds.Neonatal body measurements vary in their association with birth weight: head and chest circumferences showed the strongest associations while limb segment lengths did not relate strongly to birth weight. After adjusting for body size, subcutaneous fatness accounted for a smaller proportion of birth weight variance than previously reported. While heavier babies had absolutely thicker skinfolds, this was proportional to their size. Relative limb to trunk length was unrelated to birth

  2. Impaired kidney growth in low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Chellakooty, Marla; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is an important risk factor for hypertension and unfavorable prognoses of a number of renal diseases. It is also associated with reduced kidney size and nephron number. A differentiation between the effects of low birth weight versus being born premature or small...... for gestational age has, however, not been addressed. METHODS: The influence of weight for gestational age (percentage deviation from expected mean), gestational age, birth weight, and early diet on kidney growth was studied in 178 children born pre- or postmature and/or small or large for gestational age......, comparing them to 717 mature children, birth weight appropriate for gestational age. Kidney size was determined by bilateral ultrasonography measuring length, width and depth, using the equation of an ellipsoid for volume calculation. The examinations were performed at 0, 3, and 18 months of age together...

  3. Birth Weight and Intelligence in Young Adulthood and Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-06-01

    We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow-up assessments, with intelligence scores increasing across 4 birth weight categories and declining for the highest birth weight category. The adjusted differences between those in the 5 IQ points at all 3 follow-up assessments, corresponding to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident across the normal birth weight range and so were not accounted for by low birth weight only. The association between birth weight and intelligence is stable from young adulthood into midlife. These long-term cognitive consequences may imply that even small shifts in the distribution of birth size, in normal-sized infants as well, may have a large impact at the population level. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Influence of birth order, birth weight, colostrum and serum immunoglobulin G on neonatal piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Rafael A; Lin, Xi; Campbell, Joy M; Moeser, Adam J; Odle, Jack

    2012-12-23

    Intake of colostrum after birth is essential to stimulate intestinal growth and function, and to provide systemic immunological protection via absorption of Immunoglobulin G (IgG). The birth order and weight of 745 piglets (from 75 litters) were recorded during a one-week period of farrowing. Only pigs weighing greater than 0.68 kg birth weight were chosen for the trial. Sow colostrum was collected during parturition, and piglets were bled between 48 and 72 hours post-birth. Piglet serum IgG and colostral IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Sow parity had a significant (P birth order accounted for another 4% of the variation observed in piglet serum IgG concentration (P birth weight had no detectable effect. Piglet serum IgG concentration had both a linear (P Birth order had no detectable effect on survival, but birth weight had a positive linear effect (P birth had a 68% survival rate, and those weighing 1.6 kg (n = 158) had an 89% survival. We found that the combination of sow colostrum IgG concentration and birth order can account for 10% of the variation of piglet serum IgG concentration and that piglets with less than 1,000 mg/dl IgG serum concentration and weight of 0.9 kg at birth had low survival rate when compared to their larger siblings. The effective management of colostrum uptake in neonatal piglets in the first 24 hrs post-birth may potentially improve survival from birth to weaning.

  5. Evaluation of within-litter birth weight variation in piglets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VaZindove

    2014-03-23

    Mar 23, 2014 ... Canario, L., Lundgren, H., Haandlykken, M. & Rydhmer, L., 2010. Genetics of growth in piglets and the association with homogeneity of weight within litters. J. Anim. Sci. 88, 1240-1247. Chimonyo, M., Dzama, K. & Bhebhe, E., 2006. Genetic determination of individual birth weight, litter weight and litter size ...

  6. biostatistical analysis of birth weight and head circumference

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    URCHMAN

    maturity of the neonate and health status of the mother. It is also an important determinant of prenatal mortality, it is known to increase with successive birth order up to the fourth or fifth rank in other words, and babies tend to outweigh their immediate elder siblings. The birth weight of a newborn infant is influenced by various ...

  7. Hyponatraemia in very low birth weight infants | Ndwiga | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. Design: Comparative cohort study. Setting: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during ...

  8. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random-effects m...

  9. Birth weights and gestational ages of Malawian newborns at Queen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the distributions of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) and calculate rates of still birth (SB) of four years delivery in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital( QECH). Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out on data of deliveries conducted between January 2000 and December 2003.

  10. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  11. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...

  12. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, Stephen; Mens, Pètra F.; Karema, Corine; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Kaligirwa, Nadine; Vyankandondera, Joseph; de Vries, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence

  13. Incidence And Potential Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second phase LBW women (cases) were compared with a double number of women who gave birth to normal birth weight infants. Results: Among 939 women eligible for the study, the incidence of LBW was 7.8%. Reproductive age lower than 25 years, gestational age lower than 40 weeks, history of previous ...

  14. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nationwide Twin Birth Weight Percentiles by Gestational Age in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Jan Hu

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: This is the first nationwide birth weight norm for twins in Taiwan, which is particularly useful for investigation into the predictors and outcomes of altered fetal growth through twin studies in the Taiwanese population.

  16. Sex Specific Genetic and Environmental Trends in Birth Weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant. Estimation of sex specific variance components had no significant influence on the direction and magnitude of genetic trends indicating of homogeneity of variance by sex for birth weight in this population. Keywords: Breeding values ...

  17. Does cardiorespiratory fitness modify the association between birth weight and insulin resistance in adult life?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Aoyama

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. METHODS: The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females aged 20-64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject's or his/her mother's memory. RESULTS: The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = -0.141, p = 0.003, even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = -0.148, p = 0.001, although VO2max (β = -0.376, p<0.001 was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual's low birth weight.

  18. Enteral iron supplementation in preterm and low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan John; Davies, Mark W

    2012-03-14

    Preterm infants are at risk of exhausting their body iron stores much earlier than healthy term newborns. It is widespread practice to give enteral iron supplementation to preterm and low birth weight infants to prevent iron deficiency anaemia. However, it is unclear whether supplementing preterm and low birth weight infants with iron improves growth and neurodevelopment. It is suspected that excess exogenous iron can contribute to oxidative injury in preterm babies, causing or exacerbating conditions such as necrotising enterocolitis and retinopathy of prematurity. Additionally, the optimal dose and timing of commencement and cessation of iron supplementation are uncertain. To evaluate the effect of prophylactic enteral iron supplementation on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm and low birth weight infants. The secondary objectives were to determine whether iron supplementation results in improved haematological parameters and prevents other causes of morbidity and mortality. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 8), MEDLINE (1951 to August 2011), CINAHL (1982 to August 2011) and conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials that compared enteral iron supplementation with no iron supplementation, or different regimens of enteral iron supplementation in preterm or low birth weight infants or both. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Both review authors separately evaluated trial quality and data extraction. We synthesised data using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs). Where data about the methodology and results or both were lacking, we made an attempt to contact the study authors for further information. We included twenty-six studies (2726 infants) in the

  19. Effect of clothing weight on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whigham, L D; Schoeller, D A; Johnson, L K; Atkinson, R L

    2013-01-01

    In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight of adults with weather, season and gender. Fifty adults (35 women) were weighed four times during a 12-month period with and without clothing. Clothing weights were determined and regressed against minimum, maximum and average daily outdoor temperature. The average clothing weight (±s.d.) throughout the year was significantly greater in men than in women (1.2±0.3 vs 0.8±0.3 kg, Pclothing weights across the year were 0.9±0.2 and 1.5±0.4 kg for men, and 0.5±0.2 and 1.1±0.4 kg for women, respectively. The within-person s.d. in clothing weight was 0.3 kg for both men and women. Over the 55 °C range in the lowest to the highest outdoor temperatures, the regressions predicted a maximal change in clothing weight of only 0.4 kg in women and 0.6 kg in men. The clothing weight of men is significantly greater than that of women, but there is little variability throughout the year. Therefore, a clothing adjustment of approximately 0.8 kg for women and 1.2 kg for men is appropriate regardless of outdoor temperature.

  20. Life course path analysis of birth weight, childhood growth, and adult systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Andersen, Per Kragh; Baker, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    The inverse associations between birth weight and later adverse health outcomes and the positive associations between adult body size and poor health imply that increases in relative body size between birth and adulthood may be undesirable. In this paper, the authors describe life course path...... analysis, a method that can be used to jointly estimate associations between body sizes at different time points and associations of body sizes throughout life with health outcomes. Additionally, this method makes it possible to assess both the direct effect and the indirect effect mediated through later...

  1. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI, Gestational Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight: A Within-Family Analysis in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, the high prevalence of unhealthy preconception body weight and inappropriate gestational weight gain among pregnant women is an important public health concern. However, the relationship among pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, and newborn birth weight has not been well established. This study uses a very large dataset of sibling births and a within-family design to thoroughly address this issue. The baseline regression controlling for mother fixed effects indic...

  2. Maternal dietary glycaemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard; Heitmann, Berit L.; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large-for-gestation......Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load (GL) have been related to obesity and other health outcomes. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between maternal dietary GL and gestational weight gain, birth weight, the risk of giving birth to a child large...

  3. Different Risk Factors for Very Low Birth Weight, Term-Small-for-Gestational-Age, or Preterm Birth in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tamura

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available From 1985 to 2013, the mean birth weight of infants in Japan decreased from 3120 g to 3000 g, and the low-birth-weight rate among live births increased from 6.3% to 9.6%. No prospective study has elucidated the risk factors for poor fetal growth and preterm birth in recent Japanese parents, such as increased parental age, maternal body figure, assisted reproductive technology (ART, and socioeconomic status. Participants were mother–infant pairs (n = 18,059 enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan from 2002 to 2013. Parental characteristics were obtained via self-reported questionnaires during pregnancy. Medical records helped identify very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <1500g, term-small-for-gestational-age (term-SGA, and preterm-birth (PTB; <37 weeks infants. We calculated relative risks (RRs for PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA birth based on parental characteristics. The prevalence of PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA was 4.5%, 0.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. Aged parents and ART were risk factors for PTB and VLBW. Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy increased the risk; a parental educational level of ≥16 years reduced risk of term-SGA. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI of <18.5 kg/m2 increased the risk of PTB and term-SGA. The RR for low BMI was highest among mothers who have low educational level. Among various factors, appropriate nutritional education to maintain normal BMI is important to prevent PTB and term-SGA in Japan.

  4. [Low birth weight and obesity: causal or casual association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adolfo Monteiro; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    To present the conceptual foundations that explain how events occurring during intrauterine life may influence body development, emphasizing the interrelation between low birth weight and risk of obesity throughout life. Google Scholar, Library Scientific Electronic Online (SciELO), EBSCO, Scopus, and PubMed were the databases. "Catch-up growth", "life course health", "disease", "child", "development", "early life", "perinatal programming", "epigenetics", "breastfeeding", "small baby syndrome", "phenotype", "micronutrients", "maternal nutrition", "obesity", and "adolescence" were isolated or associated keywords for locating reviews and epidemiological, intervention and experimental studies published between 1934 and 2014, with complete texts in Portuguese and English. Duplicate articles, editorials and reviews were excluded, as well as approaches of diseases different from obesity. Within 47 selected articles among 538 eligible ones, the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, the epigenetic mechanisms and the development plasticity were identified as fundamental factors to explain the mechanisms involved in health and disease throughout life. They admit the possibility that both cardiometabolic events and obesity originate from intrauterine nutritional deficiency, which, associated with a food supply that is excessive to the metabolic needs of the organism in early life stages, causes endocrine changes. However, there may be phenotypic reprogramming for low birth weight newborns from adequate nutritional supply, thus overcoming a restrictive intrauterine environment. Therefore, catch-up growth may indicate recovery from intrauterine constraint, which is associated with short-term benefits or harms in adulthood. Depending on the nutritional adequacy in the first years of life, developmental plasticity may lead to phenotype reprogramming and reduce the risk of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  5. Prenatal Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence provides some support for a causal association between maternal secondhand smoke (SHS exposure during pregnancy and reduction in infant birth weight. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine the magnitude of this association in China, where both prevalence and dose of SHS exposure are thought to be higher than in U.S. populations. Women who gave birth in Beijing and Changchun September 2000–November 2001 were interviewed to quantify self-reported prenatal SHS exposure. Their medical records were reviewed for data on pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Non-smoking women who delivered term babies (≥37 weeks gestation were included in the study (N = 2,770. Nearly a quarter of the women (24% reported daily SHS exposure, 47% reported no prenatal exposure, and 75% denied any SHS exposure from the husband smoking at home. Overall, no deficit in mean birth weight was observed with exposure from all sources of SHS combined (+11 grams, 95% CI: +2, +21. Infants had higher mean birth weights among the exposed than the unexposed for all measures of SHS exposure. Future studies on SHS exposure and infant birth weight in China should emphasize more objective measures of exposure to quantify and account for any exposure misclassification.

  6. Estimation Of Body Weight From Linear Body Measurements In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of body weight from body girth, keel length and thigh length was studied using one hundred Ross and one hundred Anak Titan broilers. Data were collected on the birds from day-old to 9 weeks of age. Body measurement was regressed against body weight at 9 weeks of age using simple linear and ...

  7. Phenotypic Correlations of Body Weight and Linear Body Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 126 Sigmond strain of Japanese quail chicks consisting of 42 each of heavy, medium and low body weight lines were used to estimate phenotypic correlations (rp ) among body weight (BWT) and linear body traits at 2, 4 and 6 weeks of age. The linear body traits considered were breast girth (BG), shank length (SL), ...

  8. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Yago, María Dolores

    2012-06-01

    In animal studies, n-3 PUFA have been shown to influence body composition and to reduce the accumulation of body fat, thereby affecting body weight homeostasis. In addition, it has been suggested that an additional supply of n-3 PUFA during pregnancy or lactation, or both, would have a beneficial effect on birth weight and infant growth and development. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review interventional clinical trials on the effects of dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation on body weight in adult subjects and in infants whose mothers were supplemented with these fatty acids during pregnancy and/or lactation. A systematic search, focused on n-3 PUFA and body weight, and limited to controlled clinical trials, was performed in different databases. The quality of all included studies was assessed against set criteria, and results of eligible trials were compared. There were few studies targeting this topic. In adults, all of the five studies included, except for one, show no change in body weight by dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA. Within those trials conducted in pregnant and/or lactating women in which a main outcome was birth weight or growth in infancy, two showed a modest increase in birth weight and the rest showed no effect. None of the trials showed an effect of maternal n-3 PUFA supplementation on infant's weight at the short term. However, it should be noted that a number of limitations, including a variety of experimental designs, type and doses of n-3 PUFA, and high attrition rates, among others, make impossible to draw robust conclusions from this review.

  9. Updated birth weight centiles for England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Tom; Seaton, Sarah E; Manktelow, Brad N; Baker, Philip N; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Field, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Smith, Lucy K

    2017-12-07

    Construct updated birth weight-for-gestational age centile charts for use in the UK and compare these to the currently used UK-WHO charts. Secondary analysis of national birth data. Centiles were constructed using 1 269 403 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2013-2014 as part of the MBRRACE-UK national perinatal surveillance programme. These were then validated using 642 737 singleton births occurring in England and Wales in 2015. Sex-specific birth weight-for-gestational age centiles. Centiles were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method via the GAMLSS package in R. This method transforms the skewed birth weight distribution to approximate a normal distribution, allowing any birth weight centile to be produced. The new centiles performed well in the validation sample, with the observed and expected proportion of births below a given centile in agreement. Overall, driven by the predominance of term births, the UK-WHO charts classify a smaller proportion of infants as below a given centile. For example, the UK-WHO estimates classified only 1.32% (8035/606 430) of term infants born in 2015 as below the second centile, compared with 1.97% (11 975/606 430) using the new MBRRACE-UK centiles. At the earliest gestational ages, however, the opposite is observed, with the UK-WHO classifying a larger proportion of infants as below a given centile, particularly at the lower end of the birthweight distribution. We have constructed and validated updated birth weight-for-gestational age centiles using a contemporary sample of births occurring in England and Wales. The benefits of these updated centiles will be first to assist the national surveillance of perinatal mortality programme by improving the identification of the proportion of stillbirths and neonatal deaths affected by intrauterine growth restriction and, second, to aid clinicians by more accurately identifying babies who require increased monitoring in the period immediately following birth.

  10. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  11. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  12. Body size at birth and same-sex marriage in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Zdravkovic, Slobodan

    2010-02-01

    An unexplained excess of overweight has been reported among lesbians. In contrast, reports suggest that gay men may be, on average, slightly lighter and shorter than heterosexual men. We studied associations between weight, length, and body mass index (BMI) at birth and same-sex marriage in young adulthood among 818,671 Danes. We used linear regression to calculate differences in mean body measures at birth and Poisson regression analysis to calculate confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of same-sex marriage according to body measures at birth. Overall, 739 persons entered same-sex marriage at age 18-32 years during 5.6 million person-years of follow-up. Birth year-adjusted mean body measures at birth were similar for same-sex married and other women. However, same-sex marriage rates were 65% higher among women of heavy birth weight (IRR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.18-2.31, for > or =4000 vs. 3000-3499 g, p = .02), and rates were inversely associated with birth length (p (trend) = .04). For same-sex married men, birth year-adjusted mean weight (-72 g, p = .03), length (-0.3 cm, p = .04), and BMI (-0.1 kg/m(2), p = .09) at birth were lower than for other Danish men. Same-sex marriage rates were increased in men of short birth length (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.08, for average body measures at birth in same-sex marrying men need replication. Factors affecting intrauterine growth may somehow influence sexual and partner-related choices in adulthood.

  13. Low birth weight: risk factors in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Y.S.A.; Bataineh, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the birth weight distribution and prevalence of low birth weights (LBW) in Irbid, Jordan, and to determine some of the contributing risk factors. A cross-sectional design was used to study women who delivered in Prince Rashed Hospital (PRH). Respondents were 2256 mothers ranging in age from 15-45 years. Anthropometric measurements and interviews were used to determine the risk factors. The birth weights and anthropometric measurements of all babies born alive in PRH during the period were collected. Post-delivery weight and other measurements of respondents were also collected. The mean birth weight of the newborns in the study was 2812 g. Twenty-two percent of the newborns weighed between 700 and 2499 g. About 39% of respondents had urinary tract infection while 29% suffered from anemia, and 10% had bleeding during pregnancy. All anthropometric measurements were significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who were younger in age at their first delivery, had low post-delivery weight, and bled during pregnancy, were more likely to have LBW babies. There is also a need to discourage early pregnancies and to encourage utilization of mother and child health services, and treat concomitant illnesses during pregnancy. (author)

  14. Relationship Among Mothers' Glycemic Level, Periodontitis, and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac S; Pereira, Eliesita C; Cruz, Simone S; Adan, Luis Fernando F; Vianna, Maria Isabel P; Passos-Soares, Johelle S; Trindade, Soraya C; Oliveira, Ernesto P; Oliveira, Michelle T; Cerqueira, Eneida de M M; Pereira, Antonio Luis; Barreto, Maurício L; Seymour, Gregory John

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the influence of glycemic level on the relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was conducted with 372 females divided into cases (109 mothers of newborns with birth weight periodontal status. Results were analyzed using logistic regression. The likelihood of having children with LBW among the mothers with periodontitis was six times greater than that observed among mothers without periodontitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR adjusted] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47 to 15.17), even after adjustment. There was also a strong, statistically significant relationship between periodontitis and LBW in both the normal glycemic-level group (HbA1c levels Periodontitis and glycemic levels appeared to have opposing influences on birth weight, with periodontitis being associated with LBW and the magnitude of the association being altered depending on maternal blood glucose level.

  15. Maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.; Jamal, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic, maternal, medical and obstetric risk factors with low birth weight. Results: The mean weight of cases was 2.08 kg as compared to 3.1 in controls. Forty-sixty percent of cases were preterm. The factors like maternal malnutrition, young age of the mothers, poverty, close birth spacing, hypertension and antenatal per vagamin (p/v) bleeding during pregnancy have independent effect in causing low birth weight (LBW). Conclusion: Maternal bio social, medical and obstetric factors have strong association with LBW. To overcome this problem, special attention is required to strengthen the mother and child health care services in the community. (author)

  16. Is Biology Destiny? Birth Weight and Differential Parental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Time diaries of sibling pairs from the PSID-CDS are used to determine whether maternal time investments compensate for or reinforce birth-weight differences among children. The findings demonstrate that the direction and degree of differential treatment vary by mother's education. Less-educated mothers devote more total time and more educationally oriented time to heavier-birth-weight children, whereas better-educated mothers devote more total and more educationally oriented time to lower-birth-weight children. The compensating effects observed among highly educated mothers are substantially larger than the reinforcing effects among the least-educated mothers. The findings show that families redistribute resources in ways that both compensate for and exacerbate early-life disadvantages. PMID:22865101

  17. Birth weight and intelligence in young adulthood and midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2017-01-01

    to one-third of a SD. The association was stable from young adulthood into midlife,and not weaker at age 50 years. Adjustment for potential confounding factors, including infant socioeconomic status and gestational age, did not dilute the associations, and associations with intelligence were evident......OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between birth weight and intelligence at 3 different adult ages. METHODS: The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort is comprised of children born in Copenhagen from 1959 to 1961. Information on birth weight and ≥1 tests of intelligence was available for 4696 members...... of the cohort. Intelligence was assessed at a mean age of 19 years with the Børge Priens Prøve test, at age 28 years with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and at age 50 years with the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000 R. RESULTS: Birth weight was significantly associated with intelligence at all 3 follow...

  18. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  19. Birth weight in Kohkilooyeh and Boyer Ahmad province, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasbi Nasab A

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The newborn's weight at birth is an important measure for newborn's health in all communities. Among developed countries, 70 percent of low birth weight (LBW newborns are preterm. The corresponding figure for undeveloped countries is only 30 percent, there are also evidence of intra-uterine growth retardation among these countries. Among effective factors on LBW, maternal related factors have important role in promotion and improvement of infants and mother's health. This study is a descriptive-analytic one and was conducted cross-sectionally through a questionnair. The study population determined by simple random sampling from newborns under coverage of urban health centers in Kohgiloye and Boyerahmad province. Necessary data collected from existing medical and health records filed in the health centers. Among 285 newborns, 88.4 percent considered with normal weight, 4 percent with IBW and 11.6 percent with more than normal weight. 7.4 percent of cases were immature. 85.3 percent of the mothers in study population were in immune range of age for pregnancy and 7.6 percent of them were illiterate. Except the sex of newborn (P=0.0008 and gestational age at birth (P<0.001 none of the variables demonstrated a significant statistical relation with the birth weight. The results of this study confirm other research's findings and reveal that with improving material factors such as mother's age, employment and literacy, the factors which are effective on birth weight, will be dependent on physiological factors such as sex of newborn and gestational age at birth.

  20. Weight growth of triplet infants from birth to twelve years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed the characteristics associated with the growth in weight of Japanese triplets from birth to 12 years of age. The study included 376 mothers and their 1,128 triplet children, who were born between 1978 and 2006. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to the mothers asking for information recorded in medical records. For these births, data on triplets' weight growth, gestational age, sex, parity, maternal age at delivery, maternal height, and maternal body mass index were obtained from records in the Maternal and Child Health Handbooks and records in the school where children receive health check-ups. The weight deficit of the triplets compared to the general population of Japan remained between 10% and 17% until 12 years of age. Moreover, at 12 years of age, the differences of weight between the general population and triplets were approximately -4.75 kg for boys and -6.00 kg for girls. Very low birth weight had the strongest contribution to body weight until 8 years of age. After 8 years of age, maternal body mass index was a significant factor affecting the weight of triplets until 12 years of age.

  1. Relationship between age and body weight on some linear body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between age and body weight on some linear body measurement of white bornu goats reared under semi-intensive system in a southern Nigeria ... Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences ... Parameters measured include distance between eyes, ear length, ear width and length, tail, and body weight.

  2. Association of Plasma Leptin Levels With Maternal Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Premature and Term Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Ping Ho

    2010-02-01

    Conclusion: Neonatal serum leptin concentrations within 24 hours of birth correlated with maternal body weight and BMI, especially in premature newborns. Premature newborns had significantly lower leptin levels than full-term newborns.

  3. Birth weight curves tailored to maternal world region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Joel G; Sgro, Michael; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Glazier, Richard H; Bocking, Alan; Hilliard, Robert; Urquia, Marcelo L

    2012-02-01

    Newborns of certain immigrant mothers are smaller at birth than those of domestically born mothers. Contemporary, population-derived percentile curves for these newborns are lacking, as are estimates of their risk of being misclassified as too small or too large using conventional rather than tailored birth weight curves. We completed a population-based study of 766 688 singleton live births in Ontario from 2002 to 2007. Smoothed birth weight percentile curves were generated for males and females, categorized by maternal world region of birth: Canada (63.5%), Europe/Western nations (7.6%), Africa/Caribbean (4.9%), Middle East/North Africa (3.4%), Latin America (3.4%), East Asia/Pacific (8.1%), and South Asia (9.2%). We determined the likelihood of misclassifying an infant as small for gestational age (≤ 10th percentile for weight) or as large for gestational age (≥ 90th percentile for weight) on a Canadian-born maternal curve versus one specific to maternal world region of origin. Significantly lower birth weights were seen at gestation-specific 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles among term infants born to mothers from each world region, with the exception of Europe/Western nations, compared with those for infants of Canadian-born mothers. For example, for South Asian babies born at 40 weeks' gestation, the absolute difference at the 10th percentile was 198 g (95% CI 183 to 212) for males and 170 g (95% CI 161 to 179) for females. Controlling for maternal age and parity, South Asian males had an odds ratio of 2.60 (95% CI 2.53 to 2.68) of being misclassified as small for gestational age, equivalent to approximately 116 in 1000 newborns; for South Asian females the OR was 2.41 (95% CI 2.34 to 2.48), equivalent to approximately 106 per 1000 newborns. Large for gestational age would be missed in approximately 61 per 1000 male and 57 per 1000 female South Asian newborns if conventional rather than ethnicity-specific birth weight curves were used. Birth weight curves

  4. All rights reserved Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological Parameters of Rats Fed ... Biochemistry Department, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria ... These changes were significantly different (P<0.05).The absolute and relative organ (liver, heart, kidney, pancreas, spleen and lungs) weight changes of the ...

  5. Effects of castration on growth rate, body and visceral organ weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of castration on growth rate, body and visceral organ weights of pigs were investigated using data from intact males, intact females of Large White pigs full or half castrated at 2, 4, or 6 weeks of age. Body weights and feed intake were recorded to the nearest 0.1 kg at weekly intervals from birth, while weights of ...

  6. Prepubertal growth and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the growth hormone gene of low birth weight Holstein calves

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Younghye; Choi, Woojae; Kim, Hoyung; Jang, Hojin; Lee, Hoseon; Lee, Yoonseok; Kim, Danil

    2018-01-01

    Holstein calves weighing less than 20 kg at birth have been noted in Korea. Due to insufficient information, we raised small calves with age-matched normal birth weight Holstein calves and determined body weights before puberty. In addition, 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the growth hormone (GH) gene were analyzed. Up to 10 months of age, low birth weight calves were smaller than normal weight calves. In exon 5 of the GH gene, SNP genotype variation was detected in some small cal...

  7. Immigration policy and birth weight: Positive externalities in Italian law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmasi, Luca; Pieroni, Luca

    2015-09-01

    A decade ago, the political party of the Italian center-right voted a law restricting immigration. The law became effective in early 2005, when the Italian parliament approved the decree for its application, but one of its articles, granting amnesty for illegal immigrant workers, became immediately effective in July 2002. As a result, 650,000 immigrants were granted the status of foreign nationals in Italy. In this paper, we examine whether the increase in the prevalence of "regular immigrants" has led to an improvement in health outcomes of babies born to migrant women, measured in terms of birth weight. Two hitherto unexploited birth sample surveys published by Italian Institute of Statistics were used for this study. Our estimates show that regularized immigration reduced the probability of low birth weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal fat mass at mid-pregnancy and birth weight in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ramos, Tatiana; Sichieri, Rosely; Hoffman, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between maternal body composition and foetal development is unclear. To determine the relationship between maternal body composition [fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)] and foetal growth and birth weight, independent of potential confounding factors. This study consisted of 92 women, normal and overweight/obese, recruited from the Instituto Fernandes Figueira in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Body composition (FM and FFM) was estimated using bioelectrical impedance. Foetal growth was assessed using serial ultrasound measurements at the second and third trimester and infant's weight and length were measured at birth. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between maternal FM and FFM and birth weight adjusted for gestational age (BWt) and change in estimated foetal weight (ΔEFW), controlling for infant gender, maternal serum glucose, energy intake, parity, height and income. Maternal FM, but not FFM, was positively associated with BWt (p = 0.02) and borderline with ΔEFW (p = 0.05). FM expressed as a percentage of body weight (%FM) showed a significant positive association with BWt (p maternal FM at mid-pregnancy is associated with neonatal BW and foetal growth.

  9. NEONATAL SEPTICAEMIA IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... Conclusion: Case fatality rate for low birth weight infants with sepsis is high. Gram negative organisms are the predominant pathogens. No maternal risk factors were identified. Antibiotic sensitivity shows adequate sensitivity to aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporins. INTRODUCTION.

  10. Periventricular-intraventricular haetnorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAN 1994. Periventricular-intraventricular haetnorrhage in low-birth-weight infants at Baragwanath Hospital ... dation,IO while many women delivering premature infants have not received proper antenatal care. .... required mechanical ventilation and one-third of those who did not, allocated by random number generation,.

  11. Ramadan during pregnancy and birth weight of newborns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savitri, Ary I.; Amelia, Dwirani; Painter, Rebecca C.; Baharuddin, Mohammad; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.

    2018-01-01

    P= 0·44), although there was a non-significant trend towards lower birth weight with fasting in the second and third trimester. Women who fasted had significantly lower total energy, macronutrient and water intake as compared with women who did not. Women's intake was also lower during Ramadan

  12. Combating low birth weight due to malaria infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, James G; Scoullar, Michelle J L; Boeuf, Philippe

    2018-03-07

    Decreased l-arginine and nitric oxide bioavailability in pregnant women with malaria contributes to low birth weight, suggesting that l-arginine supplementation could be a potential treatment (McDonald et al ). Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  13. Direct Maternal Genetic Effects and Birth Weight Trends of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The correlation between direct and maternal effects was negative implying that selection should be directed at both components, considering the maternal heritability estimate, which was moderate. The environmental parameter records of the study area suggest that birth weight was not depressed by the tropical semi arid ...

  14. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    :: We investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years...

  15. Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth Weight of Newborns in Relation to Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Nkawie Government Hospital in Atwima ... Journal of the Ghana Science Association ... pregnancy. Intensification of health education efforts to improve maternal nutrition at ANC (Ante natal clinic) is recommended.

  16. Variation in individual piglet birth weights in a Large White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CVBWT) was 17.6% and ranged from 0.47% to 50.7%. The distribution of CVBWT in the herd was positively skewed. CVBWT increased as NBA increased. Multiparous sows farrowed litters with higher ...

  17. Improved appetite of pregnant rats and increased birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malnutrition and pathogenic colonization of the vagina are two major contributors to preterm labour, newborn survival and low birth weight babies. Hypothetically, the use of probiotics as food supplements might improve the appetite and health of the mother and their newborn babies. Sprague-Dawley albino rats were ...

  18. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2 Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa. University ... Conclusion: - The association of low birth weight with substance use was strong, particularly, with maternal khat chewing, cigarette ... the magnitude of alcohol drinking habit among women in reproductive ...

  19. Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth weight in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We, therefore, investigated effects of exposure to biomass fuels on reduced birth weight in the Malawian population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using secondary data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey with a total of 9124 respondents. Information on exposure to biomass fuels, ...

  20. Successful management of a set of preterm, low birth weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: We report a case of successful management of preterm, low birth weight quadruplets (QI, QII, QIII, and QIV) delivered at 32 weeks by Caesarean section to a 30 year old primiparous mother. QIII and QIV developed septicaemia with conjugated bilirubinaemia and were managed with intravenous antibiotics, and ...

  1. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (PV-IVH) aInong very-low-birthweight infants at Baragwanath Hospital has not been well docwnented. In this prospective study, a total of 282 live-born infants with birth weights of 1 000 - 1 749 g were studied over a 41/2-month period. Every infant had at least ...

  2. Standard gestational birth weight ranges and Curve in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish standard ranges and curve of mean gestational birth weights validated by ultrasonography for the Cameroonian population in Yaoundé. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology units of 4 major hospitals in the metropolis between March 5 and ...

  3. Influence of environmental factors on birth weight variability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was carried out to study the influence of environmental factors on the birth weight variability of two breeds of sheep. Animals used in this research were taken from the Pirot and Svrljig indigenous sheep breeds. The data were collected from 1999 to 2009 and were analyzed to determine the effect of ...

  4. Prediction of low birth weight from other anthropometric parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight is a global problem but presents a major burden on the neonatal services in developing countries such as Nigeria, and brings to bear a greater strain on the meagre resources available for health care delivery and family financing. In a resourceconstrained setting as ours, proper weighing of all ...

  5. Association between maternal gingivitis, low birth weight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the association between maternal gingivitis and pregnancy outcome, including low birth weight (LBW) and preterm delivery. This prospective study was conducted among 300 randomly selected pregnant women aged 20-34 years attending the antenatal clinic, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ...

  6. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; P= 0.01). There is need of increasing promotion of reproductive health services in relation to safe motherhood at community level in order to reduce risk fac- tors of LBW. Key words: Low birth weight, pregnancy, risk factors, hospital, Tanzania.

  7. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  8. Two year neurological outcomes of very low birth weight infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High risk newborns such as the Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) require long term follow up to ascertain their subsequent survival and quality of life (based on neurological intactness). Though such data is now standard in the developed world, little is known in published literature about the situation in resource ...

  9. Early Postnatal Growth Of Preterm Low Birth Weight, Appropriately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postnatal growth monitoring is useful in assessing the health of preterm babies but their growth patterns have not been sufficiently studied in Africans. Aim: To describe the growth achievements of preterm, low birth weight, appropriately-sized, Nigerian infants. Study design: The subjects were prospectively ...

  10. Cytomegalovirus infections among low birth weight infants in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is one of the leading causes of congenital infections, which can lead to severe foetal anomalies or even foetal loss. In order to determine the incidence of congenital HCMV infection in low birth weight neonates and the most prevalent genotype, cord blood samples were collected from a ...

  11. Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria, Nigeria. B Danborno, A Afegbua. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy Vol. 5(1) 2006: 21-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    2 Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa. University; email.negdaysun@yahoo.com, Corresponding author: Negussie Deyessa. Original article. Substance use and birth weight among mothers attending public hospitals: A case control study. Emebet Dendir1 ...

  13. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  14. Sports and leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and birth weight: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, H K; Petersson, K; Hedegaard, M

    2010-01-01

    , light, and moderate to heavy) and birth weight were examined by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as smoking, parity, schooling, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational age. The results showed that pregnant women who practiced sports or were...... no association between sports and leisure-time physical activity and low-birth weight, high-birth weight, or average-birth weight.......We examined the association between sports and other leisure-time physical activities during pregnancy and birth weight of babies born after 37 completed weeks of gestation. All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics, Aarhus University...

  15. PHYSICAL FITNESS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN YOUNG MEN FROM MAPUTO CITY, MOZAMBIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Eugénio Tchamo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Birth weight has been considered an important marker of the nutritional transition in developing countries. Objective: To evaluate the influence of birth weight on body composition and physical fitness of young men born in Maputo, Mozambique. Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine students (aged 19 to 22 years were divided into four groups (low birth weight 3.999 g, HBW, n = 31. Anthropometry and body composition were measured. Physical fitness was assessed by handgrip strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, agility, and running speed. Results: IBW showed lower values of body mass and fat free mass while LBW and HBW had high values of hip circumference, suprailiac, subscapular and abdominal skinfold when compared to NBW. LBW and HBW showed a high percentage of individuals with low performance in flexibility, right handgrip, agility, abdominal resistance, arms strength, and horizontal long jump. Around 70% of HBW showed low performance in the running speed test. Conclusion: Both low and high birth weight can influence adult adiposity and the performance in physical fitness tests.

  16. Poor birth weight recovery among low birth weight/preterm infants following hospital discharge in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namiiro Flavia B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy infants typically regain their birth weight by 21 days of age; however, failure to do so may be due to medical, nutritional or environmental factors. Globally, the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is high, but few studies have assessed the postnatal weight changes in this category of infants, especially in Africa. The aim was to determine what proportion of LBW infants had not regained their birth weight by 21 days of age after discharge from the Special Care Unit of Mulago hospital, Kampala. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted assessing weight recovery of 235 LBW infants attending the Kangaroo Clinic in the Special Care Unit of Mulago Hospital between January and April 2010. Infants aged 21 days with a documented birth weight and whose mothers gave consent to participate were included in the study. Baseline information was collected on demographic characteristics, history on pregnancy, delivery and postnatal outcome through interviews. Pertinent infant information like gestation age, diagnosis and management was obtained from the medical records and summarized in the case report forms. Results Of the 235 LBW infants, 113 (48.1% had not regained their birth weight by 21 days. Duration of hospitalization for more than 7 days (AOR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 - 7.6; p value Conclusion Failure to regain birth weight among LBW infants by 21 days of age is a common problem in Mulago Hospital occurring in almost half of the neonates attending the Kangaroo clinic. Currently, the burden of morbidity in this group of high-risk infants is undetected and unaddressed in many developing countries. Measures for consideration to improve care of these infants would include; discharge after regaining birth weight and use of total parenteral nutrition. However, due to the pressure of space, keeping the baby and mother is not feasible at the moment hence the need for a strong community system to boost care of the infant. Close

  17. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  18. References of Birth Weights for Gestational Age and Sex from a Large Cohort of Singleton Births in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  19. Assessment of Fetal Kidney Growth and Birth Weight in an Indigenous Australian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Diehm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indigenous Australians experience higher rates of renal disease and hypertension than non-Indigenous Australians. Low birth weight is recognized as a contributing factor in chronic disease and has been shown to increase the risk of renal failure in adulthood. A smaller kidney volume with fewer nephrons places an individual at risk of hypertension and renal failure. Indigenous Australians have fewer nephrons than non-Indigenous Australians. In this study, intrauterine fetal and kidney growth were evaluated in 174 Indigenous Australian babies throughout gestation in order to record and evaluate fetal growth and kidney size, within a population that is at high risk for chronic illness.Methods: Pregnant women that identified as Indigenous, or non-Indigenous women that were pregnant with a partner who identified as an Indigenous Australian were eligible to participate. Maternal history, smoking status, blood and urine samples and fetal ultrasounds were collected throughout pregnancy. Fetal kidney measurements were collected using ultrasound. Statistical analysis was performed using the Stata 14.1 software package.Results: 15.2% of babies were born prematurely. 44% of the mothers reported smoking in pregnancy. The median birth weight of this cohort was 3,240 g. Male fetuses had higher kidney to body weight ratios than female fetuses (P = 0.02. The birth weights of term neonates whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were lower (327 g, P < 0.001 than the birth weights of term babies from non-smoking mothers. The kidney volumes of babies whose mothers smoked were also smaller (P = 0.02, but were in proportion to body weight.Conclusion: In this cohort of Indigenous women smoking was associated with both increased number of preterm births and with a reduction in birth weights, even of term infants. Since kidney volume is a surrogate measure of nephron number and nephrogenesis is complete at birth, babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy

  20. Body weight, scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...

  1. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  2. Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen

    2006-04-01

    Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.

  3. Secular trends in seasonal variation in birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Jensen, Camilla; Gamborg, Michael; Raymond, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been shown to influence birth weight (BW) and one of these are season of birth. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal variation in BW in Denmark during 1936-1989, and to see if the variation could be explained by sunshine...... exposure during pregnancy. METHODS: The study population was selected from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register and included 276 339 children born between 1936 and 1989. Seasonal variation was modeled using a non-stationary sinusoidal model that allowed the underlying trend in BW and the amplitude...

  4. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M; Feenstra, Bjarke; Rangarajan, Janani; Metrustry, Sarah; Cavadino, Alana; Paternoster, Lavinia; Armstrong, Loren L; De Silva, N Maneka G; Wood, Andrew R; Horikoshi, Momoko; Geller, Frank; Myhre, Ronny; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Huikari, Ville; Painter, Jodie N; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Allard, Catherine; Berry, Diane J; Bouchard, Luigi; Das, Shikta; Evans, David M; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayes, M Geoffrey; Heikkinen, Jani; Hofman, Albert; Knight, Bridget; Lind, Penelope A; McCarthy, Mark I; McMahon, George; Medland, Sarah E; Melbye, Mads; Morris, Andrew P; Nodzenski, Michael; Reichetzeder, Christoph; Ring, Susan M; Sebert, Sylvain; Sengpiel, Verena; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Tim D; Power, Christine; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Bisgaard, Hans; Grant, Struan F A; Nohr, Ellen A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Jacobsson, Bo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Hocher, Berthold; Hattersley, Andrew T; Scholtens, Denise M; Davey Smith, George; Hivert, Marie-France; Felix, Janine F; Hyppönen, Elina; Lowe, William L; Frayling, Timothy M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Freathy, Rachel M

    2016-03-15

    Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. To test for genetic evidence of causal associations of maternal body mass index (BMI) and related traits with birth weight. Mendelian randomization to test whether maternal BMI and obesity-related traits are potentially causally related to offspring birth weight. Data from 30,487 women in 18 studies were analyzed. Participants were of European ancestry from population- or community-based studies in Europe, North America, or Australia and were part of the Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Live, term, singleton offspring born between 1929 and 2013 were included. Genetic scores for BMI, fasting glucose level, type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglyceride level, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, vitamin D status, and adiponectin level. Offspring birth weight from 18 studies. Among the 30,487 newborns the mean birth weight in the various cohorts ranged from 3325 g to 3679 g. The maternal genetic score for BMI was associated with a 2-g (95% CI, 0 to 3 g) higher offspring birth weight per maternal BMI-raising allele (P = .008). The maternal genetic scores for fasting glucose and SBP were also associated with birth weight with effect sizes of 8 g (95% CI, 6 to 10 g) per glucose-raising allele (P = 7 × 10(-14)) and -4 g (95% CI, -6 to -2 g) per SBP-raising allele (P = 1×10(-5)), respectively. A 1-SD ( ≈ 4 points) genetically higher maternal BMI was associated with a 55-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 17 to 93 g). A 1-SD ( ≈ 7.2 mg/dL) genetically higher maternal fasting glucose concentration was associated with 114-g higher offspring birth weight (95% CI, 80 to 147 g). However, a 1-SD ( ≈ 10 mm Hg) genetically higher maternal SBP was associated with a 208-g

  5. [Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. There were 972 subjects (males: 50.7%, mean age: (46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data analysis. The 2 h PG in low birth weight group was (7.6±3.2) mmol/L , which was higher than that in normal birth weight group (6.9±2.1) mmol/L and high birth weight group (6.4±1.3) mmol/L (F=3.88, P=0.021). After adjustment for genders, age, body length, gestation age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and duration of follow-up, subjects with overweight and obesity at adulthood had 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) =2.06- 3.62) times risk

  6. Standards of Birth Weight According to Gestational Age in the Northwestern Regions of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodych O.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the neonatal registry for 2001-2010 years in Rivne and Volyn regions of Ukraine as well as 2006-2011 years of Khmelnytsky region was carried out. General information was available about body weight of 366 607 newborns, among which 188 687 were boys and 177 920 girls. Based on the analysis we developed local standards of birth body weight in relation to gestational age separately for boys and girls. Procedure for processing local standards met international standards that have been developed by the WHO. Availability of processed local standards depending on gestational age will enable neonatologists, pediatricians and researchers to clearly identify anomalies in the health of newborns in the northwestern regions of Ukraine. Therefore, identification of newborns with low or high birth weight will enable adequate and timely steps to improve their health.

  7. Birth weight following pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, David M; Reid, Colleen E; Jesdale, Bill M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-09-01

    In late October 2003, a series of wildfires exposed urban populations in Southern California to elevated levels of air pollution over several weeks. Previous research suggests that short-term hospital admissions for respiratory outcomes increased specifically as a result of these fires. We assessed the impact of a wildfire event during pregnancy on birth weight among term infants. Using records for singleton term births delivered to mothers residing in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) during 2001-2005 (n = 886,034), we compared birth weights from pregnancies that took place entirely before or after the wildfire event (n = 747,590) with those where wildfires occurred during the first (n = 60,270), second (n = 39,435), or third (n = 38,739) trimester. The trimester-specific effects of wildfire exposure were estimated using a fixed-effects regression model with several maternal characteristics included as covariates. Compared with pregnancies before and after the wildfires, mean birth weight was estimated to be 7.0 g lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.8, -2.2] when the wildfire occurred during the third trimester, 9.7 g lower when it occurred during the second trimester (95% CI: -14.5, -4.8), and 3.3 g lower when it occurred during the first trimester (95% CI: -7.2, 0.6). Pregnancy during the 2003 Southern California wildfires was associated with slightly reduced average birth weight among infants exposed in utero. The extent and increasing frequency of wildfire events may have implications for infant health and development.

  8. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  9. HEALTH STATUS OF EXTREMELY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN AT AGE 8 YEARS: CHILD AND PARENT PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Maureen; Forrest, Christopher B; Schluchter, Mark; Taylor, H. Gerry; Drotar, Dennis; Holmbeck, Grayson; Andreias, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Context Parental proxy reports have indicated poorer health for preterm children as compared to normal birth weight controls. The perspective of their children may however differ. Objective To compare the self reported health of preterm children to normal birth weight controls and the children’s perspective to that of their parents. Design Study of extremely low birth weight (<1kg) and normal birth weight children and their parents conducted 2006–2009. Setting Children’s hospital. Participants Eight year old extremely low birth weight (n=202) and normal birth weight (n=176) children of similar sociodemographic status. Main Outcome Measures The Child Health and Illness Profile child and parent reports. Results There was poor agreement between the parent and child ratings of health for both the extremely low birth weight and normal birth weight cohorts. Extremely low birth weight children rated their health similar to normal birth weight children. In contrast parents of extremely low birth weight children reported significantly poorer health for their children than parents of normal birth weight controls including poorer Satisfaction with health, Comfort and Achievement and less Risk avoidance. Conclusion There is poor agreement between child and parent reports of health. Eight year old extremely low birth weight children rate their health similar to that of normal birth weight controls. Their parents however report significantly poorer health. Both child and parent perspective needs to be considered when making health care decisions. PMID:21969395

  10. Birth weight, sex, and celiac disease: a nationwide twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuja-Halkola R

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralf Kuja-Halkola,1 Benjamin Lebwohl,1,2 Jonas Halfvarson,3 Louise Emilsson,4–6 Patrik K Magnusson,1 Jonas F Ludvigsson1,2,7,8 1Department Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 4Department of Health Management and Health Economy, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 5Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; 6Centre for Clinical Research, Vårdcentralen Värmlands Nysäter, County Council of Värmland, Värmland, 7Department of Pediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, City Hospital, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK Objective: Earlier research suggests that birth weight may be associated with celiac disease (CD, but the direction of association has been unclear potentially due to confounding effect from genetic and intrafamilial factors. Through within-twin analyses, we aimed to minimize confounding effects such as twins that share genetic and early environmental exposures.Materials and methods: Using the Swedish Twin Registry, we examined the birth weight of 146,830 twins according to the CD status. CD was defined as having villous atrophy according to a small intestinal biopsy reports.Results: The prevalence of diagnosed CD was 0.5% (n=669, and we included 407 discordant pairs of CD–non-CD twins. Comparing the 669 CD patients with non-CD twins, the association between birth weight and future CD was not statistically significant (odds ratio [OR] per 1000 g increase in birth weight: 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.97–1.38. In males, the association was positive and statistically significant (OR=1.50; 95% CI

  11. [Effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on neonate birth weight in Shaanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J M; Qu, P F; Dang, S N; Li, S S; Bai, R H; Qin, B W; Yan, H

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of folic acid supplementation in childbearing aged women during pregnancy on the birth weight of newborns in Shaanxi province. A questionnaire survey was conducted among the childbearing aged women selected through multistage stratified random sampling in Shaanxi during 2010-2013, all of these childbearing aged women were in pregnancy or had definite pregnancy outcomes. The birth weight of newborns and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were used as the dependent variables and independent variables respectively in multiple linear regression model and quantile regression model and confounding factors were controlled. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the birth weight of newborns whose mothers had folic acid supplementation during pregnancy were significantly higher than those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation during pregnancy, an average increase of 29.56 g(B=29.56, t=4.69 and Pbirth weights of newborns whose mothers supplemented folic acid were higher than those whose mother did not supplement folic acid, the difference was significant, but the increase varied. As the increase of the percentiles of birth weight, the body weight increase declined gradually in those whose mothers had folic acid supplementation compared with those whose mothers had no folic acid supplementation. Folic acid supplementation during pregnancy can increase the birth weight of newborns, the influence was greater in newborns with lower body weight than in newborns with higher body weight.

  12. Hypospadias - prevalence, birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Karin Baekgaard; Udesen, Ann; Garne, Ester

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypospadias over 24 years in a Danish population and to describe the relation to birth weight and associated major congenital anomalies. METHODS: Population-based study of all cases (live births, fetal deaths and elective terminations...... of pregnancy) with hypospadias born in the period 1986-2009 in Funen County and reported to the EUROCAT registry of congenital anomalies. Cases were included only if surgery for hypospadias was performed. RESULTS: 223 cases of hypospadias were registered during the period 1986-2009 with an overall prevalence...... of 16.9 per 10,000 births. The prevalence was significantly higher in 2000-2009 compared to 1986-1999 (phypospadias. Infants with isolated hypospadias were more likely to have mild hypospadias (68...

  13. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  15. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 h vs. 14 h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, A.; Sánchez-Macías, D.

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (...

  16. Effect of maternal periodontitis and low birth weight--a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luise Maria; Cruz, Simone Seixas da; Gomes-Filho, Isaac Suzart; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Passos-Soares, Johelle Santana; Trindade, Soraya Castro; Figueiredo, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy; Alves, Claúdia Maria Coêlho; Coelho, Julita Maria Freitas; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, evidence has been raised that there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and undesirable gestational events, for example low birth weight; this issue is controversial. To evaluate whether there is an association between maternal periodontitis and low birth weight (LBW). A case-control study was carried out on 951 mothers that had been cared for by the Brazilian Unified Health System in Petrolina-PE and Juazeiro-BA, Brazil. The case group (n = 269) consisted of mothers of newborns with birth weight <2500 g and a control group (n = 682) of mothers of newborns with birth weight ≥2500 g. An interview was realized, using a questionnaire as well as a full mouth examination to diagnose the periodontal condition. Women who had at least four teeth with probing depth ≥4 mm and clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm, with bleeding on probing at the same site, were diagnosed with periodontitis. The birth weight was obtained through the hospital book record. The main association was evaluated using the multivariate regression model, considering confounders. The frequency of periodontitis was 16.4% (case group) and 17.4% (control group). Periodontitis did not show an association with LBW (ORcrude = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.63-1.35), even after adjustment for the following confounders: maternal age, pre-gestational body mass index, number of pre-natal consultations, number of pregnancies, maternal schooling level, smoking habit during pregnancy and hypertension (ORadjusted = 1.00; 95% CI = 0.61-1.68). The findings of this study showed no association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight, even after appropriate adjustments for confounding factors.

  17. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Karen M; Wisborg, Kirsten; Agerbo, Esben

    2006-01-01

    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with gestational ages of 34-36 completed weeks had a 70% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (rate ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2 to 2.5). Children with gestational ages below 34 completed weeks had an almost threefold increased risk (RR 2.7, 95% CI 1.8 to 4.1). Children born at term...

  18. [Very low birth weight neonates. Results of management. Future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriette, G; De Gamarra, E; Cukier-Hemeury, F; Murat, I; Bordarier, C; Relier, J P

    1982-10-01

    70 neonates with birth weights (BW) less than 1 250 g were treated at the intensive care unit for neonates (USINN), hôpital Port-Royal, from April 1st 1976 to July 31st 1977. 16 of them had intra-uterine growth retardation. In 20, BW cas under 1 000 g. Assisted ventilation was necessary in 54 (77%). 43 children (61%) survived, those who were born in the same hospital did so more often (88%) than those who came from other hospitals (53%) (p less than 0.01). These results show the needs and risks of the management of very low birth weight neonates: preventing hypothermia, assisted ventilation of long duration and risk of persisting ductus arteriosus, prolonged parenteral nutrition, risk of intracranial hemorrhage more especially as respiratory distress is more severe. In survivors, the high rate of respiratory sequellae (around 30%) suggests that the duration and intensity of assisted ventilation should be reduced as much as possible.

  19. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting body weight in Tellicherry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on 566 Tellicherry goats, recorded between 1988 and 2007 were used to study the effect of non-genetic factors on body weight and daily gain from birth to 12 months of age. The least-squares means for body weight at birth and at 12 months of age were 2.17 ± 0.03 and 18.78 ± 0.44 kg, respectively. The pre- and ...

  20. Persisting behavior problems in extremely low birth weight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Margevicius, Seunghee; Schluchter, Mark; Andreias, Laura; Hack, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    To describe behavior problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) adolescents born 1992 through 1995 based on parent ratings and adolescent self-ratings at age 14 years and to examine changes in parent ratings from ages 8-14. Parent ratings of behavior problems and adolescent self-ratings were obtained for 169 ELBW adolescents (mean birth weight 815 g, gestational age 26 wk) and 115 normal birth weight (NBW) controls at 14 years. Parent ratings of behavior at age 8 years were also available. Behavior outcomes were assessed using symptom severity scores and rates of scores above DSM-IV symptom cutoffs for clinical disorder. The ELBW group had higher symptom severity scores on parent ratings at age 14 years than NBW controls for inattentive attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and social problems (all p's < .01). Rates of parent ratings meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for inattentive ADHD were also higher for the ELBW group (12% vs. 1%, p < .01). In contrast, the ELBW group had lower symptom severity scores on self-ratings than controls for several scales. Group differences in parent ratings decreased over time for ADHD, especially among females, but were stable for anxiety and social problems. Extremely low birth weight adolescents continue to have behavior problems similar to those evident at a younger age, but these problems are not evident in behavioral self-ratings. The findings suggest that parent ratings provide contrasting perspectives on behavior problems in ELBW youth and support the need to identify and treat these problems early in childhood.

  1. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India....... Therefore, we aimed to study the metabolic impact of being born with LBW in a rural non-migrant Indian population....

  2. Association of DNA adducts and genetic polymorphisms with birth weight

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, Blanka; Dejmek, Jan; Chvátalová, Irena; Solanský, I.; Topinka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 608, - (2006), s. 121-128 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03; GA MŽP(CZ) SI/340/2/00 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : pregnancy outcomes * birth weight * genetic polymorphism Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2006

  3. Renal Calcification in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yang Chang

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of renal calcification in very low birth weight infants in this study was relatively low, and the calcification was transient in one-half of the infants. Extremely premature, sick infants requiring long-term ventilation, and those receiving furosemide or dexamethasone were more likely to have renal calcification. Clinicians should be aware that renal calcification may develop beyond the neonatal stage.

  4. Birth weight and adult bone metabolism are unrelated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Morten; Petersen, Inge Lund; Andersen, Thomas Levin

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low birth weight (BW) has been associated with poor bone health in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between BW and bone mass and metabolism in adult BW discordant monozygotic twins (MZ). METHODS: 153 BW extremely discordant MZ twin-pairs were...... individuals using regression analyses with or without adjustment for height, weight, age, sex, and intra-pair correlation. Within-pair differences were assessed using Student's T-test and fixed-regression models. RESULTS: BW was not associated with BTMs, LS-, TH-, FN- or WB-BMD, but BW was associated with WB...

  5. Vitamin D supplementation, cord 25-hydroxyvitamin D and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hypovitaminosis D, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) <50 nmol/L, is frequent in pregnant women and neonates worldwide and has been associated with both low birth weight (BW) and placental weight (PW) as well as reduced placental development. We aimed to assess th......, and PW/BW ratio were associated to higher cord s-25(OH)D levels with a suggested cut-off at 60 nmol/L. More studies are encouraged to elucidate the impact of cord s-25(OH)D levels on offspring health and to establish optimal cut-offs for these outcomes....

  6. Early weight changes after birth and serum high-molecular-weight adiponectin level in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomohide; Nagasaki, Hiraku; Asato, Yoshihide; Ohta, Takao

    2011-12-01

    Extra-uterine growth retardation (EUGR) is associated with an increased risk for cardiometabolic diseases later in life. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between early weight change after birth in preterm infants and adiponectin (adn) multimeric complexes. Subjects included 28 preterm infants born between weeks 24 and 33 of gestation. Serum adn multimeric complexes and the anthropometric parameters were measured in preterm infants at birth and at corrected term. Bodyweight (BW) decreased during the first week of life, with birthweight restored at approximately 19 days after birth. Nineteen of the subjects had EUGR at corrected term. Total (T)-adn, high-molecular-weight (H)-adn, and the ratio of H-adn to T-adn (H/T-adn) were significantly elevated at corrected term than at birth. Postmenstrual age, birthweight, birth length and lowest BW after birth were positively correlated with H-adn and H/T-adn. Weight reduction after birth was negatively correlated with H-adn. Age to restore birthweight was negatively correlated with T-adn, H-adn and H/T-adn. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated age to restore birthweight as the major predictor of T-adn and H-adn. Early weight changes after birth may alter serum adn level in preterm infants at corrected term. The appropriate nutritional support in the early postnatal period could reduce the prevalence of EUGR and the future risk for cardiometabolic diseases. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Brain nuclear receptors and body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essent...

  8. Body weight and growth rate of South African Angora goat kids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data used for this study were collected on 16 644 kids born between 2000 and 2004 in 12 different Angora goat studs representing different management systems. Body weight and growth rate of kids from birth to 16 months of age, as well the 18- and 21-month body weights and first kidding performance of ewe kids ...

  9. Total and Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Offspring Birth and Early Childhood Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheers Andersson, Elina; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) has in numerous studies been associated with offspring birth weight (BW) and childhood weight. However, these associations might be explained by genetic confounding as offspring inherit their mother's genetic potential to gain weight. Furthermore, little is known about...... statistically weak, suggested no associations between GWG and offspring weight or BMI during infancy or childhood. Our study suggests that total, and possibly also second and third trimester, GWG are associated with offspring BW when taking shared genetic and environmental factors within twin pairs into account...

  10. Body satisfaction and body weight: gender differences and sociodemographic determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines Jess

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented links between body satisfaction, weight-related behaviors, and weight change in adolescents, we sought to examine the prevalence of poor body satisfaction in prepubescent girls and boys and its associations with body weight, socioeconomic factors, and rural residence. Methods We obtained data from 4254 girls and boys participating in a population-based survey of grade five students in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. We examined gender specific associations between the prevalence of poor body satisfaction and body mass index (BMI with generalized additive models and applied multilevel logistic regression methods to estimate associations of body satisfaction with BMI, rural residence, parental education and income, and neighborhood household income. Results We observed a linear increase in poor body satisfaction with increasing BMI in girls. Among boys, however, we found a U-shape association where boys with low BMI and those with high BMI reported higher levels of poor body satisfaction. We also found that poor body satisfaction was more prevalent among girls whose parents had lower educational attainment and among those who reside in rural areas. Conclusion Insight into the unique relationships between body satisfaction and BMI experienced by prepubescent children, males, and populations diverse in parental education and geographic location may help to inform public health initiatives designed to improve weight-related behaviors and reduce overweight in children.

  11. Prenatal risk factors influencing childhood BMI and overweight independent of birth weight and infancy BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, C S; Ängquist, L; Baker, J L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prenatal risk factors for childhood overweight may operate indirectly through development in body size in early life and/or directly independent hereof. We quantified the effects of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI), maternal age, socioeconomic position (SEP......), parity, gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, caesarean section, birth weight, and BMI at 5 and 12 months on BMI and overweight at 7 and 11 years. METHODS: Family triads with information on maternal, paternal and child BMI at ages 7 (n=29 374) and 11 years (n=18 044) were selected...... from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information originated from maternal interviews and medical health examinations. Path analysis was used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of prenatal risk factors on childhood BMI z-scores (BMIz per unit score of the risk factor). Logistic regression...

  12. Birth weight and the risk of histological subtypes of ovarian and endometrial cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabert, Britton; Aarestrup, Julie; Ulrich, Lian G

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of birth weight associations with ovarian and endometrial cancer risks are limited with inconsistent results, and none has evaluated associations by histologic subtype. We utilized prospectively collected birth weight information to investigate the association with risk of ova...

  13. Extreme Temperatures May Increase Risk for Low Birth Weight at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may increase risk for low birth weight at term, NIH study suggests Monday, February 27, 2017 Extreme ... may increase the risk that infants born at term will be of low birth weight, according to ...

  14. Physical inactivity affects skeletal muscle insulin signaling in a birth weight-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Friedrichsen, Martin; Andersen, Nicoline Resen

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects.......We investigated whether physical inactivity could unmask defects in insulin and AMPK signaling in low birth weight (LBW) subjects....

  15. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Søren; Sharp, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    activity and sedentary time. This study uses combined analysis of three European cohorts and one from South America (n = 4,170). Birth weight was measured or parentally reported. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). PA was objectively measured using accelerometry...

  16. Body weight independently affects articular cartilage catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, W Matt; Winward, Jason G; Pardo, Michael Becker; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2015-06-01

    Although obesity is associated with osteoarthritis, it is unclear whether body weight (BW) independently affects articular cartilage catabolism (i.e., independent from physiological factors that also accompany obesity). The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of BW on articular cartilage catabolism associated with walking. A secondary purpose was to determine how decreased BW influenced cardiovascular response due to walking. Twelve able-bodied subjects walked for 30 minutes on a lower-body positive pressure treadmill during three sessions: control (unadjusted BW), +40%BW, and -40%BW. Serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) was measured immediately before (baseline) and after, and 15 and 30 minutes after the walk. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured every three minutes during the walk. Relative to baseline, average serum COMP concentration was 13% and 5% greater immediately after and 15 minutes after the walk. Immediately after the walk, serum COMP concentration was 14% greater for the +40%BW session than for the -40%BW session. HR and RPE were greater for the +40%BW session than for the other two sessions, but did not differ between the control and -40%BW sessions. BW independently influences acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response due to walking: as BW increases, so does acute articular cartilage catabolism and cardiovascular response. These results indicate that lower-body positive pressure walking may benefit certain individuals by reducing acute articular cartilage catabolism, due to walking, while maintaining cardiovascular response. Key pointsWalking for 30 minutes with adjustments in body weight (normal body weight, +40% and -40% body weight) significantly influences articular cartilage catabolism, measured via serum COMP concentration.Compared to baseline levels, walking with +40% body weight and normal body weight both elicited significant increases in

  17. Ecological analysis of secular trends in low birth weight births and adult height in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Urayama, Kevin Yuji; Yoshii, Keisuke; Subramanian, S V; Yokoya, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight (LBW) births since the 1970s. We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 115 249 live births included the vital statistics (1969-2014), as well as trends in average height among 3 145 521 adults born between 1969 and 1996, included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan. LBW rates exhibited a U-shaped pattern showing reductions until 1978-1979 (5.5%), after which it increased. Conversely, average adult height peaked for those born during the same period (men, 171.5 cm; women, 158.5 cm), followed by a reduction over the next 20 years. LBW rate and adult height showed a strong inverse correlation (men, r=-0.98; women, r=-0.88). A prediction model based on birth and economical characteristics estimated the national average of adult height would continue to decline, to 170.0cm (95% CI 169.6 to 170.3) for men and 157.9cm (95% CI 157.5 to 158.3) for women among those born in 2014. Adult height in Japan has started to decline for those born after 1980, a trend that may be attributed to increases in LBW births over time. Considering the known association between shorter adult height and adverse health outcomes, evidence of population-level decline in adult health due to long-term consequences of increasing LBW births in Japan is anticipated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shenkin, S.D.; Zhang, M.G.; Der, G.; Mathur, S.; Mina, T.H.; Reynolds, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EM...

  19. Low birth weights and risk of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparmi Suparmi

    2016-12-01

    mortality. This study aims to examine contribution of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in Indonesia. Methods: Data from the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS conducted in 2012 were used in the analysis. A total of 18021 live births in the last five years preceding the survey were reported from the mothers. Completed information of their children (14837 children were taken for this analysis. The adjusted relative risk with cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to assess the strength of association to neonatal mortality. Results: Children born in low birth weight were 9.89-fold higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children born in normal weight [adjusted relative risk (aRR = 9.89; 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.41 – 13.19; P = < 0.0001]. Children delivered from younger mothers (aged 15 - 19 years had 94% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to children delivered from mothers aged 20-35 years. Working mothers had 81% higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to unemployed mothers. Conclusion: Children born in a low birth weight and born from younger mothers had higher risk of neonatal mortality. Appropriate care and treatment for children born in low birth weight is needed to prolonged survival rates of the children. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2016;7(2:113-117 Keywords: Low birth weight, neonatal mortality, Indonesia   

  20. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-09-01

    Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500-4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother's Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother's job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother's poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother's job style had the most adverse effect (B=-0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother's level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother's job style and household income (B=-0.17). According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother's job situation in order to prevent any adverse effects.

  1. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proaño, Alvaro; Aragón, Romina Elena; Rivera, Fabiola; Zegarra, Jaime

    2016-03-29

    To determine the actual nutritional intake of very low birth weight infants and their growth outcome during the first month of life. Additionally, we identified factors that account for a negative neonatal outcome in this population. A case-series study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012 and the data was obtained from medical records. No feeding protocol was used during this study. Daily fluids, energy and protein intakes were documented and weekly weight z-scores were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for an adverse outcome, defined as neonatal mortality or extra-uterine growth restriction, during the first 28 days of life. After applying selection criteria, 76 participants were included. The nutritional intakes were similar to standard values seen in the literature, but protein intakes were suboptimal in all of the four weeks. Birth weight z-score was associated with an adverse outcome (p=0.035). It was determined that having a birth weight z-score under -1.09 predicted a negative outcome with an area under the curve of 96.8% [93.5%, 100%] with a 95% confidence interval. Protein intakes are widely deficient in the population of this study. Nevertheless, an adverse outcome during the neonatal period is more associated with a poor birth weight z-score than nutrition-related factors.

  2. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1% by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman.

  3. Impact of Second Trimester Maternal Dietary Intake on Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malshani L. Pathirathna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Poor maternal nutrition is a major contributor to the high incidence of low birth weight deliveries in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the impact of second trimester maternal dietary intake on gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight. A longitudinal study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka. Participants were 141 pregnant women at 18–24 weeks gestation who were followed up until delivery. Maternal dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire at 21.1 ± 1.8 gestational weeks. Gestational weight gain was examined at the end of 28 weeks gestation and at the end of pregnancy. Energy and nutrient intakes were calculated using NutriSurvey 2007 (EBISpro, Willstaett, Germany nutrient analysis software, modified for Sri Lankan foods. The mean total gestational weight gain of women with low carbohydrate intake (229–429 g/day was 2.2 kg less than that of women with moderate carbohydrate intake (430–629 g/day (95% confidence interval (CI 0.428–4.083 kg; p = 0.016. Similarly, babies of women with low carbohydrate intake were 312 g lighter compared with those of women with a moderate carbohydrate intake (95% CI 91–534 g; p = 0.006. Our results suggest that second trimester maternal carbohydrate intake has significant impacts on total gestational weight gain and neonatal birth weight.

  4. Estimating Body Weight of Cattle Using Linear Body Measurements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between body weight (BW) and heart girth, body length and height at withers of 116 Indigenous, 72 Friesian, 95 Brahman, 88 Red Dane and 123 Crossbred cattle from 42 smallholder herds in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe, were investigated. The principal objective was to develop simple models that ...

  5. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  6. Cord Blood Metabolome Is Highly Associated with Birth Weight, but Less Predictive for Later Weight Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellmuth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence. Methods: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA, polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform. Cord blood metabolites were related to growth factors by linear regression models adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Cord blood metabolites were highly associated with birth weight. Lysophosphatidylcholines C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C18:2, C20:4, C14:0, C16:0, C18:3, GPL-FA C20:3n-9, and GPL-FA C22:5n-6 were positively related to birth weight, while higher cord blood concentrations of NEFA C22:6, NEFA C20:5, GPL-FA C18:3n-3, and PCe C38:0 were associated with lower birth weight. Postnatal weight gain and BMI z-scores in adolescents were not significantly associated with cord blood metabolites after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: Potential long-term programming effects of the intrauterine environment and metabolism on later health cannot be predicted with profiling of the cord blood metabolome.

  7. Respiratory symptoms in the first 7 years of life and birth weight at term - The PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudri, Daan; Wijga, Alet; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Brunekreef, Bert; Kerkhof, Marjan; Hoekstra, Maarten; Gerritsen, Jorrit; de Jongste, Johan C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The relation between birth weight and respiratory symptoms and asthma in children remains unclear. Previous studies focused on a relation at separate ages. A longitudinal analysis may lead to a better understanding. Objectives: To estimate the effect of birth weight on the development and

  8. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  9. Histamine and the regulation of body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Emilie A; Knigge, Ulrich; Warberg, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter. In the p......Energy intake and expenditure is regulated by a complex interplay between peripheral and central factors. An exhaustive list of peptides and neurotransmitters taking part in this complex regulation of body weight exists. Among these is histamine, which acts as a central neurotransmitter...... lipolysis. Based on the current evidence of the involvement of histamine in the regulation of body weight, the histaminergic system is an obvious target for the development of pharmacological agents to control obesity. At present, H(3) receptor antagonists that stimulate the histaminergic system may...

  10. Individual heterosis for birth weight of N'dama crossbred calves in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical model used for the analysis include sex of calf, calf genotype, year of birth, and season of birth. It also includes interaction between calf sex by year of birth and calf sex by season of birth. The effect of sex of calf, calf genotype and year of birth were highly significant (P<0.001) on birth weight. The interaction of calf ...

  11. Association of Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Birth Weight With Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children Aged 11 or 12 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, Håkan; Li, Xiao Qiang; Olsen, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Both maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight have been implicated in impaired development of the retina. Objective: To investigate the associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in preadolescent...... children. Design, Setting, Participants: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study is a prospective, population-based, birth cohort study that included all children (n = 6090) born in 2000 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Maternal smoking data were collected through parental interviews. Birth weight, pregnancy...... correction for age, sex, birth weight, height, body weight, Tanner stage of pubertal development, axial length, and spherical equivalent refractive error. In low-birth-weight children (

  12. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Langer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.

  14. Birth weight--a risk factor for progression in diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P; Rossing, P; Tarnow, L

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intrauterine growth retardation, as seen in individuals with low weight at birth, may give rise to a reduction in nephron number. Oligonephropathy has been linked to hypertension and renal disease in adult life. We tested the concept that low weight at birth acts as a risk factor......): 8 (3-20)] with at least three measurements [9 (3-31)] of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (51Cr-EDTA). Information about birth size was obtained from midwife registrations. SETTINGS: Steno Diabetes Center, a tertiary referral centre. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Loss of kidney function according to birth...... weight and weight/length ratio at birth. RESULTS: There was no correlation in univariate analysis between birth weight or weight/length ratio and rate of decline in GFR, neither in men nor in women. Furthermore, the 27 patients with birth weights below the 20th centile had a rate of decline in GFR...

  15. Glycerin Suppositories Use in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shalinkumar; Dereddy, Narendra; Talati, Ajay J; Gaston, Kan; Dhanireddy, Ramasubbareddy

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To study the characteristics of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glycerin suppositories (GS) and evaluate the association of GS use with outcomes. Study Design  This is a retrospective study of VLBW infants admitted to a level III neonatal intensive care unit. Infants with birth weight between 500 and 1,499 g were evaluated. We evaluated the frequency of GS use and compared the characteristics and outcomes of the GS group with the no-GS group. Multivariate analyses controlling for gestational age and small for gestational age status were performed to study the effect of GS on outcomes. Results  A total of 1,073 infants were included in the study. Out of those, 527 (49.1%) infants received GS. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis was not significantly different between the two groups, while days to reach full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were significantly longer in the GS group. Conclusion  Frequent use of GS warrants further prospective studies to evaluate its safety and efficacy in view of our study showing association with longer time to reach full enteral feeds. We speculate that GS use could be a marker for gastrointestinal dysmotility and hence the association with unfavorable clinical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Ethical issues related to caring for low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Mary S; Passmore, Denise; Cline, Genieveve; Maguire, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Currently preterm births are the leading causes of newborn deaths and newborn mortality in developed countries. Infants born prematurely remain vulnerable to many acute complications and long-term disabilities. There is a growing concern surrounding the moral and ethical implications of the complex and technological care being provided to extremely low birth weight infants in neonatal intensive care units in the developed nations. The purpose of this study was to describe the ethical and moral issues that neonatal intensive care nurses experience when caring for low birth weight preterm infants and their families. A phenomenological method design was used to describe the lived experiences of nurses with ethical and moral issues encountered in the neonatal intensive care unit. One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using open-ended questions were used to gather data from the participants. The setting for this study was a 97-bed neonatal intensive care. A total of 16 female nurses were interviewed. Approval to conduct the research study was obtained from the institutional review board of the hospital where the study was conducted. Formal signed consent was obtained from each participant. To ensure confidentiality, each participant was asked to choose a confederate name to be used in the interview and the transcriptions. The thematic analysis identified five recurring themes: (a) at the edge of viability, (b) infant pain and discomfort, (c) crucial decisions, (d) communicating with parents, and (e) letting go. Neonatal intensive care unit nurses indicated that they often had challenges to their own sense of morality as they struggled to protect the infant from pain and unnecessary discomfort, provide care to an infant and their family whom they thought was faced with a lifetime of challenges and poor health, accepting decisions made by parents, and feeling as if parents were not adequately informed about outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  18. Sports and leisure-time physical activity in pregnancy and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Petersson, K; Hedegaard, M

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sports and other leisure-time physical activities during pregnancy and birth weight of babies born after 37 completed weeks of gestation. All Danish-speaking pregnant women attending routine antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics, Aarhus University...... Hospital, Denmark, from August 1989 to September 1991 were invited to participate in the study. A total of 4458 healthy women who delivered after 37 completed gestational weeks participated in this study. The associations between sports (0, 1-2, 3+ h/week) or leisure-time physical activity (sedentary......, light, and moderate to heavy) and birth weight were examined by linear and logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounding factors such as smoking, parity, schooling, pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational age. The results showed that pregnant women who practiced sports or were...

  19. Body weight and sensitivity of screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse H.; von Euler-Chelpin, My; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Obese women tend to participate less in breast cancer screening than normal weight women. However, obese women have fattier breast than normal weight women, and screening mammography works better in fatty than in dense breasts. One might, therefore, hypothesise that obese women would actually...... benefit more from screening than other women. Methods: We combined data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study and the organised population-based screening mammography programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women were categorised according to body mass index (BMI) (... sensitivity of screening mammography, while the specificity of screening remained stable across weight groups. Screening programmes should be organized to encourage these women to overcome obstacles for participation....

  20. Does higher education reduce body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight has increased in almost all Western countries in the past twenty to thirty years, with social disparities in many of these countries. This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between education and body weight by studying the effect of highe...... the probability of being in a healthy weight category (and reduces the probability of being overweight). Amongst men who grew up in middle- or high-income households, enrolling in higher education has no effect on the probability of being either healthy-weighted or overweight....

  1. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical

  3. Delayed Prenatal Care and the Risk of Low Birth Weight Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, William J.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Davis, Lucy; Sturgill, Vanessa

    2003-01-01

    Assessed whether the timing of prenatal care related to low birth weight delivery, adjusting for sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. Data on births to white and African American women showed no benefits for early initiation of prenatal care in reducing the risk of low birth weight.(SM)

  4. Birth weight centiles by gestational age for twins born in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Mathews, Jiji; Benjamin, Santhosh; Regi, Annie; Jose, Ruby; Kuruvilla, Anil; Mathai, Mathews

    2016-03-24

    Birth weight centile curves are commonly used as a screening tool and to assess the position of a newborn on a given reference distribution. Birth weight of twins are known to be less than those of comparable singletons and twin-specific birth weight centile curves are recommended for use. In this study, we aim to construct gestational age specific birth weight centile curves for twins born in south India. The study was conducted at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, south India. The birth records of all consecutive pregnancies resulting in twin births between 1991 and 2005 were reviewed. Only live twin births between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation were included. Birth weight centiles for gestational age were obtained using the methodology of generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Centiles curves were obtained separately for monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Of 1530 twin pregnancies delivered during the study period (1991-2005), 1304 were included in the analysis. The median gestational age at birth was 36 weeks (1st quartile 34, 3rd quartile 38 weeks). Smoothed percentile curves for birth weight by gestational age increased progressively till 38 weeks and levels off thereafter. Compared with dichorionic twins, monochorionic twins had lower birth weight for gestational age from after 27 weeks. We provide centile values of birth weight at 24 to 42 completed weeks of gestation for twins born in south India. These charts could be used both in routine clinical assessments and epidemiological studies.

  5. Full-term newborns with normal birth weight requiring special care in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The level of clinical care and facilities to support the often more viable full-term newborns with normal birth weight compared with preterm/low birth weight newborns that require special care at birth are likely to be attainable in many resource-poor settings. However, the nature of the required care is not evident ...

  6. Longitudinal Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders in Very Low Birth Weight Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, E. M.; Northam, E.; Doyle, L. W.; Callanan, C.; Anderson, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk and protective factors for adult psychiatric disorders in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight less than 1,501 g) survivors. 79 of 154 (51%) VLBW subjects recruited at birth were assessed in early adulthood (24-27 years). Participants were screened for a psychiatric disorder; those elevated were…

  7. Growth pattern and final height of very preterm vs. very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollanders, J.J.; Pal, S.M. van der; Dommelen, P. van; Rotteveel, J.; Finken, M.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundBoth very preterm (VP; i.e., gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; i.e., birth weight <1,500 g) are used as inclusion criteria by studies on preterm birth. We aimed to quantify the impact of these entities on postnatal growth until final height.MethodsSubjects born VP

  8. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-07-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.

  9. Height, weight and body mass index in early adulthood and risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E L; Reinisch, J M

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To illuminate the possible associations between height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) during early adulthood and the development of schizophrenia. METHOD: This prospective study is based on an all-male sample of 3210 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, comprising...... status when the cohort members were 1 year old, birth weight, birth length, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. RESULTS: Forty-five cases of schizophrenia had a lower young adult mean body weight and BMI than controls. A significant inverse relationship between BMI and risk of later schizophrenia was found...

  10. Outdoor air pollution and term low birth weight in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated on the association between ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes. However, most of the previous studies were conducted in geographically distinct areas and suffer from lack of important potential covariates. We examined the effect of ambient air pollution on term low birth weight (LBW) using data from a nationwide population-based longitudinal survey in Japan that began in 2001. We restricted participants to term singletons (n=44,109). Air pollution concentrations during the 9months before birth were obtained at the municipality level and were assigned to the participants who were born in the corresponding municipality. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses adjusting for individual and municipality-level variables. We found that air pollution exposure during pregnancy was positively associated with the risk of term LBW. In the fully adjusted models, odds ratios following one interquartile range increase in each pollutant were 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.19) for suspended particulate matter (SPM), 1.11 (0.99, 1.26) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and 1.71 (1.18, 2.46) for sulfur dioxide (SO2). Specifically, effect estimates for SPM and NO2 exposure at the first trimester were higher than those at other trimesters, while SO2 was associated with the risk at all trimesters. Nonsmoking mothers were more susceptible to SPM and NO2 exposure compared with smoking mothers. Ambient air pollution increases the risk of term LBW in a nationally representative sample in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brothers and reduction of the birth weight of later-born siblings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Svarre; Mortensen, Laust; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2008-01-01

    It has been speculated whether maternal immune responses against male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens affect pregnancies negatively. This study explores, on a population level, whether previous births of boys compared with girls are associated with a decrease in birth weight...... of later-born siblings. The population was identified in the Danish Birth Registry and consisted of all Danish women who gave birth to their first-born singleton from 1980 to 1998. The women were followed until 2004, and their subsequent births were recorded. A total of 545,839 second- to fourth......-born children were identified. The authors used linear regression to analyze the association between sex of preceding children and birth weight of subsequent siblings. Brothers compared with sisters reduced the birth weight of later-born siblings. One or two brothers, respectively, reduced the mean birth weight...

  12. Kangaroo position in low birth weight preterm newborns: descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samilly Rodrigues Farias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To describe the number of periods that very low birth weight preterm newborns were in kangaroo position during admission in the neonatal unit and to look for relations between maternal and neonatal variables with kangaroo position. A retrospective and descriptive study with all preterm newborns admitted in 2012, weighing 1500g or less and, gestational age lower than 31 weeks, classified as high clinical risk patients according to the Clinical Risk Index for Babies. We identified 38 babies whose admittance time ranged from 18 to 136 days. The beginning of kangaroo position occurred on average at 30.8 days of post-natal life (SD=18.5 and the number of periods in kangaroo position was on average 10.7 times. The occurrence of kangaroo position was less frequent than opportunities from the maternal presence, and the position was related to a higher offering of free milk demand.

  13. Kluyvera ascorbata sepsis in an extremely low birth weight infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kluyvera ascorbata belongs to Enterobacteriaceae family and is a gram negative micro-organism. This bacteria is usually considered a commensal, however it can cause significant infections rarely. This organism is usually resistant to most commonly used antibiotics used as first line in neonatal units. Antimicrobial agents active against Kluyvera strains include third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. We report a case of an extremely low birth weight male infant who presented on day 4 of life with clinical features of sepsis, multi-organ dysfunction, shock and pulmonary haemorrhage. Neonatal sepsis was associated with marked elevation of C-reactive protein and a falling platelet count. Infant expired on day 5 of life in spite of aggressive supportive care and treatment with meropenem. with growth of Kluyvera ascorbataon blood culture.

  14. Anaemia and low birth weight in Medani, Hospital Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhassan Elhassan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing the incidence of Low birth weight (LBW neonates by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 is one of the major goals of the United Nations resolution "A World Fit for Children". This was a case-control study conducted between August-October 2009 in Medani Hospital, Sudan to investigate the risk factors for LBW. Cases were mothers who delivered singleton baby Findings Out of 1224 deliveries, 97 (12.6% of the neonates were LBW deliveries. While maternal socio-demographic characteristics (age, parity and mother education and anthropometrics measurements were not associated with LBW, lack of antenatal care (OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.4-24.4; P = 0.01 and maternal anaemia (OR = 9.0, 95% CI = 3.4-23.8; P Conclusion Thus, more care on antenatal care and nutrition may prevent LBW.

  15. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  16. Guidelines for feeding very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourabh; Singh, Balpreet; Chessell, Lorraine; Wilson, Jennifer; Janes, Marianne; McDonald, Kimberley; Shahid, Shaneela; Gardner, Victoria A; Hjartarson, Aune; Purcha, Margaret; Watson, Jennifer; de Boer, Chris; Gaal, Barbara; Fusch, Christoph

    2015-01-08

    Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW) neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  17. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, S D; Zhang, M G; Der, G; Mathur, S; Mina, T H; Reynolds, R M

    2017-04-01

    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range -86-129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI -4.0-6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57-103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.

  18. The change of increases body weight and weight ratios of rats during prolonged cadmium toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    GUTYI B.; HUFRIY D.; BINKEVYCH V.; PAVLIV A.; BINKEVYCH O.; VENGRYN A.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data changes increases body weight and weight ratios of rats in chronic cadmium toxicosis. Found that when asking cadmium chloride in body weight gain in rats and reduced weight change ratios of internal organs.

  19. The Relationship between CO Ambient and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Majd H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: LBW is the strongest factor related to prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood mortality and morbidity. Air pollution is one of the risk factors that is recently gaining attention. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the CO ambient and low birth weight in women referring to Tehran hospitals in 2007-2008. Methods: In this historical cohort study 225 pregnant women having lived within 5 kilometers of a monitoring station during pregnancy and referring to selected hospitals in Tehran were investigated. An information questionnaire was used for data collection and sampling was done by multistage sampling and convenience method. Women were assigned to low exposure group and high exposure group based on mean exposure to each pollutant during pregnancy. These two groups were matched with respect to confounding factors. SPSS software version 15, T statistics, 2, Man Withnney, and Relative Risk procedures were used for data analysis.Results: The result showed that 31.6% of CO high exposure group and 7.4% of CO low exposure group had Low birth weight baby. The result also showed a significant relationship between exposure to high amount of CO and LBW (p=0.001. Relative Risk calculated with confidence interval (RR=4/67, CI=(1/76-9/43 was found to be 95% and the amount of attributable risk was 66%.Conclusion: Based on these finding, exposure to carbon monoxide pollution can cause LBW. There should be an educational program about the disadvantages of CO pollutant on pregnant women living in densely populated areas of the city. Moreover, practical approaches should be provided to reduce these pollutants.

  20. Nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vamsi Sivarama Raju, Jayashree Purkayastha, Leslie Lewis, Ramesh Bhat Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to find out the incidence and risk factors of nosocomial infections in VLBW neonates and to explore the microbiologic flora, sensitivity pattern and outcome. Methods: A prospective, observational study was performed in a neonatal intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. VLBW infants excluding those diagnosed with early onset sepsis, admitted to the unit between August 2012 and March 2013 were followed up for evidence of nosocomial sepsis. Results: Of 92 VLBW infants, 23 developed nosocomial sepsis, incidence rate being 25%. Decreasing birth weight (1251-1500 g, 10.9%; 1001-1250 g, 28%; 751-1000 g, 50%; P33wks, 0%; 29-32wks, 21.3%; 26-28 wks, 66.7%; p<.001 were found to be associated with statistically significant increase in nosocomial sepsis rate. On multivariate logistic regression, only peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line was independently associated with increased risk of nosocomial sepsis (aOR 13.33, 95% CI 3.58-49.5 in VLBW. A predominance of Gram negative over Gram positive nosocomial sepsis (75% vs. 25% with higher mortality in the Gram negative group (55% vs. 0% was observed. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant microbe (33.4%. All microbes were sensitive to first line antibiotics except Elizabeth kingia meningoseptica and one episode of K. pneumoniae. Seven (30.4% VLBW neonates with nosocomial sepsis died. Conclusions: Among VLBW infants, the incidence of nosocomial sepsis was 25%. Lower birth weight, lesser gestational age and PICC line were important risk factors. Gram negative nosocomial sepsis was associated with higher mortality compared to Gram positive sepsis. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2017; 7(1: 7-12

  1. Placental expression profile of imprinted genes impacts birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappil, Maya A; Green, Benjamin B; Armstrong, David A; Sharp, Andrew J; Lambertini, Luca; Marsit, Carmen J; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The importance of imprinted genes in regulating feto-placental development has been long established. However, a comprehensive assessment of the role of placental imprinted gene expression on fetal growth has yet to be conducted. In this study, we examined the association between the placental expression of 108 established and putative imprinted genes and birth weight in 677 term pregnancies, oversampled for small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA) infants. Using adjusted multinomial regression analyses, a 2-fold increase in the expression of 9 imprinted genes was positively associated with LGA status: BLCAP [odds ratio (OR) = 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.83, 7.82], DLK1 [OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.09], H19 [OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.77, 4.42], IGF2 [OR = 1.43, 95% CI:1.31, 2.40], MEG3 [OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.19, 1.71], MEST [OR = 4.78, 95% CI: 2.64, 8.65], NNAT [OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.86], NDN [OR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.72, 3.68], and PLAGL1 [OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.44]. For SGA status, a 2-fold increase in MEST expression was associated with decreased risk [OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.58], while a 2-fold increase in NNAT expression was associated with increased risk [OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1]. Following a factor analysis, all genes significantly associated with SGA or LGA status loaded onto 2 of the 8 gene-sets underlying the variability in the dataset. Our comprehensive placental profiling of imprinted genes in a large birth cohort supports the importance of these genes for fetal growth. Given that abnormal birth weight is implicated in numerous diseases and developmental abnormalities, the expression pattern of placental imprinted genes has the potential to be developed as a novel biomarker for postnatal health outcomes.

  2. Influence of pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity on gestational and postpartum weight gain and birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Rode, Line; Katballe, Malene Kjær

    2017-01-01

    In order to examine the association between pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activities and gestational weight gain, postpartum weight gain and birth weight, we analysed prospectively collected data from 1827 women with singleton term pregnancies. Women were categorised in groups of sedentary...... risk of having a gestational weight gain above Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations with an odds ratio of 2.60 (1.32-5.15) compared to light exercisers. However, birth weight and one year postpartum weight was similar for all four groups. Thus, although competitive athletes gain more weight than...... recommended during pregnancy, this may not affect birth weight or postpartum weight. Impact statement: What is already known on this subject: Previous studies have found that increased pre-pregnancy physical activity is associated with lower gestational weight gain during the last trimester, but showed...

  3. Autopsy standards of body parameters and fresh organ weights in nonmacerated and macerated human fetuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Graem, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Standards for body parameters and organ weights are important tools in fetal and perinatal pathology. Previously there has been only a weak emphasis on the effect of maceration on dimensions and weights. This study provides autopsy standards for body weight, body dimensions, and fresh organ weights...... for nonmacerated fetuses and for mildly, moderately, and markedly macerated fetuses at 12 to 43 weeks of gestation. Cases were selected from a consecutive series of 1800 fetal and perinatal autopsies. Cases with malformations, hydrops, infection, or chromosomal abnormality, fetuses from multiple births...

  4. The influence of psychological factors on postpartum weight retention 12 months post-birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Rhian; Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen

    2018-04-01

    Background During the first postpartum year 20% of women retain excessive weight from pregnancy (postpartum weight retention; PPWR), which predicts long-term overweight/obesity. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the associations between psychological factors (depression, anxiety and stress symptoms and body attitudes) in late gestation and at 12-months postpartum with PPWR one-year post-birth. Methods Pregnant women (N = 176) completed questionnaires in early-mid pregnancy (Time 1; mean (SD) = 16.97 (1.35) weeks), late pregnancy (Time 2; mean (SD) = 33.33 (2.05) weeks), and one year postpartum (Time 3; mean (SD) = 53.12 (3.34) weeks). Women provided demographic characteristics, height and pre-pregnancy weight at Time 1. At Times 2 and 3, weight, depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms and body attitudes (salience of weight and shape, attractiveness, feeling fat, and strength and fitness) were assessed in addition to physiological, socio-contextual and lifestyle factors. Gestational weight gain and PPWR were calculated. Hierarchical linear regression models were conducted to explore variance in 12-month PPWR. Results Overall, models explained 26-39% variance in PPWR. Gestational weight gain in late pregnancy and low attractiveness at 12 months postpartum were the only variables associated significantly with 12-month PPWR. Conclusion While psychological factors did not appear to be important direct contributors to PPWR at 12 months, the overall contribution of all variables suggests that such factors may be implicated in a small and incremental way. Exploration of the interactions between variables will help unpack potential mechanisms of the development of PPWR at 12 months post-birth.

  5. Programming of Adiposity in Childhood and Adolescence: Associations With Birth Weight and Cord Blood Adipokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joy; Smith, Andrew D A C; Fraser, Abigail; Sattar, Naveed; Lindsay, Robert S; Ring, Susan M; Tilling, Kate; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A; Nelson, Scott M

    2017-02-01

    Exposure to maternal adiposity during pregnancy is associated with higher offspring birth weight and greater adiposity through childhood and adult life. As birth weight reflects the summation of lean and fat mass, the extent to which fat mass at birth tracks into later life is unknown. To determine whether fat mass at birth is associated with child and adolescent adiposity. UK birth cohort with markers of neonatal fat mass; cord blood leptin, adiponectin, and birth weight and adiposity outcomes at age 9 (n = 2775) and 17 years (n = 2138). Offspring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-determined fat mass, and obesity at age 9 and 17 years. Higher cord blood leptin was associated with higher z scores of fat mass [difference in mean per 10 pg/mL: 0.03 standard deviation (SD); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.00 to 0.06], waist circumference (0.04 SD; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.07), and BMI (0.04 SD; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.08) at age 9. However, by age 17 the adjusted results were attenuated to the null. Cord blood adiponectin was not associated with measures of adiposity at age 9. At age 17, cord blood adiponectin was positively associated with fat mass (0.02 SD per 10 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.03) and waist circumference (0.04 SD per 10 μg/mL; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.05). Birth weight was positively associated with waist circumference (0.03 SD per 100 g; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.04) and BMI (0.02 SD per 100 g; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.03), but not fat mass or odds of obesity. Cord blood leptin and adiponectin were not associated with obesity at either age. Increased cord blood leptin and adiponectin, known surrogates of fetal fat mass, were weakly associated with increased fat mass in late childhood and adolescence, respectively.

  6. Fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction: a new population-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjessing, H K; Grøttum, P; Økland, I; Eik-Nes, S H

    2017-04-01

    To develop a complete, population-based system for ultrasound-based fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction for use in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Using 31 516 ultrasound examinations from a population-based Norwegian clinical database, we constructed fetal size charts for biparietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference from 24 to 42 weeks' gestation. A reference curve of median birth weight for gestational age was estimated using 45 037 birth weights. We determined how individual deviations from the expected ultrasound measures predicted individual percentage deviations from expected birth weight. The predictive quality was assessed by explained variance of birth weight and receiver-operating characteristics curves for prediction of small-for-gestational age. A curve for intrauterine estimated fetal weight was constructed. Charts were smoothed using the gamlss non-linear regression method. The population-based approach, using bias-free ultrasound gestational age, produces stable estimates of size-for-age and weight-for-age curves in the range 24-42 weeks' gestation. There is a close correspondence between percentage deviations and percentiles of birth weight by gestational age, making it easy to convert between the two. The variance of birth weight that can be 'explained' by ultrasound increases from 8% at 20 weeks up to 67% around term. Intrauterine estimated fetal weight is 0-106 g higher than median birth weight in the preterm period. The new population-based birth-weight prediction model provides a simple summary measure, the 'percentage birth-weight deviation', to be used for fetal size monitoring throughout the third trimester. Predictive quality of the model can be measured directly from the population data. The model computes both median observed birth weight and intrauterine estimated fetal weight. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John

  7. Longitudinal changes in desired body weight compared to changes in body weight: evidence of adaptation to weight gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aars, Nils Abel; Jacobsen, Bjarne K

    2016-01-01

    Overweight individuals desire a lower weight than they actually have. Little is known on the extent to which this discrepancy is reduced over time due to adaptation or resignation. The aim of this study is to describe cross-sectional relationships and longitudinal changes in desired body weight and differences between actual and desired body weight according to gender, age and category of body mass index in a large, adult cohort in Tromsø, Norway. Cross-sectional analyses of 8960 men and 9992 women aged 25-69 participating in Tromsø 4 (during 1994-1995), and longitudinal analyses of 3210 men and 3689 women participating in both Tromsø 4 (during 1994-1995) and Tromsø 6 (during 2007-2008). Simple descriptive statistics and linear regression was used to describe actual and desired weight, the difference between them, and how gender and age are related to the changes in actual and desired weight over this 13-year period. The difference between actual and desired body weight was largest for the obese and higher among the overweight than the normal weight for both genders. While normal weight men were quite satisfied with their body weight, normal weight women were not. Actual weight increased more than desired weight for all age groups and both genders except the oldest women. The difference between change in actual body weight and change in desired body weight during the 13-year follow-up was significantly larger among men (2.0 kg) than women (1.5 kg) (p body weight during the 13 years and change in desired body weight in the same period did not differ between men and women and, in gender specific analyses, between subjects with normal weight and those who were overweight or obese at start of follow-up. Older people adapt more to weight gain than younger age groups, with clear gender differences. Further studies of longitudinal changes in desired weight are warranted.

  8. Estado nutricional materno, ganho de peso gestacional e peso ao nascer Maternal nutritional status, gestational weight gain and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Suely de Oliveira Melo

    2007-06-01

    chronic diseases in adult life such as metabolic syndrome for cases of low birth weight and diabetes and obesity for macrossomic infants. The objective of this study was to describe a cohort of pregnant women according to their nutritional status, gestational weight gain, uterine artery notches, and birth weight. METHODS: A cohort of 115 pregnant women attending the Family Health Program in Campina Grande, PB, was evaluated every four gestational weeks. The initial maternal nutritional status was determined through the body mass index (kg/m² and women were classified according to Atalah´s criteria for gestational age. Arterial resistance was assessed through Doppler velocimetry on the 20th week of pregnancy. RESULTS: overweight and obesity were observed in 27% of the sample whereas 23% were undernourished. A high incidence of excessive weight gain was found in the second (44% and in the third quarter (45%. Birth weight distribution indicated that 10% were of low birth weight and there were 9% of macrossomic babies. A high prevalence of uterine artery diastolic notches of was observed.

  9. High birth weight babies: Incedence and foetal outcome in a Mission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women with a history of delivery of a previous baby with birth weight of 4000g, a gestational weight gain of 13-15 kg and a height >1.63m had an increased tendency towards delivery of a HBW infant. High birth weight babies were at a higher risk of foetal death and delivery by Caesarean Section. Conclusion: Incidence of ...

  10. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention with mandat......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... the initiation and termination of vitamin D fortification programmes. In total, four sets of analyses were performed. Information on birth weight was available in the Copenhagen School Health Record Register for all school children in Copenhagen. The mean birth weight was lower among the exposed than non...

  11. Development of body mass index of Japanese triplets from birth until the onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to analyze the characteristics of development of relative weight in Japanese triplets from birth until 12 years of age. Data were collected through a mailed questionnaire sent to mothers of triplets asking for information recorded in medical records. Altogether we had information on 1,061 triplet children of 354 mothers born between 1978 and 2006. For these births, data on triplets' height and weight growth, gestational age, sex, parity, and maternal age at delivery were obtained from records in the maternal and child health handbooks and records from the schools where children receive health check-ups. In addition, information on maternal height and weight was obtained. Triplets have a lower ponderal index at birth and lower body mass index (BMI) compared with the general population until 12 years of age, except for the period during 1 and 3 years of age. Moreover, birth weight had the strongest contribution to BMI of triplets until 6 years of age. After 9 years of age, maternal BMI was a significant factor affecting BMI of triplets.

  12. Treadmill walking with body weight support

    OpenAIRE

    Aaslund, Mona Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitating walking in patients post-stroke with safe, task-specific, intensive training of sufficient duration, can be challenging. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) has been proposed as an effective method to meet these challenges and may therefore have benefits over training overground walking. However, walking characteristics should not be aggravated during BWSTT or require a long familiarisation time compared to overground walking. Objectives: To investi...

  13. Bisphenol A: Perinatal exposure and body weight

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Beverly S.; Soto, Ana M.

    2009-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics including resins that line food and beverage containers. BPA is known to leach from products in contact with food and drink, and is therefore thought to be routinely ingested. In a recent cross sectional study, BPA was detected in urine samples from 92.6% of the US population examined. The potential for BPA to influence body weight is suggested by in vitro studies demonstrating effects of BPA on adipocyte differentiation, li...

  14. [A cohort study on the correlation between birth weight, simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Qi; Tan, Jing; Liu, Zhao-hui; Liu, Rong-kun; Yang, Zheng

    2007-11-01

    To determine the correlation between birth weight and simple obesity, blood lipids, blood glucose and blood pressure from childhood to adolescence. A vertical sectional survey on 193 children aged 7 - 11 years was performed in 1996. A questionnaire consisting of items on environmental factors and lifestyle, physical examination and biochemical assessment was conducted at baseline and the 9th year of follow-up. The incidence of obesity and over-weight in childhood in high (6.1%) and low birth-weight group (5.6%) was higher than that in normal birth-weight group (2.8%), but did not reach statistic significance; The levels of body mass index in adolescence in high and low birth-weight group were significantly higher than that in normal birth-weight group (P = 0.002 and 0.009, respectively), and the incidence of obesity and over-weight in adolescence was significantly higher in high (33.3%) and low birth-weight group (38.9%) than that in normal birth-weight group (16.2%, P = 0.025 and 0.020, respectively). There were no significant differences in the levels of blood glucose, blood lipids and blood pressure between different birth weight groups (all, P > 0.05). Intrauterine growth is linked to physical growth during childhood and adolescence. Nutritional guidance in pregnant phase may help to control the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescent.

  15. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  16. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Blackburn, George L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-05-01

    Ideal body weight (IBW) equations and body mass index (BMI) ranges have both been used to delineate healthy or normal weight ranges, although these 2 different approaches are at odds with each other. In particular, past IBW equations are misaligned with BMI values, and unlike BMI, the equations have failed to recognize that there is a range of ideal or target body weights. For the first time, to our knowledge, we merged the concepts of a linear IBW equation and of defining target body weights in terms of BMI. With the use of calculus and approximations, we derived an easy-to-use linear equation that clinicians can use to calculate both IBW and body weight at any target BMI value. We measured the empirical accuracy of the equation with the use of NHANES data and performed a comparative analysis with past IBW equations. Our linear equation allowed us to calculate body weights for any BMI and height with a mean empirical accuracy of 0.5-0.7% on the basis of NHANES data. Moreover, we showed that our body weight equation directly aligns with BMI values for both men and women, which avoids the overestimation and underestimation problems at the upper and lower ends of the height spectrum that have plagued past IBW equations. Our linear equation increases the sophistication of IBW equations by replacing them with a single universal equation that calculates both IBW and body weight at any target BMI and height. Therefore, our equation is compatible with BMI and can be applied with the use of mental math or a calculator without the need for an app, which makes it a useful tool for both health practitioners and the general public. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  18. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  19. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...

  20. Maternal body burden of cadmium and offspring size at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Megan E.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Simpson, Christopher; Checkoway, Harvey; Williams, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an inverse association between cadmium (Cd) and size at birth, potentially greatest among female neonates. We evaluated whether greater maternal body burden of Cd is associated with reduced neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, birth length, head circumference, and ponderal index) and assessed whether these associations differ by infant sex. The analytic sample for the present study (n=396) was derived from a subcohort of 750 women randomly drawn from among all participants (N=4344) in the Omega Study, a prospective pregnancy cohort. Creatinine-corrected Cd in maternal clean-catch spot urine samples (U-Cd) was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Continuous log 2 -transformed Cd (log 2 -Cd) and U-Cd tertiles (low<0.29 μg/g creatinine, middle 0.29–0.42 μg/g creatinine, high≥0.43 μg/g creatinine) were used in multivariable linear regression models. Females had reduced birth length with greater U-Cd tertile, whereas males birth length marginally increased [β(95% CI) females: low=reference, middle=−0.59 cm (−1.37, 0.19), high=−0.83 cm (−1.69, 0.02), p-trend=0.08; males: low=reference, middle=0.18 cm (−0.59, 0.95), high=0.78 cm (–0.04, 1.60), p-trend=0.07; p for interaction=0.03]. The log 2 -Cd by infant sex interaction was statistically significant for ponderal index [p=0.003; β(95% CI): female=0.25 kg/m 3 (−0.20, 0.70); male=−0.63 kg/m 3 (−1.01, −0.24)] and birth length [p<0.001; β(95% CI): female=−0.47 cm (−0.74, −0.20), male=0.32 cm (0.00, 0.65)]. Our findings suggest potential sex-specific reversal of Cd’s associations on birth length and contribute to the evidence suggesting Cd impairs fetal growth. - Highlights: • Cadmium levels in the general population potentially adversely affect size at birth. • Maternal urinary cadmium was inversely related to birth length among female infants. • For male infants, maternal cadmium was positively associated with birth length.

  1. Influence of birth weight on differences in infant mortality by social class and legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, D A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social class. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality was 4.2/1000 and 2.3/1000 respectively for social class I and 6.8/1000 and 5.6/1000 respectively for social class V. Mortality was lower among births registered within marriage (postneonatal 3.5/1000; neonatal 5.2/1000) than among those jointly registered outside marriage (5.1/1000; 6.4/1000); mortality was highest in those solely registered outside marriage (7.2/1000; 7.0/1000). For neonatal mortality the effect of social class varied with birth weight. Social class had little effect on neonatal mortality in low birthweight babies and increasing effect in heavier babies. For postneonatal mortality the effect of social class was similar for all birth weights and was almost as steep as for all birth weights combined. CONCLUSION--Birth weight mediates little of the effect of social class on postneonatal mortality. PMID:1954421

  2. Is it good to be too light? Birth weight thresholds in hospital reimbursement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Simon; Wichert, Sebastian; Wuppermann, Amelie

    2018-02-02

    Birth weight manipulation has been documented in per-case hospital reimbursement systems, in which hospitals receive more money for otherwise equal newborns with birth weight just below compared to just above specific birth weight thresholds. As hospitals receive more money for cases with weight below the thresholds, having a (reported) weight below a threshold could benefit the newborn. Also, these reimbursement thresholds overlap with diagnostic thresholds that have been shown to affect the quantity and quality of care that newborns receive. Based on the universe of hospital births in Germany from the years 2005-2011, we investigate whether weight below reimbursement relevant thresholds triggers different quantity and quality of care. We find that this is not the case, suggesting that hospitals' financial incentives with respect to birth weight do not directly impact the care that newborns receive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Trendency analysis of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight in China from 1996 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hao; He, Chunhua; Miao, Lei; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Qi; Li, Xiaohong; Shen, Liqin

    2015-02-01

    To study the secular trend and characteristics of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight (IMRPL) in China from 1996 to 2013. Data used in this study was collected from the population-based Child's Health Surveillance Network of China. The Cochran-Armitage Trend test and Poisson regression were used to test the trend of IMRPL and explore the differences of the trend among different regions or areas. The nationwide IMRPL was 629.9 per 100 000 live births in 1996 and it decreased to 214.6 per 100 000 live births in 2013. The average annual decline rate was 6.14%, while the proportion of infant mortality due to premature birth or low birth weight in all infant deaths was on the rise with the average annual growth rate of 1.52%. And the proportion increased to 22.6% in 2013. IMRPLin rural and urban areas fell 28.1% and 66.6% respectively during 1996 and 2013. But the differences between urban and rural areas was obvious. During the same period, the average IMRPLin the central region was 1.40 times (95%CI:1.31-1.49) of that in the eastern region. And the average IMRPL in the western region was 2.25 times (95%CI:2.12-2.40) of that in the eastern region. The differences among different regions was obvious. Male infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight was 1.09 times (95%CI:1.05-1.14) of that in female infant from 1996 to 2013. The risk of IMRPL decreased substantially in China from 1996 to 2013. And the risk of IMRPL decreased more in rural areas than that in urban areas. The differences among different regions and areas were obvious. Premature birth or low birth weight as one of main factors has become a serious threat for health of Chinese children.

  4. Shyness and timidity in young adults who were born at extremely low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj

    2008-07-01

    Recent studies have noted personality differences among adult survivors of very preterm birth, including higher neuroticism and cautiousness and lower extraversion. We attempted to replicate and extend these recent studies by examining personality characteristics across multiple components of personality that traditionally define personality structure in a birth cohort of young adults born at extremely low birth weight (501-1000 g), the smallest and most at-risk infants. We assessed 71 (76% of the original birth cohort) extremely low birth weight and 83 (74% of the original cohort) term normal birth weight young adults by using well-validated personality measures, indexing 4 traditional components of personality: temperament (Cheek and Buss shyness and sociability and Eysenck neuroticism and extraversion), motivation (Carver and White behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation), cognitive and affective (Coopersmith self-esteem and University of California, Los Angeles, loneliness), and socialization (Eysenck psychoticism and lie). All of the participants were right-handed and free of neurosensory and psychiatric impairments. Extremely low birth weight adults reported significantly higher shyness, behavioral inhibition, and socialization (a measure of prosocial behavior defined by risk aversion and adherence to societal mores) and lower sociability and emotional well-being than their normal birth weight counterparts, replicating and extending the findings of previous studies. Young adults who were born at extremely low birth weight and without major impairments are more cautious, shy, and risk aversive and less extraverted than their normal birth weight counterparts, possibly placing them at risk for future psychiatric and emotional problems.

  5. Surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants less than 750 grams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowski, Tomasz; Aboulhassan, Sleiman Sebastian; Fritzsche, Dirk; Misterski, Marcin; Marczak, Jakub; Szymańska, Anna; Szarpak, Lukasz; Augustyn, Cyprian; Cichoń, Romuald; Perek, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-09

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs more frequently in premature infants. Depending on the degree of prematurity, these children often have other serious comorbidities that could significantly impact on surgical outcome. This study aimed to evaluate clinical results of the surgical ligation of PDA in extremely low body weight preterm infants with birth weight below 750 grams and to identify risk factors of mortality. A total of 31 preterm infants with birth weight below 750 grams and significant PDA were operated between 2006 and 2016 through posterolateral thoracotomy (n=16) or with the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) method (n = 15). Mean weight at the time of surgery was 750.8 ± 104.7 g. The gestational age ranged from 22 to 32 weeks. Data were retrospectivel1y analyzed and prospective 100% follow-up was performed. In-hospital mortality was 25.8% (n = 8). Type of surgery had no influence on the results. During the follow-up period lasting 5.2 ± 2.5 years two other patients died. One-year and 5-year probability of survival was 77.4% and 74.2%, respectively. The predominant cause of death was acute heart failure. All patients with preoperative renal dysfunction died in the postoperative period. Moreover, Cox regression analysis revealed renal dysfunction as an independent risk factor of early death. Preterm infants with birth weight less than 750 grams and significant PDA are highly challenging patients. Despite the recent advances in perioperative management with neonates, surgery is still associated with high early mortality rate irrespective of applied method.

  6. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  7. Prenatal Centrifugation: A Mode1 for Fetal Programming of Body Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Lisa A.; Rushing, Linda; Wade, Charles E.; Ronca, April E.

    2005-01-01

    'Fetal programming' is a newly emerging field that is revealing astounding insights into the prenatal origins of adult disease, including metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular pathophysiology. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that rat pups conceived, gestated and born at 2-g have significantly reduced birth weights and increased adult body weights as compared to 1-g controls. Offspring were produced by mating young adult male and female rats that were adapted to 2-g centrifugation. Female rats underwent conception, pregnancy and birth at 2-g. Newborn pups in the 2-g condition were removed from the centrifuge and fostered to non-manipulated, newly parturient dams maintained at 1 -g. Comparisons were made with 1-g stationary controls, also crossfostered at birth. As compared to 1-g controls, birth weights of pups gestated and born at 2-g were significantly reduced. Pup body weights were significantly reduced until Postnatal day (P) 12. Beginning on P63, body weights of 2-g-gestated offspring exceeded those of 1-g controls by 7-10%. Thus, prenatal rearing at 2-g restricts neonatal growth and increases adult body weight. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that 2-g centrifugation alters the intrauterine milieu, thereby inducing persistent changes in adult phenotype.

  8. The Relationship between CO Ambient and Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kariman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: LBW is the strongest factor related to prenatal, neonatal, postnatal and childhood mortality and morbidity. Air pollution is one of the risk factors that is recently gaining attention. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between the CO ambient and low birth weight in women referring to Tehran hospitals in 2007-2008.

     

    Methods: In this historical cohort study 225 pregnant women having lived within 5 kilometers of a monitoring station during pregnancy and referring to selected hospitals in Tehran were investigated. An information questionnaire was used for data collection and sampling was done by multistage sampling and convenience method. Women were assigned to low exposure group and high exposure group based on mean exposure to each pollutant during pregnancy. These two groups were matched with respect to confounding factors. SPSS software version 15, T statistics, c2, Man Withnney, and Relative Risk procedures were used for data analysis.

     

    Results: The result showed that 31.6% of CO high exposure group and 7.4% of CO low exposure group had Low birth weight baby. The result also showed a significant relationship between exposure to high amount of CO and LBW (p=0.001. Relative Risk calculated with confidence interval (RR=4/67, CI=(1/76-9/43 was found to be 95% and the amount of attributable risk was 66%.

     

    Conclusion: Based on these finding, exposure to carbon monoxide pollution can cause LBW. There should be an educational program about the disadvantages of CO pollutant on pregnant women living in densely populated areas of the city. Moreover, practical approaches should be provided to reduce these pollutants.

  9. A two year retrospective study of birth weight in Sidamo Regional Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madebo, T

    1994-10-01

    This is a two year retrospective analysis of 1,260 live single births at Sidamo Regional Hospital during 1989-1990. The mean birth weight was 3,243 g (SD +/- 625). There were 678(53.8%) boys and 582(46.2%) girls. The mean birth weight for boys and girls were 3,324 g (SD +/- 622) and 3147 g (SD +/- 611), respectively (t = 5.05; p < 0.001). There were significant correlations between birth weight and the age of the mother (r = 0.20; p < 0.001) as well as with parity (r = 0.15; p < 0.001). Eight per cent of the babies had birth weight less than 2,500 g. Five per cent of boys and 11% of girls had low birth weights (chi 2 = 8.8; p < 0.002). Higher proportion of low birth weight was also found among the young and primiparous mothers. A multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant and independent effect of maternal age and sex of the baby on birth weight. The findings are in general agreement with previous studies from Ethiopia and other developing countries. However, as this study is based on hospital data, community-based studies are needed to examine the true pattern of birth weights as hospital data may be biased.

  10. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and determinants of low birth weight: the situation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The traditional birth attendant delivers majority of pregnant women in Nigeria. Objective: This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for delivery of low birth weight (LBW) neonates in a Traditional Birth Home (TBH)in Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 780 pregnant women ...

  12. Early neonatal deaths with perinatal asphyxia in very low birth weight Brazilian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M F B; Moreira, L M O; Vaz dos Santos, R M; Kawakami, M D; Anchieta, L M; Guinsburg, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of early deaths associated with birth asphyxia of very low birth weight infants between 2005 and 2010, in Brazil. This population study enrolled all live births with birth weight from 400 to 1499 g, gestational age ⩾ 22 weeks, without malformations that died up to 6 days after birth with perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was defined if intrauterine hypoxia, asphyxia at birth or meconium aspiration syndrome were written in any line of the death certificate. Active search was carried out in 27 Brazilian federative units. For every 1000 live births of very low birth weight infants without congenital malformations, 40.25 and 32.38 died with birth asphyxia in the first week after birth, respectively, in 2005 and 2010 (Pasphyxia to early neonatal death of these infants was approximately 10 to 12% all study years. Reduction of birth asphyxia in very low birth weight infants is essential to reducing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

  13. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  14. Neonatal birth weight and related factors in south of Iran, Jahrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Emamghorashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determinate the relationship between neonatal birth weight and related factors in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and methods: All women delivering in two hospitals, in which obstetric services were presented, entered the study. In this cross sectional study, 2311 women were enrolled prospectively in a 12- month period during 2006-7. Data were collected during first three post partum days from the following sources: maternal hospital files and charts, interview with the mothers, measurement of anthropometric indices of fathers and the infants. Percentile distribution of birth weight for classified gestational age was calculated.Results: Results showed significant correlation between neonatal birth weight with neonatal gender, maternal age, weight, education and working status. There was no relation between neonatal weight with paternal weight, maternal education and living in urban or rural areas.Conclusion: Neonatal birth weight is affected by neonatal gender, maternal age and weight; education and job.

  15. Comparison of Birth-and Conception-Based Definitions of Postnatal Age in Developmental and Reproductive Rodent Toxicity Studies: lnfluence of Gestation Length on Measurements of Offspring Body Weight and Puberty in Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most laboratories conducting developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in rodents assign age by defining postnatal day (PND) 0 or 1 as the day of birth (DOB); i.e., gestation length affects PND and the timing of postnatal measurements. Some laboratories, however, define age...

  16. Effect of Increased Dietary Calcium on Body Weight, Food and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and water intake, body weight, cardiac weight index, left ventricular weight index, renal weight index and serum calcium level were determined. The result shows that OC treated rats had significantly lower serum calcium concentration, body weight gain, food, water and calcium intake than those of the control rats.

  17. Autism spectrum disorders: head circumference and body length at birth are both relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgeorge, Marine; Lemonnier, Eric; Jallot, Nelle

    2013-09-01

    Although the body length and weight of an infant are related to head circumference, little research on ASDs has examined these factors. Our study compared the head circumferences of neonates who were later diagnosed with ASD with a control group. Additional comparisons on morphological disproportions at birth included the head circumference-to-height and head circumference-to-weight ratios. We recruited 422 children with ASD and 153 typically developing children. Head circumference, body length and weight at birth were collected and standardized as percentile scores according to gestational age and gender. Our results revealed that genuine macrocephaly was significantly higher in children with other pervasive developmental disorders compared with the control group. This difference was not observed with regard to genuine microcephaly. Relative macrocephaly and relative microcephaly were significantly more frequent in children with autism disorder compared with the control group with regard to body length. The differences in relative macrocephaly and microcephaly, as well as in other parameters, between diagnostic subgroups suggest that the presence of several neurological mechanisms plays a role in the later expression of different phenotypes. An increased head circumference-to-body length ratio in newborns may be a factor to follow that could be related to ASD. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile, those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient=230, se=58.0, P=0.0001, after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m2; the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P≤0.0004. Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity.

  19. Birth Weight, School Sports Ability, and Adulthood Leisure-Time Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of birth weight with ability in school sports in adolescence and participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) across adulthood and to investigate whether associations between birth weight and LTPA change with age. Study participants were British singletons born in 1946 and followed up to age 68 yr (the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development). Birth weights were extracted from birth records. Teacher reports of ability in school sports were collected at age 13 yr. LTPA was self-reported at ages 36, 43, 53, 60-64, and 68 yr and categorized at each age as participating in sports, exercise, and other vigorous LTPA at least once per month versus no participation. Associations were examined using standard and mixed-effects logistic regression models. Relevant data were available for 2739 study participants (50.1% female). When compared with the low birth weight group (≤2.50 kg), those with heavier birth weights were more likely to be rated as above average or average at school sports (vs below average); fully adjusted odds ratio = 1.78 (95% confidence interval = 1.14-2.77). Across adulthood, those with heavier birth weights were more likely to participate in LTPA than those with low birth weight; fully adjusted odds ratio of LTPA across adulthood = 1.52 (95% confidence interval = 1.09-2.14). This association did not vary by age (P = 0.5 for birth weight by age interaction). Low birth weight was associated with lower ability in school sports and with nonparticipation in LTPA across adulthood. Identifying the underlying developmental and social processes operating across life for low birth weight infants may inform the design of appropriate interventions to support participation in LTPA across life.

  20. Birth Weight, School Sports Ability, and Adulthood Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Cooper, Rachel; Bann, David; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine the associations of birth weight with ability in school sports in adolescence and participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) across adulthood and to investigate whether associations between birth weight and LTPA change with age. Methods Study participants were British singletons born in 1946 and followed up to age 68 yr (the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development). Birth weights were extracted from birth records. Teacher reports of ability in school sports were collected at age 13 yr. LTPA was self-reported at ages 36, 43, 53, 60–64, and 68 yr and categorized at each age as participating in sports, exercise, and other vigorous LTPA at least once per month versus no participation. Associations were examined using standard and mixed-effects logistic regression models. Results Relevant data were available for 2739 study participants (50.1% female). When compared with the low birth weight group (≤2.50 kg), those with heavier birth weights were more likely to be rated as above average or average at school sports (vs below average); fully adjusted odds ratio = 1.78 (95% confidence interval = 1.14–2.77). Across adulthood, those with heavier birth weights were more likely to participate in LTPA than those with low birth weight; fully adjusted odds ratio of LTPA across adulthood = 1.52 (95% confidence interval = 1.09–2.14). This association did not vary by age (P = 0.5 for birth weight by age interaction). Conclusions Low birth weight was associated with lower ability in school sports and with nonparticipation in LTPA across adulthood. Identifying the underlying developmental and social processes operating across life for low birth weight infants may inform the design of appropriate interventions to support participation in LTPA across life. PMID:27580148

  1. Birth weight and exposure to kitchen wood smoke during pregnancy in rural Guatemala.

    OpenAIRE

    Boy, Erick; Bruce, Nigel; Delgado, Hernán

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether domestic use of wood fuel is associated with reduced birth weight, independent of key maternal, social, and economic confounding factors. We studied 1,717 women and newborn children in rural and urban communities in rural Guatemala. We identified subjects through home births reported by traditional birth attendants in six rural districts (n = 572) and all public hospital births in Quetzaltenango city during the study period (n = 1,145). All were se...

  2. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  3. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Velusamy Saravana; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Sebastian, Tunny; Regi, Annie; Mathew, Jiji; Jose, Ruby

    2013-02-14

    The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20-39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box-Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively.In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116 grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089 grams and 1978 grams

  4. Metabolomic profiling in blood from umbilical cords of low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivorra Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight has been linked to an increased risk to develop obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in adult life, although the mechanisms underlying the association are not well understood. The objective was to determine whether the metabolomic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between low and normal birth weight newborns. Methods Fifty healthy pregnant women and their infants were selected. The eligibility criteria were being born at term and having a normal pregnancy. Pairs were grouped according to their birth weight: low birth weight (LBW, birth weight th percentile, n = 20 and control (control, birth weight between the 75th-90th percentiles, n = 30. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR was used to generate metabolic fingerprints of umbilical cord plasma samples. Simultaneously, the metabolomic profiles of the mothers were analysed. The resulting data were subjected to chemometric, principal component and partial least squares discriminant analyses. Results Umbilical cord plasma from LBW and control newborns displayed a clearly differentiated metabolic profile. Seven metabolites were identified that discriminate the LBW from the control group. LBW newborns had lower levels of choline, proline, glutamine, alanine and glucose than did the control newborns, while plasma levels of phenylalanine and citrulline were higher in LBW newborns (p Conclusions Low birth weight newborns display a differential metabolomic profile than those of normal birth weight, a finding not present in the mothers. The meaning and the potential utility of the findings as biomarkers of risk need to be addressed in future studies.

  5. Famine, third-trimester pregnancy weight gain, and intrauterine growth: the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A. D.; Ravelli, A. C.; Lumey, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study were analyzed to assess the influence of acute famine on the relation of maternal weight gain to birth weight, length, and ponderal index. Records were examined for 734 women receiving at least one month of prenatal care and delivering live-born

  6. Birth weight relates to blood pressure and microvascular function in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Objective The relationship between low birth weight and elevated blood pressure in adult life is well established but presently unexplained. Both microvascular dysfunction and insulin resistance have been proposed as a possible explanation. We have examined the relation between birth weight and

  7. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... The model for all evaluated traits included litter size, birth weight and litter size x birth weight interaction as a fixed effects and order parity of sows in which the litters were standardized as random effect. The significance of difference. (P) between means was determined using Duncan's multiple range test.

  8. Rickets in very-Iow-birth-weight infants born at Baragwanath Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract Disturbed mineral and bone metabolism has been reported to occur frequently in very-10w-birth- weight infants fed breast-milk during the first 3 months of life. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of disturbed mineral homeostasis in a breast-milk-fed very-Iow-birth-weight popu- lation at Baragwanath ...

  9. Evidence for a Causal Association of Low Birth Weight and Attention Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with attention problems (AP) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The etiology of this association is unclear. We investigate whether there is a causal influence of birth weight (BW) on AP and whether the BW effect is mediated by catch-up growth (CUG) in low-BW children. Method:…

  10. Is low back pain in youth associated with weight at birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low back pain has been associated with an increased risk of several diseases and with poor general health. Also low birth weight has been associated with an increased susceptibility to various diseases as well as with poor general health. Thus, low birth weight could be a common fac...

  11. Birth weight in relation to leisure time physical activity in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars; Gamborg, Michael Orland

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between birth weight and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in 43,482 adolescents and adults from 13 Nordic cohorts. Random effects meta-analyses were performed on categorical estimates from cohort-, age-, sex- and birth weight specific...

  12. Regulation of the pituitary-thyroid axis in adulthood is not related to birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Petersen, Inge; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2013-01-01

    Low birth weight has been linked with changes in thyroid function in adulthood, but it is unknown whether fetal programming or underlying genetic and environmental factors explains the association. We hypothesized that birth weight influences the pituitary-thyroid set point in adults....

  13. Comparison of 2- and 3-Dimensional Sonography for Estimation of Birth Weight and Neonatal Adiposity in the Setting of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Kelly S; Stetzer, Bradley; Catalano, Patrick M; Myers, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) fetal measurements for prediction of birth weight Z score and neonatal adiposity (percent body fat) in the setting of suspected fetal macrosomia. We conducted a prospective observational study of term singleton pregnancies with suspected macrosomia. Patients were enrolled on admission to labor and delivery and underwent sonographic examinations. Within 48 hours of delivery, neonatal anthropometric measurements were obtained. Thirty-four neonates were included in the analysis. Mothers were very obese (mean body mass index ± SD, 39.1 ± 7.8 kg/m(2)); 56.5% were white; and 39.1% had diabetes. Neonates were 38% female and had a mean birth weight of 3940.0 ± 496.8 g, percent body fat of 18.5% ± 4.0%, and Ponderal index of 2.8 ± 0.3 g/cm(3). Mean 2D estimated fetal weight was 3973 ± 443 g; mean 3D estimated fetal weight was 3803 ± 528 g; and mean thigh volume was 102.5 ± 19.6 cm(3). Both 2D and 3D measurements accounted for about half the variance in predicted birth weight (R(2) for 2D = 0.53, 71% within 10% of birth weight; R(2) for 3D = 0.47, 65% within 10% of birth weight). Thigh volume Z score was the prenatal parameter most highly correlated with both birth weight Z score (R(2) = 0.52; r = 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.84; P macrosomia, fractional thigh volume was the best sonographic estimate of neonatal percent body fat and birth weight Z score. Future research on prediction of neonatal weight and adiposity in macrosomic fetuses should include an estimate of fetal soft tissue given the generalized increase in body fat of these fetuses. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Body after baby: a pilot survey of genital body image and sexual esteem following vaginal birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Ruth; Kane Low, Lisa; Smith, Abigail R; Miller, Janis M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine acceptability of the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE) scale for women post childbirth and explore the association between childbirth events and sexual/body esteem. This is a cross-sectional study within the Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery study. This study was conducted in a community setting. The study was conducted in women post first vaginal birth with birth events that posed risk factors for levator ani muscle tears. Survey, magnetic resonance images of levator ani, and physical examination were the data collected 8 months postpartum. Birth variables were collected by hospital chart review. Descriptive analysis of VSBE response rates and distribution of responses was conducted. An exploratory analysis of the potential association of demographic, birth, clinical, and magnetic resonance image characteristics with VSBE scores was conducted. The outcome measure used in this study is VSBE scale. The majority of participants (97%) completed the scale, with responses to most questions skewed toward positive sexual/body esteem, with the exception of sexual enjoyment, where 38% indicated some interference due to genital changes. The scale showed high internal consistency (alpha =0.93). In the exploratory analysis of potential characteristics associated with VSBE, women with episiotomies had lower sexual/body esteem compared to those who did not (median VSBE scores 35 vs 42.5, P =0.01). Anal sphincter tear was not associated with sexual/body esteem ( P =0.78). Additional study is indicated to further explore observed trends toward the association of severe levator ani tear, maternal age at childbirth, and forceps with VSBE scores. The VSBE is suitable for use to assess sexual/body esteem in women post childbirth. Most women in this sample did not indicate negative genital body image/sexual esteem. However, some indicated that the changes post birth negatively affected their sexual/body esteem

  15. [Adolescent pregnancy: maternal characteristics and their association with birth weight of the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucía; Zapata López, Natalia; Parra Sosa, Beatriz Elena; Escudero Vásquez, Luz Estela; Atalah, Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    In Colombia, adolescent pregnancy is a public health problem, with serious implications for the health and nutrition of the binomial mother-child. assess socio-demographic, economic, food security, health and maternal nutritional status characteristics by anthropometric measures in a group of pregnant adolescents in Medellin-Colombia on their third trimester of pregnancy and associate them with the newborns weight. A cross sectional analytical study was made with 294 pregnant women (week 27 to 40), who participating in prenatal control program of the public hospital network in Medellin-Colombia. We sought Association of weight at birth with the explanatory variables. underweight in pregnant women was presented in families that had lower income wages than the Standard Minimum Wage Income--SMWI-, adolescents who were younger than 15 years old and those who had a gynecological age less than five years. In newborns, the highest proportion of small children for pregnancy age was found in mothers who presented infections, low pregnancy weight and low family income less than the minimum wage. For those whose earnings was less than the minimum income the newborn weight decreased 118g (CI 95%: -2.5 a - 234.7), in addition, for each kilogram that increased the pre-pregnancy weight, newborn weight increased in 10,26g (CI 95%: 1.98 a-18.5). low-weight pregnancy and low-weight newborns are associated with low family income. Pre-pregnancy weight, body mass index in the third trimester of pregnancy and mother's presence of urinary tract and vaginal infections were associated with the newborn's weight.

  16. Impact of birth weight and early infant weight gain on insulin resistance and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Signe; Jensen, Rikke Beck; Færch, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Low birth weight followed by accelerated weight gain during early childhood has been associated with adverse metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes later in life. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early infant weight gain on glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors...

  17. Maternal anthropometric measurements as predictors of low birth weight in developing and developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Eita

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the possibility of using maternal anthropometric measurements for prediction of low birth weight in developing and developed countries. Bivariate diagnostic meta-analysis was performed with hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Ten databases, i.e., PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Wiley InterScience, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete™, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database, the entire Cochrane Library (e.g., CENTRAL), Google Scholar, and Scopus were searched. The references and PubMed-related citations of potentially eligible articles and reviews were also investigated. With regard to maternal height, weight, arm circumference, abdominal circumference, body mass index (BMI), and weight gain, 111, 126, 25, 4, 131, and 59 studies extracted from 49, 38, 12, 1, 50, and 23 data sources, respectively, were finally included in the analysis. The sensitivity [=0.46, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.52 to 0.64, 95 % CI 0.56-0.71], specificity (=0.46, 95 % CI 0.38-0.54 to 0.72, 95 % CI 0.64-0.79) and diagnostic odds ratios (=2, 95 % CI 1-2 to 3, 95 % CI 3-4) for maternal height, weight, arm circumferences, BMI, and weight gain were low and 95 % confidence and prediction regions were too large for practical use. The findings for abdominal circumference were not generalizable because only one data source was available. There is no evidence that maternal anthropometric measurements are good predictors of low birth weight.

  18. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124...... by birth weight was calculated separately for each age, sex, and time period. RESULTS: The birth weight distribution remained relatively stable over time. Compared with children with a birth weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg, the risk of overweight increased consistently with each increase in birth weight category...... in the distribution of birth weight or by changes in the association between birth weight and the later risk of overweight over time. This implies that, unless the prenatal environment influences the later risk of overweight without increasing birth weight, the environmental influences contributing to the obesity...

  19. Stability of the association between birth weight and childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugholm, Susi; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W

    2005-01-01

    in the distribution of birth weight or by changes in the association between birth weight and the later risk of overweight over time. This implies that, unless the prenatal environment influences the later risk of overweight without increasing birth weight, the environmental influences contributing to the obesity......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether changes in the birth weight distribution or changes in the association of birth weight with the later risk of childhood overweight have contributed to the development of the obesity epidemic. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A Danish population-based cohort study of 124...... by birth weight was calculated separately for each age, sex, and time period. RESULTS: The birth weight distribution remained relatively stable over time. Compared with children with a birth weight of 3.0 to 3.5 kg, the risk of overweight increased consistently with each increase in birth weight category...

  20. Changes in birth weight between 2002 and 2012 in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guo

    Full Text Available Recent surveillance data suggest that mean birth weight has begun to decline in several developed countries. The aim of this study is to examine the changes in birth weight among singleton live births from 2002 to 2012 in Guangzhou, one of the most rapidly developed cities in China.We used data from the Guangzhou Perinatal Health Care and Delivery Surveillance System for 34108 and 54575 singleton live births with 28-41 weeks of gestation, who were born to local mothers, in 2002 and 2012, respectively. The trends in birth weight, small (SGA and large (LGA for gestational age and gestational length were explored in the overall population and gestational age subgroups.The mean birth weight decreased from 3162 g in 2002 to 3137 g in 2012 (crude mean difference, -25 g; 95% CI, -30 to -19. The adjusted change in mean birth weight appeared to be slight (-6 g from 2002 to 2012 after controlling for maternal age, gestational age, educational level, parity, newborn's gender and delivery mode. The percentages of SGA and LGA in 2012 were 0.6% and 1.5% lower than those in 2002, respectively. The mean gestational age dropped from 39.2 weeks in 2002 to 38.9 weeks in 2012. In the stratified analysis, we observed the changes in birth weight differed among gestational age groups. The mean birth weight decreased among very preterm births (28-31 weeks, while remained relatively stable among other gestational age subcategories.Among local population in Guangzhou from 2002 to 2012, birth weight appeared to slightly decrease. The percentage of SGA and LGA also simultaneously dropped, indicating that newborns might gain a healthier weight for gestational age.

  1. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612......) answered a questionnaire during 12th to 16th gestational week about their exposure to ETS at home and outside the home. RESULTS: Pregnant nonsmokers exposed to ETS both at home and outside the home gave birth to children with a birth weight of 78.9 g (95% CI -143.7 to -14.1) (P=0.02) lower than the weight...... of children born to women unexposed to ETS. There was no significant reduction in birth weight among women exposed to ETS at home only or outside the home only. A nonsignificant dose-response association was seen between increasing daily exposure to ETS and reduction in birth weight. CONCLUSION: Nonsmoking...

  2. Correlation of periodontitis during pregnancy and incidence of low birth weight babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanthi Reddy

    2012-01-01

    After delivery, gestational age (in weeks and birth weight of baby (in kg were collected from hospital records. Infants were placed into following categories by gestational age (WHO and by birth weight preterm-3,900 gm. Results: Based on the findings of the study, a significant correlation was observed between periodontitis and low birth weight and preterm low birth weight (p<_0.001 and a significant relation was observed between periodontitis and gestational age (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Periodontitis was considered a risk indicator for reduced gestational age and birth weight. Multicentric trials will greatly help to establish the independent role of periodontal disease and their relationship in terms of pregnancy outcomes.

  3. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. METHODS: 193,306 children......, born from 1936 to 1972, from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register were followed prospectively in Danish health registers. Colon and rectal cancer cases were defined using the International Classification of Disease version 10 (colon: C18.0-18.9, rectal: 19.9 and 20.9). Only cancers classified....... No significant sex differences were observed; therefore combined results are presented. Birth weight was positively associated with colon cancers with a HR of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26) per kilogram of birth weight. For rectal cancer a significant association was not observed for birth weights below 3.5kg. Above 3...

  4. Birth weight predicts the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and pregravid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, Jarosław; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Engel, Karina; Celewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that birth weight may determine metabolic abnormalities later in life. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between birth weight and future risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and pregravid obesity in a homogenous sample of Caucasian Polish women. In this retrospective study, we collected the medical reports of 787 women with GDM and 801 healthy pregnant women. We analyzed the following data: birth weight, age, pregravid weight, prior GDM, prior macrosomia, parity, and family history of diabetes. Birth weight was inversely associated with the risk of GDM; for each decrease in birth weight of 500 g, the risk increased by 11% (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.21). Birth weight was a strong predictor of GDM independent of other risk factors (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31), and it was positively correlated with pregravid weight (R = 0.21; P obesity (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34 and OR, 1.35; 95% CI 1.11-1.64, respectively). Each of the traditional risk factors for GDM were also strong predictors of pregravid obesity: age (P diabetes (P obesity is associated with high birth weight. Traditional risk factors for GDM, including maternal (but not paternal) history of diabetes, are also risk factors for pregravid obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla; Guimarães, Armênio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW

  6. Contextual risk factors for low birth weight: a multilevel analysis.

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    Gbenga A Kayode

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW remains to be a leading cause of neonatal death and a major contributor to infant and under-five mortality. Its prevalence has not declined in the last decade in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and Asia. Some individual level factors have been identified as risk factors for LBW but knowledge is limited on contextual risk factors for LBW especially in SSA.Contextual risk factors for LBW in Ghana were identified by performing multivariable multilevel logistic regression analysis of 6,900 mothers dwelling in 412 communities that participated in the 2003 and 2008 Demographic and Health Surveys in Ghana.Contextual-level factors were significantly associated with LBW: Being a rural dweller increased the likelihood of having a LBW infant by 43% (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.01-2.01; P-value <0.05 while living in poverty-concentrated communities increased the risk of having a LBW infant twofold (OR 2.16; 95% CI 1.29-3.61; P-value <0.01. In neighbourhoods with a high coverage of safe water supply the odds of having a LBW infant reduced by 28% (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.96; P-value <0.05.This study showed contextual risk factors to have independent effects on the prevalence of LBW infants. Being a rural dweller, living in a community with a high concentration of poverty and a low coverage of safe water supply were found to increase the prevalence of LBW infants. Implementing appropriate community-based intervention programmes will likely reduce the occurrence of LBW infants.

  7. Infusoabdomen with abdominal compartment in extremely low birth weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin-Johannes Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheters (CVCs are frequently used in neonatal care. The rate of complications upon CVC use is high and the spectrum ranges from catheter tip dislocation to cardiac tamponade and death. Here we present an explanation model to the phenomenon of paravasate into human anatomical cavities based on two illustrative cases: Extremely low birth weight twins suffering from abdominal compartment syndromes due to different pathologies – one with a trans-peritoneal and one with intra-abdominal effusion. In both siblings the peripherally introduced central catheter (PICC perforated the vessel without clinical signs of bleeding and contributed to abdominal and thoracal complications. Case I (23 + 5 gestational week; 770 g; female showed clinical signs of an abdominal compartment syndrome without respective intestinal pathology upon open surgical procedure with ileostomy. Radiographic contrast examination showed retroperitoneal leakage when administered through the catheter. Replacement into the subclavian vein led to cardio-respiratory misbalance due to severe pleural effusion. Re-replacement finally led to clinical restitution after 60 days of intensive care. Case II (23 + 5 gestational week; 690 g; female showed clinical signs of an abdominal compartment syndrome, too. Radiographic contrast examination showed leakage from the PICC into the abdomen. Replacement of the PICC and invasive care led to improvement after 3 days. The 2 cases reveal that the displacement of a PICC can occur without direct clinical signs of hemodynamic imbalance i.e. bleeding or hematoma. Displacement of the catheter tip from intra-vascular, retro-peritoneal position can cause abdominal compartment syndromes either via trans-peritoneal migration of fluids or after perforation of the peritoneum via intra-abdominal administration of given infusion. Both options caused life threatening complications. Watchfulness and intensive surgical and non-surgical care are

  8. Association between Birth Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Maria Amenaide Carvalho Alves de, E-mail: amenaidecarvalho@gmail.com [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Isabel Cristina Britto; Daltro, Carla [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Guimarães, Armênio Costa [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Birth weight (BW) is a medium- and long-term risk determinant of cardiovascular risk factors. To assess the association between BW and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of the city of Salvador, Bahia state. Cross-sectional study with comparison of BW groups. Sample comprising 250 adolescents classified according to the BMI as follows: high-normal (≥ 50th percentile and < 85th percentile); overweight (≥ 85th percentile and < 95th percentile); and obesity (≥ 95th percentile). The risk variables compared were as follows: waist circumference (WC); arterial blood pressure; lipid profile; glycemia; serum insulin; HOMA-IR; and metabolic syndrome. The BW was informed by parents and classified as follows: low (BW ≤ 2,500g); normal (BW > 2,500g and < 4,000g); and high (BW ≥ 4,000g). One hundred and fifty-three (61.2%) girls, age 13.74 ± 2.03 years, normal BW 80.8%, low BW 8.0%, and high BW 11.2%. The high BW group as compared with the normal BW group showed a higher frequency of obesity (42.9%, p=0.005), elevated SBP and DBP (42.9%, p=0.000 and 35.7%, p=0.007, respectively), and metabolic syndrome (46.4%, p=0.002). High BW adolescents as compared with normal BW adolescents had a prevalence ratio for high SBP 3.3 (95% CI: 1.7-6.4) and obesity 2.6 (95% CI: 1.3-5.2). The WC of high BW adolescents was 83.3 ± 10.1 (p=0.038). The lipid profile showed no statistically significant differences. Our findings suggest that obesity, elevated SBP and DBP, and metabolic syndrome during adolescence might be associated with high BW.

  9. KIR and HLA-C: Immunogenetic regulation of human birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia E. Farrell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancies resulting in very small or very large babies are at higher risk of obstetric complications with increased morbidity for both mother and baby. Using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway we have shown how human birth weight is still subject to stabilizing selection. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune genes have been implicated in pregnancies resulting in a low birth weight baby (<5th birth weight centile. More specifically, an inhibitory maternal KIRAA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. At the other end of the birth weight spectrum the presence of an activating maternal KIR2DS1 gene is associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p=0.005, OR=2.65. Thus, inhibitory maternal KIR combined with fetal HLA-C2 is more frequently associated with low birth weight, whereas activating maternal KIR with fetal HLA-C2 ligand is associated with increasing birth weight. Our findings using the MoBa cohort have replicated the association of KIR and HLA-C seen in poor placentation, and confirm the importance of maternal/fetal immune gene interactions in determining the outcome of pregnancy.

  10. Evaluating the Relationship Between Birth Weight for Gestational Age and Adult Blood Pressure Using Participants From a Cohort of Same-Sex Siblings, Discordant on Birth Weight Percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Linda G; Buka, Stephen L; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gillman, Matthew W; Susser, Ezra; Lumey, L H

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have described an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure (BP). Debate continues, however, over the magnitude and validity of the association. This analysis draws on the Early Determinants of Adult Health study (2005-2008), a cohort of 393 US adults (mean age 43 years; 47% male), including 114 same-sex sibling pairs deliberately sampled to be discordant on sex-specific birth weight for gestational age (BW/GA) in order to minimize confounding in studies of fetal growth and midlife health outcomes. Every quintile increment in BW/GA percentile was associated with a 1.04-mm Hg decrement in adult systolic BP (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.14, 0.06) and a 0.63-mm Hg decrement in diastolic BP (95% CI: -1.35, 0.09), controlling for sex, age, site, smoking, and race/ethnicity. The relationship was strongest among those in the lowest decile of BW/GA. Adding adult body mass index to the models attenuated the estimates (e.g., to -0.90 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.94, 0.14) for systolic BP). In the sibling-pair subgroup, associations were slightly stronger but with wider confidence intervals (e.g., -1.22 mm Hg (95% CI: -5.20, 2.75) for systolic BP). In conclusion, we found a small inverse relationship between BW/GA and BP in cohort and sibling-pair analyses, but the clinical or public health significance is likely limited. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Protein use and weight-gain quality in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlacchi, Laura; Roggero, Paola; Giannì, Maria Lorella; Bracco, Beatrice; Porri, Debora; Battiato, Enrico; Menis, Camilla; Liotto, Nadia; Mallardi, Domenica; Mosca, Fabio

    2018-02-01

    Nutritional management of preterm infants aims to approximate the tissue growth and body composition of a fetus of the same postmenstrual age. The adequacy of the quality of protein supply can influence the rate and the relative quality of weight gain. We investigated the protein balance according to feeding regimen and the association between human milk feeding and fat-free mass content at the term-corrected age in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. A prospective observational study was conducted. Inclusion criteria were as follows: healthy infants, gestational age ≤32 wk, birth weight milk or formula at discharge. Infants were enrolled at hospital discharge. At enrollment, macronutrient intakes and protein balance were determined. Anthropometric measurements and body composition were also assessed. The nutritional composition of human milk was calculated by infrared spectroscopy. The protein balance was determined according to the nitrogen balance standard method. Body composition was assessed by an air-displacement plethysmography system. At the term-corrected age, anthropometry and body composition assessments were repeated. Seventeen preterm infants fed fortified human milk and 15 preterm infants fed formula were enrolled. At discharge, despite similar macronutrient intakes, infants fed fortified human milk showed a higher nitrogen balance (expressed as mg · kg-1 · d-1) compared with preterm formula-fed infants (mean ± SD: 488.3 ± 75 compared with 409.8 ± 85 mg · kg-1 · d-1, P = 0.009). At term-corrected age, growth was similar in the 2 groups, whereas fortified human milk-fed infants showed a higher percentage of fat-free mass (85.1% ± 2.8% compared with 80.8% ± 3.2%, P = 0.002). Moreover, at multiple linear regression, fat-free mass content was independently associated with being fed human milk (R2 = 0.93, P milk feeding is associated with early fat-free mass deposition in healthy and stable preterm infants. This trial was

  12. Effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation in preterm low birth weight newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alo, D; Shahidullah, M; Mannan, M A; Noor, K

    2010-07-01

    This interventional study was done to determine the effect of parenteral amino acid supplementation on weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis in preterm low birth weight newborns during their hospital stay. It was carried out during the period of June 2006-May 2007 in the Newborn unit of a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. Sixty preterm (28-34weeks), low birth weight (1000-1800g) AGA (appropriate for gestational age) newborns were enrolled within 24 hours of birth. Intervention and control newborns were matched in terms of birth weight and gestational age. Samples were volunteers. Parenteral amino acid (5%) supplementation in addition to usual nutritional management until enteral feeding reached three fourth of total calorie intake. Usual nutritional management was 10% intravenous dextrose and subsequent enteral feeding. Main outcome measured with weight change, biochemical effect and incidence of sepsis. Weight change was observed by two parameters such as mean percentage of maximum postnatal weight loss and mean days to reach birth weight, both were significantly lower in intervention than control group (psupplementation investigated in this study has been shown to have no effect. There was no difference in incidence of sepsis between intervention and control group (p>0.05). Improved nutritional supplementation with parenteral amino acids resulted in better growth as evident by lesser degree of weight loss and earlier regaining of birth weight in the early neonatal period. Biochemical parameters are not affected by parenteral amino acid supplementation.

  13. The association between Placental T2* measured by MRI in dichorionic twin pregnancies and intertwin birth weight differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard Weidemann; Sinding, Marianne Munk; Peters, David Alberg

    : Intertwin placental T2* difference is strongly related to intertwin birthweight difference, even when performed several weeks before birth. Placental T2* might be a future method to predict intertwin birthweight difference in dichorionic twin pregnancies. Further studies should be performed in order......ABSTRACT FINAL ID: P22.06 TITLE: The association between Placental T2* measured by MRI in dichorionic twin pregnancies and intertwin birth weight differences AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Anne Sørensen1, 2, Marianne Sinding1, David Peters3, Jens B. Frøkjær4, 2, Astrid Petersen6, Niels Uldbjerg5......, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg , Denmark. 5. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark. 6. Department of Pathology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark. ABSTRACT BODY: Objectives: Intertwin birth weight discordance is associated...

  14. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Effect of Birth Weight and Socioeconomic Status on Children's Growth in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Socioeconomic status and birth weight are prominent factors for future growing of children. Also Studies show that this criterion is associated with reduced cognitive outcomes, school achievement, and adult work capacity. So in this paper we determined the effects of some socio-economic statuses and birth weight on physical growth of children in Mashhad, Iran. Method and materials. This is a cross sectional study that determined effect of socio-economic status and birth weight on weight, heighting and BMI of school age children. Healthy six years old children who were screened before enter, to school were eligible for participating in our study between 6 June 2006 and 31 July. Weight and standing height were documented at birth and measured at 6 years old. Then, their BMI were calculated in childhood period. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software. Result. Results show that some socio-economic variables and birth weight is associated with and, perhaps, influence the variation of growth in the children. The variables which show the most consistent and significant association were birth weight, sex, economic status and education of parents. Conclusion. In this paper, we found that birth weight, economic status and education parents of neonates have directly significant effect on growth childhood period. We recommended that paying attention to these criteria for improving growth of children in our society should be considered by authorities.

  16. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-12-15

    Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on the different socio-economic backgrounds of their clients. The data on birth weight and other factors were derived from hospital records. It was observed that low birth weight is still highly prevalent (29.6%), while macrosomia (10.5%) is also increasingly becoming important. There were marginal differences in low birth weight observed across public hospitals but marked difference in low birth weight was observed in Cienfuegos Suglo Specialist Hospital (Private hospital) as compared to the public hospitals. The private hospital also had the highest prevalence of macrosomia (20.1%). Parity (0-1) (p malnutrition phenomenon, which is currently being experienced by developing and transition counties. Both low birth weight and macrosomia are risk factors, which could contribute considerably to the current and future burden of diseases. This may overstretch the already fragile health system in Ghana. Therefore, it is prudent to recommend that policies aiming at reducing diet related diseases should focus on addressing malnutrition during pregnancy and early life.

  17. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-02-01

    We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4-7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4-7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4-7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4-7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child's IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (∼450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18-2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06-0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4-7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or

  18. Evaluation of Body Weight and Other Linear Parameters of Marshall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the body weight and other linear parameters of Marshall Broiler for repeatability estimates. A total of one hundred (100) broiler chickens (Marshall) was used in estimating the repeatability of body weight and linear parameters of day old from 2 to 8 weeks of age. Body weight (BW) and ...

  19. Body weight perception among Igbo people in the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the body weight perception of Igbo people in University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) community. The study evaluated the body weight perception among age groups and sex categories of UNN staff and students. It examined the relationship between perception of body weight among the ...

  20. Testicular development and relationship between body weight, testis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... testicular components, absolute testis weight and body weight in boars. There is evidence in literature that the volume percentage occupied by the spermatogenetic tissues increased with age, body weight and testis weight in boars (Allrich et al., 1983; Harder et al., 1995). These reports seem to indicate that ...

  1. Low birth weight is associated with NIDDM in discordant monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, P; Vaag, Allan; Kyvik, K O

    1997-01-01

    between the putative "NIDDM susceptibility genotype" and a genetically determined low weight at birth. It is also unclear whether differences in gestational age, maternal height, birth order and/or sex could explain the association. Twins are born of the same mother and have similar gestational ages......Previous studies have demonstrated an association between low weight at birth and risk of later development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). It is not known whether this association is due to an impact of intrauterine malnutrition per se, or whether it is due to a coincidence....... Furthermore, monozygotic (MZ) twins have identical genotypes. Original midwife birth weight record determinations were traced in MZ and dizygotic (DZ) twins discordant for NIDDM. Birth weights were lower in the NIDDM twins (n = 2 x 14) compared with both their identical (MZ; n = 14) and non-identical (DZ; n...

  2. Prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakari, Abdulai; Kynast-Wolf, Gisela; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth weight is a crucial determinant of the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal newborn weights are associated with negative effects on the health and survival of the baby and the mother. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related factors in Northern region, Ghana. Methods: The study was a facility-based cross-sectional survey in five hospitals in Northern region, Ghana. These hospitals were selected based on t...

  3. Factors associated with low birth weight in Nepal using multiple imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Singh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survey data from low income countries on birth weight usually pose a persistent problem. The studies conducted on birth weight have acknowledged missing data on birth weight, but they are not included in the analysis. Furthermore, other missing data presented on determinants of birth weight are not addressed. Thus, this study tries to identify determinants that are associated with low birth weight (LBW using multiple imputation to handle missing data on birth weight and its determinants. Methods The child dataset from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, 2011 was utilized in this study. A total of 5,240 children were born between 2006 and 2011, out of which 87% had at least one measured variable missing and 21% had no recorded birth weight. All the analyses were carried out in R version 3.1.3. Transform-then impute method was applied to check for interaction between explanatory variables and imputed missing data. Survey package was applied to each imputed dataset to account for survey design and sampling method. Survey logistic regression was applied to identify the determinants associated with LBW. Results The prevalence of LBW was 15.4% after imputation. Women with the highest autonomy on their own health compared to those with health decisions involving husband or others (adjusted odds ratio (OR 1.87, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 1.31, 2.67, and husband and women together (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.35 were less likely to give birth to LBW infants. Mothers using highly polluting cooking fuels (adjusted OR 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03, 2.22 were more likely to give birth to LBW infants than mothers using non-polluting cooking fuels. Conclusion The findings of this study suggested that obtaining the prevalence of LBW from only the sample of measured birth weight and ignoring missing data results in underestimation.

  4. [Relationship between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and birth weight of term singleton live-birth newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L Q; Zhang, Q; Zhao, D D; Wang, L L; Chen, Y; Mi, B B; Dang, S N; Yan, H

    2017-10-10

    Objective: This study explored the association between air pollution exposure and birth weight by using the multilevel linear model, after controlling related meteorological factors and individual differences of both mothers and babies. Methods: Women of childbearing age who were pregnant in Xi'an from 2010 to 2013, were selected as objects of this study. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 4 631 subjects followed by a self-designed questionnaire survey. Data related to quality of air and meteorology were gathered from routine monitoring system. Gestational age and date of birth, together with the average levels of air pollution were calculated for each trimester on each mother, and then the impact of air pollution on birth weight was assessed. A multilevel linear model was employed to investigate the association between the levels of exposure to air pollution by birth weight. Confounding factors were under control. We established three models in this study: Model 1 which involving the variable of air pollution exposure. Model 2 was adjusted for variables in Model 1 plus some other individual differences of both mother and baby. Model 3 was adjusted for variables in Model 2 plus meteorological factors. Results: There were significant differences seen in birth weight within the subgroups of gender, gestational age, mother's reproductive age, maternal education, residential areas and family incomes ( P 0.05). Data from Model 3 indicated that a decrease of 13.3 g(10.9 g in Model 2) and 6.6 g (5.9 g in Model 2) in birth weight that were associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester; A decrease of 13.7 g (9.8 g in Model 2) in birth weight was associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) during the third trimester. Conclusion: After controlling for meteorological factors, the levels of exposure to NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester and NO(2) during the

  5. Does prenatal exposure to vitamin D-fortified margarine and milk alter birth weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla B; Berentzen, Tina L; Gamborg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention with mandat...... margarine and milk altered birth weight, but the effect was small and inconsistent, reaching the conclusion that vitamin D fortification seems to be clinically irrelevant in relation to fetal growth.......The present study examined whether exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk during prenatal life influenced mean birth weight and the risk of high or low birth weight. The study was based on the Danish vitamin D fortification programme, which was a societal intervention...... with mandatory fortification of margarine during 1961-1985 and voluntary fortification of low-fat milk between 1972 and 1976. The influence of prenatal vitamin D exposure on birth weight was investigated among 51 883 Danish children, by comparing birth weight among individuals born during 2 years before or after...

  6. Hypernatremia and grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage among extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, W-H; Lien, R; Chiang, M-C; Fu, R-H; Lin, J-J; Chu, S-M; Hsu, J-F; Yang, P-H

    2011-03-01

    To identify the risk factors contributing to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in extremely low birth weight infants during early postnatal life, after appropriate matching for gestational age (GA) and birth body weight (BBW). A case-control retrospective study was designed to evaluate preterm infants with a GA ≤ 26 weeks and a BBW ≤ 1000 g admitted to our hospital during a 7.5-year period. From a cohort of 347 preterm infants, 36 infants (10.7%) had severe IVH (grades III and/or IV). We selected a control group of 36 preterm infants without IVH who were closely matched for GA (± 1 week) and body weight (± 100 g). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for severe IVH. The GA and BBW of the IVH and control groups were 24.6 ± 1 weeks and 764.4 ± 118.5 g, and 24.8 ± 0.9 weeks and 771.5 ± 125.9 g, respectively. Vaginal delivery, male sex, resuscitation in the delivery room, high sodium serum levels (meq l(-1)) (162.6 vs 148.8), fluctuation of serum sodium (meq l(-1)) (17.3 vs 6.2), pH, PaCO(2), hemoglobin and platelet counts were associated with an increased risk of severe IVH. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that sodium fluctuations >13 meq l(-1), vaginal delivery, male sex and hemoglobin fluctuations are strongly associated with the development of severe IVH. Hypernatremia and fluctuations of sodium seem to be related to early severe IVH among preterm infants; however, further studies are required to clarify the causal relationship.

  7. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants Using Aminophylline for the Treatment of Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Shu-Leei; Lee, Wei-Te; Lee, Pei-Lun; Lu, Chu-Chong; Chen, Hsiu-Lin

    2016-02-01

    Aminophylline has been widely used in the treatment of apneic episodes in premature infants. Animal models suggest caution in the use of aminophylline as it may increase the cerebral metabolic rate and decrease the rate of anoxic survival in neonates. This study aimed to evaluate the neurological outcomes in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants treated with aminophylline for apnea in our neonatal intensive care unit. All VLBW infants (body birth weight prematurity, and necrotizing enterocolitis were not significantly different between the two groups. Only bronchopulmonary dysplasia remained significantly higher in the aminophylline group after adjusting for risk factors (48.08% vs. 21.15%; adjusted odds ratio: 12.50; p apnea of prematurity had no apparent and additional risk on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of VLBW infants at a corrected age of 18 months. Further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm the adverse neurological effects of aminophylline treatment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  9. Supplementation of vitamin D after birth affects body size and BMI in Polish children during the first 3.5 years of life - an analysis based on two cohorts measured in the years 1993-1997 and 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszkowska-Przybylska, Paulina; Nieczuja-Dwojacka, Joanna; Żądzińska, Elżbieta

    2018-03-28

    Objectives : The aim of this study was to assess whether the time of vitamin D supplementation after birth, season of birth and the type of feeding affected current body weight, body height and BMI among children aged 3-56 months from two cohorts. Additionally, it was analysed whether birth weight and birth length correlated with current BMI, body height and body weight in both cohorts of children. Methods : The study material included 1930 children from the two cohorts, measured in two following periods: 1993-1997 and 2004-2008. Finally 849 healthy individuals aged 3-56 months were included in the analysis. Multiple stepwise regression model was applied to find the group of the most important variables explaining current body weight, body height and BMI. Moreover generalized linear models for two way interactions were used. Results : The season of birth, time of supplementation of vitamin D, but also birth weight and length might affect current body weight. Individuals' height could be associated with birth length and the season of birth. BMI value was probably regulated by birth length and weight. Furthermore, interactions between the time of vitamin D supplementation and season of birth and also between the time of vitamin D supplementation and type of feeding resulting in variation of body weight and BMI in the first years of life were also observed. Conclusions : The study underlines the importance of a supplementation of vitamin D, season of birth and birth weight and length in current weight, height and body proportion in the first 3.5 years of life.

  10. Improved fluid management utilizing humidified incubators in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, M S; Wright, K; Lorch, K; Lorch, V; Walker, E

    2001-01-01

    To compare fluid and electrolyte management in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants nursed in humidified versus nonhumidified incubators. Setting--tertiary intensive care nursery. Subjects--all infants with birth weight incubators and survived for > 96 hours (N = 155). Intervention--retrospective comparison of daily weights, fluid intakes, urine outputs, and serum electrolytes between group 1 (n = 70, nonhumidified incubators, born 1/95 to 1/97) and group 2 (n = 85, humidified incubators, born 1/97 to 1/99) over the first 4 days after birth. Despite similar daily weight losses between groups, group 1 infants received higher fluid intakes, had lower urine outputs, and had a higher incidence of hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and azotemia (p incubators. ELBW weight infants nursed in humidified incubators have lower fluid requirements, improved electrolyte balance, and higher urine outputs during the first 4 days after birth compared to those nursed in nonhumidified incubators.

  11. Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran

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    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight and NBW (Normal Birth Weight was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015. Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  12. What has high fertility got to do with the low birth weight problem in Africa?

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    Ivy Kodzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There has been much concern about adverse individual and societal consequences of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. One concern is that children of high birth orders may have low birth weight. However, the evidence for such an effect is not strong. OBJECTIVE Our objective is to investigate whether a woman's high parity status might increase her risks of having a baby with low birth weight. METHODS Pooling 60 Demographic and Health Surveys data-sets from 32 sub-Saharan countries, we selected children of mothers who had at least two births of order two or higher within the five years preceding the surveys. We modeled the probability of having a child with low birth weight and controlled for all mother-specific, household, or community characteristics that are constant over the period of analysis, by including fixed-effects for the mother. We also controlled for salient factors including sex, maternal age, preceding birth interval, and whether prenatal care was received. RESULTS We found no adverse effect of increasing parity on the odds of having a child with low birth weight at normative ranges; such effects only manifest at extremely high parities - nine or more children. At moderately high parities, the chance of low birth weight is actually lower than at very low parities. CONCLUSIONS While high fertility may lead to various adverse outcomes for African families, low birth weight appears not to be among these outcomes. Other factors, such as adolescent childbearing, poverty, and inadequate prenatal care may be more important determinants of low birth weight in Africa.

  13. Clinical Outcome of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Ali Usman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a DNA virus and a marker of the herpes virus groups. This virus was found only in human and the infection occurs for a long time. The transmission of CMV infection to fetus/neonates is via congenital infections or perinatal infections. Clinical manifestation of symptomatic CMV infection of the fetus has two presentations, early and second early manifestations. Diagnosis of neonatal CMV infection may be done by serologic test based on detection of IgM of CMV infection. The objective of this study is to asses clinical outcome of CMV infection of low birth weight infants delivery with long term sequelae. An observational study was conducted since March 2010 until December 2011 in Advent and Hermina Pasteur Hospital, all subjects were low birth weight infants (LBWI. The inclusion criterias are all LBWI who were delivered in those hospital or were a referred neonates. The exclusion criterias are major congenital defect, which is not related to congenital CMV infection and neonates’ death before one week of life. Every neonate was examine both their physical and peripher blood count, glucose, Ca. Liver function test done for neonates with acute hepatitis and titre IgG and IgM CMV serial, head ultrasound serial and head CT scan/MRI used for babies with intracranial bleeding and hydrocephaly.  During the period of this study there were 50 cases of LBWI, consisted of 41 preterm babies, and 30 small for gestational age babies. Clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis were found in 20% subjects, all of them with the  elevation of liver function test. Microcephaly which occured in the first untill three weeks of life were 8%. Ventricular dilatation were 10% in the first week of life and increased up to 48% after three weeks. Cases with intracranial haemorrhage were found in 6% and 10% with cerebral calcification on head while sensorineural hearing loss were 8%. All of LBWI have 100% serorespon immune IgG. IgM CMV

  14. Does Extremely Low Birth Weight Predispose to Low-Renin Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Claessens, Jolien; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte; Levtchenko, Elena; Pauwels, Steven; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Allegaert, Karel; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-03-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are risk factors for hypertension in adulthood. Few studies in preterm or full-term born children reported on plasma renin activity (PRA). We tested the hypothesis that renin might modulate the incidence of hypertension associated with prematurity. We enrolled 93 prematurely born children with birth weight hypertension associated with extreme low birth weight were 6.43 (2.52-16.4; P hypertension, but does not affect the inverse association between PRA and BP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02147457. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The maternal periodontal disease as a risk factor of prematurity and low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Dulanto Vargas, Julissa; García Linares, Sixto; Docente del Dpto. Académico Médico Quirúrgico Facultad de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Carranza Samanez, Maynor

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the maternal periodontal disease (EP) and the premature delivery (PP) and the low birth weight (BP). The study was a case-control study with 69 mothers, 19 cases (mothers of newborns with premature deliveries and low birth weight (PPBP)), and 50 controls (mothers of babies with gestational age > 37 weeks and birth weight > 2500g) at the “Madre Niño San Bartolomé” Teaching Hospital. The mothers were interrogated and thei...

  16. Low Birth Weight as The Risk factor of Coronary Heart Diseases

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    Joko Wahyu Wibowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight, a nutritional deficiency is related to the increased in the coronary heart disease insidence. Low birth weight is correlated with the hipotalamus-pituitary-adrenal responsible for the the concentration of cortisol in sirculation, increased in homosistein, insuline resistence and increased C reactive protein playing role on the aterosclerosis process predispose the corronary disease. This paper will discuss the relationship between the low birth weight and the ateroclesoris process leading to coronary heart disesase (Sains Medika, 3(2:185-200.

  17. Preterm birth and low birth weight continue to increase the risk of asthma from age 7 to 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Melanie C; D Olhaberriague, Ana López-Polín; Burgess, John A; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John L; Johns, David P; Abramson, Michael J; Walters, E Haydn; Dharmage, Shyamali C

    2017-08-01

    Perinatal events can influence the development of asthma in childhood but current evidence is contradictory concerning the effects on life-time asthma risk. To assess the relationship between birth characteristics and asthma from childhood to adulthood. All available birth records for the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort, born in 1961 were obtained from the Tasmanian State Archives and Tasmanian hospitals. Low birth weight (LBW) was defined as less than 2500 grams. Preterm birth was defined as delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as a birth weight below the 10 th percentile for a given gestational age. Multivariate logistic and cox regression were used to examine associations between birth characteristics and lifetime risk of current and incident asthma, adjusting for confounders. The prevalence of LBW was 5.2%, SGA was 13.8% and preterm was 3.3%. LBW (OR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.12,2.44) and preterm birth (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 0.99, 3.31) were both associated with an increased risk of current asthma between the ages of 7 to 43 years. There was no association between SGA and current asthma risk. However, SGA was associated with incident asthma (HR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.00, 1.74), and there was an interaction with sex (p value = 0.08), with males having a greater risk of incident asthma (HR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.16-2.49) than females (HR = 1.04, 95%CI 0.70-1.54). Preterm birth and LBW were associated with an increased risk of current asthma into middle-age. These findings are the first to demonstrate the continuing impact of these characteristics on asthma risk into middle-age.

  18. A season-of-birth/DRD4 interaction predicts maximal body mass index in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Robert D; Kaplan, Allan S; Davis, Caroline; Lam, Raymond W; Kennedy, James L

    2010-07-01

    We have earlier reported that season of birth interacts with the hypofunctional 7-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4) to promote weight gain and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). This study examined whether this gene-environment interaction influences body weight regulation in women with bulimia nervosa (BN). In 188 female probands with BN, we performed an analysis of covariance predicting maximum lifetime body mass index (BMI) using season-of-birth, DRD4 genotype (7R present/absent), and past history of anorexia nervosa (yes/no) as independent variables, and age at maximum weight as the co-variate. Consistent with our SAD study, the birth-season x DRD4 interaction was a significant predictor of maximal BMI. Although in SAD, the spring-birth/7R+ group had markedly elevated maximal BMIs and high rates of obesity, in this BN sample, the fall-birth/7R+ group exhibited the highest BMI values (N=17: mean maximal BMI=28.2 kg/m(2) (SE 0.9) vs 25.2 kg/ m(2) (SE 0.3) for all other probands combined (N=171); p=0.002). The lifetime rate of obesity (BMI>30) was also higher in the fall-birth/7R+ vs 'other' group (29.9 vs 8.8%, respectively, p=0.008). These data offer further evidence that season of birth interacts with the 7R allele of DRD4 to influence body weight regulation in female overeating populations.

  19. The paternal component of the "healthy migrant" effect: fathers' natality and infants' low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lane, Sandra D; Hall, Meghan; Tso, Evaline; Pinto, Natasha; Oberoi, Navpriya; Suk, William; Badawy, Zaki; Wojtowycz, Martha A; Aubry, Richard

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the predictors of birth outcomes among women of European and African ancestry and considers the birthplace of the babies' fathers (foreign born vs. native born) as a protective factor. This is a secondary data analysis of 146,431 singleton births among women of European and African ancestry, both native-born and foreign-born, in a 21 birth hospital region of Central New York State from 1996 to 2003. Foreign born fathers were found to have 15% fewer low birth weight infants than US-born fathers, after controlling for the race and birthplace of the mother, tobacco use and Medicaid. Although this secondary data analysis does not allow us to determine the social determinants of the better birth outcomes among infants of foreign born fathers, it does demonstrate that fathers matter and that foreign born fathers are associated with reduced low birth weight in their infants.

  20. Aquatic Activities During Pregnancy Prevent Excessive Maternal Weight Gain and Preserve Birth Weight: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F; Perales, Maria; Refoyo, Ignacio; Barakat, Ruben

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. A randomized clinical trial. Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG). The intervention program consisted of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic and resistance aquatic activities from weeks 10 to 12 until weeks 38 to 39 of gestation. Maternal weight gain, birth weight, and other maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained by hospital records. Student unpaired t test and χ 2 test were used; P values ≤.05 indicated statistical significance. Cohen's d was used to determinate the effect size. There was a higher percentage of women with excessive maternal weight gain in the CG (45.2%; n = 28) than in the EG (24.5%; n = 12; odds ratio = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.89; P = .02). Birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes showed no differences between groups. Three weekly sessions of water activities throughout pregnancy prevents excessive maternal weight gain and preserves birth weight. The clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT 02602106.

  1. Residence in coal-mining areas and low-birth-weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Melissa; Mullett, Martha; Mackay, Katherine; Hamilton, Candice

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between residence in coal mining environments and low birth weight. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of the association between low birth weight and mother's residence in coal mining areas in West Virginia. Birth data were obtained from the West Virginia Birthscore Dataset, 2005-2007 (n = 42,770). Data on coal mining were from the US Department of Energy. Covariates regarding mothers' demographics, behaviors, and insurance coverage were included. We used nested logistic regression (SUDAAN Proc Multilog) to conduct the study. Mothers who were older, unmarried, less educated, smoked, did not receive prenatal care, were on Medicaid, and had recorded medical risks had a greater risk of low birth weight. After controlling for covariates, residence in coal mining areas of West Virginia posed an independent risk of low birth weight. Odds ratios for both unadjusted and adjusted findings suggest a dose-response effect. Adjusted findings show that living in areas with high levels of coal mining elevates the odds of a low-birth-weight infant by 16%, and by 14% in areas with lower mining levels, relative to counties with no coal mining. After covariate adjustment, the persistence of a mining effect on low-birth-weight outcomes suggests an environmental effect resulting from pollution from mining activities. Air and water quality assessments have been largely missing from mining communities, but the need for them is indicated by these findings.

  2. A STUDY OF MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH WEIGHT IN A BORDER DISTRICT OF UTTAR PRADESH

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    Suneel Kumar Kaushal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight is defined as the live births with less than 2.5 kg weight. LBW is one of the serious challenges in maternal and child health in both developed and developing countries. Objective: (1 To study the proportion of low birth weight neonates among hospital based deliveries. (2 To evaluate selected maternal factors associated with low birth weight in institutionally delivered newborn. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in S.N. Hospital, Agra from 1st September, 2007 to 31st August, 2009 from medical record section of Obstetrics & Gynaecology department. Mode of delivery, birth weight and sex of baby, age of mother, parity, gestational period were taken as variables. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test was applied to observe the significance of association. Results: Proportion of LBW was found to be 38% and was higher in teenage pregnancy, in Muslim females, in high parity and among newborn females. Conclusion: Relationship of birth weight with sex of new born, birth order of new born, mode of delivery, gestational period and with parity of mother was found to be significant..

  3. Birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity in discordant twins in China

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    Zong-Hua Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To assess the relative effect of birth weight and gestational age on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP using preterm twin pairs discordant for birth weigh in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in China.METHODS: Fifty-six discordant twin pairs of 112 preterm infants were retrospectively analyzed. The twin pairs were divided into two subgroups based on birth weight in each pair. The occurrence of ROP and severe ROP requiring treatment were compared between the lower birth weight infants and their co-twins with the higher birth weight. Some neonatal morbidities related to prematurity and neonatal characteristics were also compared between the twin pairs.RESULTS: Based on the univariate analysis, gestational age and birth weight were significantly associated with the occurrence and progression of ROP. But no significant differences in ROP between larger and smaller infants were observed in the twin-paired analysis. The incidence of neonatal morbidities regarding respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH, sepsis and neonatal characteristics regarding gender distribution, one- and five-minute Apgar score, postnatal steroid treatment, blood transfusion, supplemental oxygen therapy, and mechanical ventilation were not different between the twins. However, gestational age of ≤28wk was significantly associated with significantly higher rates of ROP and severe ROP.CONCLUSION: Gestational age is a better predictor of ROP than birth weight in the twin-paired study.

  4. Vaccine schedule compliance among very low birth weight infants in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Theresa J; Zea-Vera, Alonso; Bautista, Rossana; Davila, Carmen; Salazar, José Antonio; Bazán, Carlos; López, Luis; Ecker, Lucie

    2015-01-03

    There is little information about vaccine schedule compliance in very-low-birth-weight infants in developing countries. The aim of the study was to describe the compliance with the vaccine schedule among this population in Lima, Peru. We conducted a prospective cohort study in four hospitals in Lima in infants with a birth-weight of less than 1500 g, followed from birth up to 12 months of age every 2 weeks. The date and age at administration of each vaccine was recorded 222 infants were enrolled. The median birth-weight was 1250 g (range 550-1499 g) and the median gestational age was 30.0 weeks (range 23-37 weeks). The mean age for the first pentavalent (DPT, Hib, HepB) and oral polio vaccine administration was 4.3 ± 1.4 months in infants with a birth-weight of vaccine. Only 35% had received the three doses of oral polio and pentavalent vaccine by seven months, although by nine months 81% had received these vaccines. Vaccination of very-low-birth-weight infants in Peru is significantly delayed, especially in infants with a birth-weight of vaccination rates and timing in these high risk populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Are there differences in birth weight between neighbourhoods in a Nordic welfare state?

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    Bremberg Sven

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this cohort study was to examine the effect on birth weight of living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in a Nordic welfare state. Birth weight is a health indicator known to be sensitive to political and welfare state conditions. No former studies on urban neighbourhood differences regarding mean birth weight have been carried out in a Nordic country. Methods A register based on individual data on children's birth weight and maternal risk factors was used. A neighbourhood characteristic, i.e. an aggregated measure on income was also included. Connections between individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants and the outcome were analysed using multi-level regression technique. The study covered six hundred and ninety-six neighbourhoods in the three major cities of Sweden, Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, during 1992–2001. The majority of neighbourhoods had a population of 4 000–10 000 inhabitants. An average of 500 births per neighbourhood were analysed in this study. Results Differences in mean birth weight in Swedish urban neighbourhoods were minor. However, gestational length, parity and maternal smoking acted as modifiers of the neighbourhood effects. Most of the observed variation in mean birth weight was explained by individual risk factors. Conclusion Welfare institutions and benefits in Sweden might buffer against negative infant outcomes due to adverse structural organisation of urban neighbourhoods.

  6. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

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    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  7. High Birth Weight Is a Risk Factor of Dental Caries Increment during Adolescence in Sweden

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    Annika Julihn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess whether birth weight is associated with dental caries during the teenage period. In this register-based cohort study, all children of 13 years of age (n = 18,142 who resided in the county of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, were included. The cohort was followed until individuals were 19 years of age. Information regarding dental caries was collected from the Public Health Care Administration in Stockholm. Data concerning prenatal and perinatal factors and parental socio-demographic determinants were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and National Registers at Statistics Sweden. The final logistic regression model showed that birth weight ≥4000 g, adjusted for potential confounders, was significantly associated with caries increment (DMFT ≥ 1 (D = decayed, M = missing, F = filled, T = teeth between 13 and 19 age (OR, 1.22; 95% CI = 1.09–1.36. The relatively enhanced risk OR was further increased from 1.22 to 1.43 in subjects with birth weight ≥4600 g. On the contrary, subjects with birth weight <2500 g exhibited a significantly lower risk (OR, 0.67; 95% CI = 0.50–0.89 for exhibiting caries experience (DMFT ≥ 4 at 19 years of age. In conclusion, high birth weight can be regarded as a predictor for dental caries, and especially, birth weight ≥4500 g is a risk factor for caries increment during adolescence.

  8. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: We used data from >200 000 mother-child pairs enrolled in 13 European birth cohorts and compared employed versus non-employed women. Among employees, we defined groups of occupations representing the main sectors of employment for women where potential reproductive hazards are considered...... (ORadj) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81-0.91]. Working in most of the occupational sectors studied was not associated with adverse birth outcomes. Being employed as a nurse was associated with lower risk SGA infants (ORadj 0.91, 95% CI 0.84-0.99) whereas food industry workers had an increased...... risk of preterm delivery (ORadj 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-2.02). There was little evidence for heterogeneity between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that, overall, employment during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in the risk of preterm birth and that work in certain occupations may affect...

  9. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  10. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  11. A study of birth weight of full term neonates and its′ determinants

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    Yugantara R Kadam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is highly prevalent in India and has a multifactorial causation. There is a need to study and identify the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors determining birth weight. This will help in planning ante natal care more effectively. Materials and Methods : Study-type-cross-sectional study-setting: Hospital based. Study-subject: Mothers and their new borns. Sample size: All the births taken place during the study period. Study period: July 2010-June 2011. Study tools : (0 i Questionnaire. (ii pediatric weighing machine. Inclusion criteria : m0 others attending ante natal care (ANC clinic from 1 st trimester with minimum three antenatal visits, non-anemic at the end of 2 nd trimester, had full-term and singleton delivery. Exclusion criteria : H/O pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, diabetes mellieutus (DM, tuberculosis (TB, urinary tract infection (UTI, delivered preterm and tobacco chewers or mishri users. Statistical Analysis : Percentages, mean and SD of birth weight, χ2 test, ANOVA, Z-test, and Binary logistic. Results: By using birth weight as a continuous data it was observed that birth-weight was significantly associated with maternal age (F = 3.360, df = 2, P = 0.035, education (F = 4.401, df = 4, P = 0.002 and breakfast (z = 3.970, P = 0.00. Proportion of LBW was 42.4%. For analysis, groups of newborns on the basis of birth weight showed significant association between LBW and maternal education (χ2 = 12.734, df = 4, P = 0.013, breakfast (χ2 = 13.241, df = 1, P = 0.00 and evening snacks (χ2 = 4.275, df = 1, P = 0.013. According to the binary logistic regression, breakfast and education were significant and best predictors for birth weight. Conclusion: Education and breakfast are strong determinants of birth-weight. Less educated women need more intense health education.

  12. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW) BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC) TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Purnendu Kumar Singh; Kumar Amritanshu; Bijoy Mukherjee

    2014-01-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW) babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along ...

  13. Birth weight; postnatal, infant, and childhood growth; and obesity in young adulthood: evidence from the Barry Caerphilly Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Anne; Hughes, Rachael; Tilling, Kate; Davies, David; Smith, George Davey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2007-10-01

    Birth weight has been shown to be positively associated with adult obesity, but relatively few studies have examined the associations with growth in specific periods of early childhood. The objective was to assess the association of measures of growth between birth and 5 y of age with adult measures of adiposity. We conducted a longitudinal study of young adults from Barry and Caerphilly, United Kingdom, who had previously taken part between 1972 and 1974 in a randomized controlled trial of milk supplementation. We reexamined 679 men and women (72% of the target population) to measure body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), waist-to-hip ratio, sagittal abdominal diameter, and waist circumference. An increase in weight velocity from 1 y and 9 mo to 5 y of age was the most important predictor of BMI, waist circumference, and sagittal abdominal diameter. A z-score increase in weight gain in this period was associated with an increase in BMI of 1.13 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.57; P Birth weight does not predict adiposity on the basis of weight gain in childhood. The association between adult adiposity and weight gain in different periods is variable and depends on the measure of adiposity that is used. It remains unclear whether early childhood is the optimum period in the life course for the primary prevention of adult adiposity.

  14. Prevalence and pathogen distribution of neonatal sepsis among very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Ho; Lien, Reyin; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chiang, Ming-Chou; Fu, Ren-Huei; Chu, Shih-Ming; Hsu, Jen-Fu; Yang, Peng-Hong

    2012-08-01

    Neonatal sepsis contributes to great mortality and morbidity among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Prevalence and pathogen distribution of sepsis in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) vary with time and geographic location. Such information serves as a guide for selection of empirical antibiotics coverage. This is a case series study performed by retrospective chart review of VLBW infants (birth body weight, BBW, <1500 g) in a medical center during a 5-year period from January 2005 to December 2009. Episodes of positive blood cultures, pathogen distribution and related clinical manifestations were described. A total of 158 episodes of sepsis were identified from 1042 VLBW infants. Sepsis rate was 152 per 1000 live births. The vast majority of infections (60.7%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms [G(+)], and overall Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) (52.5%) were the most common pathogen identified. Prevalence for early-onset sepsis (EOS) was 1% and for late-onset sepsis (LOS) was 14.2%. Infants with EOS had a much higher case fatality rate than LOS (40% vs. 4.7%). Escherichia coli (40%) were the leading pathogen of EOS while CoNS (54.7%) was the leading pathogens of LOS. Overall, apnea and/or bradycardia and/or cyanosis (65.8%), poor activity (48.7%), and increased respiratory effort (43.0%) were the most common presenting features of sepsis. Unlike term infants, Gram-negative organism and E coli were the leading pathogen of EOS among VLBW infants. Judicious and timely use of antibiotic therapy is crucial in the care of VLBW infants. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Maternal Depression During Pregnancy is Associated with Increased Birth Weight in Term Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund-Flores, L; Myers, MM; Monk, C; Perez, A; Odendaal, HA; Fifer, WP

    2017-01-01

    Previous research of maternal depression during pregnancy suggests an association with low birth weight in newborns. Review of these studies reveals predominant comorbidity with premature birth. This current study examines antenatal depression and birth weight in term, medically low-risk pregnancies. Maternal physiological and demographic measures were collected as well. In total, 227 pregnant women were recruited to participate in four experimental protocols at Columbia University Medical Center. Results indicate that depressed pregnant women who carry to term had significantly higher heart rates, lower heart rate variability, and gave birth to heavier babies than those of pregnant women who were not depressed. Low income participants had significantly higher levels of depression, as well as significantly higher heart rates and lower heart rate variability, than those in higher income groups. In full-term infants, maternal prenatal depression appears to promote higher birth weight, with elevated maternal heart rate as a likely mediating mechanism. PMID:28323349

  16. Low-birth-weight babies among hospital deliveries in Nepal: a hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koirala AK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Arun K Koirala,1 Dharma N Bhatta2,3 1Administrative Department, Helping Hands Community Hospital, Chabahil, Kathmandu, 2Department of Public Health, Nobel College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal; 3Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand Background: Birth weight is an important indicator of a population’s health and is associated with numerous interrelated factors in the infant, mother, and physical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of low birth weight and identify the associated factors for low birth weight in a liveborn infant among the women in Morang, Nepal.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from December 2010 to March 2011 among 255 mothers who gave birth during the study period at the Koshi Zonal Hospital, Nepal. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed through logistic regression and presented with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: The study showed that the prevalence of low-birth-weight babies was 23.1% (95% CI: 17.9–28.1. The mean (standard deviation age of mothers was 23.23 (4.18 years. The proportion of low birth weight of previous baby was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.1–7.9, and 15.7% (95% CI: 11.5–20.5 of the respondents had preterm delivery. Nearly one-third (36.1%; 95% CI: 26.4–45.6 of the respondents had >2 years’ gap after the previous delivery. Nonformal employment (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 0.523–8.74, vegetarian diet (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.23–9.36, and no rest during pregnancy (AOR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.41–4.39 were factors more likely to determine low birth weight. However, none of the variables showed a significant association between low birth weight and other dependent variables.Conclusion: Low birth weight is an important factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality and is a common problem in the developing world. The

  17. Accuracy of body weight perception and obesity among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Fu, Mei R; Hu, Sophia H; Wang, Vincent Y; Crupi, Robert; Qiu, Jeanna M; Cleland, Chuck; D'Eramo Melkus, Gail

    2016-09-01

    Accuracy of body weight perception is an individual's perception of their body weight in comparison with actual body weight and is associated with weight-related behaviors. Chinese Americans have increased risk for obesity but no studies have examined accuracy of body weight perception. This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, which was conducted in a community health center in New York. Study subjects were all Chinese-American adults. Demographic information, accuracy of perception of body weight, anthropometric measures (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], hip circumference [HC], weight to height ratio, weight to hip ratio), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and obesity-related diseases (hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke) were assessed. A total of 162 Chinese Americans were recruited. 52 subjects (32%) did not perceive body weight correctly: 32 subjects had underestimation and 20 subjects had overestimation of body weight. Significant differences were found among subjects in the three groups of different accuracy of body weight perception in terms of gender (p=0.003), age (p=0.003), education years (p=0.047), WC (pobesity management in Chinese Americans should address gender difference, target on older subjects, and focus on educating the normal values and significances of WC, HC and HbA1C among Chinese Americans. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Body mass index and weight distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengelly, C D R; Morris, J

    2009-08-01

    It has been accepted for many years that being overweight or obese, as indicated by a body mass index (BMI) of 25 or over for the former and 30 or over for the latter, is associated with impairment of long term health and prognosis. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has indicated that, in Caucasians, waist measurements of 94 cm or more in men, and 80 cm or more in women have similar adverse effects on health, with increased risks at 102 cm or more in men and 88 cm in women. The role of waist-hip ratio (W/H) and whether it represents a better index than waist (W) measurement alone is being debated; many papers favour waist measurement alone. But two papers in 2005 discussing 27,098 subjects, 12,461 of whom had myocardial infarction and 14,637 controls, come down firmly in favour of W/H and were followed by a Lancet Editorial entitled 'Farewell to Body Mass Index?' Life assurance companies at medical examination usually request height and weight measurements (and therefore BMI). Most ask for waist measurements and a few hip measurements in addition (and therefore W/H). The authors have reviewed the data in 816 consecutive subjects for life assurance examination in whom BMIs, Ws and W/Hs were all recorded. In these the evidence supports the use of W as the best indicator of risk in men (634 cases), but not in the relatively small number of women (182 cases) in whom H appeared better. We believe that BMI, W and W/H should be recorded in every subject at life assurance examination so that the insurance companies in the long term will be able to reach valid conclusions about their individual and collective value.

  19. Adjustment factors of birth weight and four postnatal weights for type of birth and rearing, sex of lambs and dam age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subandriyo

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Many factors contribute to variation in lamb weights. Factors such as age of lamb, sex, type of birth and rearing, and ewe age at lambing obscure genetic differences among lambs. Variation associated with these factors make selection for increased weight less effective. To improve selection response, selection must be based on genotypic rather than environmentally induced superiority. It is well-documented that corrections for classifiable sources of variation render selection and culling more accurate, thereby increasing rates of genetic improvement. The objective of this study were to develop within breed adjustment factors for post-natal lamb weights . Field records from Suffolk and Dorset lambs collected in the U.S . National Sheep Improvement Program (NSIP from 1986 through 1989 were used to develop within-breed birth/rearing type, lamb sex, and dam age adjustment factors for birth weight (BW and 30-d (W3o, 60-d (Woo, 90-d (W9o, and 120-4 (Wtm weights. Data were analyzed using general linear models. Within breed and age group adjustment for lamb-age differences were suggested because growth rates vary among breeds and among the four postnatal lamb-age groups . Within-breed multiplicative adjustment of the five traits for the effects of birth/rearing type, lamb sex and dam age were suggested because variances of these factors were significantly (P<0.01 heterogenous.

  20. Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros C. Rosal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p<0.016. Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8–6.5 and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3–9.0 women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8–8.8. GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p<0.001. Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed.

  1. Divergence of estimated fetal weight and birth weight in singleton fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadis, Alexandros; Eleftheriades, Makarios; Papadopoulos, Vassileios; Sarafidis, Kosmas; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate differences in distribution of estimated fetal weight (EFW) and birth weight (BW) of ongoing fetuses and neonates of the same gestational age. Reference curves for EFW (Hadlock BPD-HC-AC-FL formula, N = 1191) and BW (N = 1036) in singleton pregnancies from 24 +0 to 40 +6 gestational weeks were calculated. Multiple pregnancies, fetuses with major or multiple abnormalities or syndromes and iatrogenic preterm deliveries due to preeclampsia or abnormal fetal Doppler were excluded. The standardized residuals for EFW and BW were calculated and compared. EFW and BW can be accurately described by quadratic equations (R 2  = 0.944 and 0.807, respectively). The distribution of standardized residuals for BW using the EFW formula was negative from 28 +0 to 35 +6 weeks. The 50th and 5th centiles of BW were lower than those of EFW throughout prematurity, and they converged at approximately 38 gestational weeks. The 5th centile for BW was 30% lower than the 5th centile for EFW at 27 weeks, 27.5% lower at 30 weeks and 19.4% at 34 weeks. Preterm infants have lower BW distribution compared to the expected EFW of ongoing pregnancies of the same gestational age, supporting the concept of hidden intrauterine morbidity for a proportion of these infants.

  2. Relationship between birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood and adolescent lung function: A path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balte, Pallavi; Karmaus, Wilfried; Roberts, Graham; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh; Mitchell, Frances; Arshad, Hasan

    2016-12-01

    Low birth weight and gestational maternal smoking have been linked with reduced lung function in children in many cross sectional studies. However, these associations have not yet been assessed with repeated measurements of lung function. Our aim was to investigate the effects of birth weight, gestational age, and gestational maternal smoking on lung function in children at age 10 and 18 years. In the Isle of Wight birth cohort spirometry was performed at age 10 and 18 years. Information on birth weight and gestational age were obtained from hospital records. Mothers were asked about smoking during pregnancy. We employed linear mixed models to estimate the effect of these risk factors on repeated measurements of lung function. We considered maternal asthma, sex, neonatal intensive care unit admission, height, socio-economic status, personal smoking in participants at age 18, body mass index and environmental tobacco smoke exposure as potential confounders. Finally, we used path analysis to determine links between birth weight, gestational age and gestational maternal smoking on lung function at age 10 and 18 years. Linear mixed models showed that with every 1 kg increase in birth weight, Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) increased by 42.6 ± 17.2 mL and Forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% (FEF 25-75 ) of Forced vital capacity (FVC) increased by 95.5 ± 41.2 mL at age 18 years after adjusting for potential confounders. Path analysis suggested that birth weight had positive direct effects on FEV 1 and FEF 25-75 and positive indirect effect on FVC at 10 years which were carried forward to 18 years. Additionally, results also suggested a positive association between gestational age and FEV 1 , FVC and FEF 25-75  at ages 10 and 18 years and an inverse association between gestational smoke exposure and FEV 1 /FVC ratio and FEF 25-75  at age 18 years. Higher birth weight and gestational age were associated with higher FEV 1 , FVC and FEF 25

  3. Ambient air pollution exposure and full-term birth weight in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadd James L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified relationships between air pollution and birth weight, but have been inconsistent in identifying individual pollutants inversely associated with birth weight or elucidating susceptibility of the fetus by trimester of exposure. We examined effects of prenatal ambient pollution exposure on average birth weight and risk of low birth weight in full-term births. Methods We estimated average ambient air pollutant concentrations throughout pregnancy in the neighborhoods of women who delivered term singleton live births between 1996 and 2006 in California. We adjusted effect estimates of air pollutants on birth weight for infant characteristics, maternal characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and year and season of birth. Results 3,545,177 singleton births had monitoring for at least one air pollutant within a 10 km radius of the tract or ZIP Code of the mother's residence. In multivariate models, pollutants were associated with decreased birth weight; -5.4 grams (95% confidence interval -6.8 g, -4.1 g per ppm carbon monoxide, -9.0 g (-9.6 g, -8.4 g per pphm nitrogen dioxide, -5.7 g (-6.6 g, -4.9 g per pphm ozone, -7.7 g (-7.9 g, -6.6 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 10 μm, -12.8 g (-14.3 g, -11.3 g per 10 μg/m3 particulate matter under 2.5 μm, and -9.3 g (-10.7 g, -7.9 g per 10 μg/m3 of coarse particulate matter. With the exception of carbon monoxide, estimates were largely unchanged after controlling for co-pollutants. Effect estimates for the third trimester largely reflect the results seen from full pregnancy exposure estimates; greater variation in results is seen in effect estimates specific to the first and second trimesters. Conclusions This study indicates that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution results in modestly lower infant birth weight. A small decline in birth weight is unlikely to have clinical relevance for individual infants, and there is debate about whether

  4. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  5. Is dietary macronutrient composition during pregnancy associated with offspring birth weight? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sukshma S; Greenwood, Darren C; Simpson, Nigel A B; Cade, Janet E

    2018-02-01

    There is lack of evidence on the differential impact of maternal macronutrient consumption: carbohydrates (CHO), fats and protein on birth weight. We investigated the association between maternal dietary macronutrient intakes and their sub-components such as saccharides and fatty acids and birth weight. This analyses included 1,196 women with singleton pregnancies who were part of the CAffeine and REproductive health study in Leeds, UK between 2003 and 2006. Women were interviewed in each trimester. Dietary information was collected twice using a 24-h dietary recall about 8-12 weeks and 13-27 weeks of gestation. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for alcohol and smoking in trimester 1, showed that each additional 10 g/d CHO consumption was associated with an increase of 4 g (95 % CI 1, 7; P=0·003) in birth weight. Conversely, an additional 10 g/d fat intake was associated with a lower birth weight of 8 g (95 % CI 0, 16; P=0·04) when we accounted for energy contributing macronutrients in each model, and maternal height, weight, parity, ethnicity, gestational age at delivery and sex of the baby. There was no evidence of an association between protein intake and birth weight. Maternal diet in trimester 2 suggested that higher intakes of glucose (10 g/d) and lactose (1 g/d) were both associated with higher birth weight of 52 g (95 % CI 4, 100; P=0·03) and 5 g (95 % CI 2, 7; P<0·001) respectively. These results show that dietary macronutrient composition during pregnancy is associated with birth weight outcomes. An appropriately balanced intake of dietary CHO and fat during pregnancy could support optimum birth weight.

  6. Birth weight effects on children's mental, motor, and physical development: evidence from twins data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Jacknowitz, Alison

    2009-11-01

    To determine the effect of very low birth weight (VLBW; motor development and physical growth during the first 2 years of life and whether VLBW and MLBW babies catch up to normal birth weight (NBW; > or =2500 g) children by age 2. We use data on dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twins and singleton births from the first two waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative dataset of children born in the US in 2001. We estimate the effects of VLBW and MLBW on children's mental and motor development scores, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height, and length-for-age z-scores at 9 months and 2 years. We examine whether differences in outcomes within twin pairs are related to differences in their birth weights. The within-twins analysis is conducted on samples of DZ and MZ twins. For comparison, we also estimate birth weight effects on child outcomes from multivariate linear regression models using the full singleton and twins' sample. We also estimate the effect of being small-for-gestational age (SGA; birth weight development, motor development, and growth at 9 months and 2 years of age. However, results from within-twin models with DZ twins that control for shared maternal and environmental factors showed much less effect of birth weight on mental or motor development, but continued large effects on growth for the VLBW group. Within-twin models with MZ twins that control for shared maternal, environmental, and genetic factors showed statistically insignificant effects of birth weight on mental and motor development, but continued effects on growth. Similar patterns were found when examining the effects of SGA. After controlling for the influence of maternal, environmental, and genetic factors, low birth weight has at most a small negative effect on children's mental and motor development in their first 2 years of life. However, low birth weight is a major risk factor for children's physical growth in

  7. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight on risk of urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas J; Litman, Heather J; Tennstedt, Sharon L; Link, Carol L; McKinlay, John B

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship between symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) and mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight, data were obtained from a population-based random sample of 3,205 black, Hispanic, and white women age 30-79 in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Measures include UI symptoms [>or=3 (moderate/severe) Sandvik's severity index]; reproductive history [live birth(s), no live births, never pregnant]; mode of delivery for live births (>or=1 vaginal birth, cesarean delivery only); parity (1, 2, >or=3); and maximum birth weight of live births (or=4,000 g). Using logistic regression, women having >or=1 vaginal delivery had twice the odds of UI compared to women with no pregnancies (P = 0.002) or only cesarean deliveries (P = 0.032). There was no difference in odds of UI between cesarean delivery only and never pregnant, by parity or birth weight. Vaginal delivery contributes to risk of UI for black, Hispanic, and white women.

  9. Body after baby: a pilot survey of genital body image and sexual esteem following vaginal birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski R

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Zielinski,1 Lisa Kane Low,1–3 Abigail R Smith,4 Janis M Miller1,3 1Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Women’s Studies, College of Literature, Science and the Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to determine acceptability of the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE scale for women post childbirth and explore the association between childbirth events and sexual/body esteem.Design: This is a cross-sectional study within the Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery study.Setting: This study was conducted in a community setting.Population: The study was conducted in women post first vaginal birth with birth events that posed risk factors for levator ani muscle tears.Methods: Survey, magnetic resonance images of levator ani, and physical examination were the data collected 8 months postpartum. Birth variables were collected by hospital chart review. Descriptive analysis of VSBE response rates and distribution of responses was conducted. An exploratory analysis of the potential association of demographic, birth, clinical, and magnetic resonance image characteristics with VSBE scores was conducted.Main outcome measures: The outcome measure used in this study is VSBE scale.Results: The majority of participants (97% completed the scale, with responses to most questions skewed toward positive sexual/body esteem, with the exception of sexual enjoyment, where 38% indicated some interference due to genital changes. The scale showed high internal consistency (alpha =0.93. In the exploratory analysis of potential characteristics associated with VSBE, women with episiotomies had lower sexual/body esteem compared to those who did not (median

  10. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  11. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  12. Is low back pain in youth associated with weight at birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2003-01-01

    they are still largely unaffected by the influence of working life. Possible associations between low back pain, birth weight, birth length, ponderal index, gestational age and Apgar scores are investigated by the use of logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The odds ratio for the lifetime prevalence of low...

  13. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  14. Patterns of Birth Weight at a Community Level in Southwest Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight data are not routinely measured and recorded in Ethiopia and most of the analysis were based on births occurred in health institutions but such analysis lack representativeness as most deliveries are occurring at home. To fill this gap and issues related to representativeness a community based ...

  15. Changes in haemoglobin levels in infants in Malawi: effect of low birth weight and fetal anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Cessie, S.; Verhoeff, F. H.; Mengistie, G.; Kazembe, P.; Broadhead, R.; Brabin, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effect of low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) on haemoglobin (Hb) patterns in infancy. To study the additional contribution of other risk factors known at birth. To examine the effect of iron supplementation during infancy on Hb levels. Methods: A stratified

  16. Lower Birth Weight and Diet in Taiwanese Girls More than Boys Predicts Learning Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Huang, Lin-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Hung; Huang, Susana Tzy-Ying; Yu, Hsiao-Li; Wahlqvist, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Possible links between lower birth weight, childhood diet, and learning in Taiwan are evaluated. The population representative Elementary School Children's Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 2001-2002 and the national birth registry were used to examine school and social performance using the modified Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance…

  17. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To

  18. Genetic Evidence for Causal Relationships Between Maternal Obesity-Related Traits and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Richmond, Rebecca C; Palmer, Tom M

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Neonates born to overweight or obese women are larger and at higher risk of birth complications. Many maternal obesity-related traits are observationally associated with birth weight, but the causal nature of these associations is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To test for genetic evidence of ...

  19. Associations between fetal HLA-G genotype and birth weight and placental weight in a large cohort of pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmery, Johanne; Christiansen, Ole B; Nilsson, Line Lynge

    2017-01-01

    HLA/MHC class Ib gene, HLA-G, is strongly expressed on extravillous trophoblast cells. We investigated birth weight and placental weight of the newborns in mothers heterozygous for an HLA-G 14bp insertion (Ins)/deletion (Del) gene polymorphism. Separate analyses for pregnancies without preeclampsia (n...... is also associated with high expression of HLA-G on the trophoblast membrane. In theory, fetuses and newborns with intermediate weights and sizes would be an optimal compromise for both the fetus/father and the mother compared with very high and low weights. If such fetuses/newborns more often...... are heterozygous at the HLA-G gene locus, then newborns with two distinct HLA haplotypes are favored, leading to a higher degree of HLA diversity. The results of the study may indicate that a compromise between an intermediate birth weight and placental weight, induction of maternal tolerance by a fetal...

  20. Effects on metabolic parameters in young rats born with low birth weight after exposure to a mixture of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Ramhøj, Louise; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup

    2018-01-01

    Pesticide exposure during fetal life can lead to low birth weight and is commonly observed in reproductive toxicology studies. Associations have also been found in low birth weight babies born from pesticide-exposed gardeners. Since low birth weight is also linked to metabolic disorders, it can...

  1. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horikoshi, M.; Yaghootkar, H.; Mook-Kanamori, D.O.; Sovio, U.; Taal, H.R.; Hennig, B.J.; Bradfield, J.P.; St Pourcain, B.; Evans, D.M.; Charoen, P.; Kaakinen, M.; Cousminer, D.L.; Lehtimäki, T.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Warrington, N.M.; Bustamante, M.; Feenstra, B.; Berry, D.J.; Thiering, E.; Pfab, T.; Barton, S.J.; Shields, B.M.; Kerkhof, M.; Leeuwen, E. M.; Fulford, A.J.; Kutalik, Z.; Zhao, J.H.; van den Hoed, M.; Mahajan, A.; Lindi, V.; Goh, L.K.; Hottenga, J.J.; Wu, Y.; Raitakari, O.T.; Harder, M.N.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Ntalla, I.; Salem, R.M.; Jameson, K.A.; Zhou, K.; Monies, D.M.; Lagou, V.; Kirin, M.; Heikkinen, J.; Adair, L.S.; Alkuraya, F.S.; Al-Odaib, A.; Amouyel, P.; Andersson, E.A.; Bennett, A.J.; Blakemore, A.I.F.; Buxton, J.L.; Dallongeville, J.; Das, S.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Estivill, X.; Flexeder, C.; Froguel, P.; Geller, F.; Godfrey, K.M.; Gottrand, F.; Groves, C.J.; Hansen, T.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Hofman, A.; Hollegaard, M.V.; Hougaard, D. M.; Hyppönen, E.; Inskip, H.M.; Isaacs, A.; Jørgensen, T.; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C.; Kemp, J.P.; Kiess, W.; Kilpeläinen, T.O.; Klopp, N.; Knight, B.A.; Kuzawa, C.W.; McMahon, G.; Newnham, J.P.; Niinikoski, H.; Oostra, B.A.; Pedersen, L.; Postma, D.S.; Ring, S.M.; Rivadeneira, F.; Robertson, N.R.; Sebert, S.; Simell, O.; Slowinski, T.; Tiesler, C.M.T.; Tönjes, A.; Vaag, A.A.; Viikari, J.S.; Vink, J.M.; Vissing, N.H.; Wareham, N.J.; Willemsen, G.; Witte, D.R.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Wilson, J.F.; Stumvoll, M.; Prentice, A.M.; Meyer, B.F.; Pearson, E.R.; Boreham, C.A.; Cooper, C.; Gillman, M.W.; Dedoussis, G.V.; Moreno, L.A.; Pedersen, O.; Saarinen, M.; Mohlke, K.L.; Boomsma, D.I.; Saw, S.M.; Lakka, T.A.; Körner, A.; Loos, R.J.; Ong, K.K.; Vollenweider, P.; van Duijn, C.M.; Koppelman, G.H.; Hattersley, A.T.; Holloway, J.W.; Hocher, B.; Heinrich, J.; Power, C.; Melbye, M.; Guxens, M.; Pennell, C.E.; Bønnelykke, K.; Bisgaard, H.; Eriksson, J.G.; Widén, E.; Hakonarson, H.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Pouta, A.; Lawlor, D.A.; Smith, G.D.; Frayling, T.M.; McCarthy, M.I.; Grant, S.F.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Järvelin, M.R.; Timpson, N.J.; Prokopenko, I.; Freathy, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood. Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type 2

  2. New loci associated with birth weight identify genetic links between intrauterine growth and adult height and metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horikoshi, Momoko; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Sovio, Ulla; Taal, H. Rob; Hennig, Branwen J.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Charoen, Pimphen; Kaakinen, Marika; Cousminer, Diana L.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Warrington, Nicole M.; Bustamante, Mariona; Feenstra, Bjarke; Berry, Diane J.; Thiering, Elisabeth; Pfab, Thiemo; Barton, Sheila J.; Shields, Beverley M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; van Leeuwen, Elisa; Fulford, Anthony J.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Zhao, Jing Hua; den Hoed, Marcel; Mahajan, Anubha; Lindi, Virpi; Goh, Liang-Kee; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Wu, Ying; Raitakari, Olli T.; Harder, Marie N.; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Ntalla, Ioanna; Salem, Rany M.; Jameson, Karen A.; Zhou, Kaixin; Monies, Dorota M.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Kirin, Mirna; Heikkinen, Jani; Adair, Linda S.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Al-Odaib, Ali; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersson, Ehm Astrid; Bennett, Amanda J.; Blakemore, Alexandra I. F.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Estivill, Xavier; Flexeder, Claudia; Froguel, Philippe; Geller, Frank; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gottrand, Frederic; Groves, Christopher J.; Hansen, Torben; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hyppoenen, Elina; Inskip, Hazel M.; Isaacs, Aaron; Jorgensen, Torben; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Kemp, John P.; Kiess, Wieland; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.; Klopp, Norman; Knight, Bridget A.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McMahon, George; Newnham, John P.; Niinikoski, Harri; Oostra, Ben A.; Pedersen, Louise; Postma, Dirkje S.; Ring, Susan M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R.; Sebert, Sylvain; Simell, Olli; Slowinski, Torsten; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Toenjes, Anke; Vaag, Allan; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R.; Zhang, Haitao; Zhao, Jianhua; Wilson, James F.; Stumvoll, Michael; Prentice, Andrew M.; Meyer, Brian F.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Boreham, Colin A. G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Gillman, Matthew W.; Dedoussis, George V.; Moreno, Luis A.; Pedersen, Oluf; Saarinen, Maiju; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lakka, Timo A.; Koerner, Antje; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ong, Ken K.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Holloway, John W.; Hocher, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Power, Chris; Melbye, Mads; Guxens, Monica; Pennell, Craig E.; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans; Eriksson, Johan G.; Widen, Elisabeth; Hakonarson, Hakon; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Pouta, Anneli; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Smith, George Davey; Frayling, Timothy M.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Freathy, Rachel M.

    Birth weight within the normal range is associated with a variety of adult-onset diseases, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly understood(1). Previous genome-wide association studies of birth weight identified a variant in the ADCY5 gene associated both with birth weight and type

  3. Risk factors associated with low birth weight of neonates among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective was to determine factors associated with LBW and their contribution to the problem. Out of 648 pregnant women who were tested for HIV infection 59 (9.1%) were positive for the infection. Twelve (20.3%) of HIV positive women gave birth to LBW neonates. HIV positive women were twice more likely to give ...

  4. Retinopathy of prematurity in infants with birth weight above 1500 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypotension at birth and the non-use of surfactant were the only risk factors to be associated with disease. However, with logistic regression analysis, none of these were independently associated with ROP. Conclusion: ROP may occur in newborn infants of larger birthweight but with good prognosis, and oxygen therapy ...

  5. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: a cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital.LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g.We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 ...

  6. Maternal Programming of Body Weight in Syrian Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Jeremy M; Schneider, Jill E; Rhinehart, Erin

    2017-12-01

    Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring. Few previous studies have used a lower level of food restriction, and no experiments, to the best of our knowledge, were designed to determine whether the effects of gestational restriction have postgestational effects independent of the effects that occurred during gestation. In the present experiment, Syrian hamsters were either restricted to 90% of their ad libitum food intake or fed ad libitum during pregnancy. All litters were cross-fostered at birth and all were fed ad libitum during lactation. Half of the litters from ad libitum-fed pregnant dams were fostered to dams that had been food restricted during pregnancy and half of the litters from food-restricted pregnant dams were fostered to ad libitum-fed dams. The latter group allowed us to test the hypothesis that the effects of having a gestationally food-restricted mother affects offspring characteristics independent of the prenatal programming. First, we found significant increases in the postnatal body weight of the offspring of ad libitum-fed mothers fostered to food-restricted dams, supporting the hypothesis that the effects of gestational restriction carry over to postnatal maternal ability (e.g., milk yield, milk content, or parental behavior). Second, the carry-over effects of gestational food restriction on offspring postnatal body weight were

  7. Declines in Birth weight and Fetal Growth Independent of Gestational Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Esplin, M. Sean; Varner, Michael W.; Henry, Erick; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Objective Birth weight is decreasing in the US and elsewhere, even among term singletons, although trends in most maternal characteristics should contribute to increased birth weight. Some studies have attributed this decline to the simultaneous decrease in gestational length. Methods Using data from Intermountain Healthcare, where a successful initiative reduced the number of early term (37–38 week) elective deliveries, we examined trends in birth weight, small-for-gestational-age (SGA), and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) among 219,694 singleton infants born July 2000 to December 2008 at 37–41 weeks gestation. Results Over the 8.5 years, births through scheduled deliveries at 37–38 weeks decreased (9.4% to 4.4%), but overall scheduled deliveries increased (29% to 34%) and mean gestational age at birth (39.1 weeks) did not change. Mean birth weight (3410g to 3383g) and LGA (9.0% to 7.4%) both decreased, whereas SGA increased (7.5% to 8.2%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, birth weight decreased (36g; 95% CI: 31, 42), especially among infants born at 37–38 weeks (40g; 30, 49) or that had medical indications for urgent deliveries (48g; 34, 63). Odds of LGA decreased (0.84; 0.80, 0.88) and odds of SGA increased (1.14; 1.08, 1.20). Conclusion Even in a population where gestation length did not change, birth weight and fetal growth declined. Decrease in not only gestational length but in fetal growth as well is likely to be contributing to the widely observed recent decrease in birth weight. PMID:23262927

  8. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to confirm the association.

  9. Variation in Body Weight, Organ Weight and Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats fed raw kudzu and negative control diet showed negative mean weight changes(- 6.50g and -10.0g )while those fed with positive control and treated kudzu diet showed positive mean weight ... The result showed that the treated flour supported growth but had no definite effect on other parameters measured.

  10. Comparative investigation of indicators of growth and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age in Isfahan during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yousefi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.

  11. Birth weight is associated with placental fat mass- and obesity-associated gene expression and promoter methylation in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Ji-Tai; Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Wu, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xin-Jun

    2016-01-01

    To explore the relationship between birth weight and fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene expression and promoter methylation status in the Chinese population. Seventy-five neonates and their mothers were recruited from Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. Subjects were divided into three groups by birth weight: low (weight groups compared to the low-weight group (p = 0.023). Methylation rates of CpG11 sites were significantly decreased in high-birth weight newborns (p = 0.018). Multiple linear regressions showed placental FTO mRNA, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and CpG11 methylation rate were independently associated with increased fetal birth weight. Additionally, FTO mRNA expression was negatively associated with CpG6.7.8.9 methylation in mothers that underwent C-section. High placental FTO expression is associated with increased birth weight in Chinese neonates, and FTO promoter methylation level at a specific CpG site is negatively associated with birth weight. Further work is needed to determine the functionality of this CpG site in placentas.

  12. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  13. Elevated plasma urokinase receptor predicts low birth weight in maternal malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Shulman, C E; Peshu, N

    2007-01-01

    -suPAR and gestational age were the only independent predictors of birth weight in multivariate linear regression adjusted for maternal-suPAR, HIV-1 infection, age, BMI, haemoglobin, peripheral parasitaemia, parity and gestational age; 1 ng/mL higher maternal-suPAR predicted -56 g (95% CI -100 to -12, P = 0.016) reduced...... birth weight. Cord-suPAR could not predict birth weight after adjusting for gestational age. Future studies are warranted to investigate whether the maternal suPAR level is increased earlier in pregnancy in women with active placental malaria infection and whether early maternal suPAR measurements can...... predict birth weight. If so, measurements of maternal suPAR early in pregnancy might then potentially identify women with increased needs for antenatal care and intervention....

  14. Maternal education level and low birth weight: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Silvestrin

    2013-07-01

    Conclusions: The hypothesis of similarity between the extreme degrees of social distribution, translated by maternal education level in relation to the proportion of low birth weight, was not confirmed.

  15. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, T.F.; Anastopoulos, A.D.; Garrett, M.E.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Franke, B.; Oades, R.D.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Asherson, P.; Gill, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Sergeant, J.A.; Kollins, S.H.; Faraone, S.V.; Ashley-Koch, A.; Consortium, I.

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related

  16. Weighted sums of orthogonal polynomials related to birth-death processes with killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider sequences of orthogonal polynomials arising in the analysis of birth-death processes with killing. Motivated by problems in this stochastic setting we discuss criteria for convergence of certain weighted sums of the polynomials.

  17. Associations of Meteorology with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Preeclampsia, Preterm Birth and Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa J. Beltran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension, gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  18. Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alyssa J; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-12-20

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  19. Fetal growth and birth size is associated with maternal anthropometry and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thame, Minerva; Osmond, Clive; Trotman, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to investigate the association of maternal weight, height and body composition with fetal growth. We recruited 425 women at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica, who had singleton pregnancies, were less than 15 weeks gestation and had no systemic illness. Maternal weight, height and skinfold thicknesses were measured at the first antenatal visit and lean mass was calculated. Sonographic measurements of the fetus were made at 15, 25 and 35 weeks gestation. Weight, crown-heel length and head circumference were measured at birth. Analyses were confined to 360 (85%) women; 65 women did not complete the study. Maternal height was positively associated with femoral length at 25 and 35 weeks gestation and with head circumference at 35 weeks (all P < 0.02). Maternal weight was positively associated with abdominal circumference and femoral length at 25 weeks, and with larger head and abdominal circumference and longer femur at 35 weeks (all P < 0.02). Maternal lean mass had similar associations to maternal weight and they were both positively associated with estimated fetal weight (all P < 0.02). All three maternal measurements were positively associated with birthweight, length and head circumference. Maternal size was associated with fetal size as early as 25 weeks gestation, with height strongly associated with femoral length, and with weight and lean mass strongly associated with abdominal circumference. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Evaluating Coincident Relationships Between Obesity Incidence and Normal Weight Incidence From Birth Through Kindergarten for US Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaton, William H; Shah, Megha K; Moss, Brian G

    2018-01-01

    We examine the concurrent relationship between obesity incidence and normal weight status incidence and prevalence in children between 9 months and kindergarten. Multistage, probability sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth cohort. United States. Representative sample of US preschool children (n = 9950) followed from birth through kindergarten. From direct, anthropometric measures, we reported prevalence and incidence rates across 4 follow-up periods. In addition to prevalence and incidence rates, we reported risk ratios based on multiple definitions and estimated predicted probabilities of obesity and normal weight status using clinically meaningful body mass index (BMI)-for-age percentiles. Obesity prevalence (13%-20%) was much smaller than normal weight status prevalence (66%-70%). Lower socioeconomic status, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic black children had greater risk of obesity. During 9 months to kindergarten, obesity incidence decreased two-thirds (15.6%), while normal weight status incidence decreased almost one-half (44.6%). Coincidently, normal weight status incidence (ranged from 23% to 45%) was consistently and substantially higher than obesity incidence (ranged from 5% to 15%). During 4 years to kindergarten, the obesity risk for overweight children was 13 times higher than that for normal weight status children. Overall rates of obese and normal weight incidence were substantial at 9 months, trended lower, but remained high through kindergarten. At 4 years to kindergarten, children with relatively high initial BMI were very likely to become obese but far less likely to achieve normal weight status.

  1. Estimation of Live Weight of Calves from Body Measurements within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All phenotypic correlations between body measurements were positive and significant (P<0.001). The highest correlation coefficient was found between chest girth and body weight. The polynomial equation using chest girth as an independent variable predicted body weight more accurately within breed as compared to the ...

  2. The indirect association of lactation with subsequent perimenopausal body weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rush, D.; Lumey, L. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Myers, B.

    1996-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the relationship of prior breastfeeding to perimenopausal body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2). While most long-term studies of women's body weight after reproductive experience have found a negative relationship between lactation and body weight, most short-term studies found either

  3. Is low birth weight a risk factor for asthma during adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Seidman, D S; Laor, A; Gale, R; Stevenson, D K; Danon, Y L

    1991-01-01

    The effect of low birth weight on the incidence of asthma by 17 years of age was investigated by studying medical draft examination records of 20,312 male subjects born in Jerusalem between January 1967 and December 1971. Additional information on birth weight and other demographic factors was abstracted from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study computerised database. A stepwise multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios for developing asthma by 17 years of age in 500 g birthw...

  4. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rupa; Harris, Maria; Sie, Lillian; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM 2.5 , which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM 2.5 mass and 23 PM 2.5 constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; 2.5 mass and several PM 2.5 constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM 2.5 constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM 2.5 , especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity

  5. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  7. Maternal KIR in combination with paternal HLA-C2 regulate human birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Susan E; Apps, Richard; Chazara, Olympe; Farrell, Lydia E; Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill; Gjessing, Håkon K; Carrington, Mary; Moffett, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Human birth weight is subject to stabilizing selection; babies born too small or too large are less likely to survive. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune system genes are associated with pregnancies where the babies are ≤ 5th birth weight centile, specifically an inhibitory maternal KIR AA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. We have now analyzed maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C combinations at the opposite end of the birth weight spectrum. Mother/baby pairs (n = 1316) were genotyped for maternal KIR as well as fetal and maternal HLA-C. Presence of a maternal-activating KIR2DS1 gene was associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p = 0.005, n = 1316). Effect of KIR2DS1 was most significant in pregnancies where its ligand, HLA-C2, was paternally but not maternally inherited by a fetus (p = 0.005, odds ratio = 2.65). Thus, maternal KIR are more frequently inhibitory with small babies but activating with big babies. At both extremes of birth weight, the KIR associations occur when their HLA-C2 ligand is paternally inherited by a fetus. We conclude that the two polymorphic immune gene systems, KIR and HLA-C, contribute to successful reproduction by maintaining birth weight between two extremes with a clear role for paternal HLA.

  8. Down syndrome birth weight in England and Wales: Implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K; Cole, Tim J; Springett, Anna L; Dennis, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if syndrome-specific birth weight charts were beneficial for babies with Down syndrome in England and Wales. Birth weights of 8,825 babies with Down syndrome born in England and Wales in 1989-2010 were obtained from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register. Birth weight centiles for 30-42 weeks gestation by sex were fitted using the LMS method and were compared to those for unaffected babies from the UK-WHO growth charts. For babies born with Down syndrome the median birth weight from 37 to 42 weeks was 2,970 g (10th-90th centile: 2,115-3,680) for boys and 2930 g (2,100-3,629) for girls, and the modal age of gestation was 38 weeks, 2 weeks earlier than for unaffected babies. At 38 weeks gestation they were only slightly lighter than unaffected babies (159 g for boys and 86 g for girls). However at 40 weeks gestation the shortfall was much greater (304 g and 239 g, respectively). In neonates with Down syndrome there is little evidence of growth restriction before 38 weeks gestation, so up to this age it is appropriate to use the UK-WHO birth weight charts. Thereafter birth weight is below that of unaffected babies and it should be plotted on the UK Down syndrome growth charts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High Birth Weight Increases the Risk for Bone Tumor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There have been several epidemiologic studies on the relationship between high birth weight and the risk for bone tumor in the past decades. However, due to the rarity of bone tumors, the sample size of individual studies was generally too small for reliable conclusions. Therefore, we have performed a meta-analysis to pool all published data on electronic databases with the purpose to clarify the potential relationship. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 18 independent studies with more than 2796 cases were included. As a result, high birth weight was found to increase the risk for bone tumor with an Odds Ratio (OR of 1.13, with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI ranging from 1.01 to 1.27. The OR of bone tumor for an increase of 500 gram of birth weight was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00–1.02; p = 0.048 for linear trend. Interestingly, individuals with high birth weight had a greater risk for osteosarcoma (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06–1.40, p = 0.006 than those with normal birth weight. In addition, in the subgroup analysis by geographical region, elevated risk was detected among Europeans (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.00–1.29, p = 0.049. The present meta-analysis supported a positive association between high birth weight and bone tumor risk.

  10. Maternal correlates of birth weight of newborn: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjeet Kaur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: weight of the baby at birth is considered to be a major determinant of future health and survival of the child. It is one of the important factors which determine the readiness with which the newborn baby adjusts to its surrounding. Many maternal socio-biological factors influence birth weight. Objective: To determine maternal socio-biological factors influencing birth weight of newborn. Methodology: Hospital based cross- sectional study undertaken in Obstetrics and Gynaecology ward of Nehru hospital, Gorakhpur. The study period extended from July 2011 to August 2012. The study subject included recently delivered mothers and data was collected on semi-structured interview schedule to know various socio-biological variables such as mother’s age, parity, inter-pregnancy interval etc, influencing the low birth weight of newborn. Chi-Square test was applied to observe the significance of association.  Results: The overall proportion of low birth weight baby came out to be 32.06%. Out of various socio-biological factors taken the factors which came out to be statistically significant were age of mother, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, SLI, education. The factors which were not statistically significant were father’s education, religion. Conclusions:  It was concluded that teenage pregnancy, non-utilization of antenatal care practices, anaemia, illiteracy are unfavorable predictors of birth weight of newborn babies.

  11. Neonatal doses from X ray examinations by birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Akahane, K.; Aota, T.; Hada, M.; Takano, Y.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of X ray examinations performed on neonates classified according to their birth weight in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this study, the radiology records of 2408 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Oita Prefectural Hospital between January 1994 and September 1999 were investigated. This study revealed that the neonates with earlier gestational ages and lower birth weights required longer NICU stays and more frequent X ray examinations made using a mobile X ray unit. The average number of X ray examinations performed on neonates of less than 750 g birth weight was 26 films per neonate. In regard to computed tomography and fluoroscopy, no significant relationship was found between the birth weight and number of X rays. This study revealed that the entrance-surface dose per neonate was dependent upon the birth weight, while the maximum dose was not dependent upon the birth weight. The average neonatal dose in the NICU was predominantly from computed tomography and fluoroscopy. The individual dose varied widely among neonates. (author)

  12. Birth weight and risk of asthma in 3-9-year-old twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindlund, Karin; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2010-01-01

    length and Apgar score, OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.65), p=0.027. The risk tended to be higher in monozygotic co-twins compared with dizygotic co-twins, especially for high birth weight differences. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight is a risk factor for asthma independently of gestational age, sex, birth...... length and Apgar score, but this may be due, in part, to residual non-genetic confounding factors. This finding lends support to the "fetal origins hypothesis" suggesting undisclosed prenatal determinants for the risk of asthma....

  13. Variants in ADCY5 and near CCNL1 are associated with fetal growth and birth weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Freathy, RM; Mook-Kanamori, DO; Sovio, U; Prokopenko, I; Timpson, NJ; Berry, DJ; Warrington, NM; Widen, E; Hottenga, JJ; Kaakinen, M; Lange, LA; Bradfield, JP; Kerkhof, M; Marsh, JA; Mägi, R

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo identify genetic variants associated with birth weight, we meta-analyzed six genome-wide association (GWA) studies (n = 10,623 Europeans from pregnancy/birth cohorts) and followed up two lead signals in 13 replication studies (n = 27,591). rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 (P = 2 × 10 35) and rs9883204 in ADCY5 (P = 7 × 10 15) were robustly associated with birth weight. Correlated SNPs in ADCY5 were recently implicated in regulation of glucose levels and susceptibility to type 2 di...

  14. OBSERVATION ON INCREASE IN WEIGHT OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW BABIES BY IMPLEMENTING KANGAROO MOTHER CARE (KMC TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnendu Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is a practical technique for nursing of low birth weight babies by direct skin to contact with the mother. This study was undertaken to observe and record the effect of KMC with focus on increase in weight of at term low birth weight (LBW babies weighing less than 2000 grams. The study was conducted over thirty six month’s period from July 2011 to June 2014. The method of care consisted of skin to skin contact between the mother and the infant along with exclusive breast milk. Upon implementation of KMC babies under observation showed satisfactory gain in weight of average 25grams per day and an average hospital stay of 10 days. KMC aims towards achieving good weight gain in LBW babies. It is a simple hassle free technique which can be implemented at all levels of health care.

  15. Effect of stress on birth weight Johannesburg populations In two

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LBW. These include maternal age (delivery before 17 or after. 35 years of age), height, pre-pregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy, parity, menstrual history and infenility, prior pregnancy history, health, prenatal care, ethnicity, socio- economic status, smoking and consumption of alcohol and other drugS.2.4.

  16. Birth weight and special educational needs: results of a population-based study in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettge, Susanne; Oberwöhrmann, Sylke; Brockstedt, Matthias; Bührer, Christoph

    2014-05-09

    Preterm infants are at higher risk for developmental problems. The aim of this study is to quantify the relation between birth weight and special educational needs. We analyzed data from the pre-school examinations of 134 313 children in Berlin aged 5 to 6 who were examined between 2007 and 2011. Special educational needs were diagnosed in 8058 children (6.0%), 4943 (61%) of whom had weighed 3000 g or more at birth. The percentage of children with special educational needs rose steadily with decreasing birth weight (2250-2499 g, 9.2%; 1250-1499 g, 21.1%; less than 750 g, 35.6%). Logistic regression analysis yielded odds ratios and 99% confidence intervals for special educational needs that ranged from 1.32 [1.17-1.47] for birth weight 2750-2999 g to 12.83 [7.48-22.03] for birth weight less than 750 g. Further risk factors were male sex (1.88 [1.75-2.03]), low social status (5.96 [5.21-6.82]), an immigrant background associated with poor German language skills in the family (1.63 [1.43-1.86]), and being raised by a single parent (1.21 [1.12-1.31]). On the other hand, nursery school and/or kindergarten enrollment for at least two years before entering school (0.82 [0.73-0.91]) and an immigrant background with good German skills in the family (0.39 [0.34-0.45]) were associated with lower rates of special educational needs. The risk of special educational needs increases already with moderately decreased birth weight. The most important factor other than birth weight is the family's social status. Although children of very low birth weight have a much higher rate of special educational needs than other children, they still make up only a small percentage of all children with special educational needs.

  17. Does Neighborhood Risk Explain Racial Disparities in Low Birth Weight among Infants Born to Adolescent Mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sheryl L; Nichols, Tracy R; Rulison, Kelly L; Aronson, Robert E; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L; Morrison, Sharon D

    2016-04-01

    To test associations and interactions between racial identification, neighborhood risk, and low birth weight disparities between infants born to African-American and white adolescent mothers. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Birth cases were geocoded and linked to census tract information from the 2010 US Census and the 2007-2011 American Community Survey. A "neighborhood risk" index was created using principal component analysis, and mothers were grouped into 3 neighborhood risk levels (low, medium, high). Multilevel models with cross-level interactions were used to identify variation in racial differences in low birth weight outcomes across neighborhood risk levels when controlling for maternal demographic characteristics and pregnancy behaviors (smoking, prenatal care use). North Carolina, United States. Singleton infants (n = 7923 cases) born to non-Hispanic African American and white adolescent mothers from the North Carolina State Center of Health Statistics for 2011. Low birth weight. African American mothers were significantly more likely to have infants of low birth weight than white mothers in this sample (odds ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.34). Mothers that resided in areas of high neighborhood risk were significantly more likely to have infants of low birth weight than mothers residing in areas of low neighborhood risk (odds ratio = 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.93). Even when controlling for confounding factors, racial disparities in low birth weight odds did not significantly vary according to neighborhood risk level. Racial disparities can remain in low birth weight odds among infants born to adolescent mothers when controlling for maternal characteristics, pregnancy behaviors, and neighborhood risk. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer risk in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Natalie R; Jensen, Britt W; Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    Birth weight has inconsistent associations with colorectal cancer, possibly due to different anatomic features of the colon versus the rectum. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between birth weight and colon and rectal cancers separately. 193,306 children, born from 1936 to 1972, from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register were followed prospectively in Danish health registers. Colon and rectal cancer cases were defined using the International Classification of Disease version 10 (colon: C18.0-18.9, rectal: 19.9 and 20.9). Only cancers classified as adenocarcinomas were included in the analyses. Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Analyses were stratified by birth cohort and sex. During 3.8 million person-years of follow-up, 1465 colon and 961 rectal adenocarcinomas were identified. No significant sex differences were observed; therefore combined results are presented. Birth weight was positively associated with colon cancers with a HR of 1.14 (95% CI, 1.04-1.26) per kilogram of birth weight. For rectal cancer a significant association was not observed for birth weights below 3.5kg. Above 3.5kg an inverse association was observed (at 4.5kg, HR=0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.96]). Further, the associations between birth weight and colon and rectal cancer differed significantly from each other (p=0.006). Birth weight is positively associated with the risk of adult colon cancer, whereas the results for rectal cancer were inverse only above values of 3.5kg. The results underline the importance of investigating colon and rectal cancer as two different entities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Semiparametric Multinomial Ordinal Model to Analyze Spatial Patterns of Child Birth Weight in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheed A. Adeyemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Birth weight is an important health parameter for obstetricians and gynaecologists. It is a good health indicator of a child-bearing mother and a strong predictor of infant morbidity and mortality. Methods: This paper utilizes data on 28,647 children born between 2003–2008 obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS. For a simple epidemiological convenience, the occurrence of a newborn weight can intuitively be considered to be categorical in nature and the thresholds can be put on a continuous scale. In survey reporting, the mothers frequently estimate their infant’s birth weight and make a classification in ordinal category (low, normal, large instead of actual birth weight. The study fits a multinomial regression model to analyze the relationships between the polytomous response and different kind of covariates in a unified manner. We estimate the fixed effects of bio-social covariates parametrically and the non-linear effect modeled using P-spline. The spatial component was modeled using conditional autoregressive error. A penalized maximum likelihood estimation was performed to estimate the model parameters. Results: We found risk factors that are positively associated with low birth weight, which include multiple birth, short birth interval, death of sibling, childhood diarrhea, fever, mother’s smoking, firewood/dung cooking and poor household. Results further showed that iron syrup supplementation, antenatal attendance, mother literacy and household wealth had significant association with low probability of low birth weight. The finding also showed spatial patterns, which are not captured by the underlying determinants, and we produced probability predictive maps of the spatial residual effects. Conclusions: In addition to the statistical relevance of our method, the generated spatial maps identify highly endemic areas of low birth weight that can assist government agency to channel scarce health

  20. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P Weights varied by year (P weights increased (P weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.