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Sample records for birth size idiopathic

  1. The Auxological and Biochemical Continuum of Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA or with Normal Birth Size (Idiopathic Short Stature

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    Ranke MichaelB

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Retrospective single-centre analysis of growth characteristics in 182 healthy short children born small for gestational age (SGA or appropriate for gestational age (idiopathic short stature, ISS. Methods. Birth size references from the USA and Sweden were compared, and for the classification as SGA or ISS the Swedish reference was chosen. Height, target height (TH, bone age (BA, predicted adult height (PAH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 values were compared between SGA and ISS. Results. In the combined group, birth weight and length showed a symmetric Gaussian distribution. The American reference overestimates the percentage of short birth length and underestimates that of low birth weight. In childhood, SGA children were shorter than ISS (−3.1 versus −2.6 SDS, , also in comparison to TH (−2.6 versus −1.9 SDS, . TH, height SDS change over time, BA delay, and PAH were similar. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were lower in ISS ( and .09. Conclusions. SGA children represent the left tail of the Gaussian distribution of birth size in short children. The distinction between SGA and ISS depends on birth size reference. Childhood height of SGA is lower than of ISS, but the other auxological features are similar.

  2. The Auxological and Biochemical Continuum of Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA or with Normal Birth Size (Idiopathic Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Wit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Retrospective single-centre analysis of growth characteristics in 182 healthy short children born small for gestational age (SGA or appropriate for gestational age (idiopathic short stature, ISS. Methods. Birth size references from the USA and Sweden were compared, and for the classification as SGA or ISS the Swedish reference was chosen. Height, target height (TH, bone age (BA, predicted adult height (PAH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 values were compared between SGA and ISS. Results. In the combined group, birth weight and length showed a symmetric Gaussian distribution. The American reference overestimates the percentage of short birth length and underestimates that of low birth weight. In childhood, SGA children were shorter than ISS (−3.1 versus −2.6 SDS, P<.001, also in comparison to TH (−2.6 versus −1.9 SDS, P<.001. TH, height SDS change over time, BA delay, and PAH were similar. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were lower in ISS (P=.03 and .09. Conclusions. SGA children represent the left tail of the Gaussian distribution of birth size in short children. The distinction between SGA and ISS depends on birth size reference. Childhood height of SGA is lower than of ISS, but the other auxological features are similar.

  3. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  4. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  5. Sibship size, birth order, and personality.

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    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2005-10-01

    In a sample of 273 American college students who were administered seven personality tests, only death obsession scores were consistently associated with sibship size and birth order (not optimism, pessimism, anxiety, a Taoist orientation, suicidal ideation, or obsessive-compulsive tendencies).

  6. Birth order, family size and school failure.

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    Belmont, L; Stein, Z A; Wittes, J T

    1976-08-01

    The effect of birth order on educational outcome in the Netherlands is reported for two major social classes, manual and non-manual. The rates of school failure (those who attended schools for the mentally retarded and who failed lower school) were studied in a population of some 200,000 young adult Dutch males born between 1944 and 1946 and whose families of origin had from one to six children. The data used were the records of the Dutch military pre-induction examination. Rates of school failure rose both with increased birth order and with increased family-size, with the exception of one-child families. School failure rates for the first, middle-and last-born were examined for the two social classes, with family size controlled. In general, school-failure rates were significantly related to birth-order position. For each family size and in both social classes, the last-born were at greater risk of school failure than were the first-born.

  7. Size at birth and preterm birth in women with lifetime eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micali, N; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eating disorders are associated with lower size at birth, symmetric growth restriction, and preterm birth; and whether pregnancy smoking explains the association between anorexia nervosa and fetal growth. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SETTING......: Maternal anorexia nervosa (both active and past) is associated with lower size at birth and symmetric growth restriction, with evidence of worse outcomes in women with active disorder. Women with anorexia nervosa should be advised about achieving full recovery before conceiving. Similarly, targeting...

  8. Offspring preterm birth and birth size are related to long-term risk of maternal diabetes.

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    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Ovesen, Per Glud; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between gestational age, birth size, and the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. We conducted a nation-wide prospective follow-up study of the cohort of all Danish women with a singleton delivery in 1982/1983 (index delivery) and no history of diabetes (n = 100,669). Registries were used to extract information on patients with a hospital or outpatient diagnosis of diabetes, subsequent deliveries, and death/emigration in the period from the index delivery until the end of 2006. The association between the maternal risk of diabetes and the index gestational age and index offspring birth size (birth weight adjusted for gestational age) was investigated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified according to young (≤33 years) and old age (>33 years). During a median follow-up period of 24 years, 2,021 women (2.0 %) were diagnosed as having diabetes. The risk of maternal diabetes was positively associated with increasing index birth size and negatively associated with increasing duration of index gestation in both age strata. Among young women, the highest hazard ratios were found for the exposure category of large index offspring birth size (adjusted HR 9.0, 95 % CI 6.17-13.12) and a preterm delivery at 32-37 weeks (adjusted HR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.46-3.40). Offspring preterm birth and large size for gestational age at birth are associated with increased risk of maternal diabetes.

  9. Offspring preterm birth and birth size are related to long-term risk of maternal diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Ovesen, Per Glud;

    2013-01-01

    of diabetes (n = 100,669). Registries were used to extract information on patients with a hospital or outpatient diagnosis of diabetes, subsequent deliveries, and death/emigration in the period from the index delivery until the end of 2006. The association between the maternal risk of diabetes and the index...... gestational age and index offspring birth size (birth weight adjusted for gestational age) was investigated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified according to young (≤33 years) and old age (>33 years). During a median follow-up period of 24 years, 2,021 women (2.0 %) were diagnosed...... as having diabetes. The risk of maternal diabetes was positively associated with increasing index birth size and negatively associated with increasing duration of index gestation in both age strata. Among young women, the highest hazard ratios were found for the exposure category of large index offspring...

  10. Sibship size, birth order, and personality among Kuwaiti college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2007-08-01

    In a sample of 460 (103 men, 357 women) Kuwaiti college students (M age=21.9 yr., SD=3.0), scores on the Arabic Scale of Optimism and Pessimism, the Death Obsession Scale, the Arabic Scale of Obsession-Compulsion, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, the Taoist Orientation Scale, and the Suicidal Ideation Scale were not associated with sibship size and birth order.

  11. Anthropometric Assessment in Children with Small Size at Birth

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    Nurdelkis Figueredo Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: development of anthropometric techniques and its close relation to diagnostic researches on various non-communicable chronic diseases has allowed predicting, to a certain extent, the progress of those infants with growth retardation due to several factors. Objective: to assess the effect of small size at birth on the evolution of the classic anthropometric variables during the first year of life. Methods: a longitudinal and prospective cohort study was conducted with live-born infants in the Eusebio Hernández Maternity Hospital of the municipality of Playa in January 2011. Variables analyzed included: weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds. Physical examination was used to measure each individual. Measurements at birth were gathered from medical records. Subsequently, they were followed up in the nutrition consultation of the Juan M. Márquez Pediatric Hospital. Results: the two groups presented similar growth patterns over time. Largest final growth was observed in the group of normal size infants: skinfolds showed greater variation. Only the mid-upper arm circumference showed significantly different patterns of change between the groups. Conclusions: the study group showed no significant influence of small size at birth on the evolution of the classic anthropometric variables during the first year of life.

  12. Maternal body composition, HIV infection and other predictors of gestation length and birth size in Zimbabwe.

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    Friis, Henrik; Gomo, Exnevia; Nyazema, Norman; Ndhlovu, Patricia; Krarup, Henrik; Kaestel, Pernille; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2004-11-01

    The role of maternal infections, nutritional status and obstetric history in low birth weight is not clear. Thus, the objective of the present study was to assess the effects of maternal HIV infection, nutritional status and obstetric history, and season of birth on gestation length and birth size. The study population was 1669 antenatal care attendees in Harare, Zimbabwe. A prospective cohort study was conducted as part of a randomised, controlled trial. Maternal anthropometry, age, gravidity, and HIV status and load were assessed in 22nd-35th weeks gestation. Outcomes were gestation length and birth size. Birth data were available from 1106 (66.3%) women, of which 360 (32.5%) had HIV infection. Mean gestation length was 39.1 weeks with 16.6% Gestation length increased with age in primigravidae, but not multigravidae (interaction, P=0.005), and birth in the early dry season, low arm fat area, multiple pregnancies and maternal HIV load were negative predictors. Birth weight increased with maternal height, and birth in the late rainy and early dry season; primi-secundigravidity, low arm fat area, HIV load, multiple pregnancies and female sex were negative predictors. In conclusion, gestation length and birth weight decline with increasing maternal HIV load. In addition, season of birth, gravidity, maternal height and body fat mass, and infant sex are predictors of birth weight.

  13. Size Matters!. Birth Size and a Size-Independent Stochastic Term Determine Asexual Reproduction Dynamics in Freshwater Planarians

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    Thomas, Michael A.; Quinodoz, Sofia; Schötz, Eva-Maria

    2012-09-01

    Asexual reproduction by division in higher organisms is rare, because a prerequisite is the ability to regenerate an entire organism from a piece of the original body. Freshwater planarians are one of the few animals that can reproduce this way, but little is known about the regulation of their reproduction cycles or strategies. We have previously shown that a planarian's reproduction strategy is randomized to include fragmentations, producing multiple offspring, as well as binary fissions, and can be partially explained by a maximum relative entropy principle. In this study we attempt to decompose the factors controlling their reproduction cycle. Based on recent studies on the cell cycle of budding yeast, which suggest that molecular noise in gene expression and cell size at birth together control cell cycle variability, we investigated whether the variability in planarian reproduction waiting times could be similarly regulated. We find that such a model can indeed explain the observed distribution of waiting times between birth and next reproductive event, suggesting that birth size and a stochastic noise term govern the reproduction dynamics of asexual planarians.

  14. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

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    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth.

  15. No association between vitamin D levels around time of birth and later risk of developing oligo- and polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S.; Pipper, C.; Alberdi-Saugstrup, M.;

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Basic and epidemiological studies on rheumatic autoimmune diseases have suggested an association between vitamin D levels around time of birth and disease risk. The literature on vitamin D and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is scarce. We hypothesized that low levels of 25......-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] around time of birth would be associated with increased risk of oligo- or polyarticular JIA. Method: We conducted a case–cohort study of validated cases diagnosed with oligo- and polyarticular JIA (1993–2012) and controls matched on date of birth. Cases and controls were born...... in the period 1983–2010. Cases were diagnosed using international criteria. The concentration of 25(OH)D was assessed from neonatal dried blood spot (DBS) samples using high-sensitivity liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using conditional logistic...

  16. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet...... in pregnancy was associated with higher birth weight for gestational age, lower risk of SGA, and higher risk of LGA. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct...

  17. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth....... METHODS: From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses...... between air pollution and birth weight. Exposure to residential road traffic noise was weakly associated with reduced head circumference, whereas none of the other newborn's size indicators were associated with noise, neither before nor after adjustment for air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates...

  18. Effect of litter size on the variation in birth and weaning weights of Landrace piglets

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    Camila Duarte Prazeres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the size class of the litter at birth on the variation in birth and weaning weights and on the survival rate of piglets from birth to weaning. For this purpose, records of individual weight at birth and weaning of piglets obtained from a database of 295 Landrace litters born between 2000 and 2010 on a pig farm in the western region of the State of Paraná were used. The litters were classified as small (up to 7 piglets, medium (8 to 13 piglets, and large (> 14 piglets according to the total number of piglets born. The data were analyzed considering the effects of the year of sow mating and size class of the litter at birth. The correlations between mean weight and variance in litter weight and size were higher for medium and large litters. The size class of the litter significantly influenced the mean weight of piglets at birth and weaning and the variance in birth weight. Piglets born in medium and large litters weighed less and exhibited greater birth weight variation and a lower survival rate until weaning than piglets born in small litters.

  19. Maternal Fish Consumption and Infant Birth Size and Gestation: New York State Angler Cohort Study

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    Weiner John M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The scientific literature poses a perplexing dilemma for pregnant women with respect to the consumption of fish from natural bodies of water. On one hand, fish is a good source of protein, low in fat and a rich source of other nutrients all of which have presumably beneficial effects on developing embryos and fetuses. On the other hand, consumption of fish contaminated with environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has been associated with decrements in gestation and birth size. Methods 2,716 infants born between 1986–1991 to participants of the New York State Angler Cohort Study were studied with respect to duration of maternal consumption of contaminated fish from Lake Ontario and its tributaries and gestation and birth size. Hospital delivery records (maternal and newborn were obtained for 92% of infants for the ascertainment of gestation (weeks, birth size (weight, length, chest, and head circumference and other known determinants of fetal growth (i.e., maternal parity, history of placental infarction, uterine bleeding, pregnancy loss or cigarette smoking and infant's race, sex and presence of birth defect. Duration of maternal fish consumption prior to the index infant's birth was categorized as: none; 1–2, 3–7, 8+ years, while birth weight (in grams, birth length (in centimeters, and head and chest circumference (in centimeters were left as continuous variables in multiple linear regression models. Birth size percentiles, ponderal indices and head to chest circumference ratios were computed to further assess proportionality and birth size in relation to gestational age. Results Analysis of variance failed to identify significant mean differences in gestation or any measure of birth size in relation to duration of maternal lifetime fish consumption. Multiple linear regressions identified gestational age, male sex, number of daily cigarettes, parity and placental infarction, as significant

  20. Body size at birth is associated with food and nutrient intake in adulthood.

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    Mia-Maria Perälä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 1797 participants, aged 56 to 70, of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, whose birth weight and length were recorded. Preterm births were excluded. During a clinical study, diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the associations. Intake of fruits and berries was 13.26 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 25.96 higher per 1 kg/m(3 increase in ponderal index (PI at birth, and 83.16 g (95% CI: 17.76, 148.56 higher per 1 kg higher birth weight. One unit higher PI at birth was associated with 0.14% of energy (E% lower intake of fat (95% CI: -0.26, -0.03 and 0.18 E% higher intake of carbohydrates (95% CI: 0.04, 0.32 as well as 0.08 E% higher sucrose (95% CI: 0.00, 0.15, 0.05 E% higher fructose (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09, and 0.18 g higher fiber (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34 intake in adulthood. Similar associations were observed between birth weight and macronutrient intake. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal growth may modify later life food and macronutrient intake. Altered dietary habits could potentially explain an increased risk of chronic disease in individuals born with small body size.

  1. Body Size at Birth Is Associated with Food and Nutrient Intake in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; Männistö, Satu; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Valsta, Liisa M.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 1797 participants, aged 56 to 70, of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, whose birth weight and length were recorded. Preterm births were excluded. During a clinical study, diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the associations. Intake of fruits and berries was 13.26 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 25.96) higher per 1 kg/m3 increase in ponderal index (PI) at birth, and 83.16 g (95% CI: 17.76, 148.56) higher per 1 kg higher birth weight. One unit higher PI at birth was associated with 0.14% of energy (E%) lower intake of fat (95% CI: -0.26, -0.03) and 0.18 E% higher intake of carbohydrates (95% CI: 0.04, 0.32) as well as 0.08 E% higher sucrose (95% CI: 0.00, 0.15), 0.05 E% higher fructose (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09), and 0.18 g higher fiber (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34) intake in adulthood. Similar associations were observed between birth weight and macronutrient intake. Conclusions Prenatal growth may modify later life food and macronutrient intake. Altered dietary habits could potentially explain an increased risk of chronic disease in individuals born with small body size. PMID:23049962

  2. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length

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    Smeets, Carolina C. J.; Codd, Veryan; Denniff, Matthew; Samani, Nilesh J.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with growth hormone (GH), inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of biological age and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Objectives To investigate whether LTL is influenced by birth size, childhood growth and long-term GH treatment. Methods We analyzed LTL in 545 young adults with differences in birth size and childhood growth patterns. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA (SGA-GH) were compared to untreated short SGA (SGA-S), SGA with spontaneous catch-up to a normal body size (SGA-CU), and appropriate for gestational age with a normal body size (AGA-NS). LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay. Results We found a positive association between birth length and LTL (p = 0.04), and a trend towards a positive association between birth weight and LTL (p = 0.08), after adjustments for gender, age, gestational age and adult body size. Weight gain during infancy and childhood and fat mass percentage were not associated with LTL. Female gender and gestational age were positively associated with LTL, and smoking negatively. After adjustments for gender, age and gestational age, SGA-GH had a similar LTL as SGA-S (p = 0.11), SGA-CU (p = 0.80), and AGA-NS (p = 0.30). Conclusions Larger size at birth is positively associated with LTL in young adulthood. Growth patterns during infancy and childhood are not associated with LTL. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA have similar LTL as untreated short SGA, SGA with spontaneous catch-up and AGA born controls, indicating no adverse effects of GH-induced catch-up in height on LTL. PMID:28178350

  3. Influence of primiparity on size at birth, growth, the somatotrophic axis and fertility in dairy heifers.

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    Swali, A; Wathes, D C

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiological studies in humans suggest that small size at birth is a predictor of some adult diseases. Nutritional constraint experienced in utero may result in fetal adaptations, which alter subsequent body structure and physiology. Size at birth is influenced by maternal age and parity. Most dairy cows are bred for the first time at about 60% of their mature body weight and therefore carry their first pregnancy whilst still growing. We hypothesized that this might alter the nutritional environment in utero and thus influence the development of the calf. This study compared birth size, growth rates and fertility in consecutively born heifer offspring of 45 primiparous (PP) and 71 multiparous (MP) dairy cows on one farm. Measures of the somatotrophic axis (GH, insulin, IGF-I and glucose) were compared in blood samples collected at the start of the first lactation. Offspring of PP cows were significantly smaller at birth (weight, length, height, girth, Pprimiparous dam resulted in a smaller size at birth and influenced the somatotrophic axis around calving. Fertility was generally better in offspring of PP than MP dams.

  4. Associations of maternal retinal vasculature with subsequent fetal growth and birth size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, L.-J. (Ling-Jun); Aris, I. (Izzuddin); Su, L.L. (Lin Lin); Tint, M.T. (Mya Thway); C.Y.-L. Cheung (Carol Yim-Lui); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); Gluckman, P. (Peter); Godfrey, K.M. (Keith M.); Tan, K.H. (Kok Hian); Yeo, G. (George); Yap, F. (Fabian); Kwek, K. (Kenneth); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); Y.-S. Chong (Yap-Seng); T.Y. Wong (Tien); Lee, Y.S. (Yung Seng)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We aimed to study the maternal retinal microvasculature at mid-trimester and its relationship with subsequent fetal growth and birth size. Methods: We recruited 732 pregnant women aged 18-46 years in the first trimester with singleton pregnancies. All had retinal photography a

  5. Sibship Size, Birth Order, and Children's Education Indeveloping Countries : Evidence from Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Cheolsung; Chung, Wankyo

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether the effect of sibship size on education differs by the individual's birth order in low-income countries, using data from Matlab, Bangladesh. Exploiting exposure to the randomized family planning program in Matlab for identification, we find evidence that sibship size has negative effect on education and positive effect on labor force participation of the first and the second-born children, but no significant effect on education or labor force participation of the later-born...

  6. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that the handling of heavy loads during pregnancy is associated with impaired fetal growth. We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small......, however, be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power, and we suggest that future studies include detailed, individual information on job functions and ergonomic routines of lifting procedures....

  7. Size at birth and morbidity in the first year of life

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    Nurdelia Figueredo Rodríguez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: delay in growth during childhood is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, decreased activity and patterns of interaction, including the child’s psychomotor development, school performance and socio-emotional functioning. Objective: to identify the incidence of diseases during the first year of life in infants who were small at birth. Methods: a longitudinal and prospective cohort study was conducted with a sample of live-born infants in January 2011 in the Eusebio Hernández Maternity Hospital in the municipality of Playa. Physical exam was performed for each individual measurement. Medical history was gathered. Several analyses of variance were conducted for repeated observations. Results: there were no significant differences between infants born small and those with normal birth size, regarding the incidence of diseases. Conclusions: small size at birth was not found to be an important variable to measure the incidence of diseases during the first year of life. It was not considered a risk marker either, at least during the study period.

  8. The Effects of Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Separation and Crowding on the Academic Achievement of Boys and Girls

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    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)

  9. Litter size, effects of maternal body size, and date of birth in South American scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones

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    Sabrina Outeda-Jorge

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We present new data on litter size and date of birth (month for 21 South American scorpions species. We provide data for one katoikogenic species, the liochelid Opisthacanthus cayaporum Vellard, 1932 (offspring = 3; birth month: Jan; and for several apoikogenic species, such as the bothriurids Bothriurus araguayae Vellard, 1934 (53; Sep, B. rochensis San Martín, 1965 (22-28; Jan, Aug; the buthids Ananteris balzanii Thorell, 1891 (10-34; Jan-Mar, Physoctonus debilis (Koch, 1840 (2; Sep, Rhopalurus amazonicus Lourenço, 1986 (19; Nov, R. lacrau Lourenço & Pinto-da-Rocha, 1997 (30; Dec, R. laticauda Thorell, 1876 (41; Nov, R. rochai Borelli, 1910 (11-47; Dec-Jan, Mar-Apr, Tityus bahiensis (Perty, 1833 (4-23; Oct-Mar, T. clathratus Koch, 1844 (8-18; Nov-Jan, T. costatus (Karsch, 1879 (21-25; Jan, Apr, T. kuryi Lourenço, 1997 (4-16; Mar, T. mattogrossensis Borelli, 1901(8-9; May, T. obscurus (Gervais, 1843 (16-31; Jan-Feb, May, Jul, T. serrulatus Lutz & Mello, 1922 (8-36; Dec, Feb-Apr, T. silvestris Pocock, 1897 (5-14; Dec-Jan, Apr, T. stigmurus (Thorell, 1876 (10-18; Nov, Jan, Mar, Tityus sp. 1 (T. clathratus group - 7-12; Feb-Apr, Tityus sp. 2 (T. bahiensis group - 2; Mar; and the chactid Brotheas sp. (8-21; Jan, Apr. We observed multiple broods: R. lacrau (offspring in the 2nd brood = 27, T. kuryi (6-16, T. obscurus (2-32, T. silvestris (8, T. stigmurus (4-9, T. bahiensis (offspring in the 2nd brood = 2-18; 3rd = 1, and T. costatus (2nd brood = 18; 3rd = 4. We found statistically significant positive correlation between female size and litter size for T. bahiensis and T. silvestris, and nonsignificant correlation for T. serrulatus.

  10. Maternal Activity in Relation to Birth Size in Rural India The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Kanade, Asawari; Margetts, Barrie M; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi; Rege, Sonali; Desai, Bhavana; Jackson, Alan; Fall, Caroline HD

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationship of the mother's physical activity to the birth size of her baby in a rural Indian population. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Six villages near Pune, Maharashtra, India. Subjects 797 women were studied after excluding abortions and termination of pregnancies (112), fetal anomalies (8), multiple pregnancies (3), incomplete pre-pregnancy anthropometry (14) and pregnancies detected later than 21 weeks of gestation (168). Method An activity questionnaire was developed after focus group discussions and incorporated community-specific activities. It was validated against an observer-maintained diary. Activity scores were derived using published data on energy costs to weight the contributions of various activities. It was then administered to assess physical activity at 18 (± 2) and 28 (±2) weeks of gestation. Outcome measures Birth outcome, maternal weight gain and neonatal anthropometry. Results The activity questionnaire was used to classify women into light, moderate and heavy activity categories. Maternal activity did not influence the incidence of prematurity or stillbirth, or the duration of gestation. It was inversely related to maternal weight gain up to 28 weeks of gestation (p=0.002). Higher maternal activity in early, as well as mid gestation, was associated with lower mean birth weight (p=0.05 and 0.02 respectively), and smaller neonatal head circumference (p=0.005 and 0.009) and mid-arm circumference (p=0.03 and 0.01) after adjusting for the effect of major confounding factors. Conclusions The findings suggest that excessive maternal activity during pregnancy is associated with smaller fetal size in rural India. The approach described for developing an activity questionnaire has potential for adoption in other settings. Sponsorship Wellcome Trust, London, UK, and the Medical Research Council, UK. PMID:12700614

  11. Eye size at birth in prosimian primates: life history correlates and growth patterns.

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    Joshua R Cummings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius, compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits

  12. Generalised Joint Hypermobility in Caucasian Girls with Idiopathic Scoliosis: Relation with Age, Curve Size, and Curve Pattern

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    Dariusz Czaprowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of generalised joint hypermobility (GJH in 155 girls with idiopathic scoliosis (IS (age 9–18 years, mean 13.8 ± 2.3. The control group included 201 healthy girls. The presence of GJH was assessed with Beighton (B test. GJH was diagnosed in 23.2% of IS girls and in 13.4% of controls (P=0.02. The prevalence of GJH was significantly (P=0.01 lower in IS girls aged 16–18 years in comparison with younger individuals. There was no difference regarding GJH occurrence between girls with mild (11–24°, moderate (25–40°, and severe scoliosis (>40° (P=0.78, between girls with single thoracic, single lumbar, and double curve scoliosis (P=0.59, and between girls with thoracic scoliosis length ≤7 and >7 vertebrae (P=0.25. No correlation between the number of points in B and the Cobb angle (P=0.93, as well as between the number of points in B and the number of the vertebrae within thoracic scoliosis (P=0.63, was noticed. GJH appeared more often in IS girls than in healthy controls. Its prevalence decreased with age. No relation between GJH prevalence and curve size, curve pattern, or scoliosis length was found.

  13. Generalised joint hypermobility in caucasian girls with idiopathic scoliosis: relation with age, curve size, and curve pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaprowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of generalised joint hypermobility (GJH) in 155 girls with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) (age 9-18 years, mean 13.8±2.3). The control group included 201 healthy girls. The presence of GJH was assessed with Beighton (B) test. GJH was diagnosed in 23.2% of IS girls and in 13.4% of controls (P=0.02). The prevalence of GJH was significantly (P=0.01) lower in IS girls aged 16-18 years in comparison with younger individuals. There was no difference regarding GJH occurrence between girls with mild (11-24°), moderate (25-40°), and severe scoliosis (>40°) (P=0.78), between girls with single thoracic, single lumbar, and double curve scoliosis (P=0.59), and between girls with thoracic scoliosis length≤7 and >7 vertebrae (P=0.25). No correlation between the number of points in B and the Cobb angle (P=0.93), as well as between the number of points in B and the number of the vertebrae within thoracic scoliosis (P=0.63), was noticed. GJH appeared more often in IS girls than in healthy controls. Its prevalence decreased with age. No relation between GJH prevalence and curve size, curve pattern, or scoliosis length was found.

  14. Preventing large birth size in women with preexisting diabetes mellitus: The benefit of appropriate gestational weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin Y.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Sappenfield, William; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the percentage of infants with large birth size attributable to excess gestational weight gain (GWG), independent of prepregnancy body mass index, among mothers with preexisting diabetes mellitus (PDM). Study design We analyzed 2004–2008 Florida linked birth certificate and maternal hospital discharge data of live, term (37–41 weeks) singleton deliveries (N = 641,857). We calculated prevalence of large-for-gestational age (LGA) (birth weight-for-gestational age ≥ 90th percentile) and macrosomia (birth weight > 4500 g) by GWG categories (inadequate, appropriate, or excess). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of large birth size associated with excess compared to appropriate GWG among mothers with PDM. We then estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of large birth size due to excess GWG among mothers with PDM (n = 4427). Results Regardless of diabetes status, half of mothers (51.2%) gained weight in excess of recommendations. Large birth size was higher in infants of mothers with PDM than in infants of mothers without diabetes (28.8% versus 9.4% for LGA, 5.8% versus 0.9% for macrosomia). Among women with PDM, the adjusted RR of having an LGA infant was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5, 1.9) for women with excess GWG compared to those with appropriate gain; the PAF was 27.7% (95% CI 22.0, 33.3). For macrosomia, the adjusted RR associated with excess GWG was 2.1 (95% CI 1.5, 2.9) and the PAF was 38.6% (95% CI 24.9, 52.4). Conclusion Preventing excess GWG may avert over one-third of macrosomic term infants of mothers with PDM. Effective strategies to prevent excess GWG are needed. PMID:27539071

  15. Birth size in the most recent pregnancy and maternal mortality in premenopausal breast cancer by tumor characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiebrahimi, Mohammadhossein; Cnattingius, Sven; Lambe, Mats; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Ahlgren, Johan; Adolfsson, Jan; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2014-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between measures of offspring size at birth in the most recent pregnancy before premenopausal breast cancer diagnosis and the risks of maternal breast cancer mortality, taking tumor characteristics into account. We also aimed to investigate if these associations are modified by age at childbirth, time since childbirth, parity, and age at diagnosis. We followed 6,019 women from their date of premenopausal breast cancer (diagnosed from 1992 to 2008) until emigration, death or December 31st, 2009, whichever occurred first. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for parity, age at diagnosis, and education level, to estimate associations between women pregnancy, cancer characteristics and offspring birth characteristics, and mothers' mortality risk. In stratified analyses, mortality risks were estimated by tumor stage, ER or PR status. There was no association between offspring birth weight (HR = 1.00, 95 % CI 0.99-1.01, when used as a continuous variable), birth weight for gestational age or ponderal index, and premenopausal breast cancer mortality. Similarly, in analyses stratified by tumor stage, receptor status, and time difference between last pregnancy and date of diagnosis, we found no associations between birth size and breast cancer mortality. Our findings suggest that the hypothesis that "premenopausal breast cancer mortality is associated with offspring birth characteristics in the most recent pregnancy before the diagnosis" may not be valid. In addition, these associations are not modified by tumor characteristics.

  16. Coarsening dynamics in condensing zero-range processes and size-biased birth death chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatuviriyapornchai, Watthanan; Grosskinsky, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Zero-range processes with decreasing jump rates are well known to exhibit a condensation transition under certain conditions on the jump rates, and the dynamics of this transition continues to be a subject of current research interest. Starting from homogeneous initial conditions, the time evolution of the condensed phase exhibits an interesting coarsening phenomenon of mass transport between cluster sites characterized by a power law. We revisit the approach in Godrèche (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 6313) to derive effective single site dynamics which form a nonlinear birth death chain describing the coarsening behavior. We extend these results to a larger class of parameter values, and introduce a size-biased version of the single site process, which provides an effective tool to analyze the dynamics of the condensed phase without finite size effects and is the main novelty of this paper. Our results are based on a few heuristic assumptions and exact computations, and are corroborated by detailed simulation data.

  17. On a Two-Phase Size-Structured Population Model with Infinite States-At-Birth and Distributed Delay in Birth Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Meng; Xu, Shihe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the two-phase size-structured population model with infinite states-at-birth and distributed delay in birth process. The model distinguishes individuals by two different status: the ‘reproductive’ stage and the ‘nonreproductive’ stage. We establish the well-posedness for this model and show that the solution of this model exhibits asynchronous exponential growth by means of semigroups. We also consider a special case in which the individuals in the ‘reproductive’ stage and the ‘nonreproductive’ stage have the same growth rates and give a comparison between this two-phase model with the classical one-phase model. PMID:24963976

  18. The interplay of variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and social stress in relation to birth size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anokhi Ali Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified via a genome wide association study variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and in the ADCY5 genes lead to lower birthweight. Here, we study the impact of these variants and social stress during pregnancy, defined as social adversity and neighborhood disparity, on infant birth size. We aimed to determine whether the addition of genetic variance magnified the observed associations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=5369. Social adversity was defined by young maternal age (<20 years, low maternal education (<11 years, and/or single marital status. Neighborhood social disparity was assessed by discrepancy between neighborhoods relative to personal socio-economic status. These variables are indicative of social and socioeconomic stress, but also of biological risk. The adjusted multiple regression analysis showed smaller birth size in both infants of mothers who experienced social adversity (birthweight by -40.4 g, 95%CI -61.4, -19.5; birth length -0.14 cm, 95%CI -0.23, -0.05; head circumference -0.09 cm 95%CI -0.15, -0.02 and neighborhood disparity (birthweight -28.8 g, 95%CI -47.7, -10.0; birth length -0.12 cm, 95%CI -0.20, -0.05. The birthweight-lowering risk allele (SNP rs900400 near LEKR and CCNL1 magnified this association in an additive manner. However, likely due to sample size restriction, this association was not significant for the SNP rs9883204 in ADCY5. Birth size difference due to social stress was greater in the presence of birthweight-lowering alleles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Social adversity, neighborhood disparity, and genetic variants have independent associations with infant birth size in the mutually adjusted analyses. If the newborn carried a risk allele rs900400 near LEKR/CCNL1, the impact of stress on birth size was stronger. These observations give support to the hypothesis that individuals with genetic or other biological risk are more

  19. Influence of birth size and body composition on bone mineral density in early adulthood : the PROGRAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, R. W. J.; Stijnen, T.; Boot, A. M.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background/objectives Low bone mineral density (BMD) may lead to osteoporosis and is associated with increased fracture risk. Associations between BMD and various factors have been reported. Our objective was to investigate whether birth size, lean body mass (LBM) and fat mass (FM) are determinants

  20. Common polymorphic variation in the genetically diverse African insulin gene and its association with size at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Clive J; Rayco-Solon, Pura; Fulford, Anthony J C; Stead, John D H; Wingate, Dianne L; Ong, Ken K; Sirugo, Giorgio; Prentice, Andrew M; Dunger, David B

    2009-09-01

    The insulin variable number of tandem repeats (INS VNTR) has been variably associated with size at birth in non-African populations. Small size at birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality, so the INS VNTR may influence survival. We tested the hypothesis, therefore, that genetic variation around the INS VNTR in a rural Gambian population, who experience seasonal variation in nutrition and subsequently birth weight, may be associated with foetal and early growth. Six polymorphisms flanking the INS VNTR were genotyped in over 2,500 people. Significant associations were detected between the maternally inherited SNP 27 (rs689) allele and birth length [effect size 17.5 (5.2-29.8) mm; P = 0.004; n = 361]. Significant associations were also found between the maternally inherited African-specific SNP 28 (rs5506) allele and post-natal weight gain [effect size 0.19 (0.05-0.32) z score points/year; P = 0.005; n = 728). These results suggest that in the Gambian population studied there are associations between polymorphic variation in the genetically diverse INS gene and foetal and early growth characteristics, which contribute to overall polygenic associations with these traits.

  1. Genetic parameters for canalisation analysis of litter size and litter weight traits at birth in mice

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    Salgado Concepción

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research was to explore the genetic parameters associated with environmental variability for litter size (LS, litter weight (LW and mean individual birth weight (IW in mice before canalisation. The analyses were conducted on an experimental mice population designed to reduce environmental variability for LS. The analysed database included 1976 records for LW and IW and 4129 records for LS. The total number of individuals included in the analysed pedigree was 3997. Heritabilities estimated for the traits under an initial exploratory approach varied from 0.099 to 0.101 for LS, from 0.112 to 0.148 for LW and from 0.028 to 0.033 for IW. The means of the posterior distribution of the heritability under a Bayesian approach were the following: 0.10 (LS, 0.13 (LW and 0.03 (IW. In general, the heritabilities estimated under the initial exploratory approach for the environmental variability of the analysed traits were low. Genetic correlations estimated between the trait and its variability reached values of -0.929 (LS, -0.815 (LW and 0.969 (IW. The results presented here for the first time in mice may suggest a genetic basis for variability of the evaluated traits, thus opening the possibility to be implemented in selection schemes.

  2. Body size at birth and same-sex marriage in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Zdravkovic, Slobodan

    2010-02-01

    An unexplained excess of overweight has been reported among lesbians. In contrast, reports suggest that gay men may be, on average, slightly lighter and shorter than heterosexual men. We studied associations between weight, length, and body mass index (BMI) at birth and same-sex marriage in young adulthood among 818,671 Danes. We used linear regression to calculate differences in mean body measures at birth and Poisson regression analysis to calculate confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) of same-sex marriage according to body measures at birth. Overall, 739 persons entered same-sex marriage at age 18-32 years during 5.6 million person-years of follow-up. Birth year-adjusted mean body measures at birth were similar for same-sex married and other women. However, same-sex marriage rates were 65% higher among women of heavy birth weight (IRR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.18-2.31, for > or =4000 vs. 3000-3499 g, p = .02), and rates were inversely associated with birth length (p (trend) = .04). For same-sex married men, birth year-adjusted mean weight (-72 g, p = .03), length (-0.3 cm, p = .04), and BMI (-0.1 kg/m(2), p = .09) at birth were lower than for other Danish men. Same-sex marriage rates were increased in men of short birth length (IRR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.08, for same-sex marrying men need replication. Factors affecting intrauterine growth may somehow influence sexual and partner-related choices in adulthood.

  3. Early prenatal food supplementation ameliorates the negative association of maternal stress with birth size in a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Persson, Lars Ake; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-10-01

    Low birthweight increases the risk of infant mortality, morbidity and poor development. Maternal nutrition and stress influence birth size, but their combined effect is not known. We hypothesised that an early-invitation time to start a prenatal food supplementation programme could reduce the negative influence of prenatal maternal stress on birth size, and that effect would differ by infant sex. A cohort of 1041 pregnant women, who had delivered an infant, June 2003-March 2004, was sampled from among 3267 in the randomised controlled trial, Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 weeks gestation, women were randomly assigned an invitation to start food supplements (2.5 MJ d(-1) ; 6 days a week) either early (∼9 weeks gestation; early-invitation group) or at usual start time for the governmental programme (∼20 weeks gestation; usual-invitation group). Morning concentration of cortisol was measured from one saliva sample/woman at 28-32 weeks gestation to assess stress. Birth-size measurements for 90% of infants were collected within 4 days of birth. In a general linear model, there was an interaction between invitation time to start the food supplementation programme and cortisol with birthweight, length and head circumference of male infants, but not female infants. Among the usual-invitation group only, male infants whose mothers had higher prenatal cortisol weighed less than those whose mothers had lower prenatal cortisol. Prenatal food supplementation programmes that begin first trimester may support greater birth size of male infants despite high maternal stress where low birthweight is a public health concern.

  4. Birth mass is the key to understanding the negative correlation between lifespan and body size in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Olbricht, Gayla; Baker, Xavior; Hou, Chen

    2016-12-08

    Larger dog breeds live shorter than the smaller ones, opposite of the mass-lifespan relationship observed across mammalian species. Here we use data from 90 dog breeds and a theoretical model based on the first principles of energy conservation and life history tradeoffs to explain the negative correlation between longevity and body size in dogs. We found that the birth/adult mass ratio of dogs scales negatively with adult size, which is different than the weak interspecific scaling in mammals. Using the model, we show that this ratio, as an index of energy required for growth, is the key to understanding why the lifespan of dogs scales negatively with body size. The model also predicts that the difference in mass-specific lifetime metabolic energy usage between dog breeds is proportional to the difference in birth/adult mass ratio. Empirical data on lifespan, body mass, and metabolic scaling law of dogs strongly supports this prediction.

  5. Does oral polio vaccine at birth affect the size of the thymus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vaccines have an effect on general mortality which goes beyond specific disease protection. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is widely used in low-income countries, but in observational studies in Guinea-Bissau we observed that not receiving OPV at birth...

  6. Generalised Joint Hypermobility in Caucasian Girls with Idiopathic Scoliosis: Relation with Age, Curve Size, and Curve Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Czaprowski

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of generalised joint hypermobility (GJH) in 155 girls with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) (age 9–18 years, mean 13.8 ± 2.3). The control group included 201 healthy girls. The presence of GJH was assessed with Beighton (B) test. GJH was diagnosed in 23.2% of IS girls and in 13.4% of controls (P = 0.02). The prevalence of GJH was significantly (P = 0.01) lower in IS girls aged 16–18 years in comparison with younger individuals. There was no differenc...

  7. Association between biomass fuel use and maternal report of child size at birth - an analysis of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiakumar Nalini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Observational epidemiological studies and a systematic review have consistently shown an association between maternal exposure to biomass smoke and reduced birth weight. Our aim was to further test this hypothesis. Methods We analysed the data from 47,139 most recent singleton births during preceding five years of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey (DHS. Information about birth weight from child health card and/or mothers' recall was analysed. Since birth weight was not recorded for nearly 60% of the reported births, maternal self-report of child's size at birth was used as a proxy. Fuel type was classified as high pollution fuels (wood, straw, animal dung, and crop residues kerosene, coal and charcoal, and low pollution fuels (electricity, liquid petroleum gas (LPG, natural gas and biogas. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were developed using SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure in SAS system. We used three logistic regression models in which child factors, maternal factors and demographic factors were added step-by-step to the main exposure variable. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AORs and their 95% CI were calculated. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Child's birth weight was available for only 19,270 (41% births; 3113 from health card and 16,157 from mothers' recall. For available data, mean birth weight was 2846.5 grams (SD = 684.6. Children born in households using high pollution fuels were 73 grams lighter than those born in households using low pollution fuels (mean birth weight 2883.8 grams versus 2810.7 grams, p Conclusions Use of biomass fuels is associated with child size at birth. Future studies should investigate this association using more direct methods for measurement of exposure to smoke emitted from biomass fuels and birth weight.

  8. Detecting and correcting for family size differences in the study of sexual orientation and fraternal birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The term "fraternal birth order effect" denotes a statistical relation most commonly expressed in one of two ways: Older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later born males or, alternatively, homosexual men tend to have more older brothers than do heterosexual men. The demonstrability of this effect depends partly on the adequate matching of the homosexual and heterosexual study groups with respect to mean family size. If the homosexual group has too many siblings, relative to the heterosexual group, the homosexual group will tend to show the expected excess of older brothers but may also show an excess of other sibling-types (most likely older sisters); if the homosexual group has too few siblings, it will tend not to show a difference in number of older brothers but instead may show a deficiency of other sibling-types (most likely younger brothers and younger sisters). In the first part of this article, these consequences are illustrated with deliberately mismatched groups selected from archived data sets. In the second part, two slightly different methods for transforming raw sibling data are presented. These are intended to produce family-size-corrected variables for each of the four original sibling parameters (older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters). Both versions are shown to render the fraternal birth order effect observable in the deliberately mismatched groups. In the third part of the article, fraternal birth order studies published in the last 5 years were surveyed for failures to find a statistically significant excess of older brothers for the homosexual group. Two such studies were found in the nine examined. In both cases, the collective findings for older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters suggested that the mean family size of the homosexual groups was smaller than that of the heterosexual comparison groups. Furthermore, the individual findings for the four classes of siblings resembled those

  9. Idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Onur; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Scoliosis refers to curves exceeding 10 degrees observed through posterioanterior direct radiography. In fact, the diagnosis for idiopathic scoliosis is accepted to exclude already available causes. The aim of this paper was to review the etiopathogenesis, classification systems and the treatment management of idiopathic scoliosis. A search in the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed) database using the key words 'idiopathic' and 'scoliosis' was performed. For the literature review, papers concerning the etiopathogenesis, classification and treatment were selected among these articles. A search in the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed) database using the key words 'idiopathic' and 'scoliosis' yielded 4518 articles published between 1947 and 2013. The main hypothesis put forward included genetic factors, hormonal factors, bone and connective tissue anomalies. King, Lenke, Coonrad and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) classifications were the main classification systems for idiopathic scoliosis. Exercise, bracing and anterior, posterior or combined surgery when indicated are the choices for the treatment. Every idiopathic scoliosis case has to be managed to its own characteristics. It is the post-operative appearance that the surgeons are perhaps the least interested but the adolescent patients the most interested in. The aim of scoliosis surgery is to restore the spine without neurological deficit.

  10. SECULAR CHANGES IN BIRTH WEIGHTS AND WOMEN'S BODY SIZE IN KRAKÓW AND POZNAŃ (POLAND) DURING THE LAST CENTURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryst, Łukasz; Bilińska, Inez

    2016-06-22

    Changing socioeconomic conditions over the last century have left their mark on neonatal size and final body size of individuals born in those days. The main aim of this study was to investigate how the historical, political and economic changes occurring from the late 19th century to the 2000s have affected the birth weight of newborns. Additionally, changes in weight and body height in the case of young women (potential mothers) were analysed. Data were from two cities in Poland (Kraków and Poznań) covering 15,884 newborns and 3612 women aged 18 years, derived from 1900 to 2010. Despite short-term fluctuations, the results showed significant increasing trends in all studied features. Changes in birth weight were similar in both cities: in Kraków it increased by 184 g (males) and 206 g (females), and in Poznań by 216 g (males) and 120 g (females). Changes in women's body size were also significant, but the level was different depending on place of residence. In the last century, women's body height increased by 8.2 cm in Kraków and by 10.2 cm in Poznań, and their body weight increased by 1 kg and 5 kg respectively. The considered period covered the years of socioeconomic change that occurred as a result of the political system transformation. Crises, periods of prosperity and other factors that determine standard of living and health care have influenced the development of the Polish population's physical features.

  11. Size and Composition of the Lexicon in Prematurely Born Very-Low-Birth-Weight and Full-Term Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Klippi, Anu; Launonen, Kaisa; Munck, Petriina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the aspects of the lexicon in 66 prematurely born very-low-birth-weight and 87 full-term Finnish children at 2;0, studied using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventory". The groups did not differ in vocabulary size. Furthermore, the female advantage in vocabulary size was not seen…

  12. Association of fish and fish liver oil intake in pregnancy with infant size at birth among women of normal weight before pregnancy in a fishing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Birgisdottir, Bryndis E; Halldorsdottir, Sveinbjorg; Geirsson, Reynir T

    2004-09-01

    This 1998 study investigated the association between intake of fish and fish oil during pregnancy and full-term infants' size at birth in an Icelandic fishing community. Healthy women aged 20-40 years of normal weight before pregnancy (body mass index: 19.5-25.5 kg/m(2)) and at 38-43 weeks of gestation were selected randomly. Information on infant size at birth was collected from maternity records. Intake of fish and fish oil in pregnancy was ascertained (n = 491, 80.1%) by using a validated, focused, food frequency questionnaire. Infants of women in the lowest quartile of fish consumption weighed less (p = 0.036), were shorter (p fish. Infants of women in the highest quartile of fish oil intake (> or =1 tablespoon (11 ml)/day), consuming threefold the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A and twofold that of vitamin D, were shorter (p = 0.036) and had a smaller head circumference (p = 0.003) than those of women consuming less. Infant size at birth increased with fish consumption, especially for women in the lower quartiles of consumption. Smaller birth size was linked to the highest levels of fish oil intake. Constituents of fish and fish oil might affect birth size differently depending on the amount consumed.

  13. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  14. An unusual case of idiopathic gingival fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikender S Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic gingival fibromatosisis, a condition of undetermined cause can develop as an isolated disorder, but mostly it is associated with some syndrome. It usually begins at the time of eruption of permanent teeth but can develop with the eruption of deciduous dentition and rarely present at birth. This case report describes an unusual case of non-syndromic generalized idiopathic gingival fibromatosis in a 15-year-old male present since birth. Surgical treatment in the form of ledge and wedge procedure with internal bevel gingivectomy was performed. No recurrence of enlargement was seen after 2 years of follow-up.

  15. Small Birth Size : Cardiovascular and metabolic profile of young adults born SGA who have been treated with growth hormone and young adults born preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E. Breukhoven (Petra)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis doctoral thesis describes cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in children en young adults with a small birth size, either due to being born small for gestational age (SGA) or due to prematurity. For those born SGA with persistent short stature, the short and long-term effects

  16. Idiopathic Scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Idiopathic scoliosis is a structural and lateral curvature of the spine for which a currently recognizable cause has not been found and there is no basic evidence for physical and radiographic pathology. Complications. Scoliosis could be a cause of the back pain, deformities, respiratory and cardiology problems. There is a higher risk for decreasing of bone mineral density. Diagnosis and Management. Physical examination, radiography and stereophotogrametry are used in diag...

  17. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    associated with LBW. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 20 healthy 19-yr-old men with birth weights at 10th percentile or lower for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls, matched for body fat, physical fitness, and whole-body glucose...

  18. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  19. The effect of air pollutants on birth weight in medium-sized towns in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana de Paula Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of air pollution on birth weight in a medium-sized town in the State of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil.METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from live births of mothers residing in São José dos Campos from 2005 to 2009. Data was obtained from the Department of Information and Computing of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Air pollutant data (PM10, SO2, and O3 and daily averages of their concentrations were obtained from the Environmental Sanitation & Technology Company. Statistical analysis was performed by linear and logistic regressions using the Excel and STATA v.7 software programs.RESULTS: Maternal exposure to air pollutants was not associated with low birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.00-1.56. Maternal exposure to PM10 and SO2 during the last month of pregnancy led to lower weight at birth (0.28g and 3.15g, respectively for each 1mg/m3 increase in the concentration of these pollutants, but without statistical significance.CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to identify a statistically significant association between the levels of air pollutants and birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy.

  20. Postnatal changes in adrenal size in very low-birth-weight infants: sonographic evaluation for the prediction of late-onset glucocorticoid-responsive circulatory collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Shigeo; Uga, Naoki; Ohzeki, Takehiko

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the postnatal pattern of changes in adrenal size in very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants and its relation to late-onset glucocorticoid-responsive circulatory collapse (LGCC) that may be associated with adrenal insufficiency. In 36 VLBW infants born at birth and unchanged at 3 weeks; group B (N = 24), the actual adrenal area was greater than or equal to the predicted value and decreased at 3 weeks; and group C (N = 6), the actual adrenal area was less than the predicted value and unchanged at 3 weeks. Five infants developed LGCC, and all five were in group A. These observations suggest that the life of the adrenal fetal zone might be extended beyond 3 weeks after birth in some VLBW infants and that prolonged fetal zone activity might correlate with LGCC. On the other hand, adrenal maturation might have already occurred at birth in some VLBW infants. Sonographic evaluation of adrenal size may enable prediction of subsequent LGCC in VLBW infants.

  1. Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Ivar Brox

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic scoliosis (IS is a lifetime condition and is defined as a structural, lateral rotated curvature of the spine of >10° on standing coronal plane radiographs. It should be distinguished from other causes of scoliosis. It can be classified as infantile, juvenile, and adolescent according to age. As a rule of thumb, about 80% of all curves are idiopathic, right convex thoracic, and present in otherwise healthy girls at the beginning of puberty. A family member most commonly detects scoliosis. The structural asymmetry of the spine is best observed by asking the patient to bend forward. IS is often seen in more than one member of a family, but the aetiology remains unknown. Multiple genes are likely to be involved with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Early detection by screening allows for monitoring curve progression and timely initiation of bracing, but school screening is controversial and practises vary worldwide. Most patients have minor scoliosis and treatment is generally not recommended for patients with curves 45°. Scoliosis surgery was not successful until the introduction of Harrington’s instrumentation in the 1960s. Modern instrumentation has evolved from the Cotrel-Dubousset system in the 1980s, and a variety of methods are available today. Although scoliosis may be a burden, long-term studies suggest that a good quality of life is maintained in most patients.

  2. Pregnancy in Sickle Cell-Haemoglobin C (SC) Disease, A Retrospective Study of Birth Size and Maternal Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thame, Minerva M.; Singh-Minott, Indira; Osmond, Clive; Melbourne-Chambers, Roxanne H.; Serjeant, Graham R

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess pregnancy and fetal outcomes in Jamaican subjects with sickle cell-haemoglobin C (SC) disease. Study Design A retrospective chart review over 21 years (1992-2012) of all pregnancies in SC disease and a comparison group matched by gender and date of delivery in mothers with a normal haemoglobin (AA) phenotype at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. There were 118 pregnancies in 81 patients with SC disease and 110 pregnancies in 110 in the normal comparison group. Corrections were made for repeat pregnancies from the same mother. Outcome measures included maternal weight at 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks gestation, maternal pregnancy complications, birth weight, head circumference and crown heel length and were used to analyse possible predictors of birth weight. Results First antenatal visits occurred later in women with SC disease, who also had lower haemoglobin level and lower systolic blood pressure. The prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia, ante-partum or postpartum haemorrhage did not differ between genotypes. Maternal weight gain was significantly lower in SC disease and there was a significantly lower birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age. Conclusions Pregnancy in SC disease is generally benign but mothers had lower weight gain and lower birth weight babies, the difference persisting after correction for gestational age. PMID:27235631

  3. Association between Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Birth Size Measures in a Diverse Population in Southern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyoán Colón-Ramos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased interest in promoting nutrition during pregnancy, the association between maternal dietary patterns and birth outcomes has been equivocal. We examined maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy as a determinant of offspring’s birth weight-for-length (WLZ, weight-for-age (WAZ, length-for-age (LAZ, and head circumference (HCZ Z-scores in Southern United States (n = 1151. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by seven dietary patterns. Multivariable linear regression models described the association of WLZ, WAZ, LAZ, and HCZ with diet patterns controlling for other maternal and child characteristics. In bivariate analyses, WAZ and HCZ were significantly lower for processed and processed-Southern compared to healthy dietary patterns, whereas LAZ was significantly higher for these patterns. In the multivariate models, mothers who consumed a healthy-processed dietary pattern had children with significantly higher HCZ compared to the ones who consumed a healthy dietary pattern (HCZ β: 0.36; p = 0.019. No other dietary pattern was significantly associated with any of the birth outcomes. Instead, the major outcome determinants were: African American race, pre-pregnancy BMI, and gestational weight gain. These findings justify further investigation about socio-environmental and genetic factors related to race and birth outcomes in this population.

  4. Association between Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Birth Size Measures in a Diverse Population in Southern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Racette, Susan B.; Ganiban, Jody; Nguyen, Thuy G.; Kocak, Mehmet; Carroll, Kecia N.; Völgyi, Eszter; Tylavsky, Frances A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased interest in promoting nutrition during pregnancy, the association between maternal dietary patterns and birth outcomes has been equivocal. We examined maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy as a determinant of offspring’s birth weight-for-length (WLZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and head circumference (HCZ) Z-scores in Southern United States (n = 1151). Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by seven dietary patterns. Multivariable linear regression models described the association of WLZ, WAZ, LAZ, and HCZ with diet patterns controlling for other maternal and child characteristics. In bivariate analyses, WAZ and HCZ were significantly lower for processed and processed-Southern compared to healthy dietary patterns, whereas LAZ was significantly higher for these patterns. In the multivariate models, mothers who consumed a healthy-processed dietary pattern had children with significantly higher HCZ compared to the ones who consumed a healthy dietary pattern (HCZ β: 0.36; p = 0.019). No other dietary pattern was significantly associated with any of the birth outcomes. Instead, the major outcome determinants were: African American race, pre-pregnancy BMI, and gestational weight gain. These findings justify further investigation about socio-environmental and genetic factors related to race and birth outcomes in this population. PMID:25690420

  5. Evaluation of F1 calves sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls for birth, growth, size, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    1996-05-01

    Birth (n = 308), weaning (n = 291), feedlot and carcass (n = 142), and yearling heifer traits (n = 139) were evaluated in F1 calves sired by Brahman (BR), Boran (BO), and Tuli (TU) bulls and born to multiparous Hereford and Angus cows. Calves sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman crosses had larger (P Brahman F1 heifers had larger (P carcass quality traits, but not for carcass yield traits, among these three breeds.

  6. Differences in pup birth weight, pup variability within litters, and dam weight of mice selected for alternative criteria to increase litter size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, M A; Nielsen, M K; Ribeiro, E L

    1995-07-01

    Selection for litter size had been practiced for 21 generations and relaxed selection for 13 generations in mice. Three replicates were used with four selection criteria: index of components (ovulation rate and ova success), uterine capacity, litter size, and an unselected control. Especially with selection for litter size and the index relative to the control, number of pups born had increased, and differences also occurred in mating weight. Dams of the three replicates and their litters were used to evaluate the effects of accumulated selection on pup birth weight, variability in weight of littermates, and dam's weight at mating and after littering. Total number born, number born alive, number of males, and number of females were also recorded and studied. Mean pup birth weight did not differ among the criteria; however, variability among littermates in pup weight tended to differ among criteria of selection. Regressions for pup weight and within-litter standard deviation of pup weight on number born were small and negative but significant (P litter was normal for 77.2% of the litters, with no differences among the criteria. The difference between weight of male and weight of female pups was significant (P littering weight; however, the maternal weight gain between mating and littering was not different among criteria. Number born differed (P < .003) among the criteria, but there was no significant difference among criteria in numbers of males and females.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. The C9ORF72 expansion sizes in patients with psychosis: a population-based study on the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solje, Eino; Miettunen, Jouko; Marttila, Riikka; Helisalmi, Seppo; Laitinen, Marjo; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Isohanni, Matti; Hiltunen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Remes, Anne M

    2016-04-01

    Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) have many psychotic symptoms, especially at the onset of the disease. The C9ORF72 expansion is the most common genetic etiology observed with bvFTD and the prevalence of the expansion is notably high among Finnish bvFTD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion among the clearly characterized patients with psychosis, mainly schizophrenia, in early midlife. The C9ORF72 repeat sizes were analyzed in 130 (48% women) patients with psychosis from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N=11,017), the mean onset age being 27.9 (SD 7.0) years. Despite the high frequency of psychiatric symptoms in bvFTD patients and the extremely high prevalence of the C9ORF72 expansion in Finland, pathogenic expansion (>40 repeats) was not detected among the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 individuals with psychosis, indicating that these disorders, especially schizophrenia before the age of 43 years, may not be associated with the C9ORF72 expansion. However, we identified four cases with intermediate size repeats (17-26), but the role of the intermediate repeats in the etiology of psychosis is unknown.

  8. Genetic determinism for within-litter birth weight variation and its relationship with litter weight and litter size in the Ripollesa ewe breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, J; Caja, G; Piedrafita, J

    2007-06-01

    Birth weight plays a central role in lamb survival and growth, and the knowledge of its genetic determinism has become essential in worldwide selection programmes. Within this context, within-litter birth weight variation (BWV) has been suggested as an attractive trait to homogenise litters in prolific species, although it has not been analysed in sheep. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether maternal additive genetic variance exists for BWV in Ripollesa ewes, and to study its genetic, permanent environmental and residual relationships with litter weight (LW) and litter size (LS) at birth. Data were recorded in the Ripollesa experimental flock of the Universitat Autònoma of Barcelona, between 1986 and 2005, and included 1 662 litters from 380 ewes, with 712 records of BWV and 1 530 records of LW. Traits were analysed with a multivariate animal model solved through Bayesian methodologies, and with a threshold characterisation of LS. Additionally, the effect of BWV on lamb survival was studied. Additive genetic variance was observed for BWV (h2 = 0.061), as well as for LW (h2 = 0.200) and LS (h2 = 0.141). Nevertheless, genetic correlations among those traits were not substantial (BWV and LW = 0.151; BWV and LS = - 0.219; LW and LS = - 0.320) and suffered from a high degree of uncertainly, with the null correlation included within the highest posterior interval at 95%. Within-litter birth weight variation and LS showed a negative and large permanent environmental correlation ( - 0.872), and LW and LS were negatively correlated due to residual ( - 0.762) and permanent environmental ( - 0.449) random sources of variation. Within-litter birth weight variation influenced lamb mortality during the first 7 days of life (P 0.05). The low heritability found indicates that slow genetic progress may be expected from selecting for BWV. Close to zero genetic correlations suggest that this selection will probably not affect LS and LW, although

  9. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  10. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  11. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women.

  12. Maternal malaria, birth size and blood pressure in Nigerian newborns: insights into the developmental origins of hypertension from the Ibadan growth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola O Ayoola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an increasing health issue in sub-Saharan Africa where malaria remains common in pregnancy. We established a birth cohort in Nigeria to evaluate the early impact of maternal malaria on newborn blood pressure (BP. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements, BP, blood films for malaria parasites and haematocrit were obtained in 436 mother-baby pairs. Women were grouped to distinguish between the timing of malaria parasitaemia as 'No Malaria', 'Malaria during pregnancy only' or 'Malaria at delivery', and parasite density as low (<1000 parasites/µl of blood and high (≥ 1000/µl. RESULTS: Prevalence of maternal malaria parasitaemia was 48%, associated with younger maternal age (p<0.001, being primigravid (p = 0.022, lower haematocrit (p = 0.028. High parasite density through pregnancy had the largest effect on mean birth indices so that weight, length, head and mid-upper arm circumferences were smaller by 300 g, 1.1 cm, 0.7 cm and 0.4 cm respectively compared with 'No malaria' (all p ≤ 0.005. In babies of mothers who had 'malaria at delivery', their SBPs adjusted for other confounders were lower respectively by 4.3 and 5.7 mmHg/kg compared with 'malaria during pregnancy only' or 'none'. In contrast the mean newborn systolic (SBP and diastolic BPs (DBP adjusted for birth weight were higher by 1.7 and 1.4 mmHg/kg respectively in babies whose mothers had high compared with low parasitaemia. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, prenatal malarial exposure had a significant impact on fetal growth rates. Malaria at delivery was associated with the lowest newborn BPs while malaria through pregnancy, which may attenuate growth of the vascular network, generated higher newborn BPs adjusted for size. These neonatal findings have potential implications for cardiovascular health in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Selectively Reduced Posterior Corpus Callosum Size in a Population-Based Sample of Young Adults Born with Low Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aukland, S M; Westerhausen, R; Plessen, K J

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several studies suggest that VLBW is associated with a reduced CC size later in life. We aimed to clarify this in a prospective, controlled study of 19-year-olds, hypothesizing that those with LBWs had smaller subregions of CC than the age-matched controls, even after...

  14. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hoppe, Tine Ursula

    2013-01-01

    (P age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P = 0.001). Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and contract......Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti), T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared...... to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P = 0.56). At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control infants...

  15. Do mothers prefer helpers or smaller litters? Birth sex ratio and litter size adjustment in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Rebecca A; Fletcher, Alison W

    2015-02-01

    Sex allocation theory has been a remarkably productive field in behavioral ecology with empirical evidence regularly supporting quantitative theoretical predictions. Across mammals in general and primates in particular, however, support for the various hypotheses has been more equivocal. Population-level sex ratio biases have often been interpreted as supportive, but evidence for small-scale facultative adjustment has rarely been found. The helper repayment (HR) also named the local resource enhancement (LRE) hypothesis predicts that, in cooperatively breeding species, mothers invest more in the sex which assists with rearing future offspring and that this bias will be more pronounced in mothers who require extra assistance (i.e., due to inexperience or a lack of available alloparents). We tested these hypotheses in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) utilizing the international studbook and birth records obtained through a questionnaire from ISIS-registered institutions. Infant sex, litter size, mother's age, parity, and group composition (presence of nonreproductive subordinate males and females) were determined from these records. The HR hypothesis was supported over the entire population, which was significantly biased toward males (the "helpful" sex). We found little support for helper repayment at the individual level, as primiparous females and those in groups without alloparents did not exhibit more extreme tendencies to produce male infants. Primiparous females were, however, more likely to produce singleton litters. Singleton births were more likely to be male, which suggests that there may be an interaction between litter size adjustment and sex allocation. This may be interpreted as supportive of the HR hypothesis, but alternative explanations at both the proximate and ultimate levels are possible. These possibilities warrant further consideration when attempting to understand the ambiguous results of primate sex ratio studies so far.

  16. Normal sizes of internal jugular veins in children/adolescents aged birth to 18 years at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eksioglu, Ayse Secil, E-mail: yucelsecil@yahoo.com [Dr. Sami Ulus Women and Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Babür Caddesi No:4, 06080 Altındağ, Ankara (Turkey); Tasci Yildiz, Yasemin, E-mail: ytasciyildizl@yahoo.com [Dr. Sami Ulus Women and Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Babür Caddesi No:4, 06080 Altındağ, Ankara (Turkey); Senel, Saliha, E-mail: drsaliha007@yahoo.com.tr [Dr. Sami Ulus Women and Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Babür Caddesi No:4, 06080 Altındağ, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-04-15

    Objectives: We aimed to establish normal ultrasonographic (US) values of internal jugular vein (IJV) sizes in children/adolescents aged birth to 18 years and to determine the correlation of US measurements with age, height, weight and body surface area (BSA) of children in different age groups. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-six healthy children (0–18 years) were divided into four groups according to their age (0–2, 3–6, 7–12, and 13–18 years). US measurements (transverse, anteroposterior diameter, and cross-sectional area at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver) of bilateral IJVs were taken at the level of cricoid cartilage. Results: Our study gives information about the reference values in children between birth to 18 years of age. There were significant differences between measurements taken at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver in all age groups. Moderate to strong correlations (clinically significant) between age, height and BSA of the subjects and IJV measurements were detected only in the 0–2 years age group. The strength of the correlations decreased with increasing age. Pearson's correlation revealed that height had the strongest and weight had the weakest correlation with US measurements. ‘Height’ was an independent variable on the right, and ‘age’ on the left side, except for rest CSA, when a regression analysis was performed for clinically significant correlations. Conclusions: Determination of normal reference values for US measurements of the IJV and knowledge of correlation with age, height, weight and BSA might be valuable during interventional procedures and for the diagnosis of phlebectasia in children/adolescents.

  17. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is born too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy have been completed. In 2015, preterm birth affected about 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States. Preterm birth rates decreased from 2007 to 2014, and CDC research shows ...

  18. Idiopathic Retroperitoneal Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Abe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old female presented with sudden onset of severe abdominal pain in a flank distribution. A large mass was palpable in the right upper quadrant on physical examination. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a well-defined, right-sided, retroperitoneal cystic lesion located between the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena cava (IVC. The tumor size was 55 × 58 mm, and it compressed the gallbladder and the duodenum. Upper gastrointestinal radiography revealed a stricture of the second portion of the duodenum by the tumor. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed that the whole part was hyperintense with hypointense rims, but the inner was partially hypointense. Based on the radiological findings, the preoperative differential diagnosis included retroperitoneal teratoma, Schwannoma, abscess, and primary retroperitoneal tumor. On laparotomy, the tumor was located in the right retroperitoneal cavity. Kocher maneuver and medial visceral rotation, which consists of medial reflection of the upper part of right colon and duodenum by incising their lateral peritoneal attachments, were performed. Although a slight adhesion to the IVC was detected, the tumor was removed safely. Thin-section histopathology examination detected neither tumor tissues nor any tissues such as adrenal gland, ovarian tissue, or endometrial implants. The final pathological diagnosis was idiopathic retroperitoneal hematoma; the origin of the bleeding was unclear. The patient was discharged without any complication 5 days after the operation.

  19. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Ekinci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is called idiopathic when no other underlying disease can be identified. The etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS is still unknown despite many years of research effort. Theories on AIS's etiology have included mechanical, hormonal, metabolic, neuromuscular, growth, and genetic abnormalities. Skeletally immature patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are at risk of curve progression. The adolescent onset of severe idiopathic scoliosis has traditionally been evaluated using standing posteroanterior radiographs of the full spine to assess lateral curvature with the Cobb method. Scoliosis in children of school age and above primarily occurs in girls. The therapeutic goal in children is to prevent progression. In children, scoliosis of 20 and deg; or more should be treated with a brace, and scoliosis of 45 and deg; or more with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 174-182

  20. Review of idiopathic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of pancreatitis and advances in technology have uncovered the veils of idiopathic pancreatitis to a point where a thorough history and judicious use of diagnostic techniques elucidate the cause in over 80% of cases. This review examines the multitude of etiologies of what were once labeled idiopathic pancreatitis and provides the current evidence on each. This review begins with a background review of the current epidemiology of idiopathic pancreatitis prior to discussion of various etiologies. Etiologies of medications, infections, toxins,autoimmune disorders, vascular causes, and anatomic and functional causes are explored in detail. We conclude with management of true idiopathic pancreatitis and a summary of the various etiologic agents. Throughout this review, areas of controversies are highlighted.

  1. Self-reported weight at birth predicts measures of femoral size but not volumetric BMD in eldery men: MrOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, M Kassim; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Lui, Li-Yung; Cawthon, Peggy; Arden, Nigel K; Lang, Thomas; Lane, Nancy E; Orwoll, Eric; Barrett-Conner, Elizabeth; Nevitt, Michael C; Cooper, Cyrus; Cummings, Steven R

    2011-08-01

    The mechanism whereby poor intrauterine growth increases risk of adult hip fracture is unclear. We report the association between birth weight and proximal femoral geometry and density in community-dwelling elderly men. We used self-reported birth weight, measured adult height and weight and proximal femoral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements of femoral neck axis length, cross-sectional area, and volumetric BMD (vBMD) among the participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS), a cohort study of community-dwelling US men aged 65 and older. We compared men with birth weight <7 pounds (lower birth weight [LBW]; n = 501) and ≥ 9 pounds (higher birth weight [HBW]; n = 262) with those weighing 7-8.9 pounds (medium birth weight [MBW], referent group; n = 1068) using linear regression adjusting for current age, height, and BMI. The mean age of the 1831 men who had both birth weight and QCT measurements was 73 years (SD 5.9). Compared with the referent MBW, HBW men had concordantly longer femoral neck (+0.16 SD; p = .028) and cross-sectional area (+0.24 SD, p = .001). LBW men had a smaller cross-sectional (-0.26 SD, p < .001) but longer femoral neck for their height (+0.11 SD, p = .05). Neither cortical nor trabecular vBMD at the femoral neck was associated with birth weight. These findings support the hypothesis that the skeletal envelope, but not density, is set, in part, at birth. Further research exploring the association between early developmental factors and lifetime fracture risk is needed and may inform primary preventative strategies for fracture prevention.

  2. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  3. Birth Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study ... lying in an abnormal position in the uterus before birth. Overall, the rate of birth injuries is much lower now than in previous decades because of improved ...

  4. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  5. Severe idiopathic hypocalcemia in a juvenile western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Stones, Greeley; Jalil, Tania

    2012-03-01

    A 6-mo-old, male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was evaluated because of tetany of both hands. The gorilla had alternating periods of constipation, diarrhea, and bloating since birth. A diagnosis of idiopathic hypocalcemia was based on severe hypocalcemia, a normal vitamin D level, response to oral calcium and vitamin D therapy, and eventual resolution. Idiopathic hypocalcemia, an uncommon disease in neonatal humans, should be considered in young gorillas with persistent gastrointestinal problems or acute tetany.

  6. Idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwica, Tomasz; Szumarska, Joanna; Staniszewska-Marszalek, Edyta; Mazurek, Walentyna; Kosmala, Wojciech

    2009-05-01

    Pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) is an uncommon lesion, which may be associated with different etiologies including congenital cardiovascular diseases, systemic vasculitis, connective tissue diseases, infections, and trauma. Idiopathic PAA is sporadically diagnosed by exclusion of concomitant major pathology. We report a case of a 56-year-old female with an idiopathic pulmonary artery dilatation identified fortuitously by echocardiography and confirmed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Neither significant pulmonary valve dysfunction nor pulmonary hypertension and other cardiac abnormalities which might contribute to the PAA development were found. Here, we describe echocardiographic and computed tomography findings and review the literature on PAA management.

  7. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prakken, Berent; Albani, Salvatore; Martini, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterised by arthritis of unknown origin with onset before age of 16 years. Pivotal studies in the past 5 years have led to substantial progress in various areas, ranging from disease classification to new treatments. Gene expres

  8. Idiopathic atrophie blanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Lauretta; Chiarini, Caterina; Berti, Samantha; Massi, Daniela; Fabbri, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of purpuric lesions followed by superficial, painful ulcers and development of lesions on the lower legs and on the dorsa of the feet, particularly in the summer. The patient was asymptomatic during the winter months. On physical examination she had irregular, scleroatrophic, white-ivory, coalescent lesions on a livedoid basis, with purpuric and, in some lesions, pigmented borders with numerous telangiectatic capillaries. These lesions were localized on the medial sides of the lower legs and on the dorsa of the feet (Figure 1). Laboratory investigations were normal or negative, including complete blood cell count, platelets, coagulation indexes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum immunoglobulins, antinuclear antibodies, anti-double-stranded DNA, anticardiolipin, antiphospholipids, antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies, circulating immunocomplexes, complement fractions (C3, C4), cryoglobulins, rheumatoid factor, and Rose-Waaler reaction. The only laboratory abnormality was an elevated fibrinogen level (472 mg/dL). Doppler velocimetry excluded a chronic venous insufficiency. Thoracic x-ray and abdominal ultrasound were normal. A digital photoplethysmograph revealed functional Raynaud's phenomenon. A biopsy specimen taken from a purpuric lesion showed an atrophic epidermis with parakeratosis and focal spongiosis. An increased number of small-sized vessels were observed within a sclerotic dermis. Most of the vessels in the upper dermis were dilated and showed endothelial swelling; some were occluded due to amorphous hyaline microthrombi (Figure 2). There were fibrinoid deposits around the vessels with thickening of the vessel walls. Extravasated erythrocytes were found throughout the upper and mid-dermis. There was a sparse perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate but no vasculitis. Direct immunofluorescence showed a perivascular microgranular deposit of IgM (+), C3 (++), and fibrinogen/fibrin (+++). On the basis of

  9. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  11. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” ...

  12. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheál Breen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE in a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute scrotal pain and erythema. The clinical features, ultrasound appearance, and natural history of this rare diagnosis are reviewed. In this report, we highlight the importance of good ultrasound technique in differentiating the etiology of the acute scrotum and demonstrate the color Doppler “Fountain Sign” that is highly suggestive of AISE.

  13. Nutrition and Oxidative Parameters in Pregnancy, Size at Birth and Metabolic Status of the Offspring at 4.5 Years : The MINIMat Trial in Rural Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Undernutrition and oxidative stress in fetal life and infancy may lead to adverse health outcomes in the offspring. We studied nutrition and oxidative parameters in pregnancy and their associations with birth anthropometry and metabolic status in the children. In Matlab in rural Bangladesh, women were randomized to either early (Early) invitation to food supplementation or to start at their own liking (Usual). Women were also allocated to either; 1) 60 mg iron and 400 µg folic acid (Fe60F), 2...

  14. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  15. Idiopathic gingival enlargement and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase in the size of gingiva referred to as "gingival enlargement," usually overfills the interproximal spaces, ballooning out over the teeth and sometimes even protruding into the oral cavity. It may occur as localized enlargement in relation to a single tooth, a group of teeth, or may be generalized involving the entire dentition. It is multifactorial in origin having the influence of bacterial plaque, systemic factors or conditions, genetic predisposition (hereditary or familial, and various medications. Sometimes, it may appear as diffuse enlargement of gingiva without any specific etiologic factor. It is then considered as idiopathic enlargement. In this case report, an idiopathic gingival enlargement was successfully treated using gingivectomy by ledge and wedge procedure. The surgical technique performed yielded functionally as well as esthetically satisfying results. Gingivectomy provides a viable option to manage diffuse enlargement cases. This procedure provides the functional as well as esthetic demands and at the same time, it maintains the integrity of periodontium.

  16. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These range from how you hope to handle pain relief to fetal monitoring. Think about the environment in which you ... include in your birth plan are preferences about fetal monitoring, extra ... during labor. Pain management. This is important for most women and ...

  17. Idiopathic venous thromboembolism and thrombophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinescu, C; Hostiuc, M; Bartos, D.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade idiopathic venous thromboembolism has become a separate entity, a chronic illness which has required prolonged anticoagulation and other prevention strategies to avoid recurrences. This article reviews recent developments regarding unprovoked venous thromboembolism and its relation with thrombophilia. In the beginning, the latest definition of idiopathic venous thromboembolism is presented. The article continues with statistics about thrombophilia, related venous thromb...

  18. Hypercalcemia in idiopathic myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, A; Schmidt, K; Hasselbalch, H;

    1992-01-01

    A case of idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) presenting with hypercalcemia and hypercalcitriolemia is reported. It is proposed that ectopic production of the active vitamin D metabolite related to ongoing clonal expansion in the bone marrow accounts for the hypercalcemic state. Consistently low level...... of circulating type I procollagen propeptide (PICP) and lack of progression of the bone marrow fibrosis during almost 6 months of follow-up point to an in vivo inhibition of type I collagen synthesis by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3....

  19. [Idiopathic progressive subglottic stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittel, C

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic subglottic stenosis is causing a narrowing of the central airway at the laryngotracheal junction. Etiology is remaining unclear at large. There is a marked preponderance for women in the fertile age, an association to estrogene or progesterone metabolism remains doubtful. Suggested treatment varies from repeated endoscopic interventions to primary open resection. Therapy selection in this heterogeneous condition should be based on the individual patient situation as well as surgeon's expertise. This complex entity is prone to complications and should preferably be managed in a referral center.

  20. Idiopathic granulomatous orchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Somak; Hooda, Shveta; Parwani, Anil V

    2011-05-15

    Idiopathic granulomatous orchitis is a rare inflammatory process of the testis of unknown etiology. It is characterized by presence of non-specific granulomatous inflammation and admixed multinucleated giant cells. It usually presents as a testicular mass which is highly suspicious of malignancy. Histologically, there is extensive destruction of seminiferous tubules with tubular or interstitial pattern of granulomatous inflammation and prominent collagen fibrosis. Trauma and possible auto-antibodies against sperms have been postulated to be the underlying mechanism. Differential diagnoses include intratubular germ-cell neoplasia, malignant lymphomas, and malakoplakia. Orchiectomy is currently the most appropriate therapy for this condition.

  1. Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Hemchandra Dani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis (IGF is a rare hereditary condition characterized by slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of maxillary and mandibular keratinized gingiva caused by increase in submucosal connective tissue elements, mostly associated with some syndrome. This case report describes a case of nonsyndromic generalized IGF in an 18-year-old male patient who presented with generalized gingival enlargement. The enlarged tissue was surgically removed by internal bevel gingivectomy and ledge and wedge procedure. The patient was regularly monitored clinically for improvement in his periodontal condition as well as for any recurrence of gingival overgrowth.

  2. Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Nitin Hemchandra; Khanna, Dinkar Parveen; Bhatt, Vaibhavi Hitesh; Joshi, Chaitanya Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis (IGF) is a rare hereditary condition characterized by slowly progressive, nonhemorrhagic, fibrous enlargement of maxillary and mandibular keratinized gingiva caused by increase in submucosal connective tissue elements, mostly associated with some syndrome. This case report describes a case of nonsyndromic generalized IGF in an 18-year-old male patient who presented with generalized gingival enlargement. The enlarged tissue was surgically removed by internal bevel gingivectomy and ledge and wedge procedure. The patient was regularly monitored clinically for improvement in his periodontal condition as well as for any recurrence of gingival overgrowth. PMID:26941525

  3. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of this article are to characterize the headache in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and to field-test the ICHD diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to IIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 44 patients with new-onset IIH. Thirty-four patients with suspected but u...... tinnitus may suggest intracranial hypertension. Based on data from a well-defined IIH cohort, we propose a revision of the ICDH-3 beta diagnostic criteria with improved clinical applicability and increased sensitivity and specificity....

  4. Does the Size of the Effect of Adverse Events at High Ages on Daily-Life Physical Functioning Depend on the Economic Conditions Around Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Robert; van den Berg, Gerard J; Lindeboom, Maarten; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers determinants of physical functional limitations in daily-life activities at high ages. Specifically, we quantify the extent to which the impact of adverse life events on this outcome is larger in case of exposure to adverse economic conditions early in life. Adverse life events include bereavement, severe illness in the family, and the onset of chronic diseases. We use a longitudinal data set of individuals born in the first decades of the 20th century. The business cycle around birth is used as an indicator of economic conditions early in life. We find that the extent to which functional limitations suffer from the onset of chronic diseases is larger if the individual was born in a recession. The long-run effect of economic conditions early in life on functional limitations at high ages runs primarily via this life event. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa H Bhatt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA is the most chronic musculoskeletal disease of pediatric population. The chronic course of disease has a great impact on oral health. Temporomandibular joint is involved in JIA causing limited mouth opening with progressive open bite, retrognathia, microgenia and bird like appearance. Joints of upper and lower extremities are also involved. Effect on upper limb function leads to difficulty with fine motor movements required for brushing and flossing. This increases incidence of caries and periodontal disease in children. The cause of JIA is still poorly understood and none of the available drugs for JIA can cure the disease. However, prognosis has improved as a result of progress in disease classification and management. The dental practitioner should be familiar with the symptoms and oral manifestations of JIA to help manage as multidisciplinary management is essential.

  7. Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basant R. Nassar BS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH is a potentially reversible neurodegenerative disease commonly characterized by a triad of dementia, gait, and urinary disturbance. Advancements in diagnosis and treatment have aided in properly identifying and improving symptoms in patients. However, a large proportion of iNPH patients remain either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Using PubMed search engine of keywords “normal pressure hydrocephalus,” “diagnosis,” “shunt treatment,” “biomarkers,” “gait disturbances,” “cognitive function,” “neuropsychology,” “imaging,” and “pathogenesis,” articles were obtained for this review. The majority of the articles were retrieved from the past 10 years. The purpose of this review article is to aid general practitioners in further understanding current findings on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of iNPH.

  8. Idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquino, A M; Albanese, A; Bozzola, M; Butler, G E; Buzi, F; Cherubini, V; Chiarelli, F; Cavallo, L; Drop, S L; Stanhope, R; Kelnar, C J

    2001-07-01

    Idiopathic short stature (ISS) is a term used to describe the status of children with short stature that cannot be attributed to a specific cause. Many children diagnosed as having ISS have partial GH insensitivity, which can result from disturbances at various points of the GH-IGF-I axis. Several clinical studies on spontaneous growth in ISS showed that adult height was almost in the range of target height. GH treatment led to adult height not significantly higher than the pretreatment predicted adult height in most reports. No metabolic side effects have been observed, even when the dose was higher than in GH deficiency. Manipulation of puberty with gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues reported by a few authors in a small number of children has shown conflicting results. Long-term psychological benefits of GH therapy for short normal children have not been demonstrated to date.

  9. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon.

  10. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, Troels

    2002-08-19

    The new classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is described in this review. Clinical characteristics divide JIA in to subtypes: systemic, oligoarticular (persistent and extended type), RF-positive and--negative polyarticular, enthesitis-related arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. In addition to the clinical characteristics, genetic and biochemical differences suggest that JIA could be regarded as a general term covering various diseases. Complications described are uveitis, temporomandibular joint affection and growth disturbances. The therapeutic strategy should be planned individually according to age, subtype and disease activity and carried out as teamwork with several specialties. Drugs showing significant effectiveness in controlled studies are primarily methotrexate and sulphasalazine. An immunomodulating agent, etanercept, a soluble TNF alpha-receptor fusion protein, has shown a promising effect in severe polyarticular JIA refractory to methotrexate treatment.

  11. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Kayal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP is defined as a hematologic disorder, characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia without a clinically apparent cause. The major causes of accelerated platelet consumption include immune thrombocytopenia, decreased bone marrow production, and increased splenic sequestration. The clinical presentation may be acute with severe bleeding, or insidious with slow development with mild or no symptoms. The initial laboratory tests useful at the first visit to predict future diagnosis were erythrocyte count, leukocyte count, anti-glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antibodies, reticulated platelets, plasma thrombopoietin level. Treatment should be restricted to those patients with moderate or severe thrombocytopenia who are bleeding or at risk of bleeding. We present a case report on ITP with clinical presentation, diagnosis and management.

  12. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: treatment update.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-11-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Despite multiple recent clinical trials, there is no strong evidence supporting a survival advantage for any agent in the management of patients with IPF. The limited effectiveness of current treatment regimes has led to a search for novel therapies including antifibrotic strategies. This article reviews the evidence supporting the treatments currently used in the management of IPF.

  13. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...... that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas...

  14. Idiopathic Scrotal Hematoma in Neonate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bioku Muftau Jimoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal scrotal hematoma is a rare genitourinary emergency. Some cases have underlining aetiologic factors such as testicular torsion, adrenal hemorrhage, or birth trauma, and others are idiopathic. Previously, immediate scrotal exploration was considered imperative for diagnosis and treatment. With good imaging techniques, some patients are managed nonoperatively. We report a case of idiopathic scrotal hematoma in a neonate. He was managed conservatively with clinical and radiological follow-up. There was complete resolution of hematoma within two months, thus, avoiding unnecessary exploration.

  15. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  16. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 467 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  17. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  18. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... System Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  19. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Eric B; Noble, Paul W

    2008-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000) than in women (13.2/100,000). The mean age at presentation is 66 years. IPF initially manifests with symptoms of exercise-induced breathless and dry coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals early inspiratory crackles, predominantly located in the lower posterior lung zones upon physical exam. Clubbing is found in approximately 50% of IPF patients. Cor pulmonale develops in association with end-stage disease. In that case, classic signs of right heart failure may be present. Etiology remains incompletely understood. Some environmental factors may be associated with IPF (cigarette smoking, exposure to silica and livestock). IPF is recognized on high-resolution computed tomography by peripheral, subpleural lower lobe reticular opacities in association with subpleural honeycomb changes. IPF is associated with a pathological lesion known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The UIP pattern consists of normal lung alternating with patches of dense fibrosis, taking the form of collagen sheets. The diagnosis of IPF requires correlation of the clinical setting with radiographic images and a lung biopsy. In the absence of lung biopsy, the diagnosis of IPF can be made by defined clinical criteria that were published in guidelines endorsed by several professional societies. Differential diagnosis includes other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis), forme fruste of autoimmune disorders, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other environmental (sometimes occupational) exposures. IPF is typically progressive and leads to significant disability. The median

  20. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Paul W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000 than in women (13.2/100,000. The mean age at presentation is 66 years. IPF initially manifests with symptoms of exercise-induced breathless and dry coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals early inspiratory crackles, predominantly located in the lower posterior lung zones upon physical exam. Clubbing is found in approximately 50% of IPF patients. Cor pulmonale develops in association with end-stage disease. In that case, classic signs of right heart failure may be present. Etiology remains incompletely understood. Some environmental factors may be associated with IPF (cigarette smoking, exposure to silica and livestock. IPF is recognized on high-resolution computed tomography by peripheral, subpleural lower lobe reticular opacities in association with subpleural honeycomb changes. IPF is associated with a pathological lesion known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP. The UIP pattern consists of normal lung alternating with patches of dense fibrosis, taking the form of collagen sheets. The diagnosis of IPF requires correlation of the clinical setting with radiographic images and a lung biopsy. In the absence of lung biopsy, the diagnosis of IPF can be made by defined clinical criteria that were published in guidelines endorsed by several professional societies. Differential diagnosis includes other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, forme fruste of autoimmune disorders, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other environmental (sometimes occupational exposures. IPF is typically progressive and leads to significant

  1. Congenital idiopathic chylothorax in neonates: chemical pleurodesis with povidone-iodine (Betadine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, O; Desfrere, L; Mohsen, R; Fayon, M; Demarquez, J L

    2003-11-01

    Chylothorax is defined as an accumulation of chyle in the pleural space. This condition usually occurs after an operation, the congenital idiopathic form being rare (1/15000 births). Recovery is observed within four to six weeks of diagnosis in most cases. Treatment is either conservative or surgical. Four cases are reported of congenital chylothorax (three idiopathic, one accompanied by diffuse lymphangectasia) managed by chemical pleurodesis (intrapleural injection of povidone-iodine). Tolerance was satisfactory: unaltered thyroid function in the three cases explored; one case of transient generalised oedema. Treatment was deemed successful in three of the four cases. One child died from renal failure (unrelated to the chemical pleurodesis). Pleurodesis by povidone-iodine appears to be well tolerated and may represent a good alternative to mechanical abrasion or surgery for congenital idiopathic chylothorax. Its use for refractory chylothorax may also decrease the morbidity related to prolonged hospital stay.

  2. Male idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Giorgio

    2006-03-01

    Idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (iOAT) affects approximately 30% of all infertile men. This mini-review discussed recent data in this field. Age, non-inflammatory functional alterations in post-testicular organs, infective agents (Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes virus and adeno-associated viruses), alterations in gamete genome, mitochondrial alterations, environmental pollutants and "subtle" hormonal alterations are all considered possible causes of iOAT. Increase of reactive oxygen species in tubules and in seminal plasma and of apoptosis are reputed to affect sperm concentration, motility and morphology. iOAT is commonly diagnosed by exclusion, nevertheless spectral traces of the main testicular artery may be used as a diagnostic tool for iOAT. The following can be considered therapies for iOAT: 1) tamoxifen citrate (20 mg/d) + testosterone undecanoate (120 mg/d) (pregnancy rate per couple/month [prcm]: 3.8%); 2) folic acid (66 mg/d) + zinc sulfate (5 mg/d); 3) L-carnitine (2 g/d) alone or in combination with acetyl-L-carnitine (1 g/d) (prcm: 2.3%); and 4) both carnitines = one 30 mg cinnoxicam suppository every 4 days (prcm: 8.5%). Alpha-blocking drugs improved sperm concentration but not morphology, motility or pregnancy rate. Tranilast (300 mg/d) increased sperm parameters and pregnancy rates in an initial uncontrolled study. Its efficacy on sperm concentration (but not on sperm motility, morphology or prcm) was confirmed in subsequent published reports. The efficacy of tamoxifen + testosterone undecanoate, tamoxifen alone, and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone is still a matter for discussion.

  3. Male idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giorgio Cavallini

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (iOAT) affects approximately 30% of all infertile men. This mini-review discussed recent data in this field. Age, non-inflammatory functional alterations in post-testicular organs, infective agents (Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes virus and adeno-associated viruses), alterations in gamete genome, mitochondrial alterations, environmental pollutants and "subtle" hormonal alterations are all considered possible causes of iOAT.Increase of reactive oxygen species in tubules and in seminal plasma and of apoptosis are reputed to affect sperm concentration, motility and morphology. iOAT is commonly diagnosed by exclusion, nevertheless spectral traces of the main testicular artery may be used as a diagnostic tool for iOAT. The following can be considered therapies for iOAT: 1) tamoxifen citrate (20 mg/d) + testosterone undecanoate (120 mg/d) (pregnancy rate per couple/month [prcm]:3.8%); 2) folic acid (66 mg/d) + zinc sulfate (5 mg/d); 3) L-carnitine (2 g/d) alone or in combination with acetyl-L-carnitine (1 g/d) (prcm: 2.3%); and 4) both carnitines + one 30 mg cinnoxicam suppository every 4 days (prcm: 8.5%).Alpha-blocking drugs improved sperm concentration but not morphology, motility or pregnancy rate. Tranilast (300 mg/d) increased sperm parameters and pregnancy rates in an initial uncontrolled study. Its efficacy on sperm concentration (but not on sperm motility, morphology or prcm) was confirmed in subsequent published reports. The efficacy of tamoxifen + testosterone undecanoate, tamoxifen alone, and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone is still a matter for discussion.

  4. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyanji F

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Firoz MiyanjiBritish Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS remains a common and potentially severe musculoskeletal disorder. Although its etiology is largely unknown, ongoing research endeavors continue to improve our understanding of its potential origin and its natural history. Advances in understanding its true three-dimensional nature have sought to improve classification and management strategies. This review will attempt to highlight and give an overview of the current concepts in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.Keywords: AIS, current, natural history, management strategies

  5. Syphilis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne; Wegener, Marianne; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of yet unknown aetiology affecting predominantly obese females of childbearing age. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion as raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure may occur secondary to numerous other medical conditions. An atypical phenotype...... or an atypical disease course should alert the physician to reevaluate a presumed IIH-diagnosis. The authors report a case of a 32-year-old non-obese male with intracranial hypertension, secondary to a syphilitic central nervous system infection, initially misdiagnosed as being idiopathic. Upon relevant...

  6. Syphilis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne; Wegener, Marianne; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    or an atypical disease course should alert the physician to reevaluate a presumed IIH-diagnosis. The authors report a case of a 32-year-old non-obese male with intracranial hypertension, secondary to a syphilitic central nervous system infection, initially misdiagnosed as being idiopathic. Upon relevant......Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of yet unknown aetiology affecting predominantly obese females of childbearing age. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion as raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure may occur secondary to numerous other medical conditions. An atypical phenotype...

  7. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home un

  8. Genetics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Heleen Marion

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a non-common disease in children that can persist into adulthood. JIA is considered to be an auto-immune disease. Genetic factors play a role in the pathogenesis. In a new cohort of JIA patients from North-West European descent genetic candidate gene associatio

  9. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.G. Van Manen (Mirjam J.G.); S.S. Birring (Surinder S.); C. Vancheri (Carlo); V. Cottin (Vincent); Renzoni, E.A. (Elisabetta A.); Russell, A.-M. (Anne-Marie); M.S. Wijsenbeek (Marlies)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMany patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF,

  10. Report - Recurrent hip arthritis diagnosed as juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tung-Ming; Yang, Kuender D; Yong, Su-Boon

    2016-05-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. It is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with arthritis of unknown etiology that begins before the age of 16 and persists for longer than 6 weeks. In this report, the case of a child who suffered recurrent alternative hip arthritis with bilateral hip arthritis is examined, in which he was finally diagnosed as suffering from Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A 14-year-old boy of Taiwanese origin presented with a normal birth and developmental history. At the age of 10, right-side hip joint pain was experienced, which later migrated to the left side. On further inspection, synovium hypertrophy, cartilage erosion and hip turbid fluid accumulation were found and aseptic arthritis was presumed to be the primary cause. However, after re-examining both his clinical history and presentation, Juvenile idiopathic arthritis was the final diagnosis. Any child presenting with repeat joint swelling are at risk of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is still to be the case if symptoms recede or heal and no initial diagnosis is made. Therefore, a better understanding of the risk of recurrent arthritis is needed. It cannot be emphasized strongly enough that Juvenile idiopathic arthritis should be suspected at all times when a child suffers from recurrent aseptic arthritis of the hip joint.

  11. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  12. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  13. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  14. Inheritance and genetics in idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Grauers, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common spine deformity, affecting approximately 3% of children and adolescents. Its aetiology is still unknown. However, relatives of individuals with idiopathic scoliosis have a higher risk of developing scoliosis compared to the general population. The aim of this thesis was to improve our understanding of the hereditary and genetic background of idiopathic scoliosis. Self - reported data on scoliosis in twins (n=64,578) i...

  15. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  16. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch A A A What's in this article? ... Much Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  17. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  18. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring A A A What's in this article? ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  19. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot A A A What's in this article? ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  20. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  1. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A What's in this ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  2. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  3. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the NICHD Staff Directory Skip sharing on social media links Rollup Image Home > Health & Research > A-Z Topics > Contraception and Birth Control > About Page Content ​About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to ...

  4. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this virus during pregnancy, her child may have low birth weight, intellectual disability (mental retardation) or learning disabilities, ... and central nervous system problems. A child with late congenital syphilis may have abnormalities of the ... Diagnosing Birth Defects Many birth defects are diagnosed even before ...

  5. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization. Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, mortality, risk factors

  6. [Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, M-P; Borie, R; Danel, C; Khalil, A; Majlath, M; Crestani, B

    2017-02-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias comprise 8 clinicopathological entities, most of them with a chronic course and various prognosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most frequent and most severe of these. Computed tomography has an important role for its diagnosis. It can identify the corresponding pathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia in about 50 percent of cases. It can suggest differential diagnosis in other cases, most frequently fibrosing nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Imaging features should be integrated to clinical and available pathologic data during multidisciplinary team meetings involving physicians with a good knowledge of interstitial diseases. Some cases may be unclassifiable, but these could later be reclassified as new data may occur or imaging features may change. Surgical lung biopsy is being less frequently performed and an emerging less invasive technique, lung cryobiopsy, is under evaluation. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is a distinct entity only recently described, with uncertain prevalence and prognosis that seems being quite often associated to another pattern of interstitial pneumonia.

  7. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Firoz MiyanjiBritish Columbia Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains a common and potentially severe musculoskeletal disorder. Although its etiology is largely unknown, ongoing research endeavors continue to improve our understanding of its potential origin and its natural history. Advances in understanding its true three-dimensional nature have sought to improve classification and management strategies. This review will attem...

  8. Gastaut type idiopathic occipital epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Volkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic occipital epilepsy is a rare epileptic syndrome. Its incidence in a Novosibirsk cohort of patients with idiopathic focal epilepsy is 0.9%. Objective: to present a clinical description of new cases of Gastaut syndrome, the types of its course, and treatment options in these patients. Patients and methods. The study covers 17 cases of Gastaut type idiopathic occipital epilepsy in 13 women and 4 men aged 11–53 years. Results. Among 17 cases we present 4 family cases with the disease. Three generations in 2 families were observed to have epilepsy, including Gastaut syndrome concurrent with childhood absence epilepsy. The adolescent onset of the disease was seen in most cases. Its main symptoms were focal visual seizures (100%, focal sensory seizures (58.9%, cephalalgia (47.1%, speech disorders (41.2%, and secondarily generalized convulsive seizures (35.3%. According to the frequency of seizures, the investigators identified 5 types of the course: single focal seizures, rare focal seizures with or without convulsions, frequent focal seizures with or without convulsions. The identity of the course of epilepsy was found in familial cases. 76.5% of the patients had a good quality of life: 41.2% of them were untreated while 35.3% were treated; no seizures were noted. 

  9. Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU) is no longer idiopathic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurer, M; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Gimenez-Arnau, A;

    2013-01-01

    for the same type of urticaria, which has implications for comparing study outcomes and drug licensing. Consequently, there is an urgent need for a harmonized and universally accepted nomenclature and classification of urticaria and to avoid the routine use of the outdated aetiological term, chronic idiopathic......During recent years our knowledge of the aetiology and pathogenesis of urticaria has advanced considerably allowing us to better characterize urticaria subtypes. However, although the classification of urticaria has undergone some revisions during this time (1), authors still use different names...... urticaria (CIU)....

  10. Ultrastructural differences between diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Grover, Madhusudan; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Bernard, Cheryl E.; Lurken, Matthew S.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Parkman, Henry P.; Abell, Thomas L.; Snape, William J.; Hasler, William L.; Uenalp-Arida, Aynur; Nguyen, Linda; Koch, Kenneth L.; Calles, Jorges; Lee, Linda; Tonascia, James; Hamilton, Frank A.; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2012-01-01

    The ultrastructural changes in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis are not well studied and it is not known whether there are different defects in the two disorders. As part of the Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium, full thickness gastric body biopsies from 20 diabetic and 20 idiopathic g

  11. at birth, at a birth, by birth, from birth, of... birth与give birth to

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昝亚娟

    2000-01-01

    birth是中学英语教材中的一个常用词,也常见于birthday(生日)、birthplace(出生地)、birthrate(出生率)和birth control(计划生育)等一些复合名词或短语之中。从字面看,这些复合词和短语的意义容易理解,但下面一些含birth的介词短语和动词短语对于中学生来说就不那么容易理解了。

  12. Glucocorticoids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malattia, Clara; Martini, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Although the use of corticosteroids in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is now much more limited owing to the availability of methotrexate and biological agents, there are clinical scenarios where it is still indicated. For example, corticosteroids may be indicated for intraarticular injections to prevent joint deformities, as a "bridge" drug to relieve symptoms in polyarticular disease while waiting for methotrexate and biologics to exert their full therapeutic effects, and in the treatment of chronic iridocyclitis, macrophage activation syndrome, and systemic JIA, although the advent of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 blockers has greatly reduced the latter indication.

  13. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Karl [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decade there have been considerable changes in the classification and imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Radiology now has a considerable role in the management of JIA, the differential diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and detecting complications. The different imaging modalities available, their role and limitations are discussed in this article and the various disease features that the radiologist should be aware of are described. An approach to the imaging of the child with joint disease and in the monitoring of disease complications are also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Epidemiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Konieczny, Markus Rafael; Senyurt, Hüsseyin; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a common disease with an overall prevalence of 0.47–5.2 % in the current literature. The female to male ratio ranges from 1.5:1 to 3:1 and increases substantially with increasing age. In particular, the prevalence of curves with higher Cobb angles is substantially higher in girls than in boys: The female to male ratio rises from 1.4:1 in curves from 10° to 20° up to 7.2:1 in curves >40°. Curve pattern and prevalence of scoliosis is not only influenced by gen...

  15. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  16. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  17. Qualitative Dermatoglyphics In Idiopathic Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganath Priya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic aetiology has been proposed for both idiopathic epilepsy and dermatoglyphics. Hence, the present study has been undertaken to find out the existence of any correlation between dermatoglyphics and idiopathic epilepsy. Material consisted of 100 patients (58 males and 42 females and 100 controls (52 males and 48 females. Patient′s age ranged from 5 to 40 years and controls were between 18 and 25 years. Dermatoglyphics were obtained by painting method. Qualitative parameters observed were percentage frequency of fingerprint patterns (loops, whorls and arches,, patterns in hypothenar area/ interdigital are and flexion creases (Simian crease, sydney line. On comparison with controls, in males, with hands combined, loops (52.24% and arches (7.93% were increased and whorls (39.83% were decreased (p<0.05. In females, with hands combined, arches (13.1% and whorls (36.43% were increased and loops (50.48% were decreased (p< 0.03. Significant differences have not been observed for the patterns in hypothenar area /interdigital area and flexion creases. These dermatoglyphics features could be used as additional markers to evaluate patients of epilepsy.

  18. Posterior asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis

    CERN Document Server

    Rousie, D L; Berthoz, A

    2009-01-01

    Study design Are there neuro-anatomical abnormalities associated with idiopathic scoliosis (IS)? Posterior Basicranium (PBA) reflects cerebellum growth and contains vestibular organs, two structures suspected to be involved in scoliosis. Objective The aim of this study was to compare posterior basicranium asymmetry (PBA) in Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and normal subjects. Method: To measure the shape of PBA in 3D, we defined an intra-cranial frame of reference based on CNS and guided by embryology of the neural tube. Measurements concerned three directions of space referred to a specific intra cranial referential. Data acquisition was performed with T2 MRI (G.E. Excite 1.5T, mode Fiesta). We explored a scoliosis group of 76 women and 20 men with a mean age of 17, 2 and a control group of 26 women and 16 men, with a mean age of 27, 7. Results: IS revealed a significant asymmetry of PBA (Pr>|t|<.0001) in 3 directions of space compared to the control group. This asymmetry was more pronounced in antero-posterior...

  19. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Masoud; Tavakol, Marzieh; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Tavakol, Zahra; Momenzadeh, Kaveh; Nabavi, Mohammad; Dabbaghzade, Abbas; Mosallanejad, Asieh; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-04-01

    Chronic urticaria is the most common skin diseases, characterized by chronic cutaneous lesions which severely debilitates patients in several aspects of their everyday life. Vitamin D is known to exert several actions in the immune system and to influence function and differentiation of mast cells, central role players in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. One hundred and fourteen patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria were recruited in this study along with one hundred and eighty seven sex-matched and age-matched healthy volunteers as the control group. For each patient, urticaria activity score was calculated and autologous serum skin test was done. Vitamin D metabolic statue was measured in serum as 25 hydroxyvitamin D using enzyme immunoassay method. Patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria significantly showed lower levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. There was a significant positive correlation between vitamin D levels and urticaria activity score. This study showed that patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria had reduced levels of vitamin D, while vitamin D deficiency could increase susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria.

  20. Politics, power, and birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  1. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pushing your baby down and out of the birth canal. In other words, labor pain has a purpose. Try the following to help ... Opioids don't get rid of all the pain, and they are short-acting. They can make ... birth. Epidural and spinal blocks – An epidural involves placing ...

  2. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  3. Idiopathic subglottic stenosis: a familial predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Elaine; Stather, David R; Gelfand, Gary; Maranda, Bruno; Maceachern, Paul; Tremblay, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Idiopathic subglottic stenosis is a narrowing of the trachea at the level of the cricoid cartilage of unknown etiology. It is a rare condition for which the real incidence has never been established owing to the difficulty of making the diagnosis. Although there is a female preponderance, no familial cases have been reported in the literature. We describe two pairs of sisters as well as a mother and daughter presenting with idiopathic subglottic stenosis. All known causes of tracheal stenosis were excluded, including prolonged intubation, surgery, autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, infection and gastroesophageal reflux disease. These are the first cases reported in the literature that suggest a genetic predisposition for idiopathic subglottic stenosis.

  4. Case of twin pregnancy complicated by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura treated with intravenous immunoglobulin: Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W X; Yang, X F; Lin, J H

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acquired thrombocytopenia without other clear cause of thrombocytopenia. It is not common in a singleton pregnancy and less common in twin pregnancy. We report a 33-year-old ITP pluripara whose first pregnancy was uneventful. She carried twin pregnancy, complicated by recurrent very low platelets, and gave birth to preterm twins. This patient received multiple courses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and showed a significant platelet count improvement with IVIG therapy.

  5. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  6. Twins reunited: scientific and personal perspectives/twin research studies: multiple birth effects on IQ and body size; life style, muscles, and metabolism; monochorionic dizygotic twin with blood chimerism; amniocentesis for twins/twins in the media: identical doctors; freedom fighter for twins; twin scholarships; Auguste and Jean-Felix Piccard; twins born apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L; Mulligan, Christy A

    2014-04-01

    A reunion of 38-year-old female monozygotic twins took place in Daegu, South Korea, on January 14, 2014. Scientific and personal perspectives on this extraordinary event are provided. A review of timely twin research follows, covering the effects of multiple births on IQ and body size, lifestyle and physical fitness associations, a rare case of a dizygotic twin with blood chimerism and definitional issues surrounding amniocentesis-related loss in multiple birth pregnancies. Interesting and informative mention of twins in the media includes twin doctors, a twin freedom fighter, the availability of college scholarships for twins, a new book about the Piccard family (two of whose members were twins), and co-twins born before and after the new year. A follow-up to a previous mention of identical twin biatheletes is also provided.

  7. Idiopathic arterial calcification in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Maya [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Red Cross Children' s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Andronikou, Savvas; Solomon, Rustum; Sinclair, Paul; McCulloch, Mignon [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Red Cross Children' s Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2004-08-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification in infancy is usually fatal with death in early life and diagnosis at post mortem. This report describes a unique, late presentation with hypertension and cardiac failure in a child aged 33 months, found to have widespread arterial calcification at radiological imaging. The calcium-phosphate axis was normal and there was no other demonstrable cause for calcification. Additionally, the histological features of arterial calcification at renal biopsy paralleled the findings in infants with this disorder. The late presentation in this case is unusual and has not been previously reported. Ultrasound and CT are sensitive for calcification, and the disease should be suspected in children presenting with cardiac or respiratory manifestations and features of arterial calcification, where no metabolic cause is established. (orig.)

  8. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam J.G. van Manen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF, which is most probably “multifactorial” and influenced by mechanical, biochemical and neurosensory changes, with an important role for comorbidities as well. Clinical trials of cough treatment in IPF are emerging, and cough is increasingly included as a secondary end-point in trials assessing new compounds for IPF. It is important that such studies include adequate end-points to assess cough both objectively and subjectively. This article summarises the latest insights into chronic cough in IPF. It describes the different theories regarding the pathophysiology of cough, reviews the different methods to assess cough and deals with recent and future developments in the treatment of cough in IPF.

  9. Idiopathic Renal Infarction Mimicking Appendicitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanti, Francesco; Scarano, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Renal infarction is a rare cause of referral to the emergency department, with very low estimated incidence (0.004%–0.007%). Usually, it manifests in patients aged 60–70 with risk factors for thromboembolism, mostly related to heart disease, atrial fibrillation in particular. We report a case of idiopathic segmental renal infarction in a 38-year-old patient, presenting with acute abdominal pain with no previous known history or risk factors for thromboembolic diseases. Because of its aspecific clinical presentation, this condition can mimic more frequent pathologies including pyelonephritis, nephrolithiasis, or as in our case appendicitis. Here we highlight the extremely ambiguous presentation of renal infarct and the importance for clinicians to be aware of this condition, particularly in patients without clear risk factors, as it usually has a good prognosis after appropriate anticoagulant therapy. PMID:28203466

  10. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: Classification revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Bouros MD, PhD, FCCP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Thoracic Society (ATS, the European Respiratory Society (ERS and the Japan Respiratory Society (JRS are planning a revision of the 2002 ATS/ERS International Multidisciplinary Classification of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIPs1. In two years’ time it will be 10 years since its publication and with a view to publishing the revision after 10 years (i.e., in 2012, a steering committee has been established, which met in New Orleans during ATS congress in May 2010 and more recently in Barcelona during the ERS congress (Photo. The committee will meet again during the ATS and the ERS congresses that will be held in the next two years, with an additional meeting in Modena, Italy, in Αpril 2011.

  11. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent KURT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM are a heterogeneous group of disease with complex clinical features. It has been sub-classified as: (1 Dermatomyositis, (2 Polymyositis, and (3 Inclusion body myositis (IBM. Nowadays, there are some studies in literature suggest necrotizing autoimmune myopathy and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy should also be added to this group of disease. There is a debate in the diagnosis of IIMs and up until now, about 12 criteria systems have been proposed. Some of the criteria systems have been used widely such as Griggs et al.'s proposal for IBM. Clinical findings, autoantibodies, enzymes, electrophysiological, and muscle biopsy findings are diagnostic tools. Because of diseases' complexity, none of the findings are diagnostic alone. In this study, we discussed the diagnostic criteria of IMMs and described detailed morphological features. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2016; 4(2.000: 41-45

  12. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  13. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: diagnosis, treatment and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vlekkert, J.

    2015-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) in adults are a heterogenic group of disorders characterized by muscle inflammation and progressive muscle weakness. This group consists of five subacute-onset disorders: polymyositis (PM) which is extremely rare, (clinically amyopathic) dermatomyositis (

  14. Nonchylous idiopathic pleural effusion in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Gathwala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital isolated pleural effusion is a rare cause of respiratory distress in neonates. It is usually chylous. Herein, we report a rare case of nonchylous congenital idiopathic pleural effusion.

  15. Tamanho da leitegada e pesos médios, ao nascer e aos 21 dias de idade, de leitões da raça Large White Litter size and average weights at birth and at 21 days of age of Large White piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.R. Holanda

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da época de parto e idade da matriz ao parto (IMP sobre o tamanho da leitegada (TL, da época de parto, idade da matriz ao parto e tamanho da leitegada sobre o peso médio ao nascer (PMN, e da época de parto, idade da matriz ao parto, número de nascidos vivos (NV e percentual de machos na leitegada (PERCM sobre o peso aos 21 dias de idade (PM21 de leitões Large White. Utilizaram-se dados de 3259 leitões nascidos no período de junho/85 a junho/96. A avaliação foi feita por meio de regressão múltipla. Para TL apenas o efeito de IMP determinou modificações significativas sobre o número de leitões nascidos. TL médio foi 9,73±2,78, observando-se maiores leitegadas em fêmeas de 2,84 a 3,83 anos. PMN e PM21 foram 1,35kg±0,18 e 5,06kg±1,00, respectivamente. Para PMN foram significativos os efeitos de IMP e TL, com redução do peso em 20g para cada leitão adicional. Para PM21 apenas o número de NV apresentou efeito significativo.The effects of season of birth (PE and age of sow at birth (IMP on litter size (TL; season of birth, age of sow and litter size on average weight at birth (PMN; season of birth age of sow, number of alive piglets at birth (NV, and percentage of alive males on average weight at 21 days of age (PM21 of 3259 Large White piglets born from June/85 to June/96 were evaluated by multiple regression analyses. The IMP effect on TL was significant. The average TL was 9.73±2.78. Larger litters were observed for sows from 2.84 to 3.83 years of age. The average PMN and PM21 were 1.35kg±0.18 e 5.06kg±1.00, respectively. The IMP and TL effects on PMN traits were linear and significant. A decrease of 20g on piglet weight was estimated for each additional piglet in the litter. The effect of NV was significant only for PM21 trait.

  16. Idiopathic scoliosis: etiological concepts and hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Scoliosis is diagnosed as idiopathic in 70 % of structural deformities affecting the spine in children and adolescents, probably reflecting our current misunderstanding of this disease. By definition, a structural scoliosis should be the result of some primary disorder. The goal of this article is to give a comprehensive overview of the currently proposed etiological concepts in idiopathic scoliosis regarding genetics, molecular biology, biomechanics, and neurology, with particular emphasis o...

  17. Unilateral Idiopathic Calcinosis Cutis: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Fahad; Abduljabbar, Amr M.

    2017-01-01

    Calcinosis cutis is a rare disorder characterized by the deposition of calcium in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Unilateral idiopathic calcinosis cutis has only rarely been reported in the literature. Here, we report the case of a 7-year-old healthy girl who presented with multiple asymptomatic hard nodules on the right side of her body. Histopathological, radiological, and extensive blood investigations confirmed the diagnosis of unilateral idiopathic calcinosis cutis. PMID:28203159

  18. Cognitive function in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne Maria; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Forchhammer, Hysse Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent and nature of cognitive deficits in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) at the time of diagnosis and after 3 months of treatment. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Neurological department, ophthalmological department and a terti......OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent and nature of cognitive deficits in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) at the time of diagnosis and after 3 months of treatment. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Neurological department, ophthalmological department...

  19. Family history of idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Postuma, Ronald B; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi;

    2013-01-01

    To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort.......To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort....

  20. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  1. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  2. Birth control after 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerassi, C

    1970-09-04

    1) Eric Blair (alias George Orwell) can rest easy in his grave, because birth control by governmentally imposed methods, such as incorporation of a contraceptive agent into drinking water, is totally unfeasible by 1984. 2) Fundamentally new birth control procedures in the female (for example, a once-a-month luteolytic or abortifacient agent) and a male contraceptive pill probably will not be developed until the 1980's at the earliest, and then only if major steps of the type outlined in this article are instituted in the early 1970's. Development during the next decade of practical new methods of birth control without important incentives for continued active participation by the pharmaceutical industry is highly unlikely. If none are developed, birth control in 1984 will not differ significantly from that of today.

  3. Birth control pills overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  4. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9743 Accredited since January 2016 98 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited 29135 Ellensburg ... Accredited since November 2015 96 Footprints in Time Midwifery Services and Birth Center Accredited 351 N. Water ...

  5. BIRTH CONTROL, CULTURE AND THE POOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIESSMAN, CATHERINE KOHLER

    EVIDENCE FROM STUDIES INDICATE THAT THE POOR DESIRE TO CONTROL THEIR FAMILY SIZE AND PREFER TO USE BIRTH CONTROL DEVICES (PILLS OR INTERUTERINE DEVICES) WHICH ARE NOT COITUS-CONNECTED AND ANTITHETICAL TO THEIR SEXUAL ATTITUDES AND TRADITIONS. CONTRARY TO THE BELIEF THAT THE POOR ARE LESS LIKELY TO UTILIZE EXISTING HEALTH FACILITIES OR TO TAKE PART…

  6. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Monique S

    2013-11-01

    Scoliosis is defined as a lateral curvature of the spine greater than 10 degrees on radiography that is typically associated with trunk rotation. The three major types of scoliosis are congenital, idiopathic, and neuromuscular. Idiopathic scoliosis is divided into three subcategories based on the age of onset. Infantile idiopathic scoliosis affects patients younger than 3 years, juvenile idiopathic scoliosis appears in children between 3 and 10 years, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) occurs in skeletally immature patients older than 10 years. AIS is the most common form of idiopathic scoliosis. Approximately 2% to 4% of children aged 10 to 16 years have some degree of spinal curvature. Although some researchers view routine screening for AIS as controversial, well-child examinations and sports physicals are an optimal time to evaluate for AIS in the clinical setting. In 2008, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, the Scoliosis Research Society, the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America, and the American Academy of Pediatrics convened a task force to review the issues related to scoliosis screening and issued an information statement concluding that although screening has limitations, the potential benefits that patients with idiopathic scoliosis receive from early treatment can be substantial. Recommendations are now that females are screened twice, at age 10 and 12 years, and males once at age 13 or 14 years. Screening during routine well-child examinations and/or school-based evaluations will help identify patients who need ongoing monitoring. The evaluation of curvatures in conjunction with the level of skeletal maturity will help to guide the management of the curvature.

  8. Birth size, risk factors across life and cognition in late life: protocol of prospective longitudinal follow-up of the MYNAH (MYsore studies of Natal effects on Ageing and Health) cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Murali; Kumar, G Mohan; Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Karat, Samuel Christaprasad; Coakley, Patsy; Osmond, Clive; Copeland, John R M; Chandak, Giriraj; Bhat, Dattatray; Varghese, Mathew; Prince, Martin; Fall, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Introduction For late-life neurocognitive disorders, as for other late-life chronic diseases, much recent interest has focused on the possible relevance of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Programming by undernutrition in utero, followed by overnutrition in adult life may lead to an increased risk, possibly mediated through cardiovascular and metabolic pathways. This study will specifically examine, if lower birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive functioning in late life in a south Indian population. Methods and analysis From 1934 onwards, the birth weight, length and head circumference of all babies born in the CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India, were recorded in obstetric notes. Approximately 800 men and women from the Mysore Birth Records Cohort aged above 55 years, and a reliable informant for each, will be asked to participate in a single cross-sectional baseline assessment for cognitive function, mental health and cardiometabolic disorders. Participants will be assessed for hypertension, type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease, nutritional status, health behaviours and lifestyles, family living arrangements, economic status, social support and social networks. Additional investigations include blood tests (for diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, anaemia, vitamin B12 and folate deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, renal impairment, thyroid disease and Apolipoprotein E genotype), anthropometry, ECG, blood pressure, spirometry and body composition (bioimpedance). We will develop an analysis plan, first using traditional univariate and multivariable analytical paradigms with independent, dependent and mediating/confounding/interacting variables to test the main hypotheses. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the research ethics committee of CSI Holdsworth Memorial Hospital. The findings will be disseminated locally and at international meetings, and will be published in open access peer

  9. Renal intratubular crystals and hyaluronan staining occur in stone formers with bypass surgery but not with idiopathic calcium oxalate stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan, Andrew P; Coe, Fredric L; Gillen, Daniel; Lingeman, James E; Bledsoe, Sharon; Worcester, Elaine M

    2008-03-01

    Whether idiopathic calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formers form inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) crystal deposits bears on pathogenetic mechanisms of stone formation. In prior work, using light and transmission electron microscopy, we have found no IMCD crystal deposits. Here, we searched serial sections of papillary biopsies from a prior study of 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, 4 intestinal bypass patients with CaOx stones, and 4 non-stone-forming subjects, and biopsies from an additional hitherto unreported 15 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers and 1 bypass patient using polarized light oil immersion optics, for deposits overlooked in our original study. We found no IMCD deposits in any of 1,500 serial sections from the 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, nor in 87 additional sections from a frozen idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former biopsy sample processed without exposure to aqueous solutions. Among 4 of the 5 bypass patients but in none of the 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers or 4 normal stone formers, we found tiny birefringent thin crystalline overlays on scattered IMCD cell membranes. We also found IMCD lumen deposits in two bypass patients that contained mixed birefringent and nonbirefringent crystals, presumably CaOx and apatite. In the bypass patients, we observed focal apical IMCD cell hyaluronan staining, which was absent in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. The absence of any IMCD deposits in 1,500 serial sections of biopsies from 30 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers allows us to place the upper limit on the probability of their occurrence at approximately 0.002 and place the lower limit of their size at the resolution of the optics (crystal lesion.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ( FIBGC , formerly known as Fahr disease) is a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of ... on chromosome 14q for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease). Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3): ...

  11. Birth order and neural tube defects: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R

    2004-01-15

    There is evidence that late birth order is associated with some complex disorders. For neural tube defects (NTDs) there is no consensus as to whether first or increased birth order is associated or not. A meta-analysis of published data on NTDs was carried out to ascertain whether there is an increased risk for children first born or of high birth order to have NTDs. All data available with information regarding the frequency of live births and NTDs cases by birth order (1, 2, 3, and 4 or more) were included in the analysis. Effect sizes calculations were performed. Children with higher birth order are more likely to have spina bifida but not anencephaly. This same effect was also seen for all NTDs combined, which probably reflects the association with spina bifida. These results suggest the compilation of anencephaly and spina bifida data can be the explanation for the controversies seen in the literature.

  12. Single night postoperative prone posturing in idiopathic macular hole surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of postoperative prone posturing for a single night in the outcome of trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peel and 20% perfluoroethane (C2F6) internal tamponade for idiopathic macular hole. Methods. This prospective trial enrolled 14 eyes in 14 consecutive patients with idiopathic macular hole. All eyes underwent TPPV with vision blue assisted ILM peeling with and without phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) for macular hole. Intraocular gas tamponade (20% C2F6) was used in all cases with postoperative face-down posturing overnight and without specific posturing afterwards. LogMAR visual acuity, appearance by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) scans were compared preoperatively and postoperatively to assess outcome. Results. Among 14 eyes recruited, all eyes were phakic; 50% of patients underwent concurrent phacoemulsification with IOL. The macular holes were categorized preoperatively by OCT appearance, 4 (28.57%) were stage 2, 7 (50%) were stage 3, and 3 (21.43%) were stage 4. Mean macular hole size was 0.35 disk diameters. Symptoms of macular hole had been present for an average of 6.5 months. All holes (100%) were closed 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Mean visual acuity (logMAR) was improved to 0.61 at 3 months and was stable at 6 months after the surgery. None of the eyes had worse vision postoperatively. Conclusions. Vitrectomy with ILM peeling and 20% C2F6 gas with a brief postoperative 1 night prone posturing regimen is a reasonable approach to achieve anatomic closure in idiopathic macular hole. Concurrent cataract extraction did not alter outcomes and was not associated with any additional complications.

  13. Telltale teeth: Idiopathic Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Lele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of any atypical extraoral or intraoral features warrants a thorough investigation, even if the patient is asymptomatic or unaware of these. At times, dental findings help in the diagnosis of an underlying systemic problem. These findings may or may not be associated with any syndrome. Thus, thorough examination and exhaustive investigations should be carried out for every atypical finding to ensure optimal oral and general health for the patient. Case Description: This is a case report of seventeen year old male who presented with peculiar/atypical dentition which ′told the tale′ and led to the diagnosis of underlying endocrinological problem about which the parents were totally unaware. The patient was short with central obesity and microcephaly. Intraorally, there was presence of thirty six microdonts. Consultation with pediatrician and endocrinologist, and thorough investigations confirmed the condition to be of ′Idiopathic Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism′. The patient underwent not only oral rehabilitation, but also timely consultation and treatment from a pediatrician and an endocrinologist.

  14. Idiopathic fistula-in-ano

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherief Shawki; Steven D Wexner

    2011-01-01

    Fistula-in-ano is the most common form of perineal sep- sis. Typically, a fistula includes an internal opening, a track, and an external opening. The external opening might acutely appear following infection and/or an abs-cess, or more insiduously in a chronic manner. Mana-gement includes control of infection, assessment of the fistulous track in relation to the anal sphincter muscle, and finally, definitive treatment of the fistula. Fistulo-tomy was the most commonly used mode of manage-ment, but concerns about post-fistulotomy incontinence prompted the use of sphincter preserving techniques such as advancement flaps, fibrin glue, collagen fistula plug, ligation of the intersphincteric fistula track, and stem cells. Many descriptive and comparative studies have evaluated these different techniques with variable outcomes. The lack of consistent results, level I eviden-ce, or long-term follow-up, as well as the heterogeneity of fistula pathology has prevented a definitive treatment algorithm. This article will review the most commonly available modalities and techniques for managing idio-pathic fistula-in-ano.

  15. Idiopathic aneurysm of pulmonary artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Julio B. Cota; Pimentel, Patricia N.; Knust, Beatriz S., E-mail: jcota@uol.com.br [Clinica de Cardiologia Cota Pacheco, Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Because it is a very rare isolated lesion, we decided to present this case of idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm (IPAA) and review the cases published in the literature in order to correlate our clinical and imaging findings, as well as management based on patient data. IPAA was first described in a case of autopsy by Bristowe in 1860 and later in 1947 by Deterling and Claggett, whose prevalence was lower than eight to one hundred thousand. Although the use of diagnostic imaging methods has been applied in a very large population in recent decades, this lesion has been most often described in postmortem examinations. Therefore, it is important to be aware of possible clinical symptoms, at times non-specific, as well as the signs on imaging studies. In this study, therefore, the report of a case of an asymptomatic patient whose diagnosis was done through color Doppler echocardiography in a routine test in 2012, later confirmed by simple chest computed tomography (chest CT) and cardiac catheterization as IPAA and its branches. We discussed the literature available and the possibilities for treatment and the use of color Doppler echocardiography as an initial diagnostic tool for such a rare and intriguing disease. (author)

  16. Idiopathic Circumscripta Calcinosis Cutis of the Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Calcinosis cutis is an uncommon disorder characterized by deposition of insoluble calcium salts in the skin. Based on the etiology of the deposition calcinosis cutis may be devided into four major groups namely metastatic, dystrophic, idiopathic, and iatrogenic. The pathophysiology of calcinosis cutis remains unclear. The dystrophic form is the most common whereas the idiopathic one is the rarest. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis occurs in the absence of any identifiable causes and is not associated with drug use. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis has two major types called localized (circumscript and generalized (universalis. Localized type generally involves the vulva, scrotum, penis and breast. A definitive diagnosis requires the histologic demonstration of the accumulation of calcium in the skin and exclusion of other clinic types.There is not an effective treatment for the disease. A 47-year-old woman referred to our outpatient clinic for painless, yellowish-white nodules on her hand enduring for 30 years. A diagnosis of idiopathic calcinosis cutis was made by clinical and histological findings. We present this case because localization of lesions in our case was previously unreported in the literature to our knowledge.

  17. Epistatic interactions in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Vadapalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH is a poorly understood complex disorder, which results in progressive remodeling of the pulmonary artery that ultimately leads to right ventricular failure. A two-hit hypothesis has been implicated in pathogenesis of IPAH, according to which the vascular abnormalities characteristic of PAH are triggered by the accumulation of genetic and/or environmental insults in an already existing genetic background. The multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR analysis is a statistical method used to identify gene-gene interaction or epistasis and gene-environment interactions that are associated with a particular disease. The MDR method collapses high-dimensional genetic data into a single dimension, thus permitting interactions to be detected in relatively small sample sizes. Aim: To identify and characterize polymorphisms/genes that increases the susceptibility to IPAH using MDR analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 77 IPAH patients and 100 controls were genotyped for eight polymorphisms of five genes (5HTT, EDN1, NOS3, ALK-1, and PPAR-γ2. MDR method was adopted to determine gene-gene interactions that increase the risk of IPAH. Results : With MDR method, the single-locus model of 5HTT (L/S polymorphism and the combination of 5HTT(L/S, EDN1(K198N, and NOS3(G894T polymorphisms in the three-locus model were attributed to be the best models for predicting susceptibility to IPAH, with a P value of 0.05. Conclusion: MDR method can be useful in understanding the role of epistatic and gene-environmental interactions in pathogenesis of IPAH.

  18. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: laboratory diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvina Alvina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP or immune thrombocytopenic purpura is a disease characterized by low platelet count (<150,000/ìL caused by autoantibody-mediated platelet destruction and the absence of other causes of thrombocytopenia. Acute primary ITP is more common in children 2-6 years of age, with similar incidence between males and females, while the chronic form is usually encountered in adults with median age of 40-45 years. The clinical signs of ITP are purpura, ecchymosis, petechiae and gastrointestinal tract bleeding, gingival bleeding, epistaxis, and urinary tract bleeding. Spontaneous mucosal, intracranial, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage may occur at platelet counts of <10000/ìL. To date, the diagnosis of ITP is still arrived at by exclusion, i.e. by elimination of other causes of thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis of ITP also requires a medical history (anamnesis, physical examination, platelet count, and examination of a peripheral blood smear. The latter examination in ITP shows low numbers of normal-sized platelets, occasionally also giant platelets, while erythrocytes and leukocytes have a normal morphology. The bone marrow is usually normal or shows increased megakaryocytes. Assessment of antithrombocyte antibody may assist in establishing the diagnosis of ITP. Management of ITP is based on platelet count and severity of bleeding. Treatment is aimed at interfering with antibodies that damage the platelets, by inhibiting the functions of macrophage Fcã receptors and decreasing the production of antiplatelet antibodies. Thrombopoietin (TPO receptor agonists including eltrombopag and romiplostim have offered an important new option in treating ITP.

  19. Idiopathic subglottic stenosis in pregnancy: A deceptive laryngoscopic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John George Karippacheril

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old lady with term gestation, pre-eclampsia and a vague history of occasional breathing difficulty, on irregular bronchodilator therapy, was scheduled for category 1 lower segment caesarean section in view of foetal distress. A Cormack-Lehane grade 1 direct laryngoscopic view was obtained following rapid sequence induction. However, it was not possible to insert a 7.0 or 6.0 size styleted cuffed tracheal tube in two attempts. Ventilation with a supraglottic device was inadequate. Airway was secured with a 4.0 size microlaryngeal surgery tube with difficulty. Computed tomography scan of the neck following tracheostomy for failed extubation revealed subglottic stenosis (SGS with asymmetric arytenoid calcification. This report describes the management of a rare case of unrecognised idiopathic SGS in pregnancy.

  20. Idiopathic subglottic stenosis in pregnancy: A deceptive laryngoscopic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karippacheril, John George; Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath; Revappa, Kiran Bada

    2011-09-01

    A 28-year-old lady with term gestation, pre-eclampsia and a vague history of occasional breathing difficulty, on irregular bronchodilator therapy, was scheduled for category 1 lower segment caesarean section in view of foetal distress. A Cormack-Lehane grade 1 direct laryngoscopic view was obtained following rapid sequence induction. However, it was not possible to insert a 7.0 or 6.0 size styleted cuffed tracheal tube in two attempts. Ventilation with a supraglottic device was inadequate. Airway was secured with a 4.0 size microlaryngeal surgery tube with difficulty. Computed tomography scan of the neck following tracheostomy for failed extubation revealed subglottic stenosis (SGS) with asymmetric arytenoid calcification. This report describes the management of a rare case of unrecognised idiopathic SGS in pregnancy.

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of idiopathic clubfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werler, Martha M; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Mitchell, Allen A; Meyer, Robert E; Druschel, Charlotte M; Anderka, Marlene; Kasser, James R; Mahan, Susan T

    2013-07-01

    Clubfoot is a common structural malformation, occurring in approximately 1/1,000 live births. Previous studies of sociodemographic and pregnancy-related risk factors have been inconsistent, with the exception of the strong male preponderance and association with primiparity. Hypotheses for clubfoot pathogenesis include fetal constraint, Mendelian-inheritance, and vascular disruption, but its etiology remains elusive. We conducted a population-based case-control study of clubfoot in North Carolina, Massachusetts, and New York from 2007 to 2011. Mothers of 677 clubfoot cases and 2,037 non-malformed controls were interviewed within 1 year of delivery about socio-demographic and reproductive factors. Cases and controls were compared for child's sex, maternal age, education, cohabitation status, race/ethnicity, state, gravidity, parity, body mass index (BMI), and these pregnancy-related conditions: oligohydramnios, breech delivery, bicornuate uterus, plural birth, early amniocentesis (<16 weeks), chorionic villous sampling (CVS), and plural gestation with fetal loss. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for state. Cases were more likely to be male (OR: 2.7; 2.2-3.3) and born to primiparous mothers (1.4; 1.2-1.7) and mothers with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) (1.4; 1.1-1.8). These associations were greatest in isolated and bilateral cases. ORs for the pregnancy-related conditions ranged from 1.3 (breech delivery) to 5.6 (early amniocentesis). Positive associations with high BMI were confined to cases with a marker of fetal constraint (oligohydramnios, breech delivery, bicornuate uterus, plural birth), inheritance (family history in 1st degree relative), or vascular disruption (early amniocentesis, CVS, plural gestation with fetal loss). Pathogenetic factors associated with obesity may be in the causal pathway for clubfoot.

  2. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  3. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  4. Exchange-Driven Growth with Birth Rate Less Than Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhen-Quan; KE Jian-Hong; YE Gao-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    We further study the kinetic behavior of the exchange-driven growth with birth and death for the case of birth rate kernel being less than that of death based on the mean-field theory. The symmetric exchange rate kernel is K(k,j) = K'(k,j) = Ikjv, and the birth and death rates are proportional to the aggregate's size. The long time asymptotic behavior of the aggregate size distribution ak(t) is found to obey a much unusual scaling law with an exponentially growing scaling function φ(x) = exp(x).

  5. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP.

  6. Osteoarthritis, osteoarthrosis, and idiopathic condylar resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Louis G

    2008-05-01

    The term "osteoarthritis" has classically been defined as a low-inflammatory arthritic condition. The term "osteoarthrosis," a synonym for osteoarthritis in the medical orthopedic literature, has recently come to be identified in the dental/temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders literature with any noninflammatory arthritic condition that results in similar degenerative changes as in osteoarthritis. The term "idiopathic condylar resorption," also known as "progressive condylar resorption," is described as a dysfunctional remodeling of the TMJ manifested by morphologic change, decreased ramal height, progressive mandibular retrusion in the adult, or decreased mandibular growth in the juvenile. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of osteoarthritic TMJ disorders and idiopathic condylar resorption.

  7. Clinical variants of idiopathic torsion dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, S

    1989-06-01

    Some patients with dystonic movements and postures not known to be caused by environmental or degenerative disorders can be segregated from classical-appearing idiopathic torsion dystonia on the basis of distinctive clinical and pharmacologic features. Many of them should be considered within the family of dystonia, as clinical variants of idiopathic torsion dystonia, while others are better classified as being part of other families of dyskinesias. In the former group are paradoxical dystonia, myoclonic dystonia, diurnal dystonia, and dopa-responsive dystonia. The latter group consists of dystonic tics and the various entities comprising paroxysmal dystonia, namely kinesigenic, nonkinesigenic and hypnogenic dystonia.

  8. Glucocorticoid pharmacogenetics in pediatric idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzoni, Eva; De Iudicibus, Sara; Franca, Raffaella; Stocco, Gabriele; Lucafò, Marianna; Pelin, Marco; Favretto, Diego; Pasini, Andrea; Montini, Giovanni; Decorti, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome represents the most common type of primary glomerular disease in children: glucocorticoids (GCs) are the first-line therapy, even if considerable interindividual differences in their efficacy and side effects have been reported. Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects of these drugs are mainly due to the GC-mediated transcription regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes. This mechanism of action is the result of a complex multistep pathway that involves the glucocorticoid receptor and several other proteins, encoded by polymorphic genes. Aim of this review is to highlight the current knowledge on genetic variants that could affect GC response, particularly focusing on children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

  9. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 of her menstrual cycle. It remains in place for 3 weeks in a row. At the end of the third week, on the same day of the week ... birth control until the ring has been in place for 7 days. If the ring is out for more than 3 hours during your third week wearing it, call your doctor to see ...

  10. Visual Memory at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Alan; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  11. The Birth of "Frankenstein"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  12. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  13. Optimal management of idiopathic macular holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi HA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Haifa A Madi,1,* Ibrahim Masri,1,* David H Steel1,2 1Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, 2Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Newcastle, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This review evaluates the current surgical options for the management of idiopathic macular holes (IMHs, including vitrectomy, ocriplasmin (OCP, and expansile gas use, and discusses key background information to inform the choice of treatment. An evidence-based approach to selecting the best treatment option for the individual patient based on IMH characteristics and patient-specific factors is suggested. For holes without vitreomacular attachment (VMA, vitrectomy is the only option with three key surgical variables: whether to peel the inner limiting membrane (ILM, the type of tamponade agent to be used, and the requirement for postoperative face-down posturing. There is a general consensus that ILM peeling improves primary anatomical hole closure rate; however, in small holes (<250 µm, it is uncertain whether peeling is always required. It has been increasingly recognized that long-acting gas and face-down positioning are not always necessary in patients with small- and medium-sized holes, but large (>400 µm and chronic holes (>1-year history are usually treated with long-acting gas and posturing. Several studies on posturing and gas choice were carried out in combination with ILM peeling, which may also influence the gas and posturing requirement. Combined phacovitrectomy appears to offer more rapid visual recovery without affecting the long-term outcomes of vitrectomy for IMH. OCP is licensed for use in patients with small- or medium-sized holes and VMA. A greater success rate in using OCP has been reported in smaller holes, but further predictive factors for its success are needed to refine its use. It is important to counsel patients realistically regarding the rates of success with

  14. Birth control and family planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001946.htm Birth control and family planning To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, including ...

  15. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These ...

  16. Idiopathic Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Biswas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidural abscess is a potentially life-threatening disease which can lead to medical-surgical emergency. Idiopathic spinal epidural abscess (SEA with atypical manifestations is extremely rare. We describe such a case which led to severe neurological compromise and was not associated with any known risk factors.

  17. Idiopathic Spinal Epidural Abscess: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitali Biswas; Anirban Pal; Saswata Bharati; Nitesh Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Epidural abscess is a potentially life-threatening disease which can lead to medical-surgical emergency. Idiopathic spinal epidural abscess (SEA) with atypical manifestations is extremely rare. We describe such a case which led to severe neurological compromise and was not associated with any known risk factors.

  18. Vitamin A and Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A levels were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid of a total of 78 patients having idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH;n=20, elevated pressure of other causes (E-ICP;n=19, and normal pressure (N-ICP;n=39, in a study at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

  19. Sialosis, Gout Induced or Idiopathic? Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Keyur; Mandel, Louis

    2017-02-01

    Sialosis is observed in relation to diabetes, alcoholism, and malnutrition. An assumed relation between gout and sialosis is probably based on confusion that originated from the therapeutic use of phenylbutazone for gout and the sialadenitis that the medication caused. This report describes a case of sialosis in a patient with a longstanding history of gout that was idiopathic in origin.

  20. GENETIC PREDICTORS OF IDIOPATHIC SICK SINUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chernova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Published data demonstrating genetic determination of sick sinus syndrome is presented. The definition of this pathology is presented; the main symptoms are described, as well as genes that influence the development of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome, their polymorphisms and role in disorders of the cardiovascular system.

  1. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; ter Haar, Nienke M.; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J.; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The

  2. Pirfenidone treatment in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salih, Goran Nadir; Shaker, Saher Burhan; Madsen, Helle Dall;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pirfenidone was approved by the European Medicines Agency and introduced in most European countries in 2011 for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). OBJECTIVE: To describe the national Danish experiences of pirfenidone treatment for IPF during 30 months with respect...

  3. Idiopathic hepatic arterial malformation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蔚巍; 周康荣; 王佩芬; 陈祖望

    2003-01-01

    @@ Hepatic arterial malformation is a rare disorder which either origi nates idiopathically or may be associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiect asia (also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu disease). Although previous reports presented only descriptions of sonographic and angiographic findings,1-6 we present a case of splenic infarct caused by this disorder with CT and CTA findi ngs.

  4. Neocortical gamma oscillations in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benedek, Krisztina; Berenyi, Antal; Gombkoto, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Absence seizures in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) may in part be explained by a decrease in phasic GABAA (type-A c-aminobutyric acid) receptor function, but the mechanisms are only partly understood. Here we studied the relation between ictal and interictal spike-...

  5. Idiopathic erythrocytosis in IgA nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, E.; Madhyastha, P. R.; Kalashetty, M.; Gurudev, K. C.; Bande, S.; John, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of idiopathic erythrocytosis in a 31-year-old male who was incidentally detected to have hypertension during his preemployment checkup. Urine routine showed proteinuria and hematuria. Biochemical parameters revealed raised serum creatinine, and histological findings of the renal biopsy showed IgAN.

  6. [Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis with dendriform pulmonary ossification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Ana Madeleine; Vargas, Leslie

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary ossification is a rare and usually asymptomatic finding reported as incidental in lung biopsies. Similarly, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare cause of pulmonary infiltrates. We report the case of a 64-year old man with chronic respiratory symptoms in whom these two histopathological findings converged.

  7. Acute surgical management in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a headache syndrome with progressive symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Most commonly, it is a slow process where surveillance and medical management are the main treatment modalities. We describe herein an acute presentation with bilateral sixth nerve palsies, papilloedema and visual deterioration, where acute surgical intervention was a vision-saving operation.

  8. Etiology and pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; Colo, Dino; Castelein, RM

    2015-01-01

    Despite many years of dedicated research into the etio-pathogenesis, not one single cause for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis has been identified. The purpose of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of the current evidence and main etiological theories. Intrinsic causal mechanisms are fou

  9. Biological agents in polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarilyo, Gil; Tarp, Simon; Foeldvari, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Although various biological agents are in use for polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), head-to-head trials comparing the efficacy and safety among them are lacking. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of biological agents in pJIA using all currentl...

  10. Selective fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ting; XU Jian-guang; ZENG Bing-fang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite the continual evolution in the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the goals of surgery remain to correct and stabilize the deformity in three dimensions, to maintain equilibrium of the shoulders and trunk, and to leave as many mobile spinal segments as possible.

  11. Idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy in a poodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Aparicio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A seven years old, male poodle is examined presenting acute mandible paralysis (dropped jaw, drooling and difficulty for the apprehension and chewing; not evidence of an other alteration of cranial nerves. The muscular biopsy rules out a myositisof masticatory muscles. The disorder is resolved completely in 3 weeks confirming diagnosis of idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy.

  12. Capsaicin in Idiopathic Rhinitis A Hot Topic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. van Rijswijk

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter I the currently known causes for nonallergic noninfectious rhinitis and possible treatments are summarised. Also possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying idiopathic rhinitis (IR) are discussed. In chapter II the aims of the studies are presented. This thesis comprises

  13. The lived experience with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Kaldan, Gudrun; Marsaa, Kristoffer

    2016-01-01

    The disease course in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is variable, but patients experience a progressive decline in lung function and increased symptom burden leading to death. Little is known about the patients' experience and their needs during the disease course or about the burden on family...

  14. The piglet's behavior after birth according to the birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  15. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotwicki T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Kotwicki,1 Joanna Chowanska,1,2 Edyta Kinel,3 Dariusz Czaprowski,4,5 Marek Tomaszewski,1 Piotr Janusz1 1Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2National Scoliosis Foundation, Stoughton, MA, USA; 3Department of Rehabilitation, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan Poland; 4Department of Physiotherapy, Józef Rusiecki University College, Olsztyn, 5Rehasport Clinic, Poznan, Poland Abstract: Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid

  16. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a l

  17. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) to examine maternal asthma medication use during pregnancy and the risk of certain birth defects. (Published October 22, 2014) World Down Syndrome Day Read one mother’s reflection on the birth ...

  18. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  19. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    of recent research on this topic. Individual papers/studies Stewart, M et al: The Birthplace in England Study – maternal outcomes and issues of choice and equity Overgaard, C et al: Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units – outcomes, care perceptions, equity and access in maternity care...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...... countries, maternity care is provided free to women, through public financing of health care; universal access to care is therefore secured. Nevertheless, different models of care exist, and debates about the appropriateness of providing maternity care in different settings take place in both countries...

  20. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235

    2010-01-01

    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  1. Sperm DNA damage has a negative association with live-birth rates after IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, L; Proutski, I; Stevenson, M; Jennings, D; McManus, J; Lutton, D; Lewis, S E M

    2013-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage has a negative impact on pregnancy rates following assisted reproduction treatment (ART). The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation and live-birth rates after IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The alkaline Comet assay was employed to measure sperm DNA fragmentation in native semen and in spermatozoa following density-gradient centrifugation in semen samples from 203 couples undergoing IVF and 136 couples undergoing ICSI. Men were divided into groups according to sperm DNA damage. Following IVF, couples with rate of 33%; in contrast, couples with >50% sperm DNA fragmentation had a much lower live-birth rate of 13%. Following ICSI, no significant differences in sperm DNA damage were found between any groups of patients. Sperm DNA damage was also associated with low live-birth rates following IVF in both men and couples with idiopathic infertility: 39% of couples and 41% of men with idiopathic infertility have high sperm DNA damage. Sperm DNA damage assessed by the Comet assay has a close inverse relationship with live-birth rates after IVF. Sperm DNA damage has a negative impact on assisted reproduction treatment outcome, in particular, on pregnancy rates. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation and live-birth rates after IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The alkaline Comet assay was employed to measure sperm DNA fragmentation in native semen and in spermatozoa following density-gradient centrifugation in semen samples from 203 couples undergoing IVF and 136 couples undergoing ICSI. Men were divided into groups according to sperm DNA damage and treatment outcome. Following IVF, couples with rate of 33%. In contrast, couples with >50% sperm DNA fragmentation had a much lower live-birth rate of 13% following IVF. Following ICSI, there were no significant differences in levels of sperm DNA damage between any groups of

  2. Idiopathic horseshoe-like macular tear: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masaomi Kubota,1 Tomohiro Shibata,1 Hisato Gunji,1 Hiroshi Tsuneoka2 1Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University School of Medicine Kashiwa Hospital, Chiba, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Background: Although a few cases with idiopathic horseshoe-like macular tear have been reported, the mechanism remains unknown and a standard treatment has yet to be determined. Objective: To report the outcome for a patient with idiopathic horseshoe-like macular tear who underwent vitreous surgery. Case report: A 65-year-old man with no previous injury or ophthalmic disease presented with abnormal vision in his left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 0.8 in the right and 0.3 in the left, and the relative afferent pupillary defect was negative. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a horseshoe-like tear on the temporal side of the macula in the left eye. The tear size was 0.75 disc diameters (DD. Optical coherence tomography showed that the focal retinal detachment reached the fovea. A few days after the first visit, there was no longer adhesion of the flap of the tear to the retina and the tear size had increased to 1.5 DD. The patient underwent vitreous surgery similar to large macular hole surgery, with the tear closure repaired using the inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique with 20% SF6 gas tamponade. Although the tear decreased to 0.5 DD after the surgery, complete closure of the tear was not achieved. Conclusion: While cases with horseshoe-like macular tear following trauma and branch retinal vein occlusion have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported idiopathic case. In the present case, there was expansion of the tear until the patient actually underwent surgery. If vertical vitreous traction indeed plays a role in horseshoe-like macular tears, this will need to be taken into consideration at the time of the vitreous surgery in these types of cases. Keywords

  3. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  4. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%-3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid the need for surgical treatment. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe idiopathic scoliosis which is rapidly progressive, with early onset, late diagnosis, and neglected or failed conservative treatment. The psychologic impact of idiopathic scoliosis, a chronic disease occurring in the psychologically fragile period of adolescence, is important because of its body distorting character and the onerous treatment required, either conservative or surgical

  5. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  6. Anatomical Consideration in Catheter Ablation of Idiopathic Ventricular Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takumi; Kay, G Neal

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are ventricular tachycardias (VTs) or premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) with a mechanism that is not related to myocardial scar. The sites of successful catheter ablation of idiopathic VA origins have been progressively elucidated and include both the endocardium and, less commonly, the epicardium. Idiopathic VAs usually originate from specific anatomical structures such as the ventricular outflow tracts, aortic root, atrioventricular (AV) annuli, papillary muscles, Purkinje network and so on, and exhibit characteristic electrocardiograms based on their anatomical background. Catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs is usually safe and highly successful, but can sometimes be challenging because of the anatomical obstacles such as the coronary arteries, epicardial fat pads, intramural and epicardial origins, AV conduction system and so on. Therefore, understanding the relevant anatomy is important to achieve a safe and successful catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs. This review describes the anatomical consideration in the catheter ablation of idiopathic VAs.

  7. Stressful life events in pregnancy and head circumference at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink;

    2003-01-01

    pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...... development in many ways, but we found no support for an effect on the size of the brain as measured by head circumference at birth. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Dec...

  8. Birth rites: redefining the visual language of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Elaine

    2011-02-01

    This article provides a review of a Birth Rites organisation event to launch its new website and art competition. Birth Rites is the first and only collection of contemporary artwork dedicated to the subject of childbirth. The collection aims to redefine visual language in contemporary art around the subject of birth, making women the protagonists, with more choice and a greater understanding of the process. The organisation was founded by two women, Phoebe Mortimer and curator Helen Knowles.

  9. AUTOLOGOUS SERUM SKIN TESTING (ASST) IN CHRONIC IDIOPATHIC URTICARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Arun; Suresh; Raghavendra; Vijay; Ramesh,; Asha; Manali; Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a form of urticaria , in which there appears to be persistent activation of mast cells , but the mechanism of mast cell triggering is unknown. The Autologous serum skin test (ASST) is an in vivo test which assesses auto reactivity. ASST could be good screening test for Autoreactive urticaria a subset of chronic idiopathic urticaria. AIMS : To study the clinical profile of chronic idiopathic urticaria and pattern of A...

  10. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension and transverse sinus stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyrman, Simon; Fytagoridis, Anders; Andresen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman was diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and bilateral transverse sinus stenoses (TSS), after presenting with papilledema and decreased visual acuity. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of >60 cm H2O. MRI showed bilateral TSS believed to be asso......An 18-year-old woman was diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and bilateral transverse sinus stenoses (TSS), after presenting with papilledema and decreased visual acuity. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of >60 cm H2O. MRI showed bilateral TSS believed...... to be associated with the IIH. Initial treatment consisted of symptom relief by a temporary lumbar drain for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, while the pros and cons of a more permanent solution by insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) or bilateral transverse sinus stent was discussed. A VPS...

  11. Clinical characteristics of idiopathic portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozgur Harmanci; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic portal hypertension is one of the interesting causes of portal hypertension. Even in very developed medical centers, this disorder is still one of the most important misdiagnoses of clinical practice. To inexperienced physicians, presenting esophageal varices and upper gastrointestinal bleeding usually prompt an unfortunate diagnosis of cirrhosis. A heterogenous clinical presentation and progression of this disorder should be recognized by physicians, and management should be directed towards some specific problems confined to this disorder. Although a genetic basis and other factors are implicated in its pathogenesis, exact underlying mechanism(s) is (are) unknown. In this review, we discuss the heterogeneity of idiopathic portal hypertension, its etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation and management issues. With the expectation of an excellent prognosis, a practicing gastroenterologist should be aware that "not all varices mean cirrhosis".

  12. Idiopathic gingival enlargement and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic gingival enlargement is a proliferative fibrous lesion of the gingival tissue that causes esthetic and functional problems. Both genetically and pharmacologically induced forms of gingival enlargement exist. This case report addresses the diagnosis and treatment of a case of idiopathic gingival enlargement in a 13-year-old female. The patient presented with generalized diffuse gingival enlargement involving the maxillary and mandibular arches extending on buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces and covering incisal / occlusal third of the tooth resulting in difficulty in speech and mastication since last three years. Patient also gave a history of surgical treatment being carried out four years back in upper anterior region suggesting of recurrence. Biopsy report confirmed the diagnosis of gingival hyperplasia. Gingivectomy was carried out in all four quadrants by using four different methods.

  13. [Pathogenesis of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling-Navarro, Carlos; Nava, Arnulfo

    2009-11-01

    The inflammatory myopathies, commonly described as idiopathic, are a group of acquired diseases characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate of the skeletal muscle. On the basis of clinical and immuno-pathological features, three major diseases can be identified: dermatomiositis (DM), polymyositis (PM) and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Immunopathogenesis mechanisms are crucial for discriminating between the three different subsets of inflammatory myopathies. DM is a complement-mediated microangiopathy affecting skin and muscle. PM and IBM are T cell-mediated disorders, where CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells invade muscle fibres expressing MHC class I antigens. This article summarizes the main immunopathological markers. The impact of this new knowledge must be defined in relation to potential therapeutic targets for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

  14. Acute Exacerbations of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Collard, Harold R.; Moore, Bethany B.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Brown, Kevin K.; Kaner, Robert J.; King, Talmadge E.; Lasky, Joseph A.; Loyd, James E.; Noth, Imre; Olman, Mitchell A.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Ryu, Jay H.; Zisman, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.

    2007-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been characterized as a steady, predictable decline in lung function over time. Recent evidence suggests that some patients may experience a more precipitous course, with periods of relative stability followed by acute deteriorations in respiratory status. Many of these acute deteriorations are of unknown etiology and have been termed acute exacerbations of IPF. This perspective is the result of an international effort to summariz...

  15. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in female homozygous twins.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, S; Sawamura, Y; Kato, T.; Abe, H.; Katusima, H

    1997-01-01

    The authors report on female homozygous twins with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. At the age of 12 years, both twins simultaneously developed visual disturbances with photophobia. At the age of 19 years, an ophthalmological examination disclosed papilloedema in both their eyes. At the age of 22 years, a lumbar puncture showed raised CSF pressure over (200 mm H2O) in both twins. Their neurological and radiological examinations were extremely similar; both of them had severely impaired v...

  16. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kotwicki T; Chowanska J; Kinel E; Czaprowski D; Tomaszewski M; Janusz P

    2013-01-01

    Tomasz Kotwicki,1 Joanna Chowanska,1,2 Edyta Kinel,3 Dariusz Czaprowski,4,5 Marek Tomaszewski,1 Piotr Janusz1 1Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2National Scoliosis Foundation, Stoughton, MA, USA; 3Department of Rehabilitation, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan Poland; 4Department of Physiotherapy, Józef Rusiecki University College, Olsztyn, 5Rehasport Clinic, Poznan, Poland Abstract: Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimension...

  17. Chronic Idiopathic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagelada

    2000-08-01

    The definition of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP) is somewhat vague because it was based on clinical observations that preceded modern advances in the measurement of gut motility and neuromuscular integrity. Appropriate management of patients with CIIP requires an initial consideration, supported by pertinent diagnostic tests, of the tissue affected (muscle, nerves, both), extent and magnitude of gut propulsive failure, and extraintestinal disease.

  18. The genetic epidemiology of idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Kristen Fay; Julien, Cédric; Moreau, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Idiopathic scoliosis is a complex developmental syndrome defined by an abnormal structural curvature of the spine. High treatment costs, chronic pain/discomfort, and the need for monitoring at-risk individuals contribute to the global healthcare burden of this musculoskeletal disease. Although many studies have endeavored to identify underlying genes, little progress has been made in understanding the etiopathogenesis. The objective of this comprehensive review was to summarize geneti...

  19. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Jirásková

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nada Jirásková, Pavel RozsívalDepartment of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech RepublicPurpose: To evaluate retrospectively the features, treatment, and outcome of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH in children.Methods: Nine patients, 15 years and younger, diagnosed with IIH. Inclusion criteria were papilledema, normal brain computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid pressure greater than 250 mm H2O, normal cerebrospinal fluid content, and a nonfocal neurologic examination except for sixth nerve palsy.Results: Of the nine patients, eight were girls. Five girls were overweight and one boy was obese. The most common presenting symptom was headache (5 patients. Diplopia or strabismus did not occur in our group. Visual field abnormalities were present in all eyes, and severe visual loss resulting in light perception vision occurred in both eyes of one patient. Eight patients were treated medically with acetazolamide alone, and one girl needed a combination of acetazolamide and corticosteroids. This girl also required optic nerve sheath decompression surgery. Resolution of papilledema and recovery of visual function occurred in all patients.Conclusions: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in prepubertal children is rather uncommon. Prompt diagnosis and management are important to prevent permanent visual loss.Keywords: idiopathic intracranial hypertension, pediatric, treatment

  20. JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is 0.86 per 1000 children. Subcutaneous nodules have been reported in 5% to 10% of children with JIA. Approximately 90% of patients with RA and subc utaneous nodules test positive for rheumatoid factor (RF, and approximately 40% o f all RF-seropositive patients with RA have subcutaneous nodules, whereas only 6% in volvement is seen in seronegative cases. We hereby report a case of atypical Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA in a 6 year old, female child with joint pain & myalgia along with subcutaneous nodules over the dorsum of feet, hands and elbows. Joint pain initial ly involving the left ankle, slowly progressed to involve the knee, shoulder, wrist, metacar pophalangeal and interphalangeal joints over a period of one year. Joint involvement was not symmetric. RF was Negative. Fundoscopy examination was normal. Histopathological examinat ion revealed a central zone of Fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by epithelioid h istiocytes and occasional lymphocytes. Differential diagnosis of Rheumatoid Nodule (R N or Subcutaneous Granuloma Annulare (SGA or Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum was made. In light of clinicopathological findings, both SGA and NLD were ruled out a nd the diagnosis of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis presenting as RF-negative polyarthritis was made.

  1. Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggio O

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oliviero Riggio,1 Stefania Gioia,1 Ilaria Pentassuglio,1 Valeria Nicoletti,1 Michele Valente,2 Giulia d’Amati2 1Department of Clinical Medicine, Center for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Portal Hypertension, 2Department of Radiological, Oncological, and Pathological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Abstract: The term idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH has been recently proposed to replace terms, such as hepatoportal sclerosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, incomplete septal cirrhosis, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia, used to describe patients with a hepatic presinusoidal cause of portal hypertension of unknown etiology, characterized by features of portal hypertension (esophageal varices, nonmalignant ascites, porto-venous collaterals, splenomegaly, patent portal, and hepatic veins and no clinical and histological signs of cirrhosis. Physicians should learn to look for this condition in a number of clinical settings, including cryptogenic cirrhosis, a disease known to be associated with INCPH, drug administration, and even chronic alterations in liver function tests. Once INCPH is clinically suspected, liver histology becomes mandatory for the correct diagnosis. However, pathologists should be familiar with the histological features of INCPH, especially in cases in which histology is not only requested to exclude liver cirrhosis. Keywords: idiopathic portal hypertension, obliterative portal venopathy, esophageal varices, splenomegaly

  2. Brace Treatment in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sehirlioglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, the most common pediatric spine problem, is a structural lateral and rotatory curvature of the spine arising in otherwise normal children during puberty. It occurs before skeletal maturity. Although there is still no cause for AIS, the natural history of AIS has been established in the literature very well. The aim of nonoperative treatment is mainly an attempt to prevent progression of the curve. Bracing and surgery have been used for large and or progressive curves currently. Many conservative treatments are available for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Although there are numerous studies in literature that have tried to summarize the results of treatment, the evidence for their accepted use is still unclear. Many clinicians skeptical about the efficacy of conservative treatments. Because there is no consistency of both the inclusion criteria and the definitions of brace effectiveness. The definition of success or who should be included in the analysis have never been universally agreed upon. The Scoliosis Research Society established parameters for all future AIS bracing studies to be able to make comparison among studies more valid and reliable. These guidelines may standardize orthotic studies by recommending inclusion and assessment criteria and allow the promotion of the effectiveness of different braces and decrease the suspicion about their usefulness. Orthotic treatment in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is used to control spinal curvatures while waiting for skeletal maturation.

  3. Pulmonary function in children with idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiligiannis Theofanis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased work of breathing at rest, during exercise and sleep. Pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure may develop in severe disease. In this review the epidemiological and anatomical aspects of idiopathic scoliosis are noted, the pathophysiology and effects of idiopathic scoliosis on respiratory function are described, the pulmonary function testing including lung volumes, respiratory flow rates and airway resistance, chest wall movements, regional ventilation and perfusion, blood gases, response to exercise and sleep studies are presented. Preoperative pulmonary function testing required, as well as the effects of various surgical approaches on respiratory function are also discussed.

  4. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  5. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  6. How menstrual shame affects birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Sharon

    2010-12-01

    In Western, industrialised culture, menstruation and birth are commonly seen as unstable, pathological processes requiring medical control. Girls learn to see menstruation as shameful and secretive. Menarche is a nodal event around which girls' beliefs and attitudes to being female are organised. The perception of menstruation as a liability has foundational implications for future female experiences, particularly birth. Other cultures have recognised menstruation and birth as spiritual phenomena, with menarche and childbirth experienced as powerful initiatory processes. My PhD research explored the links between cultural attitudes to menstruation and spirituality, and women's experiences of birth. My feminist perspective recognised the power imbalances, patriarchal controls and structural inequities that oppress women in their intimate body experiences. Menstrual shame was identified as a core patriarchal organising principle that inculcates and perpetuates male dominance and female subordination. Engendering the perception of female physiology - and thus womanhood - as inherently flawed, menstrual shame was a key factor that predisposed women to approach birth feeling fearful, disempowered and vulnerable to intervention. However, my research also unearthed a counter-cultural group of women who had transformed their relationship with both menstruation and birth. Redesignating menstruation as a spiritual phenomenon enabled these women to dismantle their menstrual shame, connect with their female spirituality and give birth fearlessly and powerfully. For others, the profound spirituality of birth transformed their understanding of menstruation. Contrary to cultural norms, both menstruation and birth can be sacred female experiences which are sources of authority and empowerment.

  7. Birth control over 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnes, M

    1994-07-01

    Among 30-40 year old women, 40% of pregnancies are unplanned, which is indicative of the unreliability of the birth control methods they are using. The 1992 Ortho Birth Control Study interviewed almost 7000 women, of whom 8% listed withdrawal and 4% listed the rhythm method. These two methods have failure rates of 24% and 19%, respectively. Birth control methods often disappoint the users and increasingly they turn to sterilization. 48% of married women aged 15-44 had themselves been sterilized or had a sterilized partner in the Ortho survey. Although reversal of tubal ligation succeeds in 43-88% of cases, conception cannot be guaranteed. For women over the age of 30 who are healthy and do not smoke, low-estrogen or no-estrogen oral contraceptive pills are considered safe. Taking the pill also helps prevent ovarian and endometrial cancer. The failure rate is 6%. Barrier methods also offer protection from sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Condoms are favored by 33% of unmarried women and 19% of married women. Sexually active 40-44 year old unmarried women run a 14-19% risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) in a 12-month period. Diaphragms offer some protection against STDs, but their failure rate is 18%. IUDs are regaining popularity, but only 1% of women use them (ParaGard T380A or Progestasert). Pelvic inflammatory disease is the reason: a 1992 study showed that 0.97% of women developed it within 20 days of use. Norplant is a long-term implant containing levonorgestrel with a failure rate of 0.5%. A 1993 study followed 1253 implant users over 12 months and found a very low rate of pregnancy, but 75% experienced some side effects during the first year. About half of the women using Norplant removed it after 2.5 years because of irregular bleeding. Depo-Provera is an injectable administered every 3 months, but after removal it can take up to a year for ovulation to return. Side effects may include hair loss and weight gain; and links to

  8. Child Health USA 2014: Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent of infants born very preterm or at low birth weight. However, even babies born “late preterm” (34–36 weeks’ gestation) or at moderately low birth weight (1,500–2,499 grams) are more ...

  9. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents' modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents' personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn.

  10. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some health problems for the baby, such as low birth weight. It’s never too late to quit smoking. Learn more about smoking during pregnancy » Avoid marijuana and other “street drugs”. A ... a baby who is born preterm, of low birth weight, or has other health problems, such as ...

  11. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  12. Idiopathic scoliosis; a biomechanical and functional anatomical study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, Albert Gerrit

    1985-01-01

    Although many types of causes of scoliosis are known, the idiopathic variety comprises the largest group and as its name indicates, its a etiology is unknown. Idiopathics coliosis develops in a previously normal vertebral column and has been recognized as an entity for more than a century.

  13. Abnormal glomerular basement membrane in idiopathic multicentric osteolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; Vos, GD; Verschure, PDMM; Mulder, AH; Tiebosch, TMG

    1996-01-01

    The primary cause of nephropathy in idiopathic multicentric osteolysis is as yet unknown. We report a young girl with idiopathic multicentric osteolysis and nephropathy. An abnormal glomerular basement membrane was the only abnormality found in a renal biopsy taken 2 years before the development of

  14. Perceived health status in self-reported adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Thomsen, Karsten; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2010-01-01

    A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and measure of Short Form-12 (SF-12) in a big twin-cohort.......A questionnaire-based identification of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and measure of Short Form-12 (SF-12) in a big twin-cohort....

  15. IDIOPATHIC PYODERMA GANGRENOSUM: REPORT IN A THREE YEAR OLD CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar Kinhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, non - infectious and destructive skin disease. Its exact etiopathogenesis is not clearly understood and is believed to be due to immune dysfunction. Several theories have been postulated; however none are consistent in all patients. Pyoderma gangrenosum mostly affects adults and rarely in children. An underlying systemic diseas e is often seen in most of the cases. A three - year - old male child presented with a non - healing ulcer over left thigh. Clinical features, histopathology, other investigations and dramatic response to corticosteroids suggested a diagnosis of idiopathic pyo derma gangrenosum. Associated idiopathic thrombocytosis was also seen. Idiopathic pyoderma gangrenosum is very rare in children. Idiopathic pyoderma gangrenosum associated with idiopathic thrombocytosis and keloidal scarring has not been reported earlier

  16. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  17. Idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm at pediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Manzano, E; González-de-Olano, D; Haurie-Girelli, J; Herráiz-Sarachaga, J I; Bermúdez-Cañete, R; Tamariz-Martel, A; Cuesta-Gimeno, C; Pérez-de-León, J

    2009-03-01

    A 6-year-old-boy presented with epigastric pain and vomiting over 1 year. Chest X-ray and esophagogastric transit showed a mediastinal mass. A chest computerized tomography angiogram demonstrated a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. Analytical determinations carried out were all negative. The aneurysm was surgically repaired using a Dacron patch. The anatomopathological study described atherosclerotic lesions with calcifications, compatible with an atherosclerotic aneurysm wall. Aneurysms are uncommon in the pediatric population. Usually, no pathogenesis can be determined, and thus, such cases are grouped as idiopathic. Direct repair with or without patch is a therapeutic alternative in pediatric aneurysms and can allow the growth of the aortic circumference.

  18. The Electrophysiology in Idiopathic Senile Macular Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Of 12 patients with idiopathic senile full- thickness macular hole, 3 had bilateral involvement, 9 had monocular macular hole. Flash ERG and pattern VEP were performed in the bilateral eyes of all patients. The abnormal rate of the pattern VEP was 93.3% when we used 15' checkboard stimulus, the changes of the VEP appeared as delayed latencies, reduced amplitudes or malformation of P100. The abnormal rate of the flash ERG was 53.3%, showing primary characteristics of reduced amplitudes of cone response b...

  19. "Nocturnal seizures" in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Anthony; McSweeney, Julia; Kulik, Thomas; Khatwa, Umakanth; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-10-15

    The usual differential diagnoses of nocturnal events in children include parasomnias, nocturnal seizures, nocturnal reflux (Sandifer syndrome), hypnic jerks, periodic limb movements of sleep, and sleep disordered breathing. We report a previously healthy young girl who presented to the sleep clinic for evaluation of nocturnal events which were diagnosed as medically refractory nocturnal seizures. It was not until a syncopal event occurred in the daytime, which prompted referral for cardiac evaluation, the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hyper-tension (IPAH) was made. Sleep physicians should consider IPAH in the differential diagnosis of nocturnal events in children.

  20. Genetics of idiopathic generalized epilepsy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. V. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is a common type of epilepsy. Strong support for a genetic role in IGE comes from twin and family studies. Several subtypes of IGE have been reported but families often have members affected with different subtypes. Major advances have been made in the understanding of genetic basis of monogenic inherited epilepsies. However, most IGEs are complex genetic diseases and some susceptible IGE genes are shared across subtypes that determine subtypes in specific combinations. The high throughput technologies like deoxyribonucleic acid microarrays and sequencing technologies have the potential to identify causative genes or loci in non-familial cases.

  1. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a clinical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J

    2000-02-01

    The chronic arthritides in childhood remain a poorly understood group of conditions. Their classification has been a source of much confusion over the years with differences in terminology between Europe and North America. A significant step forward in paediatric rheumatology has been the recent development of an internationally agreed classification system which uses the overall term juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The various subtypes of JIA and their clinical features are described, together with an overview of their differential diagnosis, complications and outcomes. An outline of current management strategies is given and potential future developments highlighted.

  2. Idiopathic calcinosis cutis of nasal dorsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinath D.P Kamath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old lady presented with a slowly progressing firm mass on the nasal dorsum since 8 months. Her biochemical, haematological and collagen vascular disease screening tests were normal. Radiographs of the nasal bones showed a subcutaneous calcifying lesion with no evidence of nasal bone erosion. A diagnosis of idiopathic calcinosis cutis (ICC was made. The mass was excised and soft tissue defect was augmented with silicone prosthesis. The histopathology with the haematoxylin and eosin staining and von Kossa stain confirmed the diagnosis of calcinosis cutis. This is an unusual presentation of ICC involving the nasal dorsum requiring surgery and nasal dorsal augmentation with silicone prosthesis.

  3. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the paediatric perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Alison [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Department of Adolescent Rheumatology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); McDonagh, Janet E. [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Institute of Child Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Paediatric rheumatology is a relatively new specialty that has developed rapidly over the last 30 years. There have been major advances, which have included improvements in the classification and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The former has led to enhanced international collaboration with disease registries, multicentre research and the development of new therapeutic agents. This has resulted in improved disease control and remission induction in many. There is, however, still significant morbidity associated with JIA during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and challenges for the future include early identification of those with a poorer prognosis, appropriate administration of safe therapies and optimizing outcomes as young people move through adolescence into adulthood. (orig.)

  4. Update on idiopathic hirsutism: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erem, C

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic hirsutism (IH) is defined as hirsutism in conjunction with normal ovulatory function and normal serum androgen levels. The pathogenesis of IH is still not clear. Increased peripheral 5alpha-reductase enzyme activity and abnormalities of androgen receptor gene polymorphisms have been postulated to explain the pathogenesis of this disorder. It is diagnosed in women who have hirsutism, normal ovulatory function, and normal levels of serum total or free testosterone. Combination treatment of IH, including androgen suppression, peripheral androgen blockade and cosmetic methods is most effective.

  5. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Misdiagnosed as Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michelle Fog; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare, but potentially life-threatening genetic disorder that results from an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by acute, recurrent attacks of severe local edema, most commonly affecting the skin and mucosa. Swelling in hereditary angioedema patients does...... however not always have to be caused by angioedema but can relate to other concomitant disorders. In this report we are focusing on misdiagnosis in a patient with known hereditary angioedema, whose bleeding episode caused by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was mistaken for an acute attack...... of hereditary angioedema. The case illustrates how clinicians can have difficulties in handling patients with rare diseases, especially in the emergency care setting....

  6. Idiopathic gingival enlargement: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Shah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis is a relatively rare condition characterized by the proliferation of the gingival tissues resulting in masticatory, esthetics, phonetics and psychological disturbances. We present a case with generalized diffuse gingival enlargement involving the maxillary and mandibular arches extending on buccal and lingual/palatal surfaces and covering incisal/occlusal third of the tooth in the left maxillary region. Gingivectomy was carried out in all four quadrants. Periodic recalls showed maintenance of good oral hygiene and one year follow-up revealed no recurrence.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(1: 26-28

  7. Idiopathic esophagopleural fistula in the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannaccone, G.; Cozzi, F.; Roggini, M.; Capocaccia, P.

    1982-07-01

    Idiopathic rupture of the esophagus in the neonate is a rare event, probably related to the same mechanism of ischemic necrosis responsible for other 'spontaneous' g.i. tract perforations in the newborn. The laceration is usually located on the right aspect of the distal esophagus and is complicated by esophagopleural fistula and hydropneumothorax. Plain chest film and esophagography are diagnostic. The condition is an emergency one and usually carries a bad prognosis without prompt surgical repair. A typical case is reported in a baby who survived without early surgery; a residual tiny blind pouch and a small hiatal hernia required surgery at 1 year of age.

  8. Behavioral conditioning and idiopathic environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, N D; Lehrer, P M

    2000-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a poorly understood condition that may involve disturbances in immunologic, neurologic, endocrine, behavioral, emotional, and cognitive processes. This chapter reviews theories and evidence that behavioral conditioning processes, including pharmacologic sensitization, conditioned immunomodulation, and conditioned odor and taste aversions, may play a role in the development and maintenance of IEI. It also reviews the psychophysiologic concepts of individual response specificity and situational response stereotypy as potential explanations for the individual differences observed in specific responses to environmental stimuli in patients with IEI. Finally, the treatment implications of a conditioning account of IEI are discussed as part of a more comprehensive treatment approach that incorporates other behavioral and nonbehavioral strategies.

  9. Idiopathic environmental intolerance: case definition issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, R

    2000-01-01

    Case definitions of the same phenomenon may be different for different purposes. Case definitions usually become more specific over time as more information about the condition becomes available. Idiopathic environmental intolerance is one of many labels for a heterogeneous group of conditions in which subjects describe multiple symptoms that are attributed to exposure to extremely low doses of common chemicals. Dr. Kreutzer presents issues in case definition for clinical purposes and for population-based studies, and makes recommendations for the clinician and for the public health investigator.

  10. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    , and sexual dysfunction. Our results show that compared to control subjects with a similar overall age and sex distribution, patients with iRBD experience significantly more problems with gastrointestinal, urinary, and cardiovascular functioning. The most prominent differences in severity of autonomic......Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...

  11. Phototesting In The Idiopathic Photodermatoses Among Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejoy P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available 50 patients with idiopathic photodermatoses were phototested using the solar simulator, with broad spectrum wavebands of the whole spectrum (WS and the whole spectrum â€" ultraviolet B (WS- UVB to determine the minimal erythema dose. Cases diagnosed as solar urticaria were further tested with visible light. Among the photodermatoses seen in this part of the country polymorphic light eruption (PLE was the commonest followed by chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD and solar urticaria. The UVB wavelengths appeared to be more responsible than UVA in PLE and CAD while the UVA and visible wavelengths were responsible for solar urticaria.

  12. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  13. Model of reticuloendothelial iron metabolism in humans: Abnormal behavior in idiopathic hemochromatosis and in inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillet, G.; Beguin, Y.; Baldelli, L. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

    1989-08-01

    Iron transport in the reticuloendothelial (RE) system plays a central role in iron metabolism, but its regulation has not been characterized physiologically in vivo in humans. In particular, why serum iron is elevated and RE cells are much less iron-loaded than parenchymal cells in idiopathic hemochromatosis is not known. The processing of erythrocyte iron by the RE system was studied after intravenous (IV) injection of 59Fe heat-damaged RBCs (HDRBCs) and 55Fe transferrin in normal subjects and in patients with iron deficiency, idiopathic hemochromatosis, inflammation, marrow aplasia, or hyperplastic erythropoiesis. Early release of 59Fe by the RE system was calculated from the plasma iron turnover and the 59Fe plasma reappearance curve. Late release was calculated from the ratio of 59Fe/55Fe RBC utilization in 2 weeks. The partitioning of iron between the early (release from heme catabolism) and late (release from RE stores) phases depended on the size of RE iron stores, as illustrated by the inverse relationship observed between early release and plasma ferritin (P less than .001). There was a strong correlation between early release and the rate of change of serum iron levels during the first three hours in normal subjects (r = .85, P less than .001). Inflammation produced a blockade of the early release phase, whereas in idiopathic hemochromatosis early release was considerably increased as compared with subjects with similar iron stores. Based on these results, we describe a model of RE iron metabolism in humans. We conclude that the RE system appears to determine the diurnal fluctuations in serum iron levels through variations in the immediate output of heme iron. In idiopathic hemochromatosis, a defect of the RE cell in withholding iron freed from hemoglobin could be responsible for the high serum iron levels and low RE iron stores.

  14. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  15. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-YING ZHENG; XIN-MING SONG; LI-HUA PANG; YING JI; HONG-MEI SUN; LEI ZHANG; JU-FEN LIU; YAN-LING GUO; YAN ZHANG; TING ZHANG; YI-FEI WANG; CHEN XU; GONG CHEN; RUOLEI XIN; JIA-PENG CHEN; XU-MEI HU; QING YANG

    2004-01-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  16. Radiographic Evaluation of Idiopathic Osteosclerosis in Patients Referring to Mashhad Dental School from November 2002 to May 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eatemadi-Sadjadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Idiopathic osteosclerosis is a common radiopaque lesion in the jaw bones, which is asymptomatic and usually detected accidentally in various radiographs. The purpose of this study was to determine the radiographic features of idiopathic osteosclerosis in the jawbones of patients referring to the maxillofacial radiology center of Mashhad Dental Faculty. Methods: In this descriptive study, panoramic radiographs of 300 patients ( 125 males, 175 females who had referred to the maxillofacial radiology department were evaluated for the presence of idiopathic osteosclerosis. The radiographic information included location, number, shape, size, relationship with teeth, pattern of density ( trabecular-cortical and demographic data ( age, sex and evidence of disease in the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys were also recorded . Then data was analyzed using chi-square and t-student test. Results : A total of 27 patients (9%, exhibited 40 foci of idiopathic osteosclerosis with different shapes and sizes (4 cm2 to 1/09 cm 2 , most of which had well defined borders (65% and trabecular density (62/5% . The most common region for these lesions was in the mandible, especially in the second premolar (47/5% and first molar (42/5% regions and the majority had no connection to the teeth (57/5%. The lesions were most prevalent in the second decade of life (29/6% followed by third and fourth decades. (25/9% Conclusion: The results of this study were the same as that of previous similar studies. In addition, chronic renal failure was seen in 1/3 of patients with idiopathic osteosclerosis .

  17. Cranial birth trauma; Kraniales Geburtstrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [German] Als Geburtstrauma werden die Verletzungen des Saeuglings bezeichnet, die waehrend der Geburt stattfinden. Zu den Verletzungen, die am Schaedel auftreten koennen und hauptsaechlich durch mechanische Kraefte wie Kompression oder Traktion verursacht werden, gehoeren das Caput succedaneum, das Zephalhaematom, das subgaleale Haematom und die intrakranielle Blutung. Die hypoxisch-ischaemische Enzephalopathie ist die Folge einer systemischen Asphyxie waehrend der Geburt. (orig.)

  18. A dream birth? Try hypnobirthing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Katharine

    2013-09-01

    Hypnobirthing is often regarded as a method of pain relief without drugs. This is to miss the point, as it presupposes that pain is there in the first place. When a woman learns to release the preconceptions, fears and worries about birth that are endemic in our society, her experience of giving birth to her baby can be the most wonderful and empowering experience of her life. Mind and body working together can be a powerful and efficient combination. This is how birth is designed to be, as midwives and hospitals are beginning to discover. Thus hypnobirthing can provide a service that women want as well as save scarce NHS funds.

  19. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    OpenAIRE

    Maghuyop-Butalid R; Mayo NA; Polangi HT

    2015-01-01

    Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A quest...

  20. The BirthPlace collaborative practice model: results from the San Diego Birth Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz; Jackson; Lang; Ecker; Ganiats; Dickinson; Nguyen

    1998-07-01

    Objective: The search for quality, cost-effective health care programs in the United States is now a major focus in the era of health care reform. New programs need to be evaluated as alternatives are developed in the health care system. The BirthPlace program provides comprehensive perinatal services with certified nurse-midwives and obstetricians working together in an integrated collaborative practice serving a primarily low-income population. Low-risk women are delivered by nurse-midwives in a freestanding birth center (The BirthPlace), which is one component of a larger integrated health network. All others are delivered by team obstetricians at the affiliated tertiary hospital. Wellness, preventive measures, early intervention, and family involvement are emphasized. The San Diego Birth Center Study is a 4-year research project funded by the U.S. Federal Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (#R01-HS07161) to evaluate this program. The National Birth Center Study (NEJM, 1989; 321(26): 1801-11) described the advantages and safety of freestanding birth centers. However, a prospective cohort study with a concurrent comparison group of comparable risk had not been conducted on a collaborative practice-freestanding birth center model to address questions of safety, cost, and patient satisfaction.Methods: The specific aims of this study are to compare this collaborative practice model to the traditional model of perinatal health care (physician providers and hospital delivery). A prospective cohort study comparing these two health care models was conducted with a final expected sample size of approximately 2,000 birth center and 1,350 traditional care subjects. Women were recruited from both the birth center and traditional care programs (private physicians offices and hospital based clinics) at the beginning of prenatal care and followed through the end of the perinatal period. Prenatal, intrapartum, postpartum and infant morbidity and mortality are being

  1. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legakis Nikolaos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. Case presentation A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Conclusion Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  2. Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis: A current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowilaty Sawsan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis (IJFT, also known as parafoveal telangiectasis or idiopathic macular telangiectasia, refers to a heterogeneous group of well-recognized clinical entities characterized by telangiectatic alterations of the juxtafoveolar capillary network of one or both eyes, but which differ in appearance, presumed pathogenesis, and management strategies. Classically, three groups of IJFT are identified. Group I is unilateral easily visible telangiectasis occurring predominantly in males, and causing visual loss as a result of macular edema. Group II, the most common, is bilateral occurring in both middle-aged men and women, and presenting with telangiectasis that is more difficult to detect on biomicroscopy, but with characteristic and diagnostic angiographic and optical coherence tomography features. Vision loss is due to retinal atrophy, not exudation, and subretinal neovascularization is common. Group III is very rare characterized predominantly by progressive obliteration of the perifoveal capillary network, occurring usually in association with a medical or neurologic disease. This paper presents a current review of juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis, reviewing the classification of these entities and focusing primarily on the two most common types encountered in clinical practice, i.e., groups I and II, describing their clinical features, histopathology, natural history, complications, latest results from imaging modalities and functional studies, differential diagnosis, and treatment modalities.

  3. Idiopathic Adrenal Hematoma Masquerading as Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sasaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a case of idiopathic adrenal hematoma. A 59-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a 7.0 cm mass in the right upper abdominal cavity. The tumor was suspected to originate from either the posterior segment of the liver or the right adrenal gland. His chief complaint was weight loss of 8 kg over the previous 6 months. He had no past medical history and took no medications, including no anticoagulants. Laboratory data were almost normal except for a slight elevation of PIVKA-II. The origin of the tumor was found to be the adrenal gland, as angiography revealed the blood supply to the mass to derive from the right superior and inferior adrenal arteries. A fine needle biopsy of the lesion was unable to confirm the diagnosis. Open right adrenalectomy was performed. The histopathological findings of the surgical specimen revealed a hematoma with normal adrenal tissue. In the absence of any obvious etiology, the diagnosis was idiopathic adrenal hematoma.

  4. Managing juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Madeleine J; Dick, Andrew D; Lee, Richard J W; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V; Carreño, Ester; Guly, Catherine M; Ross, Adam H

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral chronic anterior uveitis is an extra-articular feature of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Although figures vary, uveitis occurs in approximately 11%-13% of patients with this disease and is most commonly associated with the female gender, oligoarthritis, and presence of antinuclear antibodies. The disease has an insidious onset and is often asymptomatic. Managing patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis remains challenging as the disease may prove to be refractory to traditional treatment regimens. Stepwise immunomodulatory therapy is indicated, with new biologic drugs being used last in cases of refractory uveitis. Small scale studies and practice have provided the evidence to undertake randomized control trials to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapies, such as infliximab and adalimumab. These have demonstrated promising results, with further data awaited from ongoing trials for adalimumab (as SYCAMORE and ADJUVITE trials). Lower grade evidence is supporting the use of newer biologics such as rituximab, daclizumab, tocilizumab, and abatacept in those cases refractory to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapy.

  5. Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimaz, Rolando

    2016-09-01

    Systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) is a systemic inflammatory disease which has up to now been classified as a category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. However, in this context, systemic inflammation has been associated with dysregulation of the innate immune system, suggesting that it may rather be part of the spectrum of autoinflammatory disorders. The disease is in fact unique with regard to the other JIA categories, in terms of clinical manifestations, prognosis, and response to conventional immunosuppressant therapies. It is characterized clinically by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, rash, and serositis. IL-1 and IL-6 play a major role in the pathogenesis of SoJIA, and treatment with IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors has shown to be highly effective. However, complications of SoJIA, including macrophage activation syndrome, limitations in functional outcome by arthritis and long-term damage from chronic inflammation continue to be a major issue in patients' care. Recent advances on the pathogenesis and treatment have revolutionized the care and prognosis of this potentially life-threatening pediatric condition.

  6. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, E; Adamali, H; Edey, A J

    2017-01-21

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and is increasingly recognised. Prior to the advent of effective therapies, achieving an early diagnosis was arguably of little prognostic consequence given IPF was considered an untreatable and uniformly fatal disease. The advent of new drug treatments has given hope for the future and raised the profile of IPF. International management guidelines highlight the critical role of radiology as part of an interstitial lung disease multidisciplinary team approach in reaching an accurate and early diagnosis of IPF. The diagnostic criteria and levels of diagnostic confidence for the radio-pathological pattern associated with the clinical syndrome of IPF, usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), appear seemingly straightforward; however, with increasing research and recognition of radiopathological interobserver variability, limitations of this classification model are becoming increasingly apparent. This review describes ancillary radiological features, comorbidities, and emerging new entities that potentially co-exist with IPF. Beyond diagnosis radiology is developing as a key prognostic tool to inform longitudinal patient evaluation. These diagnostic and prognostic clinical challenges and the future role of radiology in IPF are discussed.

  7. RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION OF IDIOPATHIC RIGHT VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华伟; JituVohra

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents our experieaee with radioreqencey ablation (RFA) for idiopathic ventricular tschycardia (VT) arising from right ventricle in 12 patients(pts). The age range d patients was 21~50, with a mean of 38. 5 years. Ten out of 12 were females, 1 patient had eandia failure due to almost incessant VT while the rest had normal left ventricular function.Twelve pts had VT arising from the fight ventricle; of those, 9 were from the outflow truct, 2 from the RV apex, and l from the RV inflow. In all tats the diagnostic study and therapeutic RFA were combined in a single procedure, pacemapping and local aetlvition time were used to guide the site of RFA in Ors with VT arising froth the tight ventricle.RFA was successful in 11 of the 12 pts ( 91%). Ntmaher of RF applications were 1~27, mean 9. 6; fluoroscopy time were 4~75, mean 26. 9 minutes. RFA for idiopathic RV has a high success rate. This mode of treament should be considered as a nonphartaaeologieal curative treatment for symptomatic pts.

  8. Idiopathic Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension: An Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwajeong; Rehman, Aseeb Ur; Fiel, M. Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension is a poorly defined clinical condition of unknown etiology. Patients present with signs and symptoms of portal hypertension without evidence of cirrhosis. The disease course appears to be indolent and benign with an overall better outcome than cirrhosis, as long as the complications of portal hypertension are properly managed. This condition has been recognized in different parts of the world in diverse ethnic groups with variable risk factors, resulting in numerous terminologies and lack of standardized diagnostic criteria. Therefore, although the diagnosis of idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension requires clinical exclusion of other conditions that can cause portal hypertension and histopathologic confirmation, this entity is under-recognized clinically as well as pathologically. Recent studies have demonstrated that variable histopathologic entities with different terms likely represent a histologic spectrum of a single entity of which obliterative portal venopathy might be an underlying pathogenesis. This perception calls for standardization of the nomenclature and formulation of widely accepted diagnostic criteria, which will facilitate easier recognition of this disorder and will highlight awareness of this entity. PMID:26563701

  9. Idiopathic membranous nephropathy: an autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Sudesh P; Tramontano, Alfonso

    2011-07-01

    For more than 50 years researchers have debated the evidence for an autoimmune basis of human idiopathic membranous nephritis (MN). Work published in the past 2 years has substantially strengthened the belief that MN is indeed an autoimmune disease of the kidney. Autoantibodies of the IgG4 subclass to at least three podocyte membrane proteins including phospholipase A(2)-receptor, aldose reductase, and manganese superoxide dismutase have been detected by immunoblotting in sera as well as in acid eluates prepared from renal biopsy tissue of patients with this disease, using either whole tissue or microdissected glomeruli from frozen sections. In each case the podocyte antigen has been shown to co-localize with the subepithelial glomerular immune deposits in renal tissue of the same patients. It is not certain if any of these podocyte proteins is an inciting/primary autoantigen or whether they are secondary antigens recruited by intermolecular epitope-spreading, initiating from a yet-to-be-discovered autoantigen. Although it is clear that autoantibodies to podocyte membrane proteins are elicited in idiopathic MN and contribute to the formation of the subepithelial deposits, many questions remain concerning the triggers for their development and their contribution toward proteinuria and progression of the disease.

  10. Idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum: radiologic and clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Seo, Jung Wook; Han, Yoon Hee; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentations, radiological characteristics, and natural history of healthy adolescents presenting with idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed the simple radiographs of 14 consecutive patients (11 males) with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, who were examined over a period of 8 years, and analyzed their clinical history, radiographic findings including distribution, combined subcutaneous emphysema, mediastinal widening, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and resolving period on follow up chest radiographs. We also obtained CT images of 7 patients for the assessment of additional information. The most common complaint at the time of presentation was chest pain and chest discomfort (8/14), followed by neck discomfort (6/14). The chest radiograph was of diagnostic value in alI cases. The main distribution of the pneumomediastinum was cervical (14/14), upper lung (13/14) and lower lung (6/14). Combined subcutaneous emphysema was observed in 6 patients. However, there were no cases of mediastinal widening, pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Complete resolution of the pneumomediastinum on the radiograph was observed after 10 days (mean 5.6), following purely conservative treatment. There was no additional information on the CT images, as compared with that on the radiographs. Idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a benign entity that usually goes undiagnosed, but which responds very weIl to conservative treatment.

  11. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia.

  12. Pediatric Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Nandwani, OD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH presents differently in prepubertal children as compared to postpubertal children and adults. In adults, IIH is most common in obese women of child-bearing age. However, when occurring in prepubertal children, IIH has been shown to have no predilection for gender and does not correlate with obesity. This case report exemplifies the rare occurrence of IIH in a pediatric patient. Case Report: A five-year-old Hispanic female patient was seen at the University Eye Center for a longstanding hypotropia secondary to a likely congenital fourth nerve palsy with an exotropia component. After a strabismus surgery and a series of follow-up visits, bilateral swollen optic nerves were observed, and a prompt referral to the emergency room was made. Consequently, she was diagnosed with IIH. A treatment regimen of acetazolamide was initiated with subsequent improvement of the clinical presentation of increased intracranial pressure, confirmed by the reduction of swelling of her optic nerves. Conclusions: Bilateral swelling of the optic nerves can be an emergency, especially in children. It is important urgently to rule out causes for increased intracranial pressure. If treatment is significantly delayed, or if no treatment is given to a patient with this condition, loss of visual function may occur. In addition to reporting a rare circumstance of pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension, this case report serves to remind eye care practitioners of the importance of monitoring the ocular health of patients closely, even in young, healthy children.

  13. Evidence for cognitive vestibular integration impairment in idiopathic scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercier Pierre

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is characterized by a three-dimensional deviation of the vertebral column and its etiopathogenesis is unknown. Various factors cause idiopathic scoliosis, and among these a prominent role has been attributed to the vestibular system. While the deficits in sensorimotor transformations have been documented in idiopathic scoliosis patients, little attention has been devoted to their capacity to integrate vestibular information for cognitive processing for space perception. Seated idiopathic scoliosis patients and control subjects experienced rotations of different directions and amplitudes in the dark and produced saccades that would reproduce their perceived spatial characteristics of the rotations (vestibular condition. We also controlled for possible alteration of the oculomotor and vestibular systems by measuring the subject's accuracy in producing saccades towards memorized peripheral targets in absence of body rotation and the gain of their vestibulo-ocular reflex. Results Compared to healthy controls, the idiopathic scoliosis patients underestimated the amplitude of their rotations. Moreover, the results revealed that idiopathic scoliosis patients produced accurate saccades to memorized peripheral targets in absence of body rotation and that their vestibulo-ocular reflex gain did not differ from that of control participants. Conclusion Overall, results of the present study demonstrate that idiopathic scoliosis patients have an alteration in cognitive integration of vestibular signals. It is possible that severe spine deformity developed partly due to impaired vestibular information travelling from the cerebellum to the vestibular cortical network or alteration in the cortical mechanisms processing the vestibular signals.

  14. Especially for Teens: Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the same time each day. It contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. There are many types of birth control pills. ... arm or buttock every 3 months. It contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. What is the implant? The implant is a ...

  15. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  16. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  17. Idiopathic Calcium Nephrolithiasis And Hypercalciuria: The Role Of Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Abaterusso, Cataldo

    2007-04-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria are multifactorial disease conditions, the pathogenesis of which involves the interaction of environmental and individual factors. Data support a strong role of genes in the pathogenesis of these two conditions. Findings obtained in monogenic disorders characterized by renal calcium stones, and/or hypercalciuria, and/or nephrocalcinosis have proposed a number of genes as candidate genes in the pathogenesis of the common idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria. The physiological role of these genes, and findings in monogenic disorders and idiopathic, multifactorial disorders will be presented.

  18. Molecular Study of a Hoxa2 Gain-of-Function in Chondrogenesis: A Model of Idiopathic Proportionate Short Stature.

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Nyssen-Behets; René Rezsöhazy; Lengelé, Benoît G.; Deprez, Pierre M L; Nichane, Miloud G

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study using transgenic mice ectopically expressing Hoxa2 during chondrogenesis, we associated the animal phenotype to human idiopathic proportionate short stature. Our analysis showed that this overall size reduction was correlated with a negative influence of Hoxa2 at the first step of endochondral ossification. However, the molecular pathways leading to such phenotype are still unknown. Using protein immunodetection and histological techniques comparing transgenic mice to cont...

  19. Size at birth and blood pressure in young adults: findings from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cunha Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de presión arterial limítrofe (PAL e hipertensión (HT entre adultos jóvenes y evaluar la asociación entre tamaño al nacer y PAL/HT. MÉTODOS: : Los datos fueron colectados en el primer estudio de cohorte de nacimientos brasileño en Ribeirao Preto (sureste de Brasil, iniciado en 1978/79. De 6.827 recién nacidos de parto único hospitalario, 2.060 fueron evaluados a los 23/25 años. Se realizaron colecta de sangre, evaluación antropométrica y obtenidas informaciones sobre ocupación, escolaridad, hábitos de vida y enfermedades crónicas. Presión arterial (PA fue clasificada en: 1 PAL: PA sistólica (PAS ≥ 130 y < 140 mm Hg y/o PA diastólica (PAD ≥ 85 y < 90 mm Hg; 2 HT: PAS ≥ 140 y/o PAD ≥ 90 mm Hg. Se aplicó modelo de regresión logística politómica. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de PAL fue de 13,5% (hombres 23,2% y la de HT, 9,5% (hombres 17,7%. PAL fue independientemente asociada con sexo masculino (Riesgo Relativo - RR 8,84; 95%IC: 6,09;12,82, estatura al nacer ≥ 50 cm (RR 1,97; 1,04; 3,73, índice de masa corporal (IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,23; 2,02; 5,15 y circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 1,61; 1,13;2,29, mientras el HT se asoció con sexo masculino (RR 15,18; 8,92;25,81, IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,68; 2,23;6,06, circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 2,68; 1,77;4,05 y glicemia elevada (RR 2,55; 1,27;5,10, pero no con estatura al nacer. CONCLUSIONES: Las prevalencias de PAL y HT entre los adultos jóvenes de la cohorte fueron mayores en hombres que en mujeres. Mayor estatura al nacer fue asociado con PAL, pero no con HT, mientras que el peso al nacer no estuvo asociado con PAL o HT. Factores de riesgo de adulto explicaron la mayoría de los aumentos de PAL o HT.

  20. Factors associated with thymic size at birth among low and normal birth-weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    treatment at the time of labor (0.84 [0.70-1.00]), number of pregnancy consultations (1.03 [1.00-1.05]), maternal age (0.91 [0.84-0.98]), Apgar score (1.06 [1.03-1.10]), and infant convulsions (0.44 [0.29-0.65]) were all independent determinants of thymic index but not all were determinants of thymus...

  1. Geographic latitude and prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Theodoros B; Vasiliadis, Elias; Savvidou, Olga; Mouzakis, Vasilios; Koufopoulos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) prevalence has been reported to be different in various geographic latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to record the prevalence of AIS among the general population of boys and girls, aged 10-16 years old, in different geographic latitudes, in order to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of AIS among boys and girls is different in various geographic latitudes and to examine if there is a possible association between them. Seventeen peer-reviewed published papers reporting AIS prevalence in the general population of boys and girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included a linear regression forward modeling procedure of the AIS prevalence by latitude, weighted by sample size. According to the modelling of the data, a significant positive association between prevalence of AIS and latitude was found for girls (p<0.001), following a rather curvilinear trend, but not a significant positive association was found for boys (p<0.111). A positive association between prevalence of AIS and geographic latitude is reported only for girls in the present study. Prevalence of AIS in boys is not associated significantly with geographic latitude. This differing significant association implicates the possible role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AIS that may act in a different way between boys and girls.

  2. Idiopathic hirsutism: excessive bodily and facial hair in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghblawi, Ebtisam

    Hirsutism is the excessive and increased bodily and facial hair growth in women in locations where hair is normally minimal or absent. It refers to the growth of hair in a pattern normally occurring only in men, and therefore primarily raises psychological, cosmetic and social concerns. Idiopathic hirsutism (IH), where the cause of excessive hair growth is unknown, is considered to be the most common form of hirsutism. It is suspected that this type of hirsutism may be familial, as there is often a family history of the condition. Women with IH will generally have normal menses and normal levels of testosterone. There are many treatment modalities that fall into two broad groups: medical and mechanical treatment. An example of a medical treatment is when an agent is used, which interferes with the synthesis of androgen at the ovarian or adrenal level, or by inhibiting the effect of androgen at the receptor level. An example of a mechanical treatment is laser hair removal, where the hair follicle is destroyed; however, much depends on the on the skill of the treating practitioner, laser type, laser spot size, skin type, hair colour, and the stage at which the hair follicles were during their hair growth cycle, and the delivered wavelength. Laser offers the fastest method of hair loss. Other mechanical treatments include electrolysis, depilatory creams, plucking and waxing. This article presents a general overview of IH, including a definition, diagnostic measures, clinical manifestations, normal and abnormal physiology, and treatment options.

  3. Report of a family with idiopathic knuckle pads and review of idiopathic and disease-associated knuckle pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Charles H; Cohen, Philip R

    2013-05-15

    Knuckle pads are a rare, frequently overlooked, thickening of the skin usually overlying the extensor surface of the proximal interphalangeal joints. They are well- circumscribed, benign lesions that generally do not require treatment. Idiopathic knuckle pads must be differentiated from similar appearing lesions or trauma-induced pseudo-knuckle pads. Knuckle pads have been observed in association with autosomal dominant conditions such as Bart-Pumphrey syndrome, Dupuytren's contracture, Ledderhose disease, and Peyronie's disease. To the best of our knowledge, idiopathic familial knuckle pads have not previously been described in the English language literature. We describe a sister and brother with familial idiopathic knuckle pads with no associated conditions.

  4. Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis in a Child with Recurrent Macrophage Activation Syndrome Secondary to Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Kenan; Sahin, Sezgin; Adrovic, Amra

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome, a severe complication of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and other inflammatory diseases, represents one of the most important rheumatological emergencies. Delayed diagnosis could lead to life-threatening complications. Pulmonary hemosiderosis has been classically characterized by a triad of anemia, hemoptysis, and lung infiltrates on chest radiogram. Although the majority of patients of pulmonary hemosiderosis are considered idiopathic, secondary hemosiderosis associated with known diseases could be seen. In this case report, we aimed to present gradually increased pulmonary manifestations due to pulmonary hemosiderosis with recurrent macrophage activation syndrome attacks in a child with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  5. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where...

  6. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    2001-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by obs

  7. Thrombospondin Type-1 Domain-Containing 7A in Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Schwesinger, Catherine; Seitz-Polski, Barbara; Ma, Hong; Zahner, Gunther; Dolla, Guillaume; Hoxha, Elion; Helmchen, Udo; Dabert-Gay, Anne-Sophie; Debayle, Delphine; Merchant, Michael; Klein, Jon; Salant, David J.; Stahl, Rolf A.K.; Lambeau, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Idiopathic membranous nephropathy is an autoimmune disease. In approximately 70% of patients, it is associated with autoantibodies against the phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1). Antigenic targets in the remaining patients are unknown. METHODS Using Western blotting, we screened serum samples from patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy, patients with other glomerular diseases, and healthy controls for antibodies against human native glomerular proteins. We partially purified a putative new antigen, identified this protein by means of mass spectrometry of digested peptides, and validated the results by analysis of recombinant protein expression, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS Serum samples from 6 of 44 patients in a European cohort and 9 of 110 patients in a Boston cohort with anti-PLA2R1–negative idiopathic membranous nephropathy recognized a glomerular protein that was 250 kD in size. None of the serum samples from the 74 patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy who were sero-positive for anti-PLA2R1 antibodies, from the 76 patients with other glomerular diseases, and from the 44 healthy controls reacted against this antigen. Although this newly identified antigen is clearly different from PLA2R1, it shares some biochemical features, such as N-glycosylation, membranous location, and reactivity with serum only under nonreducing conditions. Mass spectrometry identified this antigen as thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A). All reactive serum samples recognized recombinant THSD7A and immunoprecipitated THSD7A from glomerular lysates. Moreover, immunohistochemical analyses of biopsy samples from patients revealed localization of THSD7A to podocytes, and IgG eluted from one of these samples was specific for THSD7A. CONCLUSIONS In our cohort, 15 of 154 patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy had circulating autoantibodies to THSD7A but not to PLA2R1, a finding that suggests a distinct

  8. Acute Exacerbations of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Harold R.; Moore, Bethany B.; Flaherty, Kevin R.; Brown, Kevin K.; Kaner, Robert J.; King, Talmadge E.; Lasky, Joseph A.; Loyd, James E.; Noth, Imre; Olman, Mitchell A.; Raghu, Ganesh; Roman, Jesse; Ryu, Jay H.; Zisman, David A.; Hunninghake, Gary W.; Colby, Thomas V.; Egan, Jim J.; Hansell, David M.; Johkoh, Takeshi; Kaminski, Naftali; Kim, Dong Soon; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Lynch, David A.; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Myers, Jeffrey L.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Selman, Moisés; Toews, Galen B.; Wells, Athol U.; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2007-01-01

    The natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been characterized as a steady, predictable decline in lung function over time. Recent evidence suggests that some patients may experience a more precipitous course, with periods of relative stability followed by acute deteriorations in respiratory status. Many of these acute deteriorations are of unknown etiology and have been termed acute exacerbations of IPF. This perspective is the result of an international effort to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding acute exacerbations of IPF. Acute exacerbations of IPF are defined as acute, clinically significant deteriorations of unidentifiable cause in patients with underlying IPF. Proposed diagnostic criteria include subjective worsening over 30 days or less, new bilateral radiographic opacities, and the absence of infection or another identifiable etiology. The potential pathobiological roles of infection, disordered cell biology, coagulation, and genetics are discussed, and future research directions are proposed. PMID:17585107

  9. Proton MR spectroscopy in idiopathic spasmodic torticollis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, F.; Lucivero, V.; Simone, I.L.; Defazio, G.; De Salvia, R.; Mezzapesa, D.M.; Petruzzellis, M.; Tortorella, C.; Livrea, P. [Dept. of Neurology and Psychiatry, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), localised to the basal ganglia, was used to determine changes in metabolite levels in idiopathic spasmodic torticollis (IST). We examined nine patients and 13 healthy subjects. The mean values ({+-} SD) of peak area ratios were: IST: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/choline-containing compounds (Cho) 1.79 {+-} 0.39, NAA/creatine and phosphocreatine compounds (Cr) 1.61 {+-} 0.38, Cho/Cr 0.91 {+-} 0.19; controls: NAA/Cho 2.07 {+-} 0.35, NAA/Cr 1.82 {+-} 0.31, Cho/Cr 0.89 {+-} 0.12. Statistical analysis showed that NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.0304 and 0.0431, respectively). These results indicate a reduction in NAA, and suggest striatal involvement in the pathogenesis IST. (orig.)

  10. The prognosis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Udaya; Cook, Mark; D'Souza, Wendyl

    2012-12-01

    Prognosis describes the trajectory and long-term outcome of a condition. Most studies indicate a better prognosis in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) in comparison with other epilepsy syndromes. Studies looking at the long-term outcome of different IGE syndromes are relatively scant. Childhood absence epilepsy appears to have a higher rate of remission compared to juvenile absence epilepsy. In absence epilepsies, development of myoclonus and generalized tonic-clonic seizures predicts lower likelihood of remission. Although most patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) achieve remission on antiepileptic drug therapy, remission without treatment. Data on the prognosis of other IGE syndromes are scarce. There are contradictory findings reported on the value of electroencephalography as a predictor of prognosis. Comparisons are made difficult by study heterogeneity, particularly in methodology and diagnostic criteria.

  11. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Misdiagnosed as Hereditary Angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Fog Andersen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema is a rare, but potentially life-threatening genetic disorder that results from an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by acute, recurrent attacks of severe local edema, most commonly affecting the skin and mucosa. Swelling in hereditary angioedema patients does however not always have to be caused by angioedema but can relate to other concomitant disorders. In this report we are focusing on misdiagnosis in a patient with known hereditary angioedema, whose bleeding episode caused by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was mistaken for an acute attack of hereditary angioedema. The case illustrates how clinicians can have difficulties in handling patients with rare diseases, especially in the emergency care setting.

  12. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperosteosis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi İkbali Afşar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperosteosis (DISH is also known as Forestier disease and is a systemic non-inflammatory disorder seen more commonly in males and elderly. It is characterized by calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament of the vertebral column and various extraspinal ligaments. It is usually asymptomatic while the most common symptoms are spinal pain, limited range of spinal motion and dysphagia due to esophagus compression. The etiopathogenesis is not clear. It is commonly seen together with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension and lipid and purine metabolism disorders, indicating an association with metabolic disorders. Recent studies have emphasized that the pathological calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament plays a role in the pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to summarize new pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic insights of this disease, based on published literature.

  13. Idiopathic gynaecomastia in twins: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gynaecomastia is a common pathological condition of breast seen in men. This is defined as benign enlargement of breast tissue in males. It was first described by Palus Aegineta (AD 635-690. Herewith we are presenting cases of 14 year old twins attending the surgical O.P.D with bilateral enlarged breasts and pain. A diagnosis of pubertal gynaecomastia was made with no evidence of malignancy by histopathological examinations and mammography. One boy with 5 x 6 cm of right breast and 2 x3 cm of left breast was treated by subcutaneous mastectomy. Other boy had only enlargement of nipple and areola. He was reassured and sent home without surgical intervention. A rare case of idiopathic gynaecomastia in pubertal twins is described here. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1755-1757

  14. Psychological treatment of psychogenic idiopathic environmental intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, H

    2000-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the psychotherapy of individuals who suffer distress from functional somatic syndromes; specifically, idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). While patients believe environmental intolerances cause their distress, its origin is treated as psychological, mediated through psychophysiological systems and mechanisms associated with the stress response. Factors considered include stress and trauma premorbid to the alleged onset of IEI; somatization and its expression through affective, anxiety, and somatoform disorders; personality disorders and associated psychological defenses; motivation for the sick role; and iatrogenic suggestion and reinforcement of unsubstantiated toxicogenic theories and treatments. Psychotherapies include behavioral desensitization, cognitive-behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, and psychotropic medications. The greatest challenge in treatment is to overcome the patient's disabling belief in a toxicogenic explanation for his or her symptoms.

  15. Clinical Orofacial Examination in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Twilt, Marinka; Spiegel, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    review. The level of evidence for the 5 recommendations was derived primarily from descriptive studies, such as cross-sectional and case-control studies. CONCLUSION: Five recommendations are proposed for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA to improve the clinical practice and aid standardized......OBJECTIVE: To develop international consensus-based recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), for use in clinical practice and research. METHODS: Using a sequential phased approach, a multidisciplinary task force developed and evaluated...... a set of recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA. Phase 1: A Delphi survey was conducted among 40 expert physicians and dentists with the aim of identifying and ranking the importance of items for inclusion. Phase 2: The task force developed consensus about the domains...

  16. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: Abdominal cocoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny N Tannoury; Bassam N Abboud

    2012-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon,the idiopathic form of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis,is a rare condition of unknown etiology that results in an intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrocollagenous membrane.Preoperative diagnosis re quires a high index of clinical suspicion.The early clinical features are nonspecific,are often not recognized and it is difficult to make a definite pre-operative diagnosis.Clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent episodes of small intestinal obstruction combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies.The radiological diagnosis of abdominal cocoon may now be confidently made on computed tomography scan.Surgery is important in the management of this disease.Careful dissection and excision of the thick sac with the release of the small intestine leads to complete recovery in the vast majority of cases.

  17. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is not benign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne M; Wegener, Marianne; Sander, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) primarily affects young obese females, and potentially causes visual loss and severe headache. The aim of this experiment is to examine relapse rate and long-term outcome in IIH patients. The methods involved in this experiment include a prospective...... controlled study of 18 newly diagnosed IIH patients followed for a mean observation period of 21.1 (±8.0) months. Treatment regime included diuretics, dietary recommendations and check-up visits at a dietician. Baseline and follow-up included neurological examination, detailed headache history...... atrophy was clinically detectable in only one patient. Headache was still present in 67% of the patients at follow-up. Headache was heterogenic and unrelated to relapse. After an initial reduction, weight increased again in the relapse group compared to reduced weight in the non-relapse group (p = 0...

  18. Malignant Hyperthermia and Idiopathic HyperCKemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a rare but life-threatening condition that is more frequently encountered and discussed within the anesthesia literature. Here we through a case specifically discuss the susceptibility of individuals and/or families with asymptomatic unexplained elevations of creatine kinase (CK, also frequently referred to as hyperCKemia or idiopathic hyperCKemia (IHCK in recent reports. The clinical implications would be to underscore the importance of this as a susceptibility to developing MH and highlight the importance of genetic susceptibility testing in such cases. Anesthesiologists and critical care intensivists as well as primary care physicians should keep this in mind when seeing patients with asymptomatic hyperCKemia and potentially inform them about the possibility of developing MH if exposed to triggering agents. Genetic susceptibility testing should be considered if available and family members should also receive nontriggering agents when undergoing anesthesia and wear Medic Alert tags.

  19. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Bongartz, G. [Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Stoffel, F. [Inst. of Urology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland)

    2001-04-01

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  20. Idiopathic Paroxysmal Ventricular Tachycardia in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Antonio; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory tests including blood count serum electrolyte measures, and electroencephalograms were performed on seven children ages 1 day to 18 years with recurrent attacks of rapid heart action known as idiopathic paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia. (CL)

  1. CLINICAL HISTORY AND OUTCOME OF 59 PATIENTS WITH IDIOPATHIC HYPERPROLACTINEMIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLUIJMER, AV; LAPPOHN, RE

    1992-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical course of hyperprolactinemia without demonstrable cause. Design: Prospective study of all patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia first seen between 1974 and 1985. Setting: Outpatient Department of University Hospital. Patients: Fifty-nine patients followed

  2. [Idiopathic epiretinal membrane: definition, classification, current understanding of pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, E N; Kazarian, A A

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic epiretinal membrane is a result of a complex biomechanical interaction of the retina and vitreous. This paper discusses classification problems, epidemiological data of multicenter studies, and current hypotheses of epiretinal membrane pathogenesis.

  3. Diagnostic criteria and possible treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Thomas; Hilberg, Ole; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is an idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, recently recognized as a new entity by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society. We present the first Danish cases of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis in two young sisters, who had complained of dyspnoea since...

  4. [Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia, an arrhythmia with good prognosis].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camaro, C.; Bos, H.S.; Smeets, J.L.R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Three patients, one experiencing palpitations and two complaining of chest pain in stressful situations, appeared to have monomorphic wide complex tachycardia. After excluding channelopathy, structural abnormalities and ischaemia of the heart, this arrhythmia was classified as idiopathic. Symptoms d

  5. The idiopathic cavus foot-not so subtle after all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Ali; Pomeroy, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    Idiopathic cavus deformity even in its mild form can result in several associated symptoms. Management of these symptoms without addressing the underlying biomechanical abnormality may result in failure of treatment. A careful clinical assessment is paramount.

  6. Patellofemoral morphometry in patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mar Carrion Martin, Maria del [Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferruizsan@terra.e [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Pozuelo Calvo, Rocio [Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Guzman Alvarez, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To compare clinical and computed tomography (CT) measures in extension, 20{sup o} and 30{sup o} of flexion of symptomatic knees of patient with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome with the contra lateral asymptomatic knee. Materials and methods: Knees of 52 consecutive patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain were studied with CT. In 28 patients this condition was unilateral and asymptomatic knee was used as control; 76 knees were symptomatic. Results: In patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain we found a greater Q angle and internal condylar facet width in symptomatic knees with regard to asymptomatic knees. Conclusion: Greater Q angle and medial condylar facet can lead to overpressure on the medial knee compartment during maneuvers that increase contact between patella and medial condylar facet, such as knee flexion and squatting, contributing to development of idiopathic patellofemoral pain.

  7. Cardiac involvement in adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, TThomas W; Diederichsen, L. P.; Lundberg, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) include the main subgroups polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), inclusion body myositis (IBM) and juvenile DM ( JDM). The mentioned subgroups are characterised by inflammation of skeletal muscles leading to muscle weakness and other organs can also...

  8. Idiopathic internal resorption: Report of a case with unusual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Hunasgi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth resorption can occur from the internal surface of a tooth or from the external surface of a tooth. Internal resorption is commonly termed to be "idiopathic" because of unknown cause. The aim is to report a case of idiopathic internal resorption showing unusual features. A 25-year-old female patient complains of mobility of tooth in right lower back tooth region since 2 months. Clinically, there was slight mobility in 48. Radiographically a resorptive area was seen in crown region of 48. The crown part was removed with gentle pressure using probe. A hollow crown with resorbed dentin and intact thin enamel was seen in gross specimen. A final diagnosis of idiopathic internal resorption was given. Early detection is essential for successful management of idiopathic internal resorption. This prevents further weakening of remaining tooth structure leading to crown or root perforations.

  9. PATTERN OF INHERITANCE OF IDIOPATHIC HYPERCALCIURIA IN TWO FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nickavar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic hypercalciuria is a leading cause of frequency-dysuria syndrome in childhood. Different modes of inheritance have been suggested in this disease. This article presents the occurrence of idiopathic hypercalciuria in all children of two families. In the first family, a 5.5 year old girl with a history of renal stones and dysuria due to hypercalciuria, had two involved brothers and one sister. In the second family, hypercalciuria and medullary nephrocalcinosis were detected in two siblings who were admitted for polyuria and dysuria. Idiopathic type of hypercalciuria was diagnosed in these two families by normal laboratory exams and exclusion of other causes of normocalcemic hypercalciuria. According to the involvement of all offsprings (both sexes in these two families, it is suggested that idiopathic hypercalciuria is an autosomal dominant disease with complete penetration.

  10. [Unusual presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Prieto, M; Carbonero Celis, M J; Cuadrado Caballero, M C

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of autoimmune hepatitis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis is very rare. This is the case of an 18 month old female patient whose first sign of disease was torticollis due to an underlying atlanto-axial subluxation. Three months later, bilateral knee arthritis developed and she was diagnosed with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Throughout the disease a persistent elevation of liver enzymes was noted, combined with positive antinuclear antibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia, reaching the diagnosis of concomitant autoimmune hepatitis.

  11. Modern Therapies for Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies (IIMs): Role of Biologics

    OpenAIRE

    Moghadam-Kia, Siamak; Oddis, Chester V.; Aggarwal, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Despite the lack of placebo-controlled trials, glucocorticoids are considered the mainstay of initial treatment for idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIMs) and myositis-associated ILD (MA-ILD). Glucocorticoid-sparing agents are often given concomitantly with other immunosuppressive agents, particularly in patients with moderate or severe disease. As treatment of refractory cases of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies has been challenging, there is growing interest in evaluating newer therapies...

  12. Idiopathic membranous nephropathy complicated with malignant hypertension: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Jian-ling; LI Hang; WEN Yu-bing; LI Xue-wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Its insidious onset and progression often hinder timely renal biopsy and early diagnosis delaying treatment while worsening prognosis. The complication of malignant hypertension(MHT) is rarely seen in idiopathic MN. To provide a better understanding of the disease we report a case of idiopathic MN diagnosed by biopsy six years after onset.

  13. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2010-01-01

    To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI).......To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI)....

  14. Oral steroid treatment for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei T.; Lee, Jui W.; Yuan, Chien H.; Chen, Rong F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the efficacy of long-term oral steroids in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL), and to explore potential prognosis factors, the relationship of hearing recovery outcome, and the recovery time-course in ISSHL. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed 215 cases diagnosed with idiopathic unilateral sudden deafness between January 2003 and December 2012 at a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. All of them received oral steroid therapy and were f...

  15. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...... the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers....

  16. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  17. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Besser, Lilah M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects. STUDY DESIGN This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2003). RESULTS Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) was associated significantly with noncardiac defects (isolated, 7/23 defects; multiples, 13/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 11/16 defects; multiples, 8/16 defects). Adjusted odds ratios for PGDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 3.17 (95% CI, 2.20–4.99) and 8.62 (95% CI, 5.27–14.10), respectively. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was associated with fewer noncardiac defects (isolated, 3/23 defects; multiples, 3/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 3/16 defects; multiples, 2/16 defects). Odds ratios between GDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.17–1.73) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.13–2.00), respectively. These associations were limited generally to offspring of women with prepregnancy body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION PGDM was associated with a wide range of birth defects; GDM was associated with a limited group of birth defects. PMID:18674752

  18. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  19. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  20. Team training for safer birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women.

  1. Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

  2. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  3. Relieving idiopathic dental pain without drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teeth are commonly obvious source of orofacial pain. Sometimes the pain source is undetectable, thus called as idiopathic dental pain. Since dentist wants to alleviate or eliminate the pains with every effort in their mind, a lot of drugs could be prescribed. Moreover, it is make sense that endodontic treatment or even tooth extraction will be done. Unfortunately, endodontic treatment may also initiate neuropathic tooth pain that is caused by nerve extirpation, thus worsen the pain. Therefore, another cause of dental pain such as referred pain, periodontal disease, or stress which related to psychoneuroimmunology should be considered. In order to prevent from unnecessary drugs or invasive treatment such as root canal treatment and extraction, correct diagnosis and preliminary non-invasive therapies should be done. Purpose: This review elucidates several therapies that could be done by dentists for relieving idiopathic dental pain which includes massage, the “assisted drainage” therapy, modulation of psychoneuroimmunologic status and dietary omega-3. Reviews: Understanding the basic pathogenesis of pain may help in elucidating the effects of non-drug pain therapy such as muscle massage, the “assisted drainage” therapy, omega-3 and psychological stress relieving. These measures are accounted for eliminating referred pain, reducing proinflammatory mediators and relieving unwanted stress reactions consecutively. Psychological stress increases proinflammatory cytokines and thus lowered pain threshold. Conclusion: As an individual treatment, this non-drug therapy is useful in relieving idiopathic dental pain; nevertheless, if they work together the result could be more superior.Latar belakang: Gigi adalah suatu penyebab umum dari nyeri orofasial. Kadang kala penyebab nyeri tidak dapat ditemukan, sehingga disebut sebagai nyeri gigi idiopatik. Karena dokter gigi berupaya untuk mengurangi atau menghilangkan nyeri dengan segala cara

  4. Birth order and selected work-related personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A S; Bedeian, A G; Mossholder, K W; Touliatos, J

    1988-12-01

    A possible link between birth order and various individual characteristics (e. g., intelligence, potential eminence, need for achievement, sociability) has been suggested by personality theorists such as Adler for over a century. The present study examines whether birth order is associated with selected personality variables that may be related to various work outcomes. 3 of 7 hypotheses were supported and the effect sizes for these were small. Firstborns scored significantly higher than later borns on measures of dominance, good impression, and achievement via conformity. No differences between firstborns and later borns were found in managerial potential, work orientation, achievement via independence, and sociability. The study's sample consisted of 835 public, government, and industrial accountants responding to a national US survey of accounting professionals. The nature of the sample may have been partially responsible for the results obtained. Its homogeneity may have caused any birth order effects to wash out. It can be argued that successful membership in the accountancy profession requires internalization of a set of prescribed rules and standards. It may be that accountants as a group are locked in to a behavioral framework. Any differentiation would result from spurious interpersonal differences, not from predictable birth-order related characteristics. A final interpretation is that birth order effects are nonexistent or statistical artifacts. Given the present data and particularistic sample, however, the authors have insufficient information from which to draw such a conclusion.

  5. "Immune Complexes in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Lynn Moore

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract for invited review in Molecular Mechanisms of Immune Complex Pathophysiology thematic issue to be published in Frontiers in Immunology. Immune Complexes(ICin Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA Terry L. Moore, MD, FAAP, FACR, MACR Professor of Internal Medicine,Pediatrics, and Molecular Biology and Immunology Director of Adult and Pediatric Rheumatology Saint Louis University School of Medicine Saint Louis, Missouri 631`04,USA Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA reflects a group of clinically heterogeneous, autoimmune disorders in children characterized by chronic arthritis and hallmarked by elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs and associated complement activation by-products in their sera. ICs have been detected in patients’ sera with JIA utilizing a variety of methods, including the anti-human IgM affinity column,C1q solid phase assay, polyethylene glycol precipitation, Staphylococcal Protein A separation method, anti-C1q/C3 affinity columns, and FcγRIII affinity method. As many as 75% of JIA patients have had IC detected in their sera. The CIC proteome in JIA patients has been examined to elucidate disease-associated proteins that are expressed in active disease. Evaluation of these IC s have shown the presence of multiple peptide fragments by SDS-PAGE and 2-DE. Subsequently, all isotypes of rheumatoid factor (RF, isotypes of anti-cyclic citrullinated (CCP peptide antibodies, IgG, C1q, C4, C3, and the membrane attack complex (MAC were detected in these IC. Complement activation and levels of IC correlate with disease activity in JIA, indicating their role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This review will summarize the existing literature and discuss the role of possible protein modification that participates in the generation of immune response. We will address the possible role of these events in the development of ectopic germinal centers that become the secondary site of plasma cell development in JIA. We

  6. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G;

    2008-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  7. The Birth of a Torpedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history of the birth of a torpedo, the roles of Robert Whitehead and Giovanni Lupis, specifies the technical characteristics of the first samples, and analyzes the difficul-ties faced in their development, and gives some samples of alternative products of this purpose.

  8. Preterm birth and its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: In our population preterm birth is more common in poor socio economic status, women with anaemia, malnutrition and these factors can be eliminated by proper nutrition and health education by health workers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 153-157

  9. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  10. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  11. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9, December 30, 2013 Table 25. Preterm and low birthweight births, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, 2012 Age and race and Hispanic origin of mother Preterm 1 Percent Number Total Early 3 Late 4 Total Early 3 Late 4 Unknown Total ...

  12. The potential contribution of marital-cohabitation status to racial, ethnic, and nativity differentials in birth outcomes in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kate; Raley, R Kelly; Hummer, Robert A; Schiefelbein, Emily

    2012-05-01

    Disparities in infant mortality by race/ethnicity and nativity are widely known. Patterns of marriage and union formation also vary by race, ethnicity and nativity and may contribute to disparities in birth outcomes. Using population level data, we build on previous research of race/ethnic disparities in birth outcomes by investigating the role of union status. Data come from the 2006 Birth Record from Texas Vital Statistics. The final sample size included 369,839 births to Texas women aged 18 and older. Birth outcomes were constructed from indicators of low birth weight and preterm birth. Logistic regression estimates odds of low birth weight and preterm birth by race/ethnicity and nativity and union status. Race/ethnicity/nativity and union status are significant and independent predictors of birth outcomes. US born Black and Mexican Origin mothers had higher odds of preterm birth and low birth weight babies compared to US born White mothers. Unmarried mothers had higher odds of adverse birth outcomes compared to married women. There was only modest support that the association between race/ethnicity/nativity status and birth outcomes could be explained by divergent patterns in union status. Though disparities in birth outcomes are persistent across race, ethnicity and nativity, the results suggest that union status at birth is a very weak factor in accounting for these disparities. Differing patterns in union status did not account for the Black-White and Mexican Origin-White gaps in infant health outcomes. Additional research aimed at uncovering the processes that put these mothers and infants at higher risk is needed.

  13. Comparing new treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis--a network meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Loveman, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The treatment landscape for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a devastating lung disease, is changing. To investigate the effectiveness of treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis we undertook a systematic review, network meta-analysis and indirect comparison.

  14. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C

    2006-01-01

    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies...... are limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...... pubertal development, testicular hormone production or sperm quality, available evidence points towards a subtle impairment of both Sertoli cell and Leydig cell function. Animal studies support the hypothesis that impaired perinatal growth restriction, depending on the timing, can affect postnatal testis...

  15. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender.

  16. Birth timing for mountain lions (Puma concolor); testing the prey availability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brian D; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while in the natal den to determine birth date, which allowed for precise estimates of the population birth pulse and age of natal dispersal. A birth pulse occurred during June-August. Body mass of cubs was related to litter size and timing of birth; heaviest cubs occurred in litters of 2, and those born after 1 July. Cubs born within pulse months exhibited similar survival to those born out of the pulse. We found that cubs born April-June dispersed at younger ages than those born after 1 July. There was less variation in birth timing for 1(st) litters of females than older females. We hypothesize that cubs born after the peak in births of neonate prey are advantaged by the abundance of vulnerable prey and those cubs and mothers realize an evolutionary advantage.

  17. Two Sisters with Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gencer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with unknown etiology. In the present report, the presentations of two sisters are described: one sister had IPH, eosinophilia and a high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE level; and the other had IPH, pneumothorax, eosinophilia and a high serum IgE level. Both cases had quite unusual presentations. The first patient was 23 years of age, and had suffered from dry cough and progressive dyspnea for four years. Her hemoglobin level was 60 g/L, total serum IgE level was 900 U/mL and eosinophilia was 9%. Her chest radiography revealed diffuse infiltration. She died due to respiratory failure. The second patient was 18 years of age. She had also suffered from dry cough and gradually increasing dyspnea for two years. She had partial pneumothorax in the right lung and diffuse infiltration in other pulmonary fields on chest radiography. Her hemoglobin level was 99 g/L, total serum IgE level was 1200 U/mL and eosinophilia was 8%. IPH was diagnosed by open lung biopsy. All these findings suggested that familial or allergic factors, as well as immunological factors, might have contributed to the etiology of IPH.

  18. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Lega

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM is a group of rare connective tissue diseases (CTDs characterised by muscular and extramuscular signs, in which lung involvement is a challenging issue. Interstitial lung disease (ILD is the hallmark of pulmonary involvement in IIM, and causes morbidity and mortality, resulting in an estimated excess mortality of 50% in some series. Except for inclusion body myositis, these extrapulmonary disorders are associated with the general and visceral involvement frequently found in other CTDs including fever, Raynaud's phenomenon, arthralgia, nonspecific cutaneous modifications and ILD, for which the prevalence is estimated to be up to 65%. Substantial heterogeneity exists within the spectrum of IIMs, and each condition is associated with various frequencies and subtypes of pulmonary involvement. This heterogeneity is partly related to the presence of various autoantibodies encompassing anti-synthetase, anti-MDA5 and anti-PM/Scl. ILD is present in all subsets of IIM including juvenile myositis, but is more frequent in dermatomyositis and overlap myositis. IIM can also be associated with other presentations of respiratory involvement, namely pulmonary arterial hypertension, pleural disease, infections, drug-induced toxicity, malignancy and respiratory muscle weakness. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about adult and juvenile myositis-associated lung disease with a detailed description of therapeutics for chronic and rapidly progressive ILD.

  19. [Optic neuritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Daniela M R; Buscatti, Izabel M; Lourenço, Benito; Monti, Fernanda C; Paz, José Albino; Silva, Clovis A

    2014-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) was rarely reported in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients, particularly in those under anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha blockage. However, to our knowledge, the prevalence of ON in JIA population has not been studied. Therefore, 5,793 patients were followed up at our University Hospital and 630 (11%) had JIA. One patient (0.15%) had ON and was reported herein. A 6-year-old male was diagnosed with extended oligoarticular JIA, and received naproxen and methotrexate subsequently replaced by leflunomide. At 11 years old, he was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis, followed by a partial motor seizure with secondary generalization. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram showed diffuse disorganization of the brain electric activity and leflunomide was suspended. Seven days later, the patient presented acute ocular pain, loss of acuity for color, blurred vision, photophobia, redness and short progressive visual loss in the right eye. A fundoscopic exam detected unilateral papilledema without retinal exudates. Orbital MRI suggested right ON. The anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) antibody was negative. Pulse therapy with methylprednisolone was administered for five days, and subsequently with prednisone, he had clinical and laboratory improvement. In conclusion, a low prevalence of ON was observed in our JIA population. The absence of anti-AQP4 antibody and the normal brain MRI do not exclude the possibility of demyelinating disease associated with chronic arthritis. Therefore, rigorous follow up is required.

  20. Adult idiopathic scoliosis: the tethered spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte Ferguson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an observational and treatment study using three case histories to describe common patterns of muscle and fascial asymmetry in adults with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) who have significant scoliotic curvatures that were not surgically corrected and who have chronic pain. Rather than being located in the paraspinal muscles, the myofascial trigger points (TrPs) apparently responsible for the pain were located at some distance from the spine, yet referred pain to locations throughout the thoracolumbar spine. Asymmetries in these muscles appear to tether the spine in such a way that they contribute to scoliotic curvatures. Evaluation also showed that each of these individuals had major ligamentous laxity and this may also have contributed to development of scoliotic curvatures. Treatment focused on release of TrPs found to refer pain into the spine, release of related fascia, and correction of related joint dysfunction. Treatment resulted in substantial relief of longstanding chronic pain. Treatment thus validated the diagnostic hypothesis that myofascial and fascial asymmetries were to some extent responsible for pain in adults with significant scoliotic curvatures. Treatment of these patterns of TrPs and muscle and fascial asymmetries and related joint dysfunction was also effective in relieving pain in each of these individuals after they were injured in auto accidents. Treatment of myofascial TrPs and asymmetrical fascial tension along with treatment of accompanying joint dysfunction is proposed as an effective approach to treating both chronic and acute pain in adults with scoliosis that has not been surgically corrected.

  1. Lymphatics in lymphangioleiomyomatosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil El-Chemaly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the lymphatic system is absorbing and transporting macromolecules and immune cells to the general circulation, thereby regulating fluid, nutrient absorption and immune cell trafficking. Lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in tissue inflammation and tumour cell dissemination. Lymphatic involvement is seen in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. LAM, a disease primarily affecting females, involves the lung (cystic destruction, kidney (angiomyolipoma and axial lymphatics (adenopathy and lymphangioleiomyoma. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. Cystic lung destruction results from proliferation of LAM cells, which are abnormal smooth muscle-like cells with mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Lymphatic abnormalities arise from infiltration of LAM cells into the lymphatic wall, leading to damage or obstruction of lymphatic vessels. Benign appearing LAM cells possess metastatic properties and are found in the blood and other body fluids. IPF is a progressive lung disease resulting from fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. Lymphangiogenesis is associated with pulmonary destruction and disease severity. A macrophage subset isolated from IPF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF express lymphatic endothelial cell markers in vitro, in contrast to the same macrophage subset from normal BALF. Herein, we review lymphatic involvement in LAM and IPF.

  2. [Idiopathic Progressive Subglottic Stenosis: Surgical Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoetzenecker, K; Schweiger, T; Klepetko, W

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic subglottic stenosis is a disease characterized by slow, progressive scarring and constriction of the subglottic airway. It almost always occurs in females between the 3rd and 5th decade of life. Symptoms are frequently misinterpreted as asthma and patients are referred for endoscopic evaluation only when asthma medications fail to alleviate their symptoms. Treatment options can be divided into endoscopic and open surgical techniques. Microlaryngoscopic scar reduction by laser followed by balloon dilation usually delivers good short-term results. However, the majority of patients will experience restenosis within a short period of time. Open surgical correction techniques are based on a complete removal of the affected airway segment. This must be combined with various extended resection techniques in patients with advanced stenosis. Depending on the extent and severity of the stenosis the following surgical techniques are required: standard cricotracheal resection (Grillo's technique), cricoplasty with dorsal and lateral mucosaplasty, or a combination of resection and enlargement techniques using rib cartilage grafts. In experienced centres, success rates of over 95 % are reported with good functional outcome of voice and deglutition.

  3. Etiology and Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Amanda; Behar, Jose

    2017-03-01

    This review examines the etiology and pathogenesis of idiopathic achalasia. This disease is clinically characterized by dysphagia of solids and liquids due to the presence of simultaneous or absent esophageal contractions and impaired or absent relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. It includes a review of (a) etiology and pathogenesis of this inflammatory process that damage the ganglion cells of the Auerbach plexus that is limited to the esophagus; (b) genetic abnormalities and polymorphisms associated with this disease that may help explain its heterogeneity expressed by the different motility abnormalities of its phenotypes as well as differences in its clinical progression. These different genetic abnormalities may be responsible for the slow progression of types I or II phenotypes; (c) indirect evidence of viruses present in these patients that may initiate its development; (d) the abnormalities of the muscle layer that may be responsible for the dilation of the body of the esophagus that ultimately causes the sigmoid-like esophagus in the very last phase of this disease. This progression to the end-stage phase tends to occur in about 5% of patients. And, (e) the chronic inflammatory abnormalities in the squamous mucosa that may be the cause of the dysplastic and neoplastic changes that may lead to squamous cell carcinoma whose incidence in this disease is increased. These mucosal abnormalities are usually present in patients with markedly dilated body of the esophagus and severe food stasis.

  4. Clinical outcome measures in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alessandro; Giancane, Gabriella; Schiappapietra, Benedetta; Davì, Sergio; Calandra, Serena; Lanni, Stefano; Ravelli, Angelo

    2016-04-18

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), as a chronic condition, is associated with significant disease- and treatment-related morbidity, thus impacting children's quality of life. In order to optimize JIA management, the paediatric rheumatologist has begun to regularly use measurements of disease activity developed, validated and endorsed by international paediatric rheumatology professional societies in an effort to monitor the disease course over time and assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions in JIA patients.A literature review was performed to describe the main outcome measures currently used in JIA patients to determine disease activity status.The Juvenile Disease Activity Score (JADAS), in its different versions (classic JADAS, JADAS-CRP and cJADAS) and the validated definitions of disease activity and response to treatment represent an important tool for the assessment of clinically relevant changes in disease activity, leading more and more to a treat-to-target strategy, based on a tight and thorough control of the patient condition. Moreover, in recent years, increasing attention on the incorporation of patient-reported or parent-reported outcomes (PRCOs), when measuring the health state of patients with paediatric rheumatic diseases has emerged.We think that the care of JIA patients cannot be possible without taking into account clinical outcome measures and, in this regard, further work is required.

  5. Gastaut type idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Macedo, Eugenia Fialho; Costa Neves, Rafael Scarpa; Costa, Lívia Vianez; Tudesco, Ivanda S S; Carvalho, Kelly C; Carrete, Henrique; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Yacubian, Elza Marcia; Hamad, Ana Paula

    2013-03-01

    Gastaut type idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy is an uncommon epileptic syndrome characterised by frequent seizures, most commonly presenting as elementary visual hallucinations or blindness. Other occipital (non-visual) symptoms may also occur. Interictal EEG typically shows occipital paroxysms, often with fixation-off sensitivity. Ictal EEG is usually characterised by interruption by paroxysms and sudden appearance of low-voltage, occipital, fast rhythm and/or spikes. Despite well described clinical and EEG patterns, to our knowledge, there are very few reports in the literature with video-EEG recording of either seizure semiology or fixation-off phenomena. We present a video-EEG recording of a 12-year-old girl with Gastaut type epilepsy, illustrating the interictal and ictal aspects of this syndrome. Our aim was to demonstrate the clinical and neurophysiological pattern of a typical seizure of Gastaut type epilepsy, as well as the fixation-off phenomena, in order to further clarify the typical presentation of this syndrome. [Published with video sequences].

  6. Diagnosis and classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Eli M; Berkun, Yackov

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that the term Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) comprises not one disease but several. Moreover, recent studies strongly suggest that some of these clinico-pathophysiologic entities appear to cross current diagnostic categories. The ultimate goal of the JIA classification is to facilitate development of better, more specific therapy for different forms of disease though improved understanding of pathophysiology. The past two decades have witnessed significant advances in treatment and improved outcomes for many children with chronic arthritis. However, understanding of the basic biologic processes underlying these diseases remains far from complete. As a result, even the best biologic agents of today represent "halfway technologies". Because they do not treat fundamental biologic processes, they are inherently expensive, need to be given for a long time in order to ameliorate the adverse effects of chronic inflammation, and do not cure the disease. Pediatric rheumatology is now entering an era in which diagnostic categories may need to change to keep up with discovery. A more precise, biologically based classification is likely to contribute to development of more specific and improved treatments for the various forms of childhood arthritis. In this review, we discuss how genetic, gene expression, and immunologic findings have begun to influence how these diseases are understood and classified.

  7. Prognostic markers for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Xiaomin; Jin Hongfang; Du Junbao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to review the research on the prognostic markers of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).Date sources We searched literature from PubMed and CNKI databases both in English and Chinese up to 2013.Study selection Data about mortality and cut-off value are from clinical trials and identified by analysis.Results IPAH is an unexplained,progressive,and rare disease characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance.The diagnosis is difficult,mortality of IPAH is high,and the survival periods are only 2-3 years after diagnosis.Investigations in recent years have identified a range of prognostic markers for IPAH,including the 6-minute walking test,red blood cell distribution width,and platelet levels,as well as imaging findings.Changes in these markers are important sources of information to predict the prognosis of patients with IPAH,which carries significant benefits for treatment planning.Conclusion Even though the prognosis of IPAH has been investigated,the mortality is also high.More accurate and meaningful assessment for the prognosis of IPAH is required.

  8. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sarah L N; Sen, Ethan S; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V

    2016-04-27

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease of childhood, with JIA-associated uveitis its most common extra-articular manifestation. JIA-associated uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening condition and thus carries a considerable risk of morbidity. The aetiology of the condition is autoimmune in nature with the predominant involvement of CD4(+) T cells. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear, particularly regarding interplay between genetic and environmental factors. JIA-associated uveitis comes in several forms, but the most common presentation is of the chronic anterior uveitis type. This condition is usually asymptomatic and thus screening for JIA-associated uveitis in at-risk patients is paramount. Early detection and treatment aims to stop inflammation and prevent the development of complications leading to visual loss, which can occur due to both active disease and burden of disease treatment. Visually disabling complications of JIA-associated uveitis include cataracts, glaucoma, band keratopathy and macular oedema. There is a growing body of evidence for the early introduction of systemic immunosuppressive therapies in order to reduce topical and systemic glucocorticoid use. This includes more traditional treatments, such as methotrexate, as well as newer biological therapies. This review highlights the epidemiology of JIA-associated uveitis, the underlying pathogenesis and how affected patients may present. The current guidelines and criteria for screening, diagnosis and monitoring are discussed along with approaches to management.

  9. The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd, Anouk; Ter Haar, Nienke M; de Roock, Sytze; Vastert, Sebastiaan J; Bogaert, Debby

    2016-09-20

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The microbiome has received increasing attention as a potential contributing factor to the development of a wide array of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Also in JIA, there is accumulating evidence that the composition of the microbiome is different from healthy individuals. A growing body of evidence indeed suggests that, among others, the microbiome may influence the development of the immune system, the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, and the differentiation of T cell subsets. In turn, this might lead to dysregulation of the immune system, thereby possibly playing a role in the development of JIA. The potential to manipulate the microbiome, for example by faecal microbial transplantation, might then offer perspectives for future therapeutic interventions. Before we can think of such interventions, we need to first obtain a deeper understanding of the cause and effect relationship between JIA and the microbiome. In this review, we discuss the existing evidence for the involvement of the microbiome in JIA pathogenesis and explore the potential mechanisms through which the microbiome may influence the development of autoimmunity in general and JIA specifically.

  10. PROFILEing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: rethinking biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby M. Maher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite major advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, diagnosis and management of the condition continue to pose significant challenges. Clinical management of IPF remains unsatisfactory due to limited availability of effective drug therapies, a lack of accurate indicators of disease progression, and an absence of simple short-term measures of therapeutic response. The identification of more accurate predictors of prognosis and survival in IPF would facilitate counseling of patients and their families, aid communication among clinicians, and would guide optimal timing of referral for transplantation. Improvements in molecular techniques have led to the identification of new disease pathways and a more targeted approach to the development of novel anti-fibrotic agents. However, despite an increased interest in biomarkers of IPF disease progression there are a lack of measures that can be used in early phase clinical trials. Careful longitudinal phenotyping of individuals with IPF together with the application of novel omics-based technology should provide important insights into disease pathogenesis and should address some of the major issues holding back drug development in IPF. The PROFILE (Prospective Observation of Fibrosis in the Lung Clinical Endpoints study is a currently enrolling, prospective cohort study designed to tackle these issues.

  11. The natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Hee-Kit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been great advances in the conservative and surgical treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the last few decades. The challenge for the physician is the decision for the optimal time to institute therapy for the individual child. This makes an understanding of the natural history and risk factors for curve progression of significant importance. Reported rates of curve progression vary from 1.6% for skeletally mature children with a small curve magnitude to 68% for skeletally immature children with larger curve magnitudes. Although the patient′s age at presentation, the Risser sign, the patient′s menarchal status and the magnitude of the curve have been described as risk factors for curve progression, there is evidence that the absolute curve magnitude at presentation may be most predictive of progression in the long term. A curve magnitude of 25º at presentation may be predictive of a greater risk of curve progression. Advances in research may unlock novel predictive factors, which are based on the underlying pathogenesis of this disorder.

  12. Idiopathic environmental intolerances (IEI): myth and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, H

    2001-03-31

    The psychogenic theory presupposes that idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is an overvalued idea explained by psychological and psychosocial processes. The polysomatic symptoms are amplifications of complaints common to the general population, psychophysiological manifestations of stress and the stress-response, or symptoms of psychiatric clinical syndromes. The psychogenic theory is supported by provocation challenge studies which demonstrate that appraisals of 'reactions' are unreliable and cognitively mediated. Clinical studies of IEI cases consistently identify greater incidence of current and premorbid lifetime psychiatric disorders and co-morbidity with functional somatic syndromes that are fashionable 'diagnoses'. The toxicogenic theory presupposes low-level chemical sensitivity or intolerance without objective signs to a plethora of diverse chemical agents. Symptoms are synonymous with disease and attributions are synonymous with cause. Hypotheses about physiological processes and mechanisms are implausible and unsupported by evidence. Advocates claim this phenomenon is so ephemeral that the principles and methods of toxicology do not apply and that a scientific paradigm shift is in order.

  13. Macrophages - silent enemies in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świdrowska-Jaros, Joanna; Orczyk, Krzysztof; Smolewska, Elżbieta

    2016-07-06

    The inflammatory response by secretion of cytokines and other mediators is postulated as one of the most significant factors in the pathophysiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The effect of macrophage action depends on the type of their activation. Classically activated macrophages (M1) are responsible for release of molecules crucial for joint inflammation. Alternatively activated macrophages (M2) may recognize self antigens by scavenger receptors and induce the immunological reaction leading to autoimmune diseases such as JIA. Molecules essential for JIA pathophysiology include: TNF-α, the production of which precedes synovial inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis; IL-1 as a key mediator of synovial damage; chemotactic factors for macrophages IL-8 and MCP-1; IL6, the level of which correlates with the radiological joint damage; MIF, promoting the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6; CCL20 and HIF, significant for the hypoxic synovial environment in JIA; GM-CSF, stimulating the production of macrophages; and IL-18, crucial for NK cell functions. Recognition of the role of macrophages creates the potential for a new therapeutic approach.

  14. Psychological functioning in idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeker, Meinolf

    2011-01-01

    Living with idiopathic short stature (ISS) may entail significant risks to psychological functioning and quality of life. Apparent inconsistency among study findings can be resolved if methodological differences among study designs are taken into account (i.e., definition of particular endpoints, sample selection from clinic or population, source of report, specific or generic assessment instruments, statistical control of confounders). Some individuals fail and others succeed in mastering the challenges of ISS. The principles of multifinality and equifinality may explain the emergence of a broad variation of individuals with ISS as a result of an interaction of the individual medical and auxological features on the one side, and psychosocial risk and protective factors on the other. As a result, patients may show heterogeneous developmental outcomes ranging from clinical psychopathology to development of resilience. A taxonomy of four distinct pathways of adaptation to ISS is delineated as a basis for case formulation and treatment planning. Psychological intervention in ISS includes counseling, cognitive-behavioral therapy and assertiveness training to improve psychological functioning via enhancement of target coping behaviors for critical situations.

  15. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis and oral health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Agnieszka; Kierklo, Anna; Sielicka, Danuta; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2016-05-04

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory disease of connective tissue in children. It is characterized by progressive joint destruction which causes preserved changes in the musculoskeletal system. The literature describes fully clinical symptoms and radiological images in different subtypes of JIA. However, there is still a limited number of studies reporting on the medical condition of the oral cavity of ill children. JIA can affect hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity by: the general condition of the child's health, arthritis of the upper limbs, as the result of the pharmacotherapy, changes in secretion and composition of saliva, inflammation of the temporomandibular joint and facial deformity. The study summarizes the available literature on the condition of the teeth and periodontal and oral hygiene in the course of JIA. The presence of diverse factors that modify the oral cavity, such as facial growth, functioning of salivary glands, or the supervision and care provided by adults, prevents clear identification if JIA leads to severe dental caries and periodontal disease. Despite conflicting results in studies concerning the clinical oral status, individuals with JIA require special attention regarding disease prevention and maintenance of oral health.

  16. Colectomy for idiopathic slow transit constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童卫东; 刘宝华; 张胜本; 张连阳; 黄显凯

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the intervention of colectomy on a group of patients with idiopathic slow transit constipation (STC).Methods: Thirty-four patients with STC, underwent colectomy during recent 10 years in our department, were subjected and followed for a mean length of 34 months, and their colon transits, defecograms, colonoscopic examination, sex hormone detection, and immunohistochemical studies were retrospectively reviewed.Results: The colonic transit time ranged from 96 to 240 h, with a mean time of 136 h.Eighty-five percent of patients (29/34) accompanied with outlet obstructed constipation, and 50% (17/34) showed abnormal sex hormone levels.Colectomy obtained satisfactory results in most patients, except one case of recurrence.Moreover, more neurons positive to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lesser to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were seen in the colonic myenteric plexus.Conclusion: Colectomy produces a satisfactory functional outcome in the majority of patients undergoing surgery for slow transit constipation, but accompanied pelvic dysfunction must be corrected simultaneously.

  17. The Growing Trend of Moderate Preterm Births: An Ecological Study in One Region of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Rosseto de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality, with Brazil listed among the countries with the ten highest numbers of premature births. Nonetheless, knowledge is scarce regarding prematurity and associated factors in mid-sized cities. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births and associated factors in a municipality located in the state of Paraná, Brazil.This was an ecological time series study of births recorded into the Live Birth Information System for residents of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis of preterm birth, characteristics of the mother, gestation and delivery, and newborn. The association with preterm birth was analyzed using odds ratio (OR.A total of 61,634 live births were analyzed, of which 5,632 were preterm births. Prematurity increased from 7.9% in 2000 to 11.2% in 2013 -an average increase of 0.54% per year (r2 = 0.93-with a growing share of moderate preterm births (32 to <37 weeks, which rose from 7.0% in 2000 to 9.7% in 2013. Between 2011 and 2013, multiple pregnancy (OR = 16.64; CI = 13.24-20.92, inadequate number of prenatal visits (OR = 2.81; CI = 2.51-3.15, Apgar score below 7 at 1 (OR = 4.07; CI = 3.55-4.67 and 5 minutes (OR = 10.88; CI = 7.71-15.36, low birth weight (OR = 38.75; CI = 33.72-44.55 and congenital malformations (OR = 3.18; CI = 2.14-4.74 were associated with preterm birth. A growing trend was observed for multiple pregnancies, with an average annual increase of 0.32% (r2 = 0.90, as well as for C-section birth (2.38% yearly increase. Of all newborn characteristics, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes (-0.19% per year and low birth weight (-1.43% decreased, whereas congenital malformations rose (0.20% per year.Efforts are required to prevent premature delivery, particularly during the moderate period, as well as greater care

  18. Tocilizumab in the treatment of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Miho Murakami,1 Minako Tomiita,2,3 Norihiro Nishimoto11Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, 2Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, 3Department of Allergy and Rheumatology, Chiba Children's Hospital, Chiba, JapanAbstract: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis is one of the common rheumatic diseases in childhood and characterized by spiking fever, evanescent skin rash, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and serositis, in addition to arthritis. Children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis often show growth retardation and developmental abnormality, as well as macrophage activation syndrome, a life-threatening complication. Overproduction of interleukin-6 is pathologically responsible for the systemic inflammatory manifestations and abnormal laboratory results with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Thus, tocilizumab, a humanized antihuman interleukin-6 receptor antibody, has been developed as a therapeutic agent for the disease. A series of clinical studies have demonstrated the excellent efficacy and safety of tocilizumab for patients with active disease. Tocilizumab was approved for systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Japan in 2008 and in the European Union and the United States in 2011.Keywords: systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, tocilizumab, antihuman interleukin-6 receptor antibody, biologics

  19. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsager, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  20. Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects: Zika

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ol Português Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Zika and Microcephaly Microcephaly is a birth defect in ... pregnancy or has stopped growing after birth. Congenital Zika Syndrome Congenital Zika syndrome is a pattern of ...

  1. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  2. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  3. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  4. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  5. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Infant development begins at birth. Consider major infant development milestones from birth to 3 months — and know what to do when something's not right. By ...

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazoe, Shoichi [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1995-02-01

    Idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (IONF) can result in disability due to bone collapse and destruction. Therefore, early diagnosis of IONF and prognosis assessment are essential for treatment planning. This study investigated the early characteristic pattern of IONF on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its correlation to the prognosis of the femoral head. MRI was performed repeatedly on fifty-one patients who had undergone renal transplantation. Three abnormal patterns were found in the T{sub 1}-weighted images: a band-like low-signal pattern (band pattern), an irregular low-signal pattern (mottled pattern), and a homogeneous low-signal area localized in the subchondral region (homogeneous pattern). Abnormal changes were detected in thirteen patients; twenty-three hips (25.5%). Most changes were evident within six months after transplantation. The earliest was found six weeks after transplantation. A band pattern was the initial finding in all hips showing abnormal changes. The band pattern did not spread peripherally as time passed. There was no progression from a mottled or homogeneous pattern to a band pattern either. Band-like patterns were subclassified into four types: MR-A, MR-B, MR-C and MR-D. Each of types according to the size and location of the band in relation to the weight bearing portion of the acetabulum was correlated to the prognosis of the femoral head. Three fourths of femoral heads with MR-C resulted in collapse on roentgenographs. These results show that MRI is useful for the diagnosis and evaluation of prognosis in IONF. (author).

  7. Risk factors for cluster seizures in canine idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Shihab, Nadia K; Torres, Bruno B J; Volk, Holger A

    2016-04-01

    Cluster seizures (CS), two or more seizures within a 24-hour period, are reported in 38-77% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE). Negative outcomes associated with CS include a reduced likelihood of achieving seizure freedom, decreased survival time and increased likelihood of euthanasia. Previous studies have found factors including breed, sex and neuter status are associated with CS in dogs with IE; however, only one UK study in a multi-breed study of CS in IE patients exists to the author's knowledge, and thus further data is required to confirm these results. Data from 384 dogs treated at a multi-breed canine specific epilepsy clinic were retrospectively collected from electronic patient records. 384 dogs were included in the study, of which nearly half had a history of CS (49.1%). Dogs with a history of CS had a younger age at onset than those without (p = 0.033). In a multivariate model, three variables predicted risk of CS: a history of status epilepticus (p = 0.047), age at seizure onset (p = 0.066) and breed (German Shepherd Dog) (p Dogs with a history of status epilepticus and dogs with an older age at seizure onset were less likely to be affected by cluster seizures. German Shepherd Dogs (71% experiencing CS) were significantly more likely to suffer from CS compared to Labrador Retrievers (25%) (p < 0.001). There was no association between sex, neuter status, body size and CS. Further studies into the pathophysiology and genetics of CS are required to further understand this phenomenon.

  8. INFLUÊNCIA DOS FATORES AMBIENTAIS SOBRE O TAMANHO DA LEITEGADA AO NASCER E TAXA DE MORTALIDADE À DESMAMA DE LEITÕES NO BREJO PARAIBANO INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE LITTER SIZE AT BIRTH AND OF MORTALITY RATE AT WEANING OF PIGS IN PARAÍBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Sayori Murata

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva avaliar a influência dos fatores ambientais sobre o tamanho da leitegada ao nascer e a taxa de mortalidade à desmama de leitões no Brejo Paraibano. Para isso, utilizaram-se dados provenientes de fichas zootécnicas do rebanho da Granja SUPASA no município de Guarabira, Estado da Paraíba, e procedeu-se à análise das fichas zootécnicas do plantel de suínos puros das raças Landrace e Large White e dos animais mestiços (Landrace x Large White, nascidos no período de 1995 a 1996. Foram estudadas as seguintes características: o número de leitões nascidos por leitegada (tamanho da leitegada ao nascer e a taxa de mortalidade dos leitões pré-desmame, em relação à raça da mãe, mês e ano de parição e sexo dos leitões. Após o estudo dos dados coletados, verificaram-se diferenças significativas entre raças para o tamanho da leitegada, a saber: a raça Landrace e os mestiços apresentaram um maior número de leitões nascidos por leitegada do que a Large White; o ano e o mês de parição exerceram efeito significativo sobre o tamanho da leitegada ao nascer, assim como a taxa de mortalidade à desmama. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Eficiência produtiva, mortalidade, raças, reprodução, suínos This experiment was carried out to evaluate the influence of the environmental and genetic factors on the litter size and mortality rate at birth and weaning f pigs in Paraíba, Brazil. The Zootechnical data was collected from farm SUPASA, in the district of Guarabira, state of Paraíba, Brasil. They were analyzed the data of pure swine Landrace and Large White and crossed animals (Landrace x Large White, born in the period from 1995 to 1996. The following characteristics were evaluated number of born pigs per litter (piglets born alive and the rate of mortality of the pigs at weaning, in relation to the mother’s race, month and year of parturition, and sex of the pigs. After the studies of the collected data significant

  9. DNA methyltransferase candidate polymorphisms, imprinting methylation, and birth outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Haggarty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth weight and prematurity are important obstetric outcomes linked to lifelong health. We studied a large birth cohort to look for evidence of epigenetic involvement in birth outcomes. METHODS: We investigated the association between birth weight, length, placental weight and duration of gestation and four candidate variants in 1,236 mothers and 1,073 newborns; DNMT1 (rs2162560, DNMT3A (rs734693, DNMT3B (rs2424913 and DNMT3L (rs7354779. We measured methylation of LINE1 and the imprinted genes, PEG3, SNRPN, and IGF2, in cord blood. RESULTS: The minor DNMT3L allele in the baby was associated with higher birth weight (+54 95% CI 10,99 g; p = 0.016, birth length (+0.23 95% CI 0.04,0.42 cm; p = 0.017, placental weight, (+18 95% CI 3,33 g; p = 0.017, and reduced risk of being in the lowest birth weight decile (p = 0.018 or requiring neonatal care (p = 0.039. The DNMT3B minor allele in the mother was associated with an increased risk of prematurity (p = 0.001. Placental size was related to PEG3 (p<0.001 and IGF2 (p<0.001 methylation. Birth weight was related to LINE1 and IGF2 methylation but only at p = 0.052. The risk of requiring neonatal treatment was related to LINE1 (p = 0.010 and SNRPN (p = 0.001 methylation. PEG3 methylation was influenced by baby DNMT3A genotype (p = 0.012 and LINE1 by baby 3B genotype (p = 0.044. Maternal DNMT3L genotype was related to IGF2 methylation in the cord blood but this effect was only seen in carriers of the minor frequency allele (p = 0.050. CONCLUSIONS: The results here suggest that epigenetic processes are linked birth outcome and health in early life. Our emerging understanding of the role of epigenetics in health and biological function across the lifecourse suggests that these early epigenetic events could have longer term implications.

  10. Intergenerational predictors of birth weight in the Philippines: correlations with mother's and father's birth weight and test of maternal constraint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Kuzawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth weight (BW predicts many health outcomes, but the relative contributions of genes and environmental factors to BW remain uncertain. Some studies report stronger mother-offspring than father-offspring BW correlations, with attenuated father-offspring BW correlations when the mother is stunted. These findings have been interpreted as evidence that maternal genetic or environmental factors play an important role in determining birth size, with small maternal size constraining paternal genetic contributions to offspring BW. Here we evaluate mother-offspring and father-offspring birth weight (BW associations and evaluate whether maternal stunting constrains genetic contributions to offspring birth size. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data include BW of offspring (n = 1,101 born to female members (n = 382 and spouses of male members (n = 275 of a birth cohort (born 1983-84 in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Regression was used to relate parental and offspring BW adjusting for confounders. Resampling testing was used to evaluate whether false paternity could explain any evidence for excess matrilineal inheritance. In a pooled model adjusting for maternal height and confounders, parental BW was a borderline-significantly stronger predictor of offspring BW in mothers compared to fathers (sex of parent interaction p = 0.068. In separate multivariate models, each kg in mother's and father's BW predicted a 271±53 g (p25% and likely 50% would be needed to explain these differences. There was no interaction between maternal stature and maternal BW (interaction p = 0.520 or paternal BW (p = 0.545. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Each kg change in mother's BW predicted twice the change in offspring BW as predicted by a change in father's BW, consistent with an intergenerational maternal effect on offspring BW. Evidence for excess matrilineal BW heritability at all levels of maternal stature points to indirect genetic

  11. Comments on "Brain Size and Cerebral Glucose Metabolic Rate in Nonspecific Mental Retardation and Down Syndrome."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerman, Lee; Schultz, Robert T.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between mental retardation and brain size is discussed. Research suggests that a common path for many otherwise idiopathic mild retardation cases (genetic or environmental) could be small brain size, indicating reduced information processing capacity. Suggestions are made for further research on neuron number. (SLD)

  12. Birth in prison: pregnancy and birth behind bars in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Ayres, Barbara Vasques da Silva; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard

    2016-06-01

    The high vulnerability of incarcerated women is worsened when they are pregnant and give birth during imprisonment. This article traces the profile of incarcerated women living with their children in female prison units of the capitals and metropolitan regions of Brazil and describes pregnancy and childbirth conditions and healthcare practices while in incarceration. This study is an analysis of a series of cases resultant from a national census conducted between August 2012 and January 2014. This analysis included 241 mothers. Of these, 45% were younger than 25 years old, 57% were dark skinned, 53% had studied less than eight years and 83% were multiparous. At the time of incarceration, 89% were already pregnant and two thirds did not want the current pregnancy. Access to prenatal care was inadequate for 36% of the women. During their hospital stay, 15% referred to having suffered some type of violence (verbal, psychological, or physical). Only 15% of the mothers rated the care received during their hospital stay as excellent. They had low social/familial support and more than one third reported the use of handcuffs during their hospital stay. Incarcerated mothers received poorer healthcare during pregnancy and birth when compared with non-incarcerated users of the public sector. This study also found violations of human rights, especially during birth.

  13. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  14. Association between birth weight and blood pressure is robust, amplifies with age, and may be underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anna A; Smith, George Davey; May, Margaret T; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2006-09-01

    Data on the early life origins of adult hypertension have been widely reported: however, recent research shows that the strength of association between small size at birth and higher blood pressure weakens as study size increases. In this article, we retest the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in a large cohort, examine whether age interacts with birth weight to predict blood pressure, and explore reasons why birth weight-blood pressure associations tend to weaken with increasing study size. Measurements from 25874 employees of a large United Kingdom company (mean [SD] age: 38.0 [7.9] years), undertaking voluntary occupational health screening, were available. Using linear regression analysis, we observed that systolic blood pressure changed -0.8 (95% CI: -1.1 to -0.5) mmHg per 1-kg increase in birth weight (P<0.001) adjusted for age and sex and -1.1 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.8) mmHg/kg (P<0.001) after further adjustment for body size. This inverse association amplified with age (age/birth weight interaction term P<0.001). In participants reporting birth weight from hospital records (n=744), systolic blood pressure changed -1.4 (95% CI: -3.1 to 0.2) mmHg/kg compared with -0.8 (95% CI: -1.0 to -0.5) mmHg/kg in all of the other participants. Finally, the data show evidence of "fixed-category blood pressure allocation," where participants are allocated certain blood pressure values, such as 120/80 mmHg, independent of actual blood pressure. Although the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure was weaker than observed in smaller studies, recalled birth weight and fixed blood pressure measurement error may generate a trend toward weaker associations in larger studies.

  15. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  16. Birth-death processes and associated polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van Erik A.

    2003-01-01

    We consider birth-death processes on the nonnegative integers and the corresponding sequences of orthogonal polynomials called birth-death polynomials. The sequence of associated polynomials linked with a sequence of birth-death polynomials and its orthogonalizing measure can be used in the analysis

  17. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... necessary to treat sick babies and moms. A birth center can provide natural pain control and pain control with mild narcotic medications, ... be an option. Women who want a natural birth with minimal medical intervention or pain control may feel more comfortable in a birth ...

  18. Defining the molecular genetic basis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T M; Keating, M T

    1997-02-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a significant health care problem. The etiology is idiopathic in approximately half of the patients. Recognition that 20%-25% of idiopathic DCM cases are familial has advanced the hypothesis that single gene defects are important in the disease's pathogenesis. General linkage analyses in rare, large DCM families have determined the chromosome location of five idiopathic DCM genes. Candidate-gene mutational analyses in more typical, small pedigrees represent an alternative strategy for DCM gene identification. Human molecular genetics will play a fundamental role in defining pathogenic mechanisms for DCM with the prospect of new, molecular-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:60-63). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  19. Cost-effective therapy in patients with idiopathic hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, Franco; Zulian, Elisa; Scaroni, Carla

    2004-06-01

    Hirsutism affects 10% of women. Hirsute women with normal circulating androgen levels and normal ovarian function (i.e., regular and ovulatory menstrual cycles) are defined as having idiopathic hirsutism, which may affect more than 20% of all hirsute women. In the treatment of idiopathic hirsutism, different medical therapies, alone or in combination, have been reported. The drugs currently available are oral contraceptives, cyproterone acetate androgen receptors blockers (i.e., spironolactone and flutamide), 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (e.g., finasteride [Proscar, Aventis]) and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogs. After 1 year of treatment, each drug may improve hirsutism and reduce the Ferriman-Gallwey score by 35-40%. This review analyses the causes of hirsutism and provides information on each therapy and the cost-effective results in patients with idiopathic hirsutism.

  20. Lone or idiopathic atrial fibrillation, messenger of misery in sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, B; Crijns, H J G M

    2014-12-20

    This editorial refers to 'Gender-related differences in risk of cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality in patients hospitalized with incident atrial fibrillation without concomitant diseases: a nationwide cohort study of 9519 patients' by T. Andersson et al. In order to adequately describe root causes and adverse consequences of apparently idiopathic AF, the requested study population has to be large and be followed for a very long time. Andersson et al. adequately deployed the excellent national Swedish health registries in order to cover the hiatus of aforementioned studies in the current idiopathic AF literature. Considering the notion that patients with idiopathic or lone AF have comparable prospects as AF patients overall but are only caught early in their 'arrhythmia and vascular career', the study by Andersson et al. should trigger physicians to give high priority to exposing predisposing factors or early stages of underlying cardiovascular disease in such a way that preventative measures can be accurately deployed in these patients.

  1. Study on Treatment with Respect to Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kenzen; Azegami, Hideyuki; Murachi, Shunji; Kitoh, Junzoh; Ishida, Yoshito; Kawakami, Noriaki; Makino, Mitsunori

    A hypothesis that the thoracic idiopathic scoliosis is buckling phenomenon of the fourth mode induced by the growth of thoracic vertebral bodies was presented in the previous work by the authors using numerical simulations with finite element model of the spine. If the hypothesis is acceptable, sensitivity function with respect to the critical growth of thoracic vertebrae on the maximization problem of buckling load with the fourth buckling mode gives us useful information to improve and develop treatments for the idiopathic scoliosis. The numerical results analyzed by the finite element method demonstrated that the sensitivity function is high at the articular capsules of the intervertebral joints, the intervertebral disks, the costotransverse joints and the constovertebral joints around the apex of the curvature in the case of the thoracic idiopathic scoliosis.

  2. AA amyloidosis associated with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijeet; Chopra, Yogiraj; Theis, Jason D; Vrana, Julie A; Sethi, Sanjeev

    2013-10-01

    We report a 12-year-old boy with nephrotic syndrome due to renal AA amyloidosis. The AA amyloidosis was associated with a 3-year history of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The presence of serum amyloid A protein was confirmed by laser microdissection of Congo Red-positive glomeruli and vessels followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; this analysis excluded hereditary and familial amyloidosis. Aggressive management of the systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis resulted in improvement in clinical and laboratory parameters. The case represents an unusual cause of nephrotic syndrome in children. Early diagnosis of renal amyloidosis and management of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis is paramount to preventing progression of kidney disease.

  3. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.

  4. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F;

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...... to the study. It is expected that a large number of gene-environmental hypotheses need to be based on case-control analyses within a cohort like this....

  5. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  6. In the literature: home birth: safe enough, but not for the first baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekens, Pierre; Keirse, Marc J N C

    2012-06-01

    The "Birthplace in England" study compared low-risk pregnancies by planned place of birth at the onset of labor: home, midwifery unit, or obstetric unit. The study showed that childbirth interventions were less frequent in all nonobstetric settings than in obstetric units, confirming what has been noted elsewhere. For parous women, there was no difference in perinatal outcomes by place of birth. For nulliparous women, perinatal outcomes were similar in midwifery and obstetric units, but the frequency of poor outcomes with planned home births was higher. The major strengths of the study are its prospective design and large sample size. The results support providing choices to women, but suggest that women should not be encouraged to give birth at home for their first baby. (BIRTH 39:2 June 2012).

  7. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

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    David M. Olson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  8. Latitude, birth date, and allergy.

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    Matthias Wjst

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The space and time distribution of risk factors for allergic diseases may provide insights into disease mechanisms. Allergy is believed to vary by month of birth, but multinational studies taking into account latitude have not been conducted. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A questionnaire was distributed in 54 centres to a representative sample of 20- to 44-y-old men and women mainly in Europe but also including regions in North Africa, India, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Data from 200,682 participants were analyzed. The median prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 22%, with a substantial variation across centres. Overall, allergic rhinitis decreased with geographical latitude, but there were many exceptions. No increase in prevalence during certain winters could be observed. Also, no altered risk by birth month was found, except borderline reduced risks in September and October. Effect estimates obtained by a multivariate analysis of total and specific IgE values in 18,085 individuals also excluded major birth month effects and confirmed the independent effect of language grouping. CONCLUSION: Neither time point of first exposure to certain allergens nor early infections during winter months seems to be a major factor for adult allergy. Although there might be effects of climate or environmental UV exposure by latitude, influences within language groups seem to be more important, reflecting so far unknown genetic or cultural risk factors.

  9. Profile of patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis presenting to a university teaching hospital in UAE: A case series

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    Manda Venkatramana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the profile of five patients diagnosed as having idiopathic granulomatous mastitis by histopathological examination. Materials and Methods: This presentation is a case series of patients, diagnosed as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis by histopathological examination of excised specimens. The total number of cases included in the report was five females over a 4-year period from 2005 to 2009. Results: The mean age of the patients was 29.6 years and the duration of symptoms varied from 3 weeks to 4 months. All the patients presented with a palpable mass in the breast, and two patients had associated pain and one had a bloody nipple discharge. The average size of the excised mass was 3.8 × 3.1 cm. Four out of the five patients diagnosed to have breast abscess or segmental mastitis had taken a course of antibiotics. One patient had a persistent wound sinus which subsided with ATT and the rest of the patients had no post-operative complications. Conclusion: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a relatively rare disease which mimics the common breast disorders in the reproductive age group including malignancy

  10. Renal Involvement in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiari, David; Angelini, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    Renal involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies is not as uncommon as was previously thought, as it develops in about one fifth of patients. Clinical presentation includes either acute kidney injury or chronic glomerulonephritis. The former usually develops abruptly during acute phases of rhabdomyolysis: in this case, kidney injury is caused by the toxic effects that myoglobinuria has on the kidney tubules, including cast formation and iron-induced oxidative stress and the development of a third space into the injured muscles. The latter instead has an autoimmune nature, a pleomorphic histological picture, and a more indolent course, with the exception of crescentic glomerulonephritis. Accurate diagnosis and management is crucial for these patients, as timely evaluation and treatment can prevent most of the complications. In the setting of rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury, the necessity of dialysis can be avoided through aggressive hydration and alkalinization, in order to force diuresis and avoid acidosis and hyperkalemia. In immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, renal biopsy is of undoubtedly value in the diagnostic process and can add prognostic and therapeutic information. In these forms, the development of chronic kidney disease can be prevented or at least delayed by the institution or modification of immunosuppressive treatment. Moreover, the use of drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and some lifestyle modifications, such as smoking cessation, weight loss, and salt restriction have also value in reducing proteinuria and the progression of kidney damage. In this review, we have summarized the currently available evidence and the different case series in an attempt to provide the readers with the most complete and practical notions that are needed to handle these delicate patients.

  11. The Etiology of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigante, Donato; Bosco, Annalisa; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Over the years, the commonly used term to describe juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has changed. By definition, JIA includes all types of arthritis with no apparent cause, lasting more than 6 weeks, in patients aged less than 16 years at onset. JIA pathogenesis is still poorly understood: the interaction between environmental factors and multiple genes has been proposed as the most relevant working mechanism to the development of JIA. The concept that various microbes that colonize or infect not only the mucosal surfaces, like the oral cavity, but also the airways and gut might trigger autoimmune processes, resulting in chronic arthritides, and JIA was first drafted at the outset of last century. JIA development might be initiated and sustained by the exposure to environmental factors, including infectious agents which affect people at a young age, depending on the underlying genetic predisposition to synovial inflammation. Many data from patients with JIA suggest a scenario in which different external antigens incite multiple antigen-specific pathways, cytotoxic T cell responses, activation of classical complement cascade, and production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this review, emphasis is paid not only to the potential role of parvovirus B19 and Epstein-Barr virus in primis but also to the general involvement of different bacteria as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bartonella henselae, and Streptococcus pyogenes for the development of immune-mediated arthritides during childhood. No unequivocal evidence favoring or refuting these associations has been clearly proved, and today, the strict definition of JIA etiology remains unknown. The infection can represent a random event in a susceptible individual, or it can be a necessary factor in JIA development, always in combination with a peculiar genetic background. Further studies are needed in order to address the unsolved questions

  12. Practical management of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishaba, Tomoo

    2015-07-22

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is relentless progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) of unknown etiology. Main pathogenesis is aberrant recovery of epithelial injury and collagen deposition. Majority of IPF patients have been elderly men with smokers. However, there are important differential diagnosis such as fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) associated ILD, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia (CHP). Clinical point of view, non-productive cough and progressive exertional dyspnea are main symptoms. In addition, scalene muscle hypertrophy, fine crackles and finger clubbing are key findings. Serum marker such as lactate deydrogenase (LDH), Krebs von den Lungeng-6 (KL-6) are sensitive for ILD detection and activity. Pulmonary function test and 6 minute walk test (6MWT) are quite meaningful physiological examination. Serial change of forced vital capacity 6MWT distance predict mortality of IPF. International IPF guideline published recently and highlighted on the importance of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings. Key findings of IPF are honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and subpleural reticular opacity. IPF is chronic progressive disease. Therefore, tracing disease behavior is crucial and unifying clinical, physiological, imaging information over time provide useful information for physicians.In management, many candidate agent failed to have positive result. Pirfenidone which is anti-fibrotic agent showed to slow the decline of vital capacity and prevent of acute exacerbation. Molecular agent such as nintedanib is promising agent for prevention of progression of IPF. In this review, we review the clinical information of IPF and IPF guideline. Lastly, we show the clinical algorithm of this devastated disease.

  13. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  14. Risk factors for idiopathic optic neuritis recurrence.

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    Yi Du

    Full Text Available Approximately 30-50% of idiopathic optic neuritis (ION patients experience one or multiple episodes of recurrence. The aim of this study was to search for risk factors for ION recurrence.Clinical data on hospitalized patients diagnosed with ION between January 2003 and January 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University were retrospectively collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on factors that might cause ION recurrence. In total, 115 ION cases (32 recurrent and 83 non-recurrent cases with complete data were analyzed. The length of the follow-up period ranged from 12 to 108 months (median: 42 months.The univariate analysis showed that the recurrence rate for unilateral ION was higher than that for bilateral ION (40% vs. 12%, p=0.001. Underlying diseases had a significant impact on recurrence (p<0.001: the recurrence rates due to neuromyelitis optica (NMO, multiple sclerosis (MS, demyelinating lesions alone of the central nervous system, and unknown causes were 89%, 70%, 41%, and 8.7%, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that the factors causing relatively high recurrence rates included NMO (odds ratio [OR], 73.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3 to 740.9, MS (OR, 33.9; 95% CI, 5.2 to 222.2, and demyelinating lesions alone (OR, 8.9; 95% CI, 2.3 to 34.4, unilateral involvement (OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 21.3, relatively low initial glucocorticoid dosage (equivalent to ≤ 100 mg prednisone/day (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 17.9.Underlying diseases, laterality (unilateral or bilateral, and initial glucocorticoid dosage are important risk factors of ION recurrence. Clinical physicians are advised to treat ION patients with a sufficient dose of glucocorticoid in the initial treatment stage to reduce the recurrence risk.

  15. Birth Preparedness and Its Association with Skilled Birth Attendance and Postpartum Checkups among Mothers in Gibe Wereda, Hadiya Zone, South Ethiopia

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    Yohannes Lakew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Birth preparedness program was designed to enhance skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups of women in a developing country to reduce the three delays that lead women and neonates to death and disability. However, the relationship between birth preparedness with skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups among mothers is not well studied. Therefore this study is intended to assess the association between birth preparedness and skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2014. Eight out of 22 Kebeles were selected using probability proportional to size sampling method. Seven hundred and forty-five mothers were selected randomly from the sampling frame, generated from family folders obtained from health posts. Data was collected using pretested questionnaire by face-to-face interview. Data was entered into EpiData version 3.1 database and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Result. Out of 745 sampled mothers 728 (97.7% participated in the study. One hundred and twelve (15.4% and 128 (17.6% mothers got skilled birth attendance and received postpartum checkups for their last child, respectively. Birth preparedness, educational status of women and their husbands, and antenatal care visits of mothers were found to be predictor of skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups. Mothers well prepared for child birth were 6.7 times more likely to attend skilled birth attendance [AOR = 6.7 (2.7–16.4] and 3 times more likely to follow postpartum checkups [AOR = 3.0 (1.5–5.9] than poorly prepared mothers, respectively. Travel time to reach the nearest health facility was found as predictor for postpartum checkups of mothers; mothers who travel ≤ 2 hours were three times more likely to follow postpartum checkups than mothers who travel > 2 hours (AOR (95% CI = 3.4 (1.5–7.9. Conclusion and Recommendation. Skilled birth attendance and

  16. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts

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    Kloog Itai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and premature birth have been previously linked with exposure to ambient air pollution. Most studies relied on a limited number of monitors in the region of interest, which can introduce exposure error or restrict the analysis to persons living near a monitor, which reduces sample size and generalizability and may create selection bias. Methods We evaluated the relationship between premature birth and birth weight with exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 levels during pregnancy in Massachusetts for a 9-year period (2000–2008. Building on a novel method we developed for predicting daily PM2.5 at the spatial resolution of a 10x10km grid across New-England, we estimated the average exposure during 30 and 90 days prior to birth as well as the full pregnancy period for each mother. We used linear and logistic mixed models to estimate the association between PM2.5 exposure and birth weight (among full term births and PM2.5 exposure and preterm birth adjusting for infant sex, maternal age, maternal race, mean income, maternal education level, prenatal care, gestational age, maternal smoking, percent of open space near mothers residence, average traffic density and mothers health. Results Birth weight was negatively associated with PM2.5 across all tested periods. For example, a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy was significantly associated with a decrease of 13.80 g [95% confidence interval (CI = −21.10, -6.05] in birth weight after controlling for other factors, including traffic exposure. The odds ratio for a premature birth was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.01–1.13 for each 10 μg/m3 increase of PM2.5 exposure during the entire pregnancy period. Conclusions The presented study suggests that exposure to PM2.5 during the last month of pregnancy contributes to risks for lower birth weight and preterm birth in

  17. Idiopathic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Evaluation of the Depth of the Carpal Tunnel by Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaman, Ahmed Mohammed Mahrous Yousif; Thabit, Mohamed Nasreldin; Radwan, Ahmed Roshdy Al-Agamy; Ohrndorf, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the work described here was to evaluate the depth of the carpal tunnel (DCT) in patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy volunteers by ultrasonography (US), through measurement of the distance from the flexor retinaculum to the surface of the capitate bone at the carpal tunnel outlet, and compare it with other ultrasonographic and electrophysiologic parameters in CTS. The study was conducted in 60 non-diabetic patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (unilateral n = 37, bilateral n = 23) evidenced by electrophysiologic diagnosis according to the criteria of the American Association of Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AAEM). Furthermore, 40 hands from 20 healthy volunteers were examined. Median nerve cross-sectional area (CSA); flattening ratio (FR), the ratio of the length to the width of the median nerve; and DCT at the canal outlet were measured for all participants. The mean age was 35.6 ± 9.48 y. The female-to-male ratio was 47:13 in the CTS patients. The sensitivity and specificity were 82% and 95% for CSA, 75% and 60% for FR and 75% and 87.5% for DCT, respectively. Differences between patients and healthy controls were significant for all three parameters, greatest for DCT, followed by CSA and then FR. We conclude that DCT increased in CTS and this new parameter is comparable in sensitivity and specificity to CSA and FR. DCT increased independently of the cause of the CTS (decrease in size of canal or increase in contents).

  18. Kinetics of aggregation growth with competition between catalyzed birth and catalyzed death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hai-Feng; Lin Zhen-Quan; Gao Yan

    2008-01-01

    An aggregation growth model of three species A, B and C with the competition between catalyzed birth and catalyzed death is proposed. Irreversible aggregation occurs between any two aggregates of the like species with the constant rate kernels In(n = 1, 2, 3). Meanwhile, a monomer birth of an A species aggregate of size k occurs under the catalysis of a B species aggregate of size j with the catalyzed birth rate kernel K(k,j) = Kkjv, and a monomer death of an A species aggregate of size k occurs under the catalysis of a C species aggregate of size j with the catalyzed death rate kernel L(k, j) = Lkjv, where v is a parameter reflecting the dependence of the catalysis reaction rates of birth and death on the size of catalyst aggregate. The kinetic evolution behaviours of the three species are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory. The form of the aggregate size distribution of A species ak(t) is found to be dependent crucially on the competition between the catalyzed birth and death of A species, as well as the irreversible aggregation processes of the three species: (1) In the v < 0 case, the irreversible aggregation dominates the process, and ak(t) satisfies the conventional scaling form; (2) In the v ≥ 0 case, the competition between the catalyzed birth and death dominates the process. When the catalyzed birth controls the process, ak(t) takes the conventional or generalized scaling form. While the catalyzed death controls the process, the scaling description of the aggregate size distribution breaks down completely.

  19. TACTIC IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF THORACIC IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS IN CHILDREN

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    S. V. Vissarionov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of surgical treatment of 263 patients with thoracic scoliosis from 13 to 18 years old with deformity 50-152° (Cobb are presented. It was used three tactical variants with dorsal instrumentation Cotrel-Dubousset (CDI. Operation correction in idiopathic thoracic scoliosis varies within in limits from 46,2 to 95%. Lost of correction in 10 years follow up period was 5,10-10,15%. Authors concluded that tactic of surgical treatment of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis should be individual and depends on patient's age, growth potential, and degree of deformation and mobility of the curve.

  20. Natriuretic pro-peptides in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Maren Cecilie Kloppenbor; Gøtze, Jens Peter; Rehfeld, Jens F.;

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disorder of unknown pathogenesis. Natriuretic peptides may be involved in intracranial pressure regulation, but cerebrospinal fluid (CNS) and plasma concentrations in this disorder are unknown. We evaluated venous and intrathecal concentrations of ANP, BNP...... and CNP precursor peptides in 40 patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and in 20 controls. Natriuretic pro-peptides were quantitated using processing-independent assays. In CSF, no differences in peptide concentrations between patients and controls were found (proANP: 239 + or - 23 vs 231...

  1. Paraplegia Caused by Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis: A Case Report

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    Sevgi Ižkbali Afsar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperosteosis (DISH, also known as Forestier disease, is an idiopathic chronic disorder characterized by the calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament of the vertebral column and various extraspinal ligaments. It is usually asymptomatic but the most common symptoms are spinal pain, limited range of spinal motion and dysphagia. Spinal canal stenosis and myelopathia may rarely be seen. We present with the relevant literature a 64-year-old male who developed paraplegia due to thoracal spinal stenosis on a background of DISH.

  2. Adult-onset idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapp, Liam Z; McClymont, Liusaidh; Beggs, Ian; Gaston, Paul; Salter, Donald M

    2017-05-01

    We report the case of a 23-year-old man diagnosed with adult-onset idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip. Chondrolysis of the hip is a disorder most frequently seen in children who have suffered with slipped capital femoral epiphyses. Idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip is extremely rare and to our knowledge, its onset has never been documented in adults aged over 20. With reference to the available medical literature, we summarise the current clinical management of this unusual but important cause of young adult hip pain.

  3. Update on diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddini-Martinez, José; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; da Costa, Cláudia Henrique; Jezler, Sérgio; Lima, Mariana Silva; Rufino, Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a type of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia, of unknown etiology, which is associated with a progressive decrease in pulmonary function and with high mortality rates. Interest in and knowledge of this disorder have grown substantially in recent years. In this review article, we broadly discuss distinct aspects related to the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We list the current diagnostic criteria and describe the therapeutic approaches currently available, symptomatic treatments, the action of new drugs that are effective in slowing the decline in pulmonary function, and indications for lung transplantation. PMID:26578138

  4. Understanding the relationship between pain and emotion in idiopathic headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussone, G; Grazzi, L

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to review hypotheses regarding pain mechanisms in headache and relationships between headache pain and the brain's emotional network. There is evidence that chronic pain in idiopathic headaches is, in part, an emotional response induced by alterations in the homeostasis of the interoceptive system--a system that integrates nociceptive information with the emotional network (mediating emotional awareness). These findings suggest that idiopathic headaches are probably due to both an altered pain matrix on the one hand, and an altered affective-cognitive state on the other.

  5. A CASE OF IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN MALE

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    Poongavanam Paranthaman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary Pulmonary Hypertension is a rare disease occurring in 1-2 per million population. It is 2-4 times more common in female. Idiopathic or primary pulmonary hypertension is defined as a disorder with no identifiable cause in which resting mean pulmonary artery pressure in adults is above 25 mmHg and 30 mmHg with exercise. Idiopathic or primary pulmonary hypertension is diagnosed after ruling out all the possible secondary causes of pulmonary hypertension. We are presenting a case of middle-aged male who presented with dyspnoea and on further evaluation found to have primary pulmonary hypertension, which is uncommon in male

  6. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way.

  7. The Association Between Reported Venlafaxine Use in Early Pregnancy and Birth Defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Kara ND; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiologic studies have investigated the use of venlafaxine (Effexor®), an antidepressant used to treat major depression and anxiety disorders in adults, during pregnancy. Our objective was to determine whether use of venlafaxine during pregnancy is associated with specific birth defects. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a population-based, case-control study in the United States. Our analysis included mothers with pregnancies affected by one of 30 selected birth defects (cases) and babies without birth defects (controls) with estimated dates of delivery between 1997–2007. Exposure was any reported use of venlafaxine from one month preconception through the third month of pregnancy. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% Fisher’s Exact confidence intervals (CIs) for 24 birth defect groups for which at least 400 case mothers were interviewed. Our adjusted analyses controlled for maternal age and race-ethnicity. Results Among the 27,045 NBDPS participants who met inclusion criteria, 0.17% (14/8,002) of control mothers and 0.40% (77/19,043) of case mothers reported any use of venlafaxine from one month preconception through the third month of pregnancy. Statistically significant associations were found for anencephaly, atrial septal defect (ASD) secundum or ASD not otherwise specified, coarctation of the aorta, cleft palate, and gastroschisis. Conclusions Our data suggest associations between periconceptional use of venlafaxine and some birth defects. However, sample sizes were small, confidence intervals were wide, and additional studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:23281074

  8. Examining the relationship between temperature, rainfall and low birth weight in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Kathryn; Davenport, Frank; Hanson, Heidi; Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shradhanand

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between birth weight, precipitation, and temperature in 19 African countries. We matched recorded birth weights from Demographic and Health Surveys covering 1986 through 2010 with gridded monthly precipitation and temperature data derived from satellite and ground-based weather stations. Observed weather patterns during various stages of pregnancy were also used to examine the effect of temperature and precipitation on birth weight outcomes. In our empirical model we allowed the effect of weather factors to vary by the dominant food production strategy (livelihood zone) in a given region as well as by household wealth, mother's education and birth season. This allowed us to determine if certain populations are more or less vulnerable to unexpected weather changes after adjusting for known covariates. Finally we measured effect size by observing differences in birth weight outcomes in women who have one low birth weight experience and at least one healthy birth weight baby. The results indicated that climate does indeed impact birth weight and at a level comparable, in some cases, to the impact of increasing women's education or household electricity status.

  9. Developmental origins of physical fitness: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

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    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This sub-study of the HBCS (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study includes 606 men and women who underwent a thorough clinical examination and participated in the UKK 2-km walk test, which has been validated against a maximal exercise stress test as a measure of CRF in population studies. Data on body size at birth and growth during infancy and childhood were obtained from hospital, child welfare and school health records. Body size at birth was not associated with adult CRF. A 1 cm increase in height at 2 and 7 years was associated with 0.21 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.02 to 0.40 and 0.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28 higher VO2max, respectively. Adjustment for adult lean body mass strengthened these findings. Weight at 2 and 7 years and height at 11 years became positively associated with CRF after adult lean body mass adjustment. However, a 1 kg/m(2 higher BMI at 11 years was associated with -0.57 ml/kg/min (95% CI -0.91 to -0.24 lower adult VO2max, and remained so after adjustment for adult lean body mass. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We did not observe any significant associations between body size at birth and CRF in later life. However, childhood growth was associated with CRF in adulthood. These findings suggest, importantly from a public point of view, that early growth may play a role in predicting adult CRF.

  10. Developmental Origins of Physical Fitness: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Forsén, Tom; Ylihärsilä, Hilkka; Paile-Hyvärinen, Maria; Barker, D. J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life. Methods/Principal Findings This sub-study of the HBCS (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study) includes 606 men and women who underwent a thorough clinical examination and participated in the UKK 2-km walk test, which has been validated against a maximal exercise stress test as a measure of CRF in population studies. Data on body size at birth and growth during infancy and childhood were obtained from hospital, child welfare and school health records. Body size at birth was not associated with adult CRF. A 1 cm increase in height at 2 and 7 years was associated with 0.21 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.02 to 0.40) and 0.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28) higher VO2max, respectively. Adjustment for adult lean body mass strengthened these findings. Weight at 2 and 7 years and height at 11 years became positively associated with CRF after adult lean body mass adjustment. However, a 1 kg/m2 higher BMI at 11 years was associated with −0.57 ml/kg/min (95% CI −0.91 to −0.24) lower adult VO2max, and remained so after adjustment for adult lean body mass. Conclusion/Significance We did not observe any significant associations between body size at birth and CRF in later life. However, childhood growth was associated with CRF in adulthood. These findings suggest, importantly from a public point of view, that early growth may play a role in predicting adult CRF. PMID:21799817

  11. Management of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peco-Antić Amira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS in children includes immunosuppressive and symptomatic treatment. The response to corticosteroid therapy is the best prognostic marker of the disease. The majority of children with INS (about 85% are steroid-sensitive as they normalize proteinuria within 4 weeks of daily, oral prednisone administration. The most of steroid-sensitive patients (94% has minimal change of nephrotic syndrome, while the majority (80.5%-94.4% of those who are steroid-resistant has focal segmental glomerulosderosis or mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. Initial therapy of INS consists of 60 mg/m2/day prednisone daily for 4 weeks followed by 40 mg/m2 on alternate days for 4 weeks, thereafter decreasing alternate day therapy every month by 25% over the next 4 months. Thus, the overall duration of the initial cortico-steroids course is 6 months that may be significantly protective against the future development of frequent relapses. Approximately 30% of patients experience only one attack and are cured after the first course of therapy; 10-20% have only 3 or 4 steroid-responsive episodes before permanent cure; the remaining 40-50% of patients are frequent relapsers, or steroid-dependent. Standard relapse therapy consists of 60 mg/m2/ day prednisone until urine is protein free for at least 3 days, followed by 40 mg/m2 on alternate days for 4 weeks. The treatment of frequent-relapses and steroid-dependent INS includes several different regimens: maintenance (6 months alternate steroid therapy just above steroid threshold (0.1-0.5 mg/kg/ 48h, levamisole, alkylating agents (cyclophosphamide or chlorambucil or cyclosporine. The worse prognosis is expected in steroid-resistant patients who are the most difficult to treat. Renal biopsy should be performed in them. At present, there is no consensus on therapeutic regimen for steroid-resistant patients. The following immunosuppressive drugs have been used with varying

  12. Rituximab in treatment of idiopathic glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel El-Reshaid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess the role of rituximab (Mabthera in the treatment of patients with corticosteroid-resistant and calcineurin-inhibitors ± cellcept refractory idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS. A total of 83 patients who had required the previous treatment for a minimum of two years were included in the study. Our protocol included the use of rituximab in four-weekly slow infusions. Five patients were excluded as they could not tolerate rituximab infusion for allergic reaction. As expected, none of the patients had a decline in the total circulating lymphocyte counts yet all had achieved decline of their initially normal CD20 to < 0.5% one month after infusion. The decline persisted for eight to ten months later. In the minimal change disease (MCD group, 31 of the 32 patients had complete remission (CR and were off any immunosuppressive therapy and one of the previous non-responders (NR did not respond. Excluding two patients who had required retreatment, the others remained in CR (17 up to 28 months and six up to 36 months. Treatment with rituximab resulted in amelioration of NS in 17 of the 18 patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, while only one patient remained NR. Although renal function remained stable, proteinuria reappeared by eight to 12 months. Retreatment with rituximab resulted in a similar response with stable kidney function. In the 28 patients with membranous glomerulopathy (MG, 24 had achieved CR. Two patients failed to respond and two had partial remission. By 12 months, all patients relapsed. The response was within one month following treatment in patient with MCD, but was gradual within three months in FSGS and MG. Relapsers in all groups responded in a similar pattern to repeat dosing with the drug subsequently. Our prospective study represents an adequate number of patients with biopsy-proven subgroups of INS in both children and adults with long-term follow-up of treatment with rituximab

  13. Factors affecting pelvic rotation in idiopathic scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Qi, Lin; Yang, Jun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yang, Changwei; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic rotation (PR) is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS), but factors contributing to this phenomenon and its relationship with the surgical outcome are not well established. This retrospective study included 85 IS patients in 2 groups: thoracic curve dominance group (group A) and lumbar curve dominance group (group B). Pre- and postoperative PR was measured on standing posteroanterior radiographs by the left/right ratio (L/R ratio) of horizontal distance between the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the inferior ilium (SI) at the sacroiliac joint on the same side in both groups. Other radiographic data, age, sex, and Risser sign of each patient were recorded to analyze their correlations with PR before and after operation. The patients ranged in age from 10 to 35 years with a mean of 17.0 ± 5.2 years. The mean L/R ratio of PR before operation was 0.99 (0.73–1.40) versus 0.98 (0.87–1.26) after operation. The L/R ration was beyond the range of 1 ± 0.1 (indicating the presence of PR) in 17 (20%) patients before operation and in 14 (16.5%) patients after operation. There was no significant difference in PR between the 2 groups of patients either before (P = 0.468) or after (P = 0.944) surgery. The preoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = 0.220, P = 0.043), apex vertebral rotation (AVR) in the proximal thoracic curve (r = 0.242, P = 0.026), and AVR in the lumbar curve (r = 0.213, P = 0.049), while the postoperative PR showed a very low correlation with Risser sign (r = −0.341, P = 0.001) and postoperative trunk shift (TS) (r = −0.282, P = 0.009). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that preoperative PR was affected by proximal thoracic curve AVR and lumbar curve AVR. There was no significant difference between PR before operation and 2 years after operation. Preoperative PR was mainly correlated with Risser sign and the rotation

  14. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  15. Dependency and transfer incomes in idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starhof, Charlotte Chrom; Anker, Niels; Henriksen, Tove;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population above 65 years of age. The aim of this study was to define the estimated Danish IPD population and to elucidate source of income and labour market affiliation...... by the Danish Parkinson Association. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  16. Ultrasonography and color Doppler in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Louise; Court-Payen, Michel; Nielsen, Susan;

    2012-01-01

    The wrist region is one of the most complex joints of the human body. It is prone to deformity and functional impairment in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and is difficult to examine clinically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of ultrasonography (US) with Doppler in diagnosis...

  17. Repeat microvascular decompression for recurrent idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; van Dijk, J. Marc C.; Immenga, Steven; Wagemakers, Michiel; Metzemaekers, Jan D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Object. Microvascular decompression (MVD) is considered the method of choice to treat idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) refractory to medical treatment. However, repeat MVD for recurrent TN is not well established. In this paper, the authors describe a large case series in which patients underwen

  18. Exercise testing and fitness training in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh-Grewal, D.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis is the commonest rheumatic disease of childhood affecting 1:1000 children under the age of 16 years. Children with JIA have long been sidelined from physical activity due to active disease or irrational concerns that activity may in some way worsen disease. Children wit

  19. Hyperoxaluria in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis--what are the limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The object of this study was to investigate the role for measurement of 24-h renal oxalate excretion in the evaluation of idiopathic calcium stone formers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal excretion rates of oxalate and creatinine were measured in 24-h urines in 46 consecutive male recurrent...

  20. The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis : biomechanical and neuromuscular factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, AG; Webb, PJ

    2000-01-01

    The aetiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remains an enigma. In the literature there are two opinions: one believes a deviating growth pattern is responsible for the condition - patients with AIS lend to be growing faster/be taller - while the other opinion assumes that the growth patte

  1. Vestibular hyperreactivity in patients with idiopathic spasmodic torticollis.

    OpenAIRE

    Huygen, P.L.; Verhagen, W I; Hoof, J.J. van; Horstink, M W

    1989-01-01

    Ocular motor tests performed on 14 patients with idiopathic spasmodic torticollis were normal. The vestibulo-ocular reflex tested in eight patients showed a significant high level in seven. It is suggested that this phenomenon is secondary rather than the cause of spasmodic torticollis.

  2. Frequency analysis of EMG activity in patients with idiopathic torticollis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Marsden, JF; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    The pathophysiology of idiopathic dystonic torticollis is unclear and there is no simple test that confirms the diagnosis and excludes a psychogenic or voluntary torticollis in individual patients. We recorded EMG activity in the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius capitis (SPL) muscles of eight

  3. Physical activity in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, Otto; Armbrust, Wineke; van Leeuwen, M.A.; Duppen, N.; Geertzen, J.H.; Sauer, P.J.; van Weert, E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore physical activity (PA) in adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) compared with a healthy population and to examine associations between PA and disease-related factors. METHODS: Total energy expenditure (TEE), activity-related energy expenditure (AEE), PA level, an

  4. Idiopathic inflammatory orbital myositis presenting with vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jayanthi; Andrew, Nicholas H; Smith, Caroline; Figueira, Edwin; Selva, Dinesh

    2014-12-01

    We present a first case of 58-year-old man with vision loss in a biopsy-proven idiopathic inflammatory orbital tendon sparing myositis. Tests for thyroid autoantibodies were negative at the initial presentation and at 10-month follow-up period. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathological examination and was also supported by avid sarcolemmal staining for MHC-1 and MHC-2.

  5. Multidisciplinary interobserver agreement in the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomeer, M.; Demedts, M.; Behr, J.; Buhl, R.; Costabel, U.; Flower, C.D.; Verschakelen, J.; Laurent, F.; Nicholson, A.G.; Verbeken, E.K.; Capron, F.; Sardina, M.; Corvasce, G.; Lankhorst, I.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) by respiratory physicians in six European countries, and to calculate the interobserver agreement between high-resolution computed tomography reviewers and histology reviewers in IPF

  6. High-dose acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demedts, M.; Behr, J.; Buhl, R.; Costabel, U.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Jansen, H.M.L.; MacNee, W.; Thomeer, M.; Wallaert, B.; Laurent, F.; Nicholson, A.G.; Verbeken, E.K.; Verschakelen, J.; Flower, C.D.; Capron, F.; Petruzzelli, S.; Vuyst, P. De; Bosch, J.M. van den; Rodriguez-Becerra, E.; Corvasce, G.; Lankhorst, I.L.M.; Sardina, M.; Montanari, M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic progressive disorder with a poor prognosis. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter study that assessed the effectiveness over one year of a high oral dose of acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily) add

  7. Impact of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Associated Uveitis in Early Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, Anne-Mieke J. W.; Vernie, Lenneke A.; Rothova, Aniki; van der Doe, Patricia; Los, Leonoor I.; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E.; de Boer, Joke H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Typically juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis (further referred as 'JIA-uveitis') has its onset in childhood, but some patients suffer its, sometimes visual threatening, complications or ongoing disease activity in adulthood. The objective of this study was to analyze u

  8. Impact of juvenile idiopathic arthritis associated uveitis in early adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, A.-M.J.W. (Anne-Mieke J. W.); Vernie, L.A. (Lenneke A.); A. Rothova (Aniki); Doe, P.V.D. (Patricia V. D.); L.I. Los (Leonoor I.); N.E. Schalij-Delfos (Nicoline); J.H. de Boer (Joke)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Typically juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis (further referred as 'JIA-uveitis') has its onset in childhood, but some patients suffer its, sometimes visual threatening, complications or ongoing disease activity in adulthood. The objective of this study was

  9. Impact of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Associated Uveitis in Early Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, AJW; Vernie, Lenneke A; Rothova, Aniki; V D Doe, Patricia; Los, Leonoor I; Schalij-Delfos, Nicoline E; de Boer, Joke H

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Typically juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis (further referred as 'JIA-uveitis') has its onset in childhood, but some patients suffer its, sometimes visual threatening, complications or ongoing disease activity in adulthood. The objective of this study was to analyze

  10. Detection of occult cancer in patients with idiopathic venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Marianne Ingerslev; Knudsen, Søren Tang; Andersen, Birthe Søgaard;

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic venous thrombosis (VTE) is frequently associated with underlying malignancy. Thus, it is tempting to search for underlying cancer in these patients. However, extensive screening is cost-intensive and no survival benefit has been demonstrated. Based on a review of the literature, we rec...

  11. Idiopathic airway-centered interstitial fibrosis: report of two cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Xiang-hua; CHU Hai-qing; CHENG Xiao-ming; LUO Ben-fang; LI Hui-ping

    2007-01-01

    @@ Airway-centered interstitial fibrosis (ACIF), a novel form of diffuse interstitial lung disease (ILD) of unknown cause, was recently presented.1 There is no final conclusion on its property and denomination, and it might be a new type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (ⅡP).

  12. Temporomandibular Involvement and Craniofacial Development in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Twilt (Marinka)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractJuvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a generalised autoimmune disease, which starts in childhood. JIA is one of the most frequent occurring autoimmune diseases in childhood, and concerns approximately 1 in a 1000 children. JIA is a heterogeneous group of conditions divided into seve

  13. Relapsing steroid-responsive idiopathic acute interstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, R; Gonzalez, C; Cabezuelo, J B; Lacueva, J; Ruiz, J A; Tovar, J V; Niembro, E

    1993-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman developed acute renal failure secondary to interstitial nephritis. Her clinical history, complementary studies and two renal biopsies could not establish the etiology. She showed signs of incomplete Fanconi syndrome. Treatment with corticosteroids was very effective, though she tended to relapse. We comment briefly on some aspects of idiopathic acute interstitial nephritis.

  14. Iron deficiency in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Empel, Vanessa P M; Lee, Joy; Williams, Trevor J; Kaye, David M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency has been reported to be highly prevalent in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) patients, with the potential to influence cardiac performance, pulmonary artery pressures and the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia. METHODS: Iron status was evaluated in 29

  15. The potential role of thrombopoietin in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von dem Borne, A; Folman, C; van den Oudenrijn, S; de Jong, S; de Haas, M

    2002-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), as it does in other immune-mediated thrombocytopenias. Because TPO is bound and internalized by platelets, it is destroyed together with platelets at an accelerated rate in the macrophage syst

  16. Prognostic factors of profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Peir-Rong; Wu, Hung-Pin

    2014-06-01

    Profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss is thought to have a poor prognosis, but few studies have focused on this condition. We aimed to assess the impact of patient factors, audiologic parameters, and salvage intratympanic steroid injection therapy on the prognosis of profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The demographic, clinical, and audiologic data, degree of hearing recovery, and efficacy of intratympanic steroid injection therapy in 576 patients with profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (mean age 56.2 ± 14.9 years) who had been admitted at four tertiary referral centers between 2000 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean hearing level at the initial presentation was 108.1 ± 9.5 dB. Many patients experienced vertigo (52.1%) and tinnitus (77.4%). At the 2-month follow-up, 172 (29.8%) patients showed some degree of hearing recovery, but only 21 (3.6%) patients recovered normal hearing. Further, the 116 patients who had received salvage intratympanic steroid injections showed a better audiologic outcome (improvement, 26.1 ± 24.3 vs. 15.7 ± 22.1 dB; P = 0.000) than those who had not (n = 429). In conclusion, a higher degree of hearing loss at the initial presentation indicates a poorer prognosis. Salvage intratympanic steroid injection therapy may improve the hearing of patients with profound idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss after the failure of systemic steroid therapy.

  17. Mechanisms of disease and therapy in severe juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vastert, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes results of translational research (both bench to bedside as reverse translation from bedside back to the bench) in severe Juvenile idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). It focuses on understanding critical immunological features of both systemic and polyarticular JIA and relates this to

  18. Unravelling the incidence and etiology of chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) is a sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy that has a slowly progressive course without severe disability. CIAP is diagnosed in a significant proportion of patients with polyneuropathy, but precise figures on the incidence of polyneuropathy and CIAP w

  19. Curve progression and spinal growth in brace treated idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonseth, KA; Veldhuizen, AG; Cool, JC; van Horn, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    The risk of progression of idiopathic scoliosis is correlated primarily to factors that predict potential remaining skeletal growth. The aim of the current study was to evaluate spinal growth, measured as the length of the scoliotic spine on serial longitudinal radiographs, and its relationship to p

  20. Randomized Trial of Tocilizumab in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Benedetti, Fabrizio; Brunner, Hermine I.; Ruperto, Nicolino; Kenwright, Andrew; Wright, Stephen; Calvo, Inmaculada; Cuttica, Ruben; Ravelli, Angelo; Schneider, Rayfel; Woo, Patricia; Wouters, Carine; Xavier, Ricardo; Zemel, Lawrence; Baildam, Eileen; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Dolezalova, Pavla; Garay, Stella M.; Merino, Rosa; Joos, Rik; Grom, Alexei; Wulffraat, Nico; Zuber, Zbigniew; Zulian, Francesco; Lovell, Daniel; Martini, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most severe subtype of JIA; treatment options are limited. Interleukin-6 plays a pathogenic role in systemic JIA. METHODS We randomly assigned 112 children, 2 to 17 years of age, with active systemic JIA (duration of >= 6 months and inad

  1. Detection of occult cancer in patients with idiopathic venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Marianne Ingerslev; Knudsen, Søren Tang; Andersen, Birthe Søgaard

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic venous thrombosis (VTE) is frequently associated with underlying malignancy. Thus, it is tempting to search for underlying cancer in these patients. However, extensive screening is cost-intensive and no survival benefit has been demonstrated. Based on a review of the literature, we...

  2. Association between periodontal status and idiopathic male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Norbert; Kárpáti, Krisztina; Szöllősi, János; Keresztúri, Márk; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Gorzó, István; Radnai, Márta

    2016-01-01

    About 30% of male infertility cases are idiopathic. Previous studies reported a positive correlation between deep periodontal pockets and sperm sub-motility, which suggests that periodontitis might have a role in idiopathic semen abnormality pathospermia. We evaluated correlations between periodontal infection parameters and the results of sperm analysis of men with idiopathic infertility. In this observational study, semen quality and periodontal status were analyzed for 95 otherwise healthy men attending an andrology unit for sperm analysis. Half the men in the sperm pathology and normozoospermia groups (50.8% and 50%, respectively) had poor periodontal status. Among the 95 participants, 38% had oligozoospermia, 28% had asthenozoospermia, 16% had cryptozoospermia, and 15% were classified as normozoospermic. Sperm pathology category was not associated with frequency of deep periodontal pockets or calculus. Bleeding on probing was significantly lower among men with asthenozoospermia than among those with normozoospermia. Poor periodontal status was not associated with any sperm pathology category or parameter. In contrast with previous findings, the present results indicate that pathospermia and poor semen quality are not associated with periodontal infection in men with idiopathic infertility. (J Oral Sci 58, 247-253, 2016).

  3. Lifestyle, family history, and risk of idiopathic Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina F.; Ritz, Beate

    2015-01-01

    of these factors with idiopathic PD among 1,808 Danish patients who were diagnosed in 1996-2009 and matched to 1,876 randomly selected population controls. Although there was a downward trend in duration of smoking, this was not observed for daily tobacco consumption. A moderate intake of caffeine (3.1-5 cups...

  4. Different collagen types define two types of idiopathic epiretinal membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Kritzenberger, Michaela; Junglas, Benjamin; Framme, Carsten; Helbig, Horst; Gabel, Veit-Peter; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Ernst R. Tamm; Hillenkamp, Jost

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: To identify differences in extracellular matrix contents between idiopathic epiretinal membranes (IEM) of cellophane macular reflex (CMRM) or preretinal macular fibrosis (PMFM) type. Methods and results: IEM were analyzed by light and quantitative transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Substantial differences between CMRM and PMFM were observed regarding the nature of extracellular fibrils. In CMRM, the fibrils were thin with...

  5. Imaging in juvenile idiopathic arthritis with a focus on ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Louise; Court-Payen, Michel; Boesen, Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    Early therapeutic intervention and use of new highly efficacious treatments have improved the outcome in many patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), but have also led to the need for more precise methods to evaluate disease activity. In adult rheumatology, numerous studies have establ...

  6. Evaluation of circulating YKL-40 levels in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthagen, Nicoline M; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Zanen, Pieter; Ruven, Henk J; Grutters, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: YKL-40 is a novel biomarker in diseases with inflammation, fibrosis and tissue remodelling. Previously, circulating YKL-40 was shown to be elevated in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and was associated with survival. OBJECTIVE: To compare YKL-40 serum levels between I

  7. Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis in childhood: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Sultan; Akçan, Ramazan; Heybet, Eyup Ruşen; Cavlak, Mehmet; Pehlivan, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis is a rare entity of unknown origin, which causes sudden death in more than half of the affected patients. It is rarely seen in childhood, and might result in death due to heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias. Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis is mostly diagnosed at autopsy incidentally. Here we present a rare case of childhood idiopathic giant cell myocarditis. A 10-year old boy found dead in his bed in the morning. Interview with family members revealed death the boy was in good health conditions apart from being overweight. At autopsy, external examination was completely normal. Internal examination revealed normal findings; the heart was 297g and macroscopically normal. No traces of any toxic agents detected in complete toxicological analyses. Areas characterized with granulomatous lesions, lymphocytes, histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells were observed in myocardium at histopathological examination. No necrosis was observed in granulomatous areas. Tuberculosis was negative in the PCR assays. There were no signs indicative of fungal infection, and clinical status of the case was not compatible with the sarcoidosis. In this respect death was attributed to idiopathic giant cell myocarditis.

  8. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah;

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review...... such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH....

  9. Disrupted thalamic prefrontal pathways in patients with idiopathic dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonilha, Leonardo; de Vries, Paulien M.; Hurd, Mark W.; Rorden, Chris; Morgan, Paul S.; Besenski, Nada; Bergmann, Kenneth J.; Hinson, Vanessa K.

    2009-01-01

    There are quantifiable abnormalities in water diffusion properties of the white matter in thalamic and prefrontal areas in patients with idiopathic dystonia (ID). However, it is unclear which pathways are disrupted in these patients. Using probabilistic tractography of high resolution DTI, we recons

  10. Unusual Idiopathic Calcinosis Cutis Universalis in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Alabaz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Calcinosis cutis is an uncommon disorder characterized by the progressive deposition of crystals of calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite in the skin in various areas of the body. It is classified into four types according to etiology, namely as dystrophic if calcium and phosphorus levels are normal and tissue damage is present, as idiopathic if calcium and phosphorus levels are normal and no tissue damage is present, or as metastatic if there is hypercalcemia or hyperphosphatemia. Medical and surgical treatments are options to cure calcinosis cutis. Medical therapy is not very effective. Surgical excision has shown to be beneficial, as it can provide a symptomatic relief. However, since calcinosis cutis limits are not always well defined, a recurrence of the lesions may occur. We dealt with a very rare form of calcinosis cutis in a healthy 6-year-old girl. There was no evidence of connective tissue disorder or abnormal mineral metabolism. Hence, she was diagnosed as idiopathic calcinosis cutis and, although calcifications in idiopathic cutis are most commonly localized to one area, our patient unusually exhibited widespread calcific deposits. Although the existing lesions showed slow improvement, systemic pamidronate therapy was effective in preventing the occurrence of new lesions. Surgical excision proved to be an effective and successful treatment. This report aims to raise doctors’ awareness on the presentation, etiopathogenesis, and course of the relatively rare idiopathic calcinosis cutis.

  11. [Association study of telomere length with idiopathic male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuyuan, Liu; Changjun, Zhang; Haiying, Peng; Xiaoqin, Huang; Hao, Sun; Keqin, Lin; Kai, Huang; Jiayou, Chu; Zhaoqing, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are evolutionary conserved, multifunctional DNA-protein complexes located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres maintain chromosome stability and genome integrity and also play an important role in meiosis which aid in synapsis, homologous recombination, and segregation. Sperm telomere has been reported to play an important role in fertilization and embryo development. Nowadays, the association between telomere and reproduction is one of the major areas of interest, however whether sperm telomere associated with male infertility is not clear. In this study, in order to find out the association between Chinese idiopathic infertility and sperm telomere length, we analyzed the difference of sperm telomere length between idiopathic infertile men and normal fertile men, as well as the correlations between sperm telomere length and human semen characteristics. We analyzed 126 Chinese idiopathic infertile men and 138 normal fertile men for sperm telomere length by using quantitative PCR. We found that the relative sperm mean telomere length of infertile men was significantly shorter than that of fertile men (2.894 ± 0.115 vs. 4.016 ± 0.603, P=5.097 x 10⁻⁵). Both sperm count and semen progressive motility are related with telomere length. Our results suggest that sperm telomere length is associated with idiopathic male infertility of China and we proposed the possibility that shorter telomeres in sperm chromosome will reduce spermatogenesis and sperm functions, which finally affected the fertility of male.

  12. Reasons Why Women Choose Home Birth

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    Mary Angelie P. Andrino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal deaths in the Philippines remain high. These deaths are mostly due to the large proportion of home births, complications of pregnancy and delivery, and lack of access to facilities and competently trained staff. Utilizing a descriptive, one-shot survey design, the study aimed to determine the reasons why women in a municipality in Iloilo prefer home birth. The respondents were interviewed using a validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and interpret the findings. The study revealed that the proportion of home births progressively declined from 2012 to 2014. Birth being imminent or inevitable is the number one reason that supports home birth. Autonomy, safety, affordability, readily available birthing equipment and supplies, accessibility of birth attendant, remote access by going to the birthing center, lack of transportation, and bad weather conditions also led women to give birth at home. Women from the rural areas of the municipality utilized available resources in the community which prompted the predominance of home deliveries assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs and even midwives, who were readily available nearby. This study recommends continuous improvement in existing maternal health interventions and strategies through engagement of women in policy planning, improvement of health service delivery, infrastructural enhancement, better care practices and continuous health education.

  13. Birth of a new galaxy

    CERN Multimedia

    Rodgers, L

    2001-01-01

    Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).

  14. The domestication of human birth

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    Sofija Stefanović

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the burial places of newborns at the prehistoric site at Lepenski Vir (Serbia revealed the possibility that deliveries took place inside houses that were heated. Warm houses provided a thermally stable environment which, in turn, could solve the problem of thermoregulation, that is critical for the survival of babies. In this study it is shown that the creation of these good conditions for giving birth could have been an important step in human evolution that could have led to a demographic expansion.

  15. IgG abnormality in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia.

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    Susumu Tanaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A close association between narcolepsy and the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-DQB1*0602 allele suggests the involvement of the immune system, or possibly an autoimmune process. We investigated serum IgG levels in narcolepsy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the serum total IgG levels in 159 Japanese narcolepsy-cataplexy patients positive for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele, 28 idiopathic hypersomnia patients with long sleep time, and 123 healthy controls (the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele present in 45 subjects. The serum levels of each IgG subclass were subsequently measured. The distribution of serum IgG was significantly different among healthy controls negative for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele (11.66+/-3.55 mg/ml, healthy controls positive for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele (11.45+/-3.43, narcolepsy patients (9.67+/-3.38, and idiopathic hypersomnia patients (13.81+/-3.80. None of the following clinical variables, age, disease duration, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, smoking habit and BMI at the time of blood sampling, were associated with IgG levels in narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia. Furthermore we found the decrease in IgG1 and IgG2 levels, stable expression of IgG3, and the increase in the proportion of IgG4 in narcolepsy patients with abnormally low IgG levels. The increase in the proportion of IgG4 levels was also found in narcolepsy patients with normal serum total IgG levels. Idiopathic hypersomnia patients showed a different pattern of IgG subclass distribution with high IgG3 and IgG4 level, low IgG2 level, and IgG1/IgG2 imbalance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to determine IgG abnormalities in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia by measuring the serum IgG levels in a large number of hypersomnia patients. The observed IgG abnormalities indicate humoral immune alterations in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. Different IgG profiles suggest immunological differences between narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia.

  16. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  17. Alteration of placental haemostatic mechanisms in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction

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    Jaime Eduardo Bernal Villegas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction is a complication of pregnancy with a high probability of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It appears tobe caused by abnormal development of placental vasculature. Haemostatic processes are important for the development of the placenta,and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors has been associated with risk of intrauterine growth restriction.Objective. To evaluate coagulation abnormalities in placenta of pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction.Materials and methods. Five placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction were compared to 19 controls.We performed gross and histological examination of the placenta. Analysis was made of both mRNA expression by real-time PCRand protein by ELISA of tissue factor and thrombomodulin in placental tissue. Results. Results based on histological evaluation wereconsistent with an increased prothrombotic state in placentas from pregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction, andthrombosis of chorionic vessels was the most important finding. The study showed an increased expression of tissue factor protein(p=0.0411 and an increase in the ratio of tissue factor/thrombomodulin mRNA (p=0.0411 and protein (p=0.0215 in placentas frompregnancies with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction. There were no statistically significant differences neither between cases andcontrols in the mRNA levels of tissue factor or thrombomodulin nor at the protein level of thrombomodulin. Conclusion. Evidence ofalteration of local haemostatic mechanisms at the level of the placenta, including abnormal expression of tissue factor and tissue factor/thrombomodulin ratio, in pregnancies that occur with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction is presented.

  18. AUTOLOGOUS SERUM SKIN TESTING (ASST IN CHRONIC IDIOPATHIC URTICARIA

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    Arun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU is a form of urticaria , in which there appears to be persistent activation of mast cells , but the mechanism of mast cell triggering is unknown. The Autologous serum skin test (ASST is an in vivo test which assesses auto reactivity. ASST could be good screening test for Autoreactive urticaria a subset of chronic idiopathic urticaria. AIMS : To study the clinical profile of chronic idiopathic urticaria and pattern of ASST among p atients of chronic idiopathic urticaria. METHODS : Study included 200 patients of CIU that were recruited from outpatient department (OPD. Patient s with a history of urticaria for more than 6 weeks were included in the study. The detailed history , cutaneou s and systemic examination was done. ASST was performed under strict aseptic precaution. RESULTS : Out of 200 patients 100 were male and 100 were female. Mean age of patients was 31.9 yrs. Most common age group was 25 - 34yrs. ASST was found positive in 36(18 % patients. In most of the patients duration of disease was less than 11months (42% with the mean duration of disease 21.74 months. Mean duration of wheal was 64.7 minutes , in which most of the patients (112 having duration of wheal less than 59 min. Hi story of angioedema was positive in 109(54.5% patients. Aggravating factors were positive in 50(25% patients in which drugs and cold were the most common. Family history of urticaria and angioedema was present in 35 patients. None of patient complained a ny adverse reactions during and after ASST. CONCLUSION : ASST is the easily available bed side test for the diagnosis of autoreactive urticaria. It is a simple , inexpensive , semi invasive and easy - to - perform test which can be done and recorded by the dermat ologist himself. ASST may help in diagnosis and management of chronic idiopathic urticaria.

  19. Purulent Bacterial Meningitis at Birth

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    Babak Karimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which are known as the meninges. This infection may be caused by Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria. In this study, we presented the case of a female newborn with meningitis secondary to Streptococcus pneumonia. Her birth weight and height were normal. After 24 hours of birth, the neonate was diagnosed with tachypnea, without presenting any signs of fever or respiratory distress. The newborn was referred to Sheikh Children's Hospital, where chest X-ray showed clear lungs with no evidence of abnormality. Furthermore, the cardiothoracic ratio was normal. A complete blood count demonstrated white blood cell (WBC count of 5400/uL. In Blood/Culcture ratio (B/C test, Streptococcus pneumonia was reported, and the results of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis confirmed this result. Following 14 days of receiving antibiotic therapy, the results of CSF analysis were within the normal range. Her visual and hearing examinations were normal, and demonstrated improved situation. The infant was discharged with exclusive breastfeeding.

  20. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

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    Vidyadhar B Bangal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.