WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth size idiopathic

  1. The Auxological and Biochemical Continuum of Short Children Born Small for Gestational Age (SGA or with Normal Birth Size (Idiopathic Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Wit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Retrospective single-centre analysis of growth characteristics in 182 healthy short children born small for gestational age (SGA or appropriate for gestational age (idiopathic short stature, ISS. Methods. Birth size references from the USA and Sweden were compared, and for the classification as SGA or ISS the Swedish reference was chosen. Height, target height (TH, bone age (BA, predicted adult height (PAH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 values were compared between SGA and ISS. Results. In the combined group, birth weight and length showed a symmetric Gaussian distribution. The American reference overestimates the percentage of short birth length and underestimates that of low birth weight. In childhood, SGA children were shorter than ISS (−3.1 versus −2.6 SDS, P<.001, also in comparison to TH (−2.6 versus −1.9 SDS, P<.001. TH, height SDS change over time, BA delay, and PAH were similar. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were lower in ISS (P=.03 and .09. Conclusions. SGA children represent the left tail of the Gaussian distribution of birth size in short children. The distinction between SGA and ISS depends on birth size reference. Childhood height of SGA is lower than of ISS, but the other auxological features are similar.

  2. Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes among Women with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

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    Diego F. Wyszynski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine pregnancy and birth outcomes among women with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP or chronic ITP (cITP diagnosed before or during pregnancy. Methods. A linkage of mothers and babies within a large US health insurance database that combines enrollment data, pharmacy claims, and medical claims was carried out to identify pregnancies in women with ITP or cITP. Outcomes included preterm birth, elective and spontaneous loss, and major congenital anomalies. Results. Results suggest that women diagnosed with ITP or cITP prior to their estimated date of conception may be at higher risk for stillbirth, fetal loss, and premature delivery. Among 446 pregnancies in women with ITP, 346 resulted in live births. Women with cITP experienced more adverse outcomes than those with a pregnancy-related diagnosis of ITP. Although 7.8% of all live births had major congenital anomalies, the majority were isolated heart defects. Among deliveries in women with cITP, 15.2% of live births were preterm. Conclusions. The results of this study provide further evidence that cause and duration of maternal ITP are important determinants of the outcomes of pregnancy.

  3. Education, Birth Order, and Family Size

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Jesper; Birchenall, Javier A.; Mansour, Hani; Urzua, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a general framework to analyze the trade-off between education and family size. Our framework incorporates parental preferences for birth order and delivers theoretically consistent birth order and family size effects on children's educational attainment. We develop an empirical strategy to identify these effects. We show that the coefficient on family size in a regression of educational attainment on birth order and family size does not identify the family size effect as defined...

  4. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  5. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  6. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, Monique

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of sibship size and birth order on educational attainment, for the United States and the Netherlands. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of sibship size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation with years of education for different family sizes separately; this avoids the problem that estimated ef...

  7. Intelligence, birth order, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence. PMID:22581677

  8. Sibship size, birth order, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2005-10-01

    In a sample of 273 American college students who were administered seven personality tests, only death obsession scores were consistently associated with sibship size and birth order (not optimism, pessimism, anxiety, a Taoist orientation, suicidal ideation, or obsessive-compulsive tendencies). PMID:16342569

  9. Factors associated with thymic size at birth among low and normal birth-weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of gestational and perinatal exposures on thymic size in 366 normal birth weight and 426 low birth weight (LBW) neonates in Guinea-Bissau in West Africa. STUDY DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study, thymic size was measured at birth by the use of ultrasound. Information......% CI. RESULTS: Determinants of thymic size among normal birth weight infants were pathologic amniotic fluid (adjusted GMR for thymic index: 0.84 [0.74-0.96]) and male sex (GMR: 1.13 [1.06-1.22]). Among LBW infants, birth season (1.11 [1.01-1.22]), maternal body temperature (0.89 [0...

  10. Size at birth and preterm birth in women with lifetime eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micali, N; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, K;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eating disorders are associated with lower size at birth, symmetric growth restriction, and preterm birth; and whether pregnancy smoking explains the association between anorexia nervosa and fetal growth. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SETTING......: Maternal anorexia nervosa (both active and past) is associated with lower size at birth and symmetric growth restriction, with evidence of worse outcomes in women with active disorder. Women with anorexia nervosa should be advised about achieving full recovery before conceiving. Similarly, targeting...

  11. Seasonality of birth patterns in an Australian cohort of patients with biopsy-confirmed idiopathic inflammatory myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, R; Hakendorf, P; Limaye, V

    2016-05-01

    Environmental exposures in the foetal period may predispose to autoimmunity. Aim of this study is to investigate whether seasonality in birth patterns exists in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). We used Stata (StataCorp USA, version 13.0) and the user-written routine command 'circsummarise' to assess birth seasonality among South Australian patients with histologically confirmed IIM subsequent to 1980 using their date of birth. There was no evidence for a seasonal birth pattern among IIM patients overall (n = 568), however there were some ethnic variances in birth patterns among non-Caucasian patients. There was evidence for birth seasonality among both Aboriginal (mean = 7 July, Rayleigh P = 0.04) and Asian patients (mean = 12 August, Rayleigh P-value = 0.038). Non-Caucasians born in the third quarter of the calendar year may have an increased risk of developing IIM. Large international studies of IIM patients of diverse ethnicity are required to clarify the role of perinatal exposures in disease susceptibility. PMID:27170240

  12. Resolving the Debate over Birth Order, Family Size, and Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Cleveland, H. Harrington; van den Oord, Edwin; Rowe, David C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between birth order, family size, and intelligence quotient (IQ), evaluating sibling data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and comparing results with those from other studies using within-family data. Results indicated that although low IQ parents were making large families, large families were not…

  13. Birth order, sibship size, and status in modern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J N

    1997-09-01

    This paper investigates the possibility that birth order affects the degree to which individuals attain higher status. Humans give birth to a variable number of (usually) single offspring spaced one to many years apart, and continue to maintain contact with them for extended periods of time. The continued presence of older siblings, and arrival of younger ones, means that each child is reared in a different family environment. Research findings from the field of behavior genetics suggest that these differences have a significant impact on the development of individual differences between children in the same family. Although no two families are likely to be exactly the same, factors such as birth order remain constant across them, and may have similar influences. The present study examines the relationships between birth order, sibship size, and several variables thought to index future status attainment (status striving) in a random sample of Canadians. Firstborn children appear to be more status oriented than lastborns, and this effect is mediated by sibship size. While firstborn children are unaffected by the number of younger siblings they have, the status ambitions of youngest children decrease the more older siblings they have. Birth order effects on status attainment are not as strong as they are on status ambitions. PMID:26196964

  14. Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Alison L. Booth; Kee, Hiau Joo

    2006-01-01

    We use unique retrospective family background data from the 2003 British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child's subsequent educational attainment. Theory suggests a trade off between child quantity and 'quality'. Family size might adversely affect the production of child quality within a family. A number of arguments also suggest that siblings are unlikely to receive equal shares of the resources devoted by parents to their childr...

  15. Sibship size, birth order, and personality among Kuwaiti college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2007-08-01

    In a sample of 460 (103 men, 357 women) Kuwaiti college students (M age=21.9 yr., SD=3.0), scores on the Arabic Scale of Optimism and Pessimism, the Death Obsession Scale, the Arabic Scale of Obsession-Compulsion, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, the Taoist Orientation Scale, and the Suicidal Ideation Scale were not associated with sibship size and birth order. PMID:17958106

  16. Body Size at Birth Is Associated with Food and Nutrient Intake in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Perala, Mia-Maria; Mannisto, Satu; Kaartinen, Niina E.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J.P.; Liisa M Valsta; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 1797 participants, aged 56 to 70, of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, whose bi...

  17. Multidimensional proteomics analysis of amniotic fluid to provide insight into the mechanisms of idiopathic preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Buhimschi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though recent advancement in proteomics has provided a novel perspective on several distinct pathogenetic mechanisms leading to preterm birth (inflammation, bleeding, the etiology of most preterm births still remains elusive. We conducted a multidimensional proteomic analysis of the amniotic fluid to identify pathways related to preterm birth in the absence of inflammation or bleeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A proteomic fingerprint was generated from fresh amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorbtion ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry in a total of 286 consecutive samples retrieved from women who presented with signs or symptoms of preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Inflammation and/or bleeding proteomic patterns were detected in 32% (92/286 of the SELDI tracings. In the remaining tracings, a hierarchical algorithm was applied based on descriptors quantifying similarity/dissimilarity among proteomic fingerprints. This allowed identification of a novel profile (Q-profile based on the presence of 5 SELDI peaks in the 10-12.5 kDa mass area. Women displaying the Q-profile (mean+/-SD, gestational age: 25+/-4 weeks, n = 40 were more likely to deliver preterm despite expectant management in the context of intact membranes and normal amniotic fluid clinical results. Utilizing identification-centered proteomics techniques (fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, robotic tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry coupled with Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER ontological classifications, we determined that in amniotic fluids with Q-profile the differentially expressed proteins are primarily involved in non-inflammatory biological processes such as protein metabolism, signal transduction and transport. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid coupled with non-hierarchical bioinformatics algorithms identified a

  18. Birth Size and Later Central Obesity Among Adolescent Girls of Asian, White, and Mixed Ethnicities

    OpenAIRE

    Novotny, Rachel; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Grove, John; Lim, Unhee; Le Marchand, Loic

    2013-01-01

    Birth size has important implications for health and disease in adulthood. This study examined the association of birth size with central body fat distribution in late adolescence. Data were from a cross-sectional survey of adolescent girls (N = 143, 13–18y) of Asian, White and Mixed Asian-white ethnicity collected in 2005–2007 in Hawai‘i, USA. Central body fat distribution was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and birth size from birth certificates and parent recall. Food diarie...

  19. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

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    Sundquist Jan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. Methods We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Results Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer.

  20. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeconomic status. We divided the age at diagnosis in two groups, below and over 50 years, to identify the effect of family size and birth order for different age periods. Negative associations for increasing birth order were found for endometrial, testicular, skin, thyroid and connective tissue cancers and melanoma. In contrast, we observed positive association between birth order and lung, male and female genital cancers. Family size was associated with decreasing risk for endometrial and testicular cancers, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma; risk was increased for leukemia and nervous system cancer. The effect of birth order decreased for lung and endometrial cancer from age at diagnosis below to over 50 years. Combined effects for birth order and family size were marginally significant for thyroid gland tumors. Especially, the relative risk for follicular thyroid gland tumors was significantly decreased for increasing birth order. Our findings suggest that the effect of birth order decreases from early to late adulthood for lung and endometrial cancer

  1. IMPACT OF SIBSHIP SIZE, BIRTH ORDER, AND SEX COMPOSITION ON SCHOOL ENROLLMENT IN URBAN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Kırdar, Murat G.; Dayıoğlu, Meltem; Tansel, Aysıt

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of sibship size, birth order and sibling sex composition on children’s school enrollment in urban Turkey. Moreover, we examine how the effects of these variables vary by household income and the gender of the children. We utilize an instrumental variables estimation method in order to address parents’ joint fertility and schooling decisions where we use twin-births as instruments. In addition, we generate careful measures for birth order and siblings’ sex c...

  2. Assessment of disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The number and the size of joints matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntson, Lillemor; Wernroth, Lisa; Fasth, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    Variables for assessment of disease activity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were studied, in order to develop a disease activity score for children with JIA.......Variables for assessment of disease activity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were studied, in order to develop a disease activity score for children with JIA....

  3. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise has been suggested to impair fetal growth, but studies have reported inconsistent findings. Objective To investigate associations between residential air pollution and traffic noise during pregnancy and newborn's size at birth....... METHODS: From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses...... between air pollution and birth weight. Exposure to residential road traffic noise was weakly associated with reduced head circumference, whereas none of the other newborn's size indicators were associated with noise, neither before nor after adjustment for air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates...

  4. Birth Order, Family Size, and Self-Esteem: A Filipino Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David; Astilla, Estela

    1980-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between birth order and self-esteem among 209 11- to 13-year-old girls attending a private high school in the central Philippines. The Self-Esteem Inventory was used to measure self-esteem. No evidence of any influence of birth order, family size, or their interaction with self-esteem was found. (Author/RH)

  5. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  6. Effect of litter size on the variation in birth and weaning weights of Landrace piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Duarte Prazeres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the size class of the litter at birth on the variation in birth and weaning weights and on the survival rate of piglets from birth to weaning. For this purpose, records of individual weight at birth and weaning of piglets obtained from a database of 295 Landrace litters born between 2000 and 2010 on a pig farm in the western region of the State of Paraná were used. The litters were classified as small (up to 7 piglets, medium (8 to 13 piglets, and large (> 14 piglets according to the total number of piglets born. The data were analyzed considering the effects of the year of sow mating and size class of the litter at birth. The correlations between mean weight and variance in litter weight and size were higher for medium and large litters. The size class of the litter significantly influenced the mean weight of piglets at birth and weaning and the variance in birth weight. Piglets born in medium and large litters weighed less and exhibited greater birth weight variation and a lower survival rate until weaning than piglets born in small litters.

  7. Do birth order and family size matter for intergenerational income mobility? Evidence from Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Lena

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies of intergenerational income mobility have not considered potential birth-order or family-size effects in the estimated income elasticity. This paper uses a large sample of individuals born between 1962 and 1964; income elasticities with respect to the father’s income are estimated for individuals in different birth-order positions for a given family size. This paper presents results based on labor income and total income for sons and daughters separately. The elasticity tends...

  8. Influence of family size and birth order on risk of cancer: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Sundquist Jan; Thomsen Hauke; Weires Marianne; Bevier Melanie; Hemminki Kari

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Family size and birth order are known to influence the risk of some cancers. However, it is still unknown whether these effects change from early to later adulthood. We used the data of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to further analyze these effects. Methods We selected over 5.7 million offspring with identified parents but no parental cancer. We estimated the effect of birth order and family size by Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, period, region and socioeco...

  9. Do birth order and family size matter for intergenerational income mobility?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Lena U.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies of intergenerational income mobility have not considered potential birth- order or family-size effects in the estimated income elasticity. This paper uses a large sample of individuals born between 1962 and 1964; income elasticities with respect to parents? incomes are estimated for individuals with different birth-order positions and family sizes. Results based on labor income and total income for sons and daughters are reported separately. The elasticity...

  10. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases Information on the intrauterine trajectory through which birth weight was attained provided little additional insight into child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth. PMID:27257112

  11. Body size at birth is associated with food and nutrient intake in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia-Maria Perälä

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small body size at birth is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Dietary habits are tightly linked with these disorders, but the association between body size at birth and adult diet has been little studied. We examined the association between body size at birth and intake of foods and macronutrients in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 1797 participants, aged 56 to 70, of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, whose birth weight and length were recorded. Preterm births were excluded. During a clinical study, diet was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders was used to assess the associations. Intake of fruits and berries was 13.26 g (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 25.96 higher per 1 kg/m(3 increase in ponderal index (PI at birth, and 83.16 g (95% CI: 17.76, 148.56 higher per 1 kg higher birth weight. One unit higher PI at birth was associated with 0.14% of energy (E% lower intake of fat (95% CI: -0.26, -0.03 and 0.18 E% higher intake of carbohydrates (95% CI: 0.04, 0.32 as well as 0.08 E% higher sucrose (95% CI: 0.00, 0.15, 0.05 E% higher fructose (95% CI: 0.01, 0.09, and 0.18 g higher fiber (95% CI: 0.02, 0.34 intake in adulthood. Similar associations were observed between birth weight and macronutrient intake. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal growth may modify later life food and macronutrient intake. Altered dietary habits could potentially explain an increased risk of chronic disease in individuals born with small body size.

  12. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  13. Family Configuration and Achievement: Effects of Birth Order and Family Size in a Sample of Brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.; Bills, David B.

    1979-01-01

    Birth order effects in brothers were found to derive from difference in family size. Effects for family size were found even with socioeconomic background controlled. Nor were family size effects explained by parental ability. The importance of unmeasured preferences or economic resources that vary across families was suggested. (Author/RD)

  14. Birth size and breast cancer risk: re-analysis of individual participant data from 32 studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel dos Santos Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth size, perhaps a proxy for prenatal environment, might be a correlate of subsequent breast cancer risk, but findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. We re-analysed individual participant data from published and unpublished studies to obtain more precise estimates of the magnitude and shape of the birth size-breast cancer association. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies were identified through computer-assisted and manual searches, and personal communication with investigators. Individual participant data from 32 studies, comprising 22,058 breast cancer cases, were obtained. Random effect models were used, if appropriate, to combine study-specific estimates of effect. Birth weight was positively associated with breast cancer risk in studies based on birth records (pooled relative risk [RR] per one standard deviation [SD] [= 0.5 kg] increment in birth weight: 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.09 and parental recall when the participants were children (1.02; 95% CI 0.99-1.05, but not in those based on adult self-reports, or maternal recall during the woman's adulthood (0.98; 95% CI 0.95-1.01 (p for heterogeneity between data sources = 0.003. Relative to women who weighed 3.000-3.499 kg, the risk was 0.96 (CI 0.80-1.16 in those who weighed or = 4.000 kg (p for linear trend = 0.001 in birth record data. Birth length and head circumference from birth records were also positively associated with breast cancer risk (pooled RR per one SD increment: 1.06 [95% CI 1.03-1.10] and 1.09 [95% CI 1.03-1.15], respectively. Simultaneous adjustment for these three birth size variables showed that length was the strongest independent predictor of risk. The birth size effects did not appear to be confounded or mediated by established breast cancer risk factors and were not modified by age or menopausal status. The cumulative incidence of breast cancer per 100 women by age 80 y in the study populations was estimated to be 10

  15. Ambient Air Pollution and Newborn Size and Adiposity at Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schembari, Anna; de Hoogh, Kees; Pedersen, Marie; Dadvand, Payam; Martinez, David; Hoek, Gerard; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with reduced newborn's size, however the modifying effect of maternal ethnicity remains little explored among South Asians. OBJECTIVES: To investigate ethnic differences in the association between ambient air pollution and newborn...... associations of ambient PM exposures with newborn size and adiposity differ between White British and Pakistani origin infants....

  16. Birth order, family size, and the risk of cancer in young and middle-aged adults

    OpenAIRE

    K. Hemminki; Mutanen, P

    2001-01-01

    We used the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the effects of birth order and family size on the risk of common cancers among offspring born over the period 1958–96. Some 1.38 million offspring up to age 55 years with 50.6 million person-years were included. Poisson regression analysis included age at diagnosis, birth cohort, socio-economic status and region of residence as other explanatory variables. The only significant associations were an increasing risk for breast cancer by birth...

  17. Family Size and Birth Order as Factors on the IQ Performance of Black and White Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Doby, John T.

    1983-01-01

    Birth-order is unrelated to verbal and nonverbal IQ performance of either Black or White children; family size is inversely related to the verbal IQ performance of both groups but not to their nonverbal performance; and the inverse impact of family size on verbal ability does not differ significantly by race. (Author/RM)

  18. Idiopathic portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the radiologic findings of idiopathic portal hypertension and to find the points of differentiation between idiopathic portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. Four portograms in five patients who for four years had suffered from pathologically confirmed idiopathic portal hypertension were retrospectively analyzed and compared with a portogram obtained from a control subject with liver cirrhosis. Portographic finding s of idiopathic portal hypertension were paucity of medium-sized portal branches, irregular and obtuse-angled division of peripheral branches, abrupt interruption and an avascular area beneath the liver margin. A portogram of idiopathic portal hypertension may be useful in differentiation this and liver cirrhosis

  19. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet......'s socioeconomic status The analyses included data from 50,117 mother-infant pairs. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SD) consumption of milk was 3.1 +/- 2.0 glasses/d. Milk consumption was inversely associated with the risk of small-for gestational age (SGA) birth and directly with both large-for-gestational age (LGA) birth and...... < 0.001) for abdominal circumference (0.52 cm; 0.35, 0.69 cm), placental weight (26 g; 15, 38 g), birth length (increment: 0.31 cm; 0.15, 0.46 cm), and head circumference (0.13 cm; 0.04, 0.25 cm). Birth weight was related to intake of protein, but not of fat, derived from milk. CONCLUSION: Milk intake...

  20. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  1. Unconfounding the Confluence Model: A Test of Sibship Size and Birth Order Effects on Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Lala Carr; Mercy, James A.

    1980-01-01

    Based on a study which controlled for the effects of age, sex, maritial disruption, socioeconomic status, race, and other potentially confounding variables, this article explores the theoretical validity of the confluence model in explaining the effects of sibship size and birth order on intelligence. (Author/GC)

  2. Relationships Between Father's Age, Birth Order, Family Size, and Need Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni; Richman, Charles L.

    Several hypotheses regarding the determinants of need achievement were examined. In addition to predicting sex differences, the study predicted that father's age would be inversely related to need achievement. In addition, the effects of family size and birth order on achievement motivation were compared. Subjects were 1,092 undergraduates (785…

  3. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that the handling of heavy loads during pregnancy is associated with impaired fetal growth. We examined the association between quantity and frequency of maternal occupational lifting and the child's size at birth, measured by weight, length, ponderal index, small...

  4. The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth children’s education

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a tradeoff between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. While we find a negative correlation between family size and children’s education, when we include indicators for birt...

  5. The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Childrens Education

    OpenAIRE

    Black, S.; Paul Devereux; Kjell Salvanes

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. While we find a negative correlation between family size and children's education, when we include indicators for bir...

  6. The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth order on children's education

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J Devereux; Black, Sandra E; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade-off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich data set on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. We find a negative correlation between family size and children's education, but when we include indicators for birt...

  7. Month-of-birth effect on further body size in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kościński, K; Kozłowska-Rajewicz, A; Górecki, M T; Kamyczek, M; Rózycki, M

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies unanimously confirmed the existence of a dependence of human body size on the month of birth. The cause of the phenomenon has not been identified yet, although some possible causes were proposed e.g. seasonal changes of climatic and nutritional conditions. This study explored the issue in an animal model of 20,513 pigs. We found that body weights of 6-month-old pigs were the highest for subjects born in February, but for 2-month-old pigs the peak fell in May. Any statistical correlation between the month of birth and later body weight may be induced by (1) a long-term effect of the month of birth on further growth potential (LTE), or by (2) a short-term effect of seasonal factors differentiating the growth rate (STE), so we developed a mathematical method to separate the effects. The analysis proved that (1) the observed correlations resulted only from the STE, with May-June being the months of the highest growth tempo, and that (2) there was no significant LTE. The short-term effect was responsible for differences between patterns of weight for 2- and 6-month-old animals by the month of birth: since a pig monthly gain of weight increases with age, it is favorable for it to be born in February to attain the greatest weight at the age of 6 months, whereas 2-month-old piglets are heaviest when born a month or two before the May/June optimum for growth. The lack of a long-term effect of the month of birth on pigs' weight supports the hypothesis of the cultural character of factor(s) responsible for the relationship between the month of birth and later body size in humans. PMID:19162263

  8. Impact of piglet birth weight, birth order, and litter size on subsequent growth performance, carcass quality, muscle composition, and eating quality of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, A D; Aalhus, J L; Williams, N H; Patience, J F

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships among birth weight, birth order, or litter size on growth performance, carcass quality, and eating quality of the ultimate pork product. Data were collected from 98 pig litters and, with the addition of recording birth weight and birth order, farrowing and piglet management were according to normal barn practices. In the nursery and during growout, the pigs received the normal feeding program for the barn and, with the addition of individual tattooing, were marketed as per standard procedure. From 24 litters, selected because they had at least 12 pigs born alive and represented a range of birth weights, 4 piglets were chosen (for a total of 96 piglets) and sent to Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada-Lacombe Research Centre (Lacombe, Alberta, Canada) when they reached 120 kg for extensive meat quality and sensory analysis. Individual BW was measured at birth, on the day of weaning, 5 wk after weaning, at nursery exit, at first pull, and at the time of marketing. Litter sizes were divided into 3 categories: small (3 to 10 piglets), medium (11 to 13 piglets), and large (14 to 19 piglets). There were 4 birth-weight quartiles: 0.80 to 1.20, 1.25 to 1.45, 1.50 to 1.70, and 1.75 to 2.50 kg. Increased litter size resulted in reduced mean birth weight (P 0.05) when slaughtered at the same endpoint. Lighter birth-weight pigs had reduced BW at weaning, 5 and 7 wk postweaning, and at first pull and had increased days to market (P 0.05). In conclusion, increased litter size resulted in decreased mean birth weight but no change in days to market. Lighter birth-weight pigs took longer to reach market. Despite some differences in histological properties, birth weight had limited effects on carcass composition or final eating quality of the pork when slaughtered at the same BW and large litter size resulted in more pigs weaned and marketed compared with the smaller litters. We concluded that based on the conditions of

  9. Inflammatory-mediated pathway in association with organochlorine pesticides levels in the etiology of idiopathic preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Md; Garg, Neha; Banerjee, B D; Sharma, Tusha; Tyagi, Vipin; Dar, Sajad Ahmad; Guleria, Kiran; Ahmad, Rafat S; Vaid, Neelam; Tripathi, A K

    2015-11-01

    Elevated inflammation is a known risk factor in the pathogenesis of PTB. Despite intensive research, the etiology of idiopathic PTB is still unknown. The present study was designed to explore associations of blood concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with inflammatory/antioxidant gene expression, and cytokines and prostaglandin levels in PTB cases. Significantly high levels of α, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (α, β-HCH), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o'p'-DDD), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p'p'-DDE), increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and decreased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and catalase (CAT) genes were seen in PTB cases. Also, increased protein levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decreased protein levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) were found in maternal blood of PTB cases as compared to term controls. Elevated levels of β-HCH along with high expression of COX-2 gene or low expression of Mn-SOD or CAT genes were associated with the decrease in the period of gestation (POG). PMID:26055944

  10. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6–10 years

    OpenAIRE

    Kehoe, S. H.; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Hill, J.C.; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H D

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children’s physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, ...

  11. Assessing the Causal Relationship of Maternal Height on Birth Size and Gestational Age at Birth: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ge Zhang; Jonas Bacelis; Candice Lengyel; Kari Teramo; Mikko Hallman; Øyvind Helgeland; Stefan Johansson; Ronny Myhre; Verena Sengpiel; Pål Rasmus Njølstad; Bo Jacobsson; Louis Muglia

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Soon after the birth of a baby, doting parents send messages to friends and relatives or post information on social media sites to let everyone know when their new baby boy or girl was born. They may also post information about how heavy he/she was at birth and his/her length. These pregnancy outcomes, together with gestational age at birth (the length of time that a baby has spent developing in its mother’s womb), affect the baby’s immediate health and survival. I...

  12. Degree distribution of random birth-and-death network with network size decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Jun, Zhang; Hui-Lan, Yang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we provide a general method to obtain the exact solutions of the degree distributions for random birth-and-death network (RBDN) with network size decline. First, by stochastic process rules, the steady state transformation equations and steady state degree distribution equations are given in the case of m ≥ 3 and 0 computer simulation is used to verify our degree distribution solutions. In addition, the tail characteristics of the degree distribution are discussed. Our findings suggest that the degree distributions will exhibit Poisson tail property for the declining RBDN. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61273015) and the Chinese Scholarship Council.

  13. Persistence of the effect of birth size on dysglycaemia and type 2 diabetes in old age: AGES-Reykjavik Study

    OpenAIRE

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Muller, Majon; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Rantanen, Taina; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Birgisdottir, Bryndis; Thorsdottir, Inga; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara,

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effect of birth size on glucose and insulin metabolism among old non-diabetic individuals. We also explored the combined effect of birth size and midlife body mass index (BMI) on type 2 diabetes in old age. Our study comprised 1,682 Icelanders whose birth records included anthropometrical data. The same individuals had participated in the prospective population-based Reykjavik Study, where BMI was assessed at a mean age of 47 years, and in the AGES-Reykjavik Study during 2002 t...

  14. Birth size and physical activity in a cohort of Indian children aged 6-10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, S H; Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Hill, J C; Osmond, C; Kiran; Coakley, P; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence of a reduction in children's physical activity in India in the last decade. Our objective was to assess whether size and body composition at birth are associated with physical activity in school-aged children. Children from a prospective observational cohort study born in Mysore, South India between 1997 and 1998 (n = 663) had neonatal anthropometric measurements made within 72 h of delivery [weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest, abdomen and head circumference, crown-heel, crown-buttock and leg length, triceps and subscapular skinfolds]. At 6-10 years, children (n = 449) were asked to wear AM7164 or GT1M Actigraph accelerometers for 7 days. Body composition was measured within 6 months of activity monitoring. Arm muscle area at birth and time of activity monitoring was calculated from MUAC and skinfold measurements. Activity outcome measures were: mean accelerometer counts per minute (cpm); counts per day and proportion of time spent in moderate and vigorous activity. The mean (S.D.) number of days with ≥500 min of recorded accelerometer data was 7.0 (1.1). Linear regression models showed no significant associations between any of the neonatal anthropometric measures and the activity variables. Body fat percentage at 7.5 years was negatively associated with all activity variables (B = -4.69, CI: -7.31, -2.07 for mean cpm). In conclusion, this study showed no associations between body size and skinfold thickness at birth and objectively measured physical activity in childhood. PMID:24098836

  15. Canonical correlation analysis of infant's size at birth and maternal factors: a study in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamgir Kabir

    Full Text Available This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA. CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n = 14,506 while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001, demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity. A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X = 0.131. Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions.

  16. The Distribution of Family Sizes Under a Time-Homogeneous Birth and Death Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschopoulos, Panagis; Shpak, Max

    2010-05-11

    The number of extant individuals within a lineage, as exemplified by counts of species numbers across genera in a higher taxonomic category, is known to be a highly skewed distribution. Because the sublineages (such as genera in a clade) themselves follow a random birth process, deriving the distribution of lineage sizes involves averaging the solutions to a birth and death process over the distribution of time intervals separating the origin of the lineages. In this article, we show that the resulting distributions can be represented by hypergeometric functions of the second kind. We also provide approximations of these distributions up to the second order, and compare these results to the asymptotic distributions and numerical approximations used in previous studies. For two limiting cases, one with a relatively high rate of lineage origin, one with a low rate, the cumulative probability densities and percentiles are compared to show that the approximations are robust over a wide range of parameters. It is proposed that the probability distributions of lineage size may have a number of relevant applications to biological problems such as the coalescence of genetic lineages and in predicting the number of species in living and extinct higher taxa, as these systems are special instances of the underlying process analyzed in this article. PMID:23543815

  17. Generalised Joint Hypermobility in Caucasian Girls with Idiopathic Scoliosis: Relation with Age, Curve Size, and Curve Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Czaprowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of generalised joint hypermobility (GJH in 155 girls with idiopathic scoliosis (IS (age 9–18 years, mean 13.8 ± 2.3. The control group included 201 healthy girls. The presence of GJH was assessed with Beighton (B test. GJH was diagnosed in 23.2% of IS girls and in 13.4% of controls (P=0.02. The prevalence of GJH was significantly (P=0.01 lower in IS girls aged 16–18 years in comparison with younger individuals. There was no difference regarding GJH occurrence between girls with mild (11–24°, moderate (25–40°, and severe scoliosis (>40° (P=0.78, between girls with single thoracic, single lumbar, and double curve scoliosis (P=0.59, and between girls with thoracic scoliosis length ≤7 and >7 vertebrae (P=0.25. No correlation between the number of points in B and the Cobb angle (P=0.93, as well as between the number of points in B and the number of the vertebrae within thoracic scoliosis (P=0.63, was noticed. GJH appeared more often in IS girls than in healthy controls. Its prevalence decreased with age. No relation between GJH prevalence and curve size, curve pattern, or scoliosis length was found.

  18. Eye size at birth in prosimian primates: life history correlates and growth patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Cummings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius, compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits

  19. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy and reduced birth size: a prospective birth cohort study in Valencia, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Llop Sabrina; Iñiguez Carmen; Estarlich Marisa; Ballester Ferran; Ramón Rosa; Esplugues Ana; Lacasaña Marina; Rebagliato Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal exposure to air pollution has been related to fetal growth in a number of recent scientific studies. The objective of this study was to assess the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in a cohort in Valencia, Spain. Methods Seven hundred and eighty-five pregnant women and their singleton newborns participated in the study. Exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated by means of land use re...

  20. Size at birth, maternal nutritional status in pregnancy, and blood pressure at age 17: population based analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Laor, A.; Stevenson, D K; Shemer, J; Gale, R; Seidman, D S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of size at birth, maternal nutrition, and body mass index on blood pressure in late adolescence. DESIGN: Population based analysis of birth weight corrected for gestational age, mother's weight before pregnancy and weight gain in pregnancy, obtained from the Jerusalem perinatal study, and blood pressure and body mass index at age 17, available from military draft records. SETTING: Jerusalem, Israel. SUBJECTS: 10,883 subjects (6684 men and 4199 women) born in Je...

  1. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy and reduced birth size: a prospective birth cohort study in Valencia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llop Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal exposure to air pollution has been related to fetal growth in a number of recent scientific studies. The objective of this study was to assess the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and anthropometric measures at birth in a cohort in Valencia, Spain. Methods Seven hundred and eighty-five pregnant women and their singleton newborns participated in the study. Exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 was estimated by means of land use regression. NO2 spatial estimations were adjusted to correspond to relevant pregnancy periods (whole pregnancy and trimesters for each woman. Outcome variables were birth weight, length, and head circumference (HC, along with being small for gestational age (SGA. The association between exposure to residential outdoor NO2 and outcomes was assessed controlling for potential confounders and examining the shape of the relationship using generalized additive models (GAM. Results For continuous anthropometric measures, GAM indicated a change in slope at NO2 concentrations of around 40 μg/m3. NO2 exposure >40 μg/m3 during the first trimester was associated with a change in birth length of -0.27 cm (95% CI: -0.51 to -0.03 and with a change in birth weight of -40.3 grams (-96.3 to 15.6; the same exposure throughout the whole pregnancy was associated with a change in birth HC of -0.17 cm (-0.34 to -0.003. The shape of the relation was seen to be roughly linear for the risk of being SGA. A 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 during the second trimester was associated with being SGA-weight, odds ratio (OR: 1.37 (1.01-1.85. For SGA-length the estimate for the same comparison was OR: 1.42 (0.89-2.25. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may reduce fetal growth. Findings from this study provide further evidence of the need for developing strategies to reduce air pollution in order to prevent risks to fetal health and development.

  2. Degree distribution of random birth-and-death network with network size decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Jun, Zhang; Hui-Lan, Yang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we provide a general method to obtain the exact solutions of the degree distributions for random birth-and-death network (RBDN) with network size decline. First, by stochastic process rules, the steady state transformation equations and steady state degree distribution equations are given in the case of m ≥ 3 and 0 < p < 1/2, then the average degree of network with n nodes is introduced to calculate the degree distributions. Specifically, taking m = 3 for example, we explain the detailed solving process, in which computer simulation is used to verify our degree distribution solutions. In addition, the tail characteristics of the degree distribution are discussed. Our findings suggest that the degree distributions will exhibit Poisson tail property for the declining RBDN. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61273015) and the Chinese Scholarship Council.

  3. Does oral polio vaccine at birth affect the size of the thymus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Helle Brander; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that vaccines have an effect on general mortality which goes beyond specific disease protection. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is widely used in low-income countries, but in observational studies in Guinea-Bissau we observed that not receiving OPV at birth was...... the effect was not seen after 4 weeks (GMR: 0.97 (0.92-1.03)) and 6 weeks (GMR: 0.99 (0.82-1.19)). There were no strong sex-differences. DISCUSSION: Overall there was no effect on thymic size of OPV0 when administered with BCG. The results could indicate that if an effect occurs, it is only within the...

  4. Cancer risk in Swedish women: the relation to size at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, S W; Bengtsson, C; Hallberg, L.; Lapidus, L; Niklasson, A; Wallgren, A; Hulthén, L

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between fetal growth as indicated by weight and length at birth, and cancer risk in 1080 adult Swedish women was examined. Birth factors were retrieved from original midwife records for the years 1914, 1918, 1922 and 1930, and primary cancer cases were identified by matching with national and regional cancer registries through the year 1998. A positive and statistically significant increased risk for cancer was found with increasing birth weight or birth length for all site c...

  5. Coarsening dynamics in condensing zero-range processes and size-biased birth death chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zero-range processes with decreasing jump rates are well known to exhibit a condensation transition under certain conditions on the jump rates, and the dynamics of this transition continues to be a subject of current research interest. Starting from homogeneous initial conditions, the time evolution of the condensed phase exhibits an interesting coarsening phenomenon of mass transport between cluster sites characterized by a power law. We revisit the approach in Godrèche (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 6313) to derive effective single site dynamics which form a nonlinear birth death chain describing the coarsening behavior. We extend these results to a larger class of parameter values, and introduce a size-biased version of the single site process, which provides an effective tool to analyze the dynamics of the condensed phase without finite size effects and is the main novelty of this paper. Our results are based on a few heuristic assumptions and exact computations, and are corroborated by detailed simulation data. (paper)

  6. Coarsening dynamics in condensing zero-range processes and size-biased birth death chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatuviriyapornchai, Watthanan; Grosskinsky, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Zero-range processes with decreasing jump rates are well known to exhibit a condensation transition under certain conditions on the jump rates, and the dynamics of this transition continues to be a subject of current research interest. Starting from homogeneous initial conditions, the time evolution of the condensed phase exhibits an interesting coarsening phenomenon of mass transport between cluster sites characterized by a power law. We revisit the approach in Godrèche (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 6313) to derive effective single site dynamics which form a nonlinear birth death chain describing the coarsening behavior. We extend these results to a larger class of parameter values, and introduce a size-biased version of the single site process, which provides an effective tool to analyze the dynamics of the condensed phase without finite size effects and is the main novelty of this paper. Our results are based on a few heuristic assumptions and exact computations, and are corroborated by detailed simulation data.

  7. The interplay of variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and social stress in relation to birth size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anokhi Ali Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified via a genome wide association study variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and in the ADCY5 genes lead to lower birthweight. Here, we study the impact of these variants and social stress during pregnancy, defined as social adversity and neighborhood disparity, on infant birth size. We aimed to determine whether the addition of genetic variance magnified the observed associations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=5369. Social adversity was defined by young maternal age (<20 years, low maternal education (<11 years, and/or single marital status. Neighborhood social disparity was assessed by discrepancy between neighborhoods relative to personal socio-economic status. These variables are indicative of social and socioeconomic stress, but also of biological risk. The adjusted multiple regression analysis showed smaller birth size in both infants of mothers who experienced social adversity (birthweight by -40.4 g, 95%CI -61.4, -19.5; birth length -0.14 cm, 95%CI -0.23, -0.05; head circumference -0.09 cm 95%CI -0.15, -0.02 and neighborhood disparity (birthweight -28.8 g, 95%CI -47.7, -10.0; birth length -0.12 cm, 95%CI -0.20, -0.05. The birthweight-lowering risk allele (SNP rs900400 near LEKR and CCNL1 magnified this association in an additive manner. However, likely due to sample size restriction, this association was not significant for the SNP rs9883204 in ADCY5. Birth size difference due to social stress was greater in the presence of birthweight-lowering alleles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Social adversity, neighborhood disparity, and genetic variants have independent associations with infant birth size in the mutually adjusted analyses. If the newborn carried a risk allele rs900400 near LEKR/CCNL1, the impact of stress on birth size was stronger. These observations give support to the hypothesis that individuals with genetic or other biological risk are more

  8. The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Children's Education. CEE DP 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul; Salvanes, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the…

  9. Genetic parameters for canalisation analysis of litter size and litter weight traits at birth in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salgado Concepción

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research was to explore the genetic parameters associated with environmental variability for litter size (LS, litter weight (LW and mean individual birth weight (IW in mice before canalisation. The analyses were conducted on an experimental mice population designed to reduce environmental variability for LS. The analysed database included 1976 records for LW and IW and 4129 records for LS. The total number of individuals included in the analysed pedigree was 3997. Heritabilities estimated for the traits under an initial exploratory approach varied from 0.099 to 0.101 for LS, from 0.112 to 0.148 for LW and from 0.028 to 0.033 for IW. The means of the posterior distribution of the heritability under a Bayesian approach were the following: 0.10 (LS, 0.13 (LW and 0.03 (IW. In general, the heritabilities estimated under the initial exploratory approach for the environmental variability of the analysed traits were low. Genetic correlations estimated between the trait and its variability reached values of -0.929 (LS, -0.815 (LW and 0.969 (IW. The results presented here for the first time in mice may suggest a genetic basis for variability of the evaluated traits, thus opening the possibility to be implemented in selection schemes.

  10. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Alleles Are Associated With Reduced Size at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Freathy, Rachel M; Bennett, Amanda J.; Ring, Susan M; Shields, Beverley; Groves, Christopher J; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Lango, Hana; John R. B. Perry; Pouta, Anneli; Ruokonen, Aimo; Hyppönen, Elina; Power, Chris

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown and may represent intrauterine programming or two phenotypes of one genotype. The fetal insulin hypothesis proposes that common genetic variants that reduce insulin secretion or action may predispose to type 2 diabetes and also reduce birth weight, since insulin is a key fetal growth factor. We tested whether common genetic variants that predispose to type...

  11. Idiopathic anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Paul A

    2007-05-01

    Idiopathic anaphylaxis is a prednisone-responsive condition without external cause, but it can coexist with food-, medication-, or exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Mast cell activation may occur at night or after foods that have been eaten with impunity many times previously. Idiopathic anaphylaxis can be classified into frequent (if there are six or more episodes per year or two episodes in the last 2 months) or infrequent (if episodes occur less often). Idiopathic anaphylaxis-generalized consists of urticaria or angioedema associated with severe respiratory distress, syncope or hypotension, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Idiopathic anaphylaxis-angioedema consists of massive tongue enlargement or severe pharyngeal or laryngeal swelling with urticaria or peripheral angioedema. The differential diagnosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis is reviewed, and treatment approaches are presented. PMID:17493503

  12. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feij, Jan A,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same factor, are related to biologically based impulsive disorders, and have a common genetic basis. Questionnaire and biographical data obtained from 532 female and 479 male young adults (age between 18 and 30 years were analyzed using structural modeling. The results show that participants who experienced little parental care and much control were more likely to have high scores on disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. It appears that these family factors may partly explain the previously reported effects of birth order and family size on sensation seeking.

  13. Seasonal, litter size and birth order effects on farrowing intervals and stillbirth rate in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number of piglets weaned is affected by the farrowing process through its impact primarily on stillbirth rate (SR). The effects of season and birth order on the farrowing process and SR are not well characterized. To examine these relationships, farrowing was recorded in first parity gilts of ou...

  14. Five year outcome of preterm sextuplets related to size at birth.

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, N; Ellis, A. M.; Roberts, B. L.; Cooke, R W

    1990-01-01

    Preterm sextuplets were studied to examine whether growth retardation affects long term outcome. All were growing normally at 5 years. Intelligence quotients (IQ) ranged from 105-116 and motor impairment scores from 1.0-7.0. No neurological or behavioural abnormalities were found. The largest sextuplet has maintained her position for growth and IQ. No relation between test scores and birth weight or perinatal variables was found in the remaining siblings.

  15. Body size dissatisfaction among young adults from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Mintem, G C; Horta, B L; Domingues, M. R.; Gigante, D P

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with body dissatisfaction. Subjects/Methods: Birth cohort study investigating 4100 subjects (2187 men and 1913 women) aged between 22 and 23 years who answered questionnaires, including the body satisfaction Stunkard Scale were included in the study; they were weighed and measured. Multinomial logistic regression was used in the crude and adjusted analyses. Results: The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 64% (95% CI,...

  16. Association between biomass fuel use and maternal report of child size at birth - an analysis of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiakumar Nalini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Observational epidemiological studies and a systematic review have consistently shown an association between maternal exposure to biomass smoke and reduced birth weight. Our aim was to further test this hypothesis. Methods We analysed the data from 47,139 most recent singleton births during preceding five years of 2005-06 India Demographic Health Survey (DHS. Information about birth weight from child health card and/or mothers' recall was analysed. Since birth weight was not recorded for nearly 60% of the reported births, maternal self-report of child's size at birth was used as a proxy. Fuel type was classified as high pollution fuels (wood, straw, animal dung, and crop residues kerosene, coal and charcoal, and low pollution fuels (electricity, liquid petroleum gas (LPG, natural gas and biogas. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were developed using SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure in SAS system. We used three logistic regression models in which child factors, maternal factors and demographic factors were added step-by-step to the main exposure variable. Adjusted Odds Ratios (AORs and their 95% CI were calculated. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results Child's birth weight was available for only 19,270 (41% births; 3113 from health card and 16,157 from mothers' recall. For available data, mean birth weight was 2846.5 grams (SD = 684.6. Children born in households using high pollution fuels were 73 grams lighter than those born in households using low pollution fuels (mean birth weight 2883.8 grams versus 2810.7 grams, p Conclusions Use of biomass fuels is associated with child size at birth. Future studies should investigate this association using more direct methods for measurement of exposure to smoke emitted from biomass fuels and birth weight.

  17. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  18. Size at Birth, Weight Gain in Infancy and Childhood, and Adult Diabetes Risk in Five Low- or Middle-Income Country Birth Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Shane A.; Osmond, Clive; Gigante, Denise; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Lee, Nanette R.; Ramirez-Zea, Manual; Linda M Richter; Aryeh D. Stein; Tandon, Nikhil; Fall, Caroline H.D.; ,

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined associations of birth weight and weight gain in infancy and early childhood with type 2 diabetes (DM) risk in five cohorts from low- and middle-income countries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were 6,511 young adults from Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa. Exposures were weight at birth, at 24 and 48 months, and adult weight, and conditional weight gain (CWG, deviation from expected weight gain) between these ages. Outcomes were adult ...

  19. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ki Kwok

    Full Text Available Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally.We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327.Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI -0.23, -0.14, lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04, greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14 and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14, but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11, adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996, but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15, but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11, at 13 years, but similar blood pressure.Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  20. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: “Children of 1997” (n = 8,327). Results Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Conclusions Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk. PMID:27088360

  1. Idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Idiopathic scoliosis is a structural and lateral curvature of the spine for which a currently recognizable cause has not been found and there is no basic evidence for physical and radiographic pathology. Complications. Scoliosis could be a cause of the back pain, deformities, respiratory and cardiology problems. There is a higher risk for decreasing of bone mineral density. Diagnosis and Management. Physical examination, radiography and stereophotogrametry are used in diagnostics of idiopathic scoliosis. The management of idiopathic scoliosis can be conservative or operative. The main forms of conservative management are: therapy exercises, electrical stimulation and spinal orthosis. The primary aim of scoliosis management is to stop curvature progression. The improvement of pulmonary function (vital capacity and treatment of pain are also of major importance. The guidelines for Conservative Management of Scoliosis. The International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment gave the guidelines for conservative management of scoliosis. Conservative management of scoliosis includes: a Lyonaise, Side-Shift, Dobosiewicz, Schroth and other kinesitherapy methods, b scoliosis intensive rehabilitation which appears to be effective with respect to many signs and symptoms of scoliosis and with respect to impeding curvature progression and c brace treatment, which has been found to be effective in preventing curvature progression and thus in altering the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis. Conclusion. The International Society has given the standards for kinesitherapy, intensive rehabilitation and spinal orthosis in clinical practice and clinical investigations. Surgical procedures can improve curves in the frontal plane, but have important limitations in maintaining fixation and achieving correction in other planes.

  2. Idiopathic scoliosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Ivar Brox

    1989-01-01

    Introduction. Idiopathic scoliosis is a structural and lateral curvature of the spine for which a currently recognizable cause has not been found and there is no basic evidence for physical and radiographic pathology. Complications. Scoliosis could be a cause of the back pain, deformities, respiratory and cardiology problems. There is a higher risk for decreasing of bone mineral density. Diagnosis and Management. Physical examination, radiography and stereophotogrametry are used in diag...

  3. The Degree Distribution of Random Birth-and-Death Network with Network Size Decline

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a general method to obtain the exact solutions of the degree distributions for RBDN with network size decline. First by stochastic process rules, the steady state transformation equations and steady state degree distribution equations are given in the case of m>2, 0

  4. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew D; Fischer, Philip R; Reed, Ann M; Wylam, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. PMID:26171269

  5. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Andrew D.; Fischer, Philip R.; Reed, Ann M.; Wylam, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  6. Mineral Oil Aspiration Related Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development of rheumatoid factor-positive migratory polyarthritis in a 5-year-old male who had been administered bidaily oral mineral oil as a laxative since birth. Minor respiratory symptoms, radiographic and bronchoscopic findings were consistent with chronic lipoid pneumonia. We speculate that immune sensitization to mineral oil promoted the clinical syndrome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  7. The effect of air pollutants on birth weight in medium-sized towns in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana de Paula Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of air pollution on birth weight in a medium-sized town in the State of São Paulo, Southeast Brazil.METHODS: Cross-sectional study using data from live births of mothers residing in São José dos Campos from 2005 to 2009. Data was obtained from the Department of Information and Computing of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Air pollutant data (PM10, SO2, and O3 and daily averages of their concentrations were obtained from the Environmental Sanitation & Technology Company. Statistical analysis was performed by linear and logistic regressions using the Excel and STATA v.7 software programs.RESULTS: Maternal exposure to air pollutants was not associated with low birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy (OR=1.25; 95% CI=1.00-1.56. Maternal exposure to PM10 and SO2 during the last month of pregnancy led to lower weight at birth (0.28g and 3.15g, respectively for each 1mg/m3 increase in the concentration of these pollutants, but without statistical significance.CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to identify a statistically significant association between the levels of air pollutants and birth weight, with the exception of exposure to SO2 within the last month of pregnancy.

  8. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten;

    2007-01-01

    associated with LBW. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy from 20 healthy 19-yr-old men with birth weights at 10th percentile or lower for gestational age (LBW) and 20 normal birth weight controls, matched for body fat, physical fitness, and whole-body glucose......CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW), a surrogate marker of an adverse fetal milieu, is linked to muscle insulin resistance, impaired insulin-stimulated glycolysis, and future risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle mass, fiber composition, and capillary density are important determinants of muscle...... disposal. Myofibrillar ATPase staining was used to classify muscle fibers as type I, IIa, and IIx (formerly type IIb), and double immunostaining was performed to stain capillaries (LBW, n=8; normal birth weight, n=12). RESULTS: LBW was associated with increased proportion of type IIx fibers (+66%; P=0...

  9. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A Text Size What's ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  10. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring Print A A A Text Size What's ... Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  11. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A Text Size What's ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  12. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A Text Size What's ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  13. Associations of birth size and duration of breast feeding with cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To explore the developmental origins of cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods: We examined the associations of birth size and duration of breast feeding with cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at the 9 year follow-up examination in 3612 participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We used physical work capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per minute (PWC170) as our assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness. This was estimated using standard regression methods from parameters measured using an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Results: Birth weight, length and ponderal index were all positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in both sexes, with no strong evidence of a difference in effect between girls and boys. Work capacity increased by 1.12 W (95% CI: 0.83, 1.40) on average per 1 standard deviation (SD) greater birth weight. This association was not affected by adjustment for socioeconomic position and maternal smoking during pregnancy; there was some attenuation with adjustment for both maternal and paternal height and body mass index and more marked attenuation with adjustment for the child's height and body mass index. In the fully adjusted model work capacity increased by 0.51 W (95% CI: 0.21, 0.81) per SD birth weight. Whether an individual had been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding were not associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in any models. Conclusion: Our results provide some support for a role of intrauterine factors in determining cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood

  14. Association between Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy and Birth Size Measures in a Diverse Population in Southern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyoán Colón-Ramos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased interest in promoting nutrition during pregnancy, the association between maternal dietary patterns and birth outcomes has been equivocal. We examined maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy as a determinant of offspring’s birth weight-for-length (WLZ, weight-for-age (WAZ, length-for-age (LAZ, and head circumference (HCZ Z-scores in Southern United States (n = 1151. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by seven dietary patterns. Multivariable linear regression models described the association of WLZ, WAZ, LAZ, and HCZ with diet patterns controlling for other maternal and child characteristics. In bivariate analyses, WAZ and HCZ were significantly lower for processed and processed-Southern compared to healthy dietary patterns, whereas LAZ was significantly higher for these patterns. In the multivariate models, mothers who consumed a healthy-processed dietary pattern had children with significantly higher HCZ compared to the ones who consumed a healthy dietary pattern (HCZ β: 0.36; p = 0.019. No other dietary pattern was significantly associated with any of the birth outcomes. Instead, the major outcome determinants were: African American race, pre-pregnancy BMI, and gestational weight gain. These findings justify further investigation about socio-environmental and genetic factors related to race and birth outcomes in this population.

  15. Evaluation of F1 calves sired by Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls for birth, growth, size, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, A D; Sanders, J O; Knutson, R E; Lunt, D K

    1996-05-01

    Birth (n = 308), weaning (n = 291), feedlot and carcass (n = 142), and yearling heifer traits (n = 139) were evaluated in F1 calves sired by Brahman (BR), Boran (BO), and Tuli (TU) bulls and born to multiparous Hereford and Angus cows. Calves sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman crosses had larger (P yield grade among sire breeds. Heifers sired by BR were heaviest (P Brahman F1 heifers had larger (P yield traits, among these three breeds. PMID:8726726

  16. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri) En Español Read in Chinese What is idiopathic intracranial hypertension? Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder that ...

  17. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  18. Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth KidsHealth > For Parents > ... Before Birth Print A A A Text Size Prenatal Surgery: Helping Babies Before Birth Operating on a ...

  19. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sunilkumar, B M; Sathishkumar, K M; Somashekhar, A R; P.P. Maiya

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent or chronic pulmonary hemorrhage is rare in children. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) manifests as hemoptysis, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates on chest radiographs and microcytic hypochromic anemia. The hemoptysis present may be mistaken for more common diseases, delaying the diagnosis and further management. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a disorder of unknown etiology. Treatment of IPH includes immunosuppressive drugs along with supportive measures.

  20. Further studies on the month-of-birth effect on body size: rural schoolchildren and an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, M; Louw, G J

    1993-06-01

    A previous study (Henneberg and Louw: Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2:227-233, 1990) showed that urban schoolchildren born between August and January were taller and heavier by 13 to 17% of the standard deviation (S) than those born in February to July. The study is now extended to 1,522 impoverished rural schoolchildren from the Little Karoo district of S. Africa and to 804 German Shepherd dogs kennelled at a breeding station in the Transvaal. The dogs provided a quasi-experimental model because for all of them nutrition and living conditions were practically identical throughout the year. The month-of-birth effect in the body weight of dogs was found to be stronger than that in urban children: dogs born between August and January were heavier by 22% of S than those born in February through July. In rural children the effect is present, but its magnitude is somewhat less and the peak is shifted by 2-3 months. Children born in May through October are 11% of S lighter than those born in November through April. It seems that living conditions characteristic of extreme poverty tend to diminish the effect. In both the animal model and rural children the month-of-birth effect decreases with advancing age and is more pronounced in males than in females. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in urban children from Cape Town. Since the living conditions of dogs and humans differ, as do the climatic conditions of Cape Town, Little Karoo and the Transvaal, it is surmised that the similarity of the effect may result from factors influencing the entire planet in a uniform way. PMID:8317564

  1. Maternal malaria, birth size and blood pressure in Nigerian newborns: insights into the developmental origins of hypertension from the Ibadan growth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola O Ayoola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is an increasing health issue in sub-Saharan Africa where malaria remains common in pregnancy. We established a birth cohort in Nigeria to evaluate the early impact of maternal malaria on newborn blood pressure (BP. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements, BP, blood films for malaria parasites and haematocrit were obtained in 436 mother-baby pairs. Women were grouped to distinguish between the timing of malaria parasitaemia as 'No Malaria', 'Malaria during pregnancy only' or 'Malaria at delivery', and parasite density as low (<1000 parasites/µl of blood and high (≥ 1000/µl. RESULTS: Prevalence of maternal malaria parasitaemia was 48%, associated with younger maternal age (p<0.001, being primigravid (p = 0.022, lower haematocrit (p = 0.028. High parasite density through pregnancy had the largest effect on mean birth indices so that weight, length, head and mid-upper arm circumferences were smaller by 300 g, 1.1 cm, 0.7 cm and 0.4 cm respectively compared with 'No malaria' (all p ≤ 0.005. In babies of mothers who had 'malaria at delivery', their SBPs adjusted for other confounders were lower respectively by 4.3 and 5.7 mmHg/kg compared with 'malaria during pregnancy only' or 'none'. In contrast the mean newborn systolic (SBP and diastolic BPs (DBP adjusted for birth weight were higher by 1.7 and 1.4 mmHg/kg respectively in babies whose mothers had high compared with low parasitaemia. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, prenatal malarial exposure had a significant impact on fetal growth rates. Malaria at delivery was associated with the lowest newborn BPs while malaria through pregnancy, which may attenuate growth of the vascular network, generated higher newborn BPs adjusted for size. These neonatal findings have potential implications for cardiovascular health in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. [Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, A

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and a disease of the elderly. Cigarette smoking and longterm exposure to substances harming alveolar epithelial cells are risk factors for the development of IPF. There is also evidence for a genetic susceptibility. IPF is defined as the idiopathic variant of Usual Interstitial Pneumonitis (UIP). Diagnosis of IPF is complex and based on the exclusion of other diseases associated with an UIP pattern. The only cure is lung transplantation. In the last years there was a breakthrough in the treatment of IPF. With pirfenidone and nintedanib there are now two compounds approved for the treatment of IPF. PMID:26444136

  3. Selectively Reduced Posterior Corpus Callosum Size in a Population-Based Sample of Young Adults Born with Low Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aukland, S M; Westerhausen, R; Plessen, K J;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Several studies suggest that VLBW is associated with a reduced CC size later in life. We aimed to clarify this in a prospective, controlled study of 19-year-olds, hypothesizing that those with LBWs had smaller subregions of CC than the age-matched controls, even after corr...

  4. Do mothers prefer helpers or smaller litters? Birth sex ratio and litter size adjustment in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Rebecca A; Fletcher, Alison W

    2015-02-01

    Sex allocation theory has been a remarkably productive field in behavioral ecology with empirical evidence regularly supporting quantitative theoretical predictions. Across mammals in general and primates in particular, however, support for the various hypotheses has been more equivocal. Population-level sex ratio biases have often been interpreted as supportive, but evidence for small-scale facultative adjustment has rarely been found. The helper repayment (HR) also named the local resource enhancement (LRE) hypothesis predicts that, in cooperatively breeding species, mothers invest more in the sex which assists with rearing future offspring and that this bias will be more pronounced in mothers who require extra assistance (i.e., due to inexperience or a lack of available alloparents). We tested these hypotheses in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) utilizing the international studbook and birth records obtained through a questionnaire from ISIS-registered institutions. Infant sex, litter size, mother's age, parity, and group composition (presence of nonreproductive subordinate males and females) were determined from these records. The HR hypothesis was supported over the entire population, which was significantly biased toward males (the "helpful" sex). We found little support for helper repayment at the individual level, as primiparous females and those in groups without alloparents did not exhibit more extreme tendencies to produce male infants. Primiparous females were, however, more likely to produce singleton litters. Singleton births were more likely to be male, which suggests that there may be an interaction between litter size adjustment and sex allocation. This may be interpreted as supportive of the HR hypothesis, but alternative explanations at both the proximate and ultimate levels are possible. These possibilities warrant further consideration when attempting to understand the ambiguous results of primate sex ratio studies so far. PMID

  5. Review of idiopathic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of pancreatitis and advances in technology have uncovered the veils of idiopathic pancreatitis to a point where a thorough history and judicious use of diagnostic techniques elucidate the cause in over 80% of cases. This review examines the multitude of etiologies of what were once labeled idiopathic pancreatitis and provides the current evidence on each. This review begins with a background review of the current epidemiology of idiopathic pancreatitis prior to discussion of various etiologies. Etiologies of medications, infections, toxins,autoimmune disorders, vascular causes, and anatomic and functional causes are explored in detail. We conclude with management of true idiopathic pancreatitis and a summary of the various etiologic agents. Throughout this review, areas of controversies are highlighted.

  6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Juvenile chronic polyarthritis; Still disease; Juvenile spondyloarthritis ... The cause of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is not known. It ... illness . This means the body attacks and destroys healthy body ...

  7. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Explore Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis What Is... How the Lungs Work Other Names Causes Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics How the Lungs Work Lung Transplant Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary Rehabilitation Respiratory Failure ...

  8. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... in which they give birth. Do you want music and low lighting? How about the freedom to ...

  9. Normal sizes of internal jugular veins in children/adolescents aged birth to 18 years at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: We aimed to establish normal ultrasonographic (US) values of internal jugular vein (IJV) sizes in children/adolescents aged birth to 18 years and to determine the correlation of US measurements with age, height, weight and body surface area (BSA) of children in different age groups. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-six healthy children (0–18 years) were divided into four groups according to their age (0–2, 3–6, 7–12, and 13–18 years). US measurements (transverse, anteroposterior diameter, and cross-sectional area at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver) of bilateral IJVs were taken at the level of cricoid cartilage. Results: Our study gives information about the reference values in children between birth to 18 years of age. There were significant differences between measurements taken at rest and during the Valsalva maneuver in all age groups. Moderate to strong correlations (clinically significant) between age, height and BSA of the subjects and IJV measurements were detected only in the 0–2 years age group. The strength of the correlations decreased with increasing age. Pearson's correlation revealed that height had the strongest and weight had the weakest correlation with US measurements. ‘Height’ was an independent variable on the right, and ‘age’ on the left side, except for rest CSA, when a regression analysis was performed for clinically significant correlations. Conclusions: Determination of normal reference values for US measurements of the IJV and knowledge of correlation with age, height, weight and BSA might be valuable during interventional procedures and for the diagnosis of phlebectasia in children/adolescents

  10. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo; Rocca, Mara A; Miller, Andrew David; Schmierer, Klaus; Frederiksen, Jette; Gass, Achim; Gama, Hugo; Tilbery, Charles P; Rocha, Antonio J; Flores, José; Barkhof, Frederik; Seewann, Alexandra; Palace, Jacqueline; Yousry, Tarek; Montalban, Xavier; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  11. Severe idiopathic hypocalcemia in a juvenile western lowland gorilla, Gorilla gorilla gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Stones, Greeley; Jalil, Tania

    2012-03-01

    A 6-mo-old, male western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) was evaluated because of tetany of both hands. The gorilla had alternating periods of constipation, diarrhea, and bloating since birth. A diagnosis of idiopathic hypocalcemia was based on severe hypocalcemia, a normal vitamin D level, response to oral calcium and vitamin D therapy, and eventual resolution. Idiopathic hypocalcemia, an uncommon disease in neonatal humans, should be considered in young gorillas with persistent gastrointestinal problems or acute tetany. PMID:22448527

  12. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hoppe, Tine Ursula;

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti), T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared...... infants (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in the control group, the infants exclusively breastfed at 4 months of age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P = 0.001). Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and...... to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P = 0.56). At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control...

  13. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti, T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P=0.56. At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control infants (P<0.001. Furthermore, in the control group, the infants exclusively breastfed at 4 months of age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P=0.001. Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and contract fewer infections than other healthy infants. This finding along with fewer infections in exclusively breastfed infants compared to formula-fed infants supports the beneficial effect of human milk on the immune system. We suggest, when breastfeeding is not possible, that providing human donor milk to vulnerable groups of infants will be beneficial for their maturing immune system.

  14. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-11-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn. She was admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, where she was ventilated and proper treatment was provided. Molecular genetic testing was positive for mutations of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase1 gene which is reported in 80% of cases of Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy. The baby died at about 5 month of age because of myocardial ischemia and cardiorespiratory arrest. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy should be considered in any newborn who presented with persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, severe systemic hypertension and echogenic vessels on any radiological study. Calcifications of large and medium-sized arteries are important diagnostic finding. PMID:27252793

  15. Birth, Simply

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this column, a mother describes the home birth of her fourth child, which included the supportive presence of her husband, young children, and other family members, along with the help of a midwife. The mother's experience demonstrates the advantages of normal birth and its benefits to the entire family.

  16. Redemptive birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lina

    2016-05-01

    Many of us are in the business of improving birth. Some of us are decades into our journeys of midwifery, whilst others are fresh students aspiring to give our best in this new profession. This article looks at ways to redeem birth from two aspects: for the mother; and for the midwife. I work in an international community in a developing country, in a privatised system. Although different from the UK, birth is birth. Women, their families and midwives will be able to relate to similar experiences. Ultimately my goals are likely to be the same as those in other parts of the world. I address issues of the workplaces in which we operate, the role of midwives in redeeming birth outcomes, and how we may better serve women and each other. PMID:27295755

  17. Self-reported weight at birth predicts measures of femoral size but not volumetric BMD in eldery men: MrOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, M Kassim; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Lui, Li-Yung; Cawthon, Peggy; Arden, Nigel K; Lang, Thomas; Lane, Nancy E; Orwoll, Eric; Barrett-Conner, Elizabeth; Nevitt, Michael C; Cooper, Cyrus; Cummings, Steven R

    2011-08-01

    The mechanism whereby poor intrauterine growth increases risk of adult hip fracture is unclear. We report the association between birth weight and proximal femoral geometry and density in community-dwelling elderly men. We used self-reported birth weight, measured adult height and weight and proximal femoral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements of femoral neck axis length, cross-sectional area, and volumetric BMD (vBMD) among the participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS), a cohort study of community-dwelling US men aged 65 and older. We compared men with birth weight <7 pounds (lower birth weight [LBW]; n = 501) and ≥ 9 pounds (higher birth weight [HBW]; n = 262) with those weighing 7-8.9 pounds (medium birth weight [MBW], referent group; n = 1068) using linear regression adjusting for current age, height, and BMI. The mean age of the 1831 men who had both birth weight and QCT measurements was 73 years (SD 5.9). Compared with the referent MBW, HBW men had concordantly longer femoral neck (+0.16 SD; p = .028) and cross-sectional area (+0.24 SD, p = .001). LBW men had a smaller cross-sectional (-0.26 SD, p < .001) but longer femoral neck for their height (+0.11 SD, p = .05). Neither cortical nor trabecular vBMD at the femoral neck was associated with birth weight. These findings support the hypothesis that the skeletal envelope, but not density, is set, in part, at birth. Further research exploring the association between early developmental factors and lifetime fracture risk is needed and may inform primary preventative strategies for fracture prevention. PMID:21509824

  18. Effect of Multivitamin-Mineral versus Multivitamin Supplementation on Maternal, Newborns' Biochemical Indicators and Birth Size: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Taghizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Micronutrient deficiency during pregnancy is associated with several complications. This study was designed to determine the effects of received multivitamin-mineral vs. multivitamin supplements on maternal, newborns' biochemical indicators, and birth size. Methods: This double-blind randomized-controlled clinical trial was conducted among 48 Iranian pregnant women, primigravida, aged 18-35 years old in their second and third trimester from December 2011 to September 2012. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either the multivitamin-mineral (n=24 or multivitamin supplements (n=24 for 20 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after a 20-week intervention of pregnant women as well as umbilical cord blood of the babies immediately after delivery to measure serum calcium, vitamin D, iron, magnesium, zinc and biomarkers of oxidative stress including plasma total antioxidant capacity and total glutathione. Results: Multivitamin-mineral compared to multivitamin supplementation resulted in a significant increase in maternal serum calcium (0.5 vs. -0.1 mg/dL, p=0.04 and magnesium levels (0.1 vs. -0.2 mg/dL, p<0.001. Furthermore, mean plasma total glutathione levels (1791 ± 566 vs. 1434 ± 622 µmol/l, p=0.04 of the newborns whose mothers received multivitamin-mineral were higher than those whose mothers received multivitamin supplements. Conclusions: Overall, multivitamin-mineral compared to multivitamin supplementation for 20 weeks during pregnancy resulted in a significant increase in maternal serum calcium and magnesium levels as well as a significant elevation of newborn plasma total glutathione levels.

  19. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9–10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S. R.; Wills, A K; Hill, J.C.; Karat, S. C.; Fall, C H D

    2010-01-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6–12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) a...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile idiopathic arthritis juvenile idiopathic arthritis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Juvenile idiopathic arthritis refers to a group of conditions involving joint ...

  1. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors, and social, personal, and economic characteristics. Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing ... My last baby was born early. Is there anything I can do in this pregnancy to keep ...

  2. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier Jean-François; Marchand Eric

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP) is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than ...

  3. Idiopathic Pulmonary Haemosiderosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Vishal; Ekta Dalal; Neelam Raval

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) in a 8year old female who presented with anaemia, breathlessness, puffiness of face and grade 4 clubbing. She had been investigated a number of times at multiple hos-pitals and had received multiple blood transfusions considering iron deficiency anaemia. Diagnosis of IPH was sus-pected on basis of clinical history of persistent respiratory distress, hypoxemia, repeated anaemia episodes and diffuse bilateral infiltrates on chest X ra...

  4. Idiopathic Brachial Neuritis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Recober, Ana; Kelkar, Praful

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic brachial neuritis is a well defined clinical condition that most commonly affects young adults, seen usually by primary care physicians, neurologists or orthopaedic surgeons. Its onset is characterized by acute, aching shoulder pain lasting a few days to weeks, followed by progressive shoulder girdle and upper extremity weakness and atrophy, with a slow but progressive recovery of motor function over 6 to 18 months. Its early recognition can help avoid unnecessary and potentially h...

  5. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to discuss the clinical and radiological features and treatment approaches in 14 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (GM). We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, radiological findings and treatment approaches in 14 patients with idiopathic GM in the General Surgery Department, Gulhane School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey between April 2000 and June 2006. The mean age of the patients was 34.5 years (range 27-41 years). The complaints at admission were a mass in the breast in 7 (50%) patients, an abscess and a mass in 6 (42.8%) and a skin fisculain one (7.2%). Granulomatous mastitis was unilateral in all subjects (on the right in 5 patients and on the left in 9). All of the patients underwent ultrasonographic evaluation. Mammography was performed in 8 and magnetic resonance imaging in 5 patients. Seven patients (50%) were suspected to have breast carcinoma according radiological findings. We performed the large excision in 11, incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage in one, and incisional biopsy plus abscess drainage plus medical treatment (prednisolone, methotrexate) in 2 patients. Due to the development of abscess after 9 months, drainage and large excision were performed in one patient who received medical treatment. Idiopathic GM is a disease that generally affects young women of reproductive age and may be mistaken for breast carcinoma in clinical and radiological evaluations. The gold standard for the diagnosis is histopathologic evaluation. (author)

  6. Idiopathic venous thromboembolism and thrombophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Sinescu, C; Hostiuc, M; Bartos, D.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade idiopathic venous thromboembolism has become a separate entity, a chronic illness which has required prolonged anticoagulation and other prevention strategies to avoid recurrences. This article reviews recent developments regarding unprovoked venous thromboembolism and its relation with thrombophilia. In the beginning, the latest definition of idiopathic venous thromboembolism is presented. The article continues with statistics about thrombophilia, related venous thromb...

  7. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9-10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Wills, A K; Hill, J C; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2010-12-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6-12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and changes in measurements (growth) during infancy (0-2 years), 2-5 years and 5-9.5 years using conditional s.d. scores. Larger current weight, height and skinfold thickness were associated with higher risk markers at 9.5 years (P < 0.05). Lower weight, smaller length and mid-arm circumference at birth were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations at 9.5 years (P ⩽ 0.01). After adjusting for current weight/height, there were inverse associations between birthweight and/or length and insulin concentrations, HOMA, systolic and diastolic BP and plasma triglycerides (P < 0.05). Increases in conditional weight and height between 0-2, 2-5 and 5-9.5 years were associated with higher insulin concentrations, HOMA and systolic BP. In conclusion, in 9-10-year-old Indian children, as in other studies, cardiovascular risk factors were highest in children who were light or short at birth but heavy or tall at 9 years. Greater infant and childhood weight and height gain were associated with higher risk markers. PMID:22318657

  8. Unsanctioned births in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A

    1995-05-01

    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas. PMID:12291551

  9. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: The aims of this article are to characterize the headache in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and to field-test the ICHD diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to IIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 44 patients with new-onset IIH. Thirty-four patients with suspected but...... tinnitus may suggest intracranial hypertension. Based on data from a well-defined IIH cohort, we propose a revision of the ICDH-3 beta diagnostic criteria with improved clinical applicability and increased sensitivity and specificity....

  10. Idiopathic Pulmonary Haemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Vishal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH in a 8year old female who presented with anaemia, breathlessness, puffiness of face and grade 4 clubbing. She had been investigated a number of times at multiple hos-pitals and had received multiple blood transfusions considering iron deficiency anaemia. Diagnosis of IPH was sus-pected on basis of clinical history of persistent respiratory distress, hypoxemia, repeated anaemia episodes and diffuse bilateral infiltrates on chest X ray. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 292-293

  11. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples that...

  12. RARE CASE OF IDIOPATHIC GINGIVAL FIBROMATOSIS AFFECTING PRIMARY DENTITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sanaa; Ali, Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis (GF) is a rare condition with an estimated incidence of 1750,000 in autosomal dominant cases and is supposedly genetic in origin. Gingival fibromatosis (GF) may occur as an isolated finding (Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis or IGF) or in combination with additional clinical problems that is, giving rise to syndromic forms of the disease. It usually is triggered when permanent dentition starts to erupt and can cover crowns of the teeth. Gingival fibromatosis occasionally manifests at birth or affect primary dentition. This enlargement may cause mal-position and diastema. Surgical excision of excessive fibrous tissue is the only treatment but it recurs. We are presenting here a case of 5 year old patient presenting with severe idiopathic gingival fibromatosis covering crowns of primary teeth and causing functional impairment. PMID:27004356

  13. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - pills - hormonal methods; Hormonal birth control methods; Birth control pills; Contraceptive pills; BCP; OCP ... Birth control pills are also called oral contraceptives or just "the pill." A health care provider must prescribe birth ...

  14. Clara's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, S; Richer, D; Bel, A; Bel, B

    1999-01-01

    Advocacy for homebirth is based on the strong assumption that birthing is a physiological process and does not require medical interventions unless things turn "wrong." Let us assume that something might always go wrong, for instance during Clara's birth when the placenta was still retained after three hours. What needs to be done? The moment the midwife entered the house she was endowed with a responsibility for any problem caused by her failure to give proper guidance. With this weight on her shoulder, and according to her training and experience, there was no other way for her than to suggest an intervention regarding the placenta. The two midwives, B, and C., might not agree on risk estimations, the nature of the intervention, whether it should be performed at home or in a hospital. The estimation of abnormalities, evaluation of risks and the procedures with which to handle them are the main practical difference between classic obstetrics and non-interventionist midwifery--by analogy, between allopathy and naturopathy. The rest (positive thinking) is basically literature. A delivery will not remain normal just because we decide it "must" be physiological. Dr. Barua, a professor of obstetrics in Pondicherry, pointed out that normal deliveries are rare--fewer than 10 percent in South India. What we have instead is either pathological or "natural" deliveries in which regenerative processes take care of abnormal situations. Unless she has developed sensitive hands, a birth assistant or midwife must rely on monitoring procedures to evaluate deviations from the normal process. Even with the greatest care, these procedures are intrusive in that they disconnect the parturient from her own sensations. While successful unattended homebirth stories emphasise the extraordinary power and sensitivity of a birthing woman, the whole dream seems to collapse in abnormal or pathological cases. It would have collapsed for Sonia as well, had she not discarded negative suggestions

  15. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  16. Idiopathic Bilateral Bloody Tearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloody tear is a rare and distinct clinic phenomenon. We report a case presenting with the complaint of recurrent episodes of bilateral bloody tearing. A 16-year-old girl presented to our clinic with complaint of bloody tearing in both eyes for 3 months. Bloody tearing was not associated with her menses. A blood-stained discharge from the punctum was not observed during the compression of both nasolacrimal ducts. Nasolacrimal passage was not obstructed. Imaging studies such as dacryocystography and gradient-echo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of nasolacrimal canal were normal. Intranasal endoscopic evaluation was normal. We collected samples from bloody tears two times and pathological examination was performed. Pathological analysis showed lots of squamous cells and no endometrial cells; dysplastic cells were found. Further evaluations for underlying causes were unremarkable. No abnormalities were found in ophthalmologic, radiologic, and pathologic investigations. This condition is likely a rare abnormality and the least recognized aetiology for the idiopathic phenomenon.

  17. Evaluation of Idiopathic Choroidal Neovascularization with Indocyanine Green Angiography in Patients Undergoing Bevacizumab Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rush, Ryan B.; Rush, Sloan W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the clinical implications of change in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) size on indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in subjects with idiopathic CNV undergoing bevacizumab therapy. Methods. The charts of subjects with an idiopathic CNV treated by a modified PRN regimen with intravitreal bevacizumab over a 12-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Results. There were 34 subjects included in the analysis. Baseline CNV sizes of less than 1.0 mm2 on ICG angiography corre...

  18. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: treatment update.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-11-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Despite multiple recent clinical trials, there is no strong evidence supporting a survival advantage for any agent in the management of patients with IPF. The limited effectiveness of current treatment regimes has led to a search for novel therapies including antifibrotic strategies. This article reviews the evidence supporting the treatments currently used in the management of IPF.

  19. Familial idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranial suture defects in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three children with idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy and cranial suture defects are reported. The syndrome was recognized after birth and in the two oldest siblings, the cranial defects and subperiosteal bone formation resolved almost completely by age 4 and 6 years. The joint swelling and clubbing persisted and mild bone reabsorption of the distal phalanges became apparent at an older age. Two siblings and both parents had normal bone X-rays and no clubbing. This study confirms the association of cranial sutural defects and familial idopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. (orig.)

  20. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Paul W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000 than in women (13.2/100,000. The mean age at presentation is 66 years. IPF initially manifests with symptoms of exercise-induced breathless and dry coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals early inspiratory crackles, predominantly located in the lower posterior lung zones upon physical exam. Clubbing is found in approximately 50% of IPF patients. Cor pulmonale develops in association with end-stage disease. In that case, classic signs of right heart failure may be present. Etiology remains incompletely understood. Some environmental factors may be associated with IPF (cigarette smoking, exposure to silica and livestock. IPF is recognized on high-resolution computed tomography by peripheral, subpleural lower lobe reticular opacities in association with subpleural honeycomb changes. IPF is associated with a pathological lesion known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP. The UIP pattern consists of normal lung alternating with patches of dense fibrosis, taking the form of collagen sheets. The diagnosis of IPF requires correlation of the clinical setting with radiographic images and a lung biopsy. In the absence of lung biopsy, the diagnosis of IPF can be made by defined clinical criteria that were published in guidelines endorsed by several professional societies. Differential diagnosis includes other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, forme fruste of autoimmune disorders, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other environmental (sometimes occupational exposures. IPF is typically progressive and leads to significant

  1. Genetics Home Reference: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. N Engl J Med. 2007 Mar 29;356(13):1317-26. Citation on PubMed ... PJ, Garcia CK. Effect of telomere length on survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an observational ...

  2. Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordier Jean-François

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP is characterized by subacute or chronic respiratory and general symptoms, alveolar and/or blood eosinophilia, and peripheral pulmonary infiltrates on chest imaging. Eosinophilia is present in most cases, usually in excess of 1000/mm3. In absence of significant blood eosinophilia, a diagnosis of ICEP is supported by the demonstration of bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. ICEP is typically associated with eosinophil counts higher than lymphocyte counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage. ICEP is a rare disorder of unknown cause. Its exact prevalence remains unknown. ICEP may affect every age group but is rare in childhood. It is twice as frequent in women as in men. One third to one half of the ICEP patients have a history of asthma. The mainstay of treatment of ICEP is systemic corticosteroids. Response to oral corticosteroid therapy is dramatic and has led to the consideration of corticosteroid challenge as a diagnostic test for ICEP. Nevertheless, relapses or development of severe asthma are frequent when tapering or withdrawing treatment. Long-term oral corticosteroid therapy is necessary in up to half of the patients.

  3. Idiopathic Thoracic Epidural Lipomatosis with Chest Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang-Beom; Park, Hyung-Ki; Chang, Jae-Chil; Jin, So-Young

    2011-01-01

    Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is an overgrowth of the normally encapsulated adipose tissue in the epidural space around the spinal cord in the thoracic and lumbar spine causing compression of the neural components. Idiopathic SEL in non-obese patients is exceptional. Idiopathic SEL can result in thoracic myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy. A thoracic radiculopathy due to idiopathic SEL has not been reported yet. We report a case of idiopathic SEL with intractable chest pain and paresthes...

  4. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  5. Male idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giorgio Cavallini

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (iOAT) affects approximately 30% of all infertile men. This mini-review discussed recent data in this field. Age, non-inflammatory functional alterations in post-testicular organs, infective agents (Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes virus and adeno-associated viruses), alterations in gamete genome, mitochondrial alterations, environmental pollutants and "subtle" hormonal alterations are all considered possible causes of iOAT.Increase of reactive oxygen species in tubules and in seminal plasma and of apoptosis are reputed to affect sperm concentration, motility and morphology. iOAT is commonly diagnosed by exclusion, nevertheless spectral traces of the main testicular artery may be used as a diagnostic tool for iOAT. The following can be considered therapies for iOAT: 1) tamoxifen citrate (20 mg/d) + testosterone undecanoate (120 mg/d) (pregnancy rate per couple/month [prcm]:3.8%); 2) folic acid (66 mg/d) + zinc sulfate (5 mg/d); 3) L-carnitine (2 g/d) alone or in combination with acetyl-L-carnitine (1 g/d) (prcm: 2.3%); and 4) both carnitines + one 30 mg cinnoxicam suppository every 4 days (prcm: 8.5%).Alpha-blocking drugs improved sperm concentration but not morphology, motility or pregnancy rate. Tranilast (300 mg/d) increased sperm parameters and pregnancy rates in an initial uncontrolled study. Its efficacy on sperm concentration (but not on sperm motility, morphology or prcm) was confirmed in subsequent published reports. The efficacy of tamoxifen + testosterone undecanoate, tamoxifen alone, and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone is still a matter for discussion.

  6. Syphilis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne; Wegener, Marianne; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of yet unknown aetiology affecting predominantly obese females of childbearing age. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion as raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure may occur secondary to numerous other medical conditions. An atypical phenotype or an...... atypical disease course should alert the physician to reevaluate a presumed IIH-diagnosis. The authors report a case of a 32-year-old non-obese male with intracranial hypertension, secondary to a syphilitic central nervous system infection, initially misdiagnosed as being idiopathic. Upon relevant...

  7. Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU) is no longer idiopathic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maurer, M; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Gimenez-Arnau, A; Godse, K; Grattan, C E M; Hide, M; Kaplan, A P; Makris, M; Simons, F E R; Zhao, Z; Zuberbier, T; Church, M K

    2013-01-01

    During recent years our knowledge of the aetiology and pathogenesis of urticaria has advanced considerably allowing us to better characterize urticaria subtypes. However, although the classification of urticaria has undergone some revisions during this time (1), authors still use different names ...... idiopathic urticaria (CIU)....

  8. Genetic and maternal determinants of effective dispersal : The effect of sire genotype and size at birth in side-blotched lizards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinervo, Barry; Calsbeek, Ryan; Comendant, Tosha; Both, Christiaan; Adamopoulou, Chloe; Clobert, Jean; Losos, Jonathan B.; Perrin, Nicolas (Associate)

    2006-01-01

    We assessed genetic factors on progeny dispersal due to sire color morph genotypes in a field pedigree and lab crosses, and we measured maternal effects by studying both natural and experimentally induced egg size variation. Progeny were released into nature upon hatching, but we recorded dispersal

  9. Birth placement and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; Horwood, J; Shannon, F T

    1981-07-22

    The standards of health and health care for a sample of 1265 Christchurch children during the period birth to three years were examined. There was a systematic tendency for levels of health care and morbidity to vary with the child's birth placement: in general adopted children had the best standard of health care and the lowest rates of morbidity; children who entered single parent families at birth had the poorest standards of health care and the highest rates of morbidity. Statistical control for family social background including maternal age, education, ethnic status, family size and changes of residence tended to reduce the size of the observed differences. However, even when the results were controlled for these factors children in single parent families still has depressed levels of preventive health care and higher rates of hospital admission. Possible explanations of the differences are discussed. PMID:6944632

  10. Radiological case: idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento , J.; Morais, L; Macedo, F.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present a case of a four year-old child with a second episode of iron deficiency anaemia. Following fever, cough and hemoptysis a chest X-ray and chest CT were performed. Bilateral and patchy areas of ground glass and consolidation were noted in the setting of intrapulmonary hemorrhage. The final diagnosis was idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.

  11. A Wondrous Birth

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the author describes tending to a mother who displayed a quiet confidence throughout her pregnancy and birth experience. This birth story provides powerful support for women's inherent ability to give birth. Women already know what they need to give birth simply and easily.

  12. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ley B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization. Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, incidence, prevalence, mortality, risk factors

  13. Genetics and Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sarah G; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Rosas, Ivan O

    2016-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating the genetics of parenchymal lung diseases, particularly idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). IIPs are a heterogeneous group of diffuse interstitial lung diseases of uncertain etiology, diagnosed only after known causes of interstitial lung disease have been excluded. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most common IIP. Through candidate gene approaches and genome wide association studies, much light has been shed on the genetic origins of IIPs, enhancing our understanding of risk factors and pathogenesis. However, significant work remains to be accomplished in identifying novel genetic variants and characterizing the function of validated candidate genes in lung pathobiology, their interplay with environmental factors, and ultimately translating these discoveries to patient care. PMID:27231858

  14. Resistin in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Filkova, Maria; Hulejova, Hana; Kuncova, Klara; Plestilova, Lenka; Andres Cerezo, Lucie; Mann, Herman; Klein, Martin; Zamecnik, Josef; Gay, Steffen; Vencovsky, Jiri; Senolt, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the serum levels and local expression of resistin in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies to controls, and to determine the relationship between resistin levels, inflammation and disease activity. Methods Serum resistin levels were determined in 42 patients with inflammatory myopathies and 27 healthy controls. The association among resistin levels, inflammation, global disease activity and muscle strength was exami...

  15. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ley, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of it...

  16. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ley B; Collard HR

    2013-01-01

    Brett Ley, Harold R Collard Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its...

  17. Syphilis mimicking idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne; Wegener, Marianne; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition of yet unknown aetiology affecting predominantly obese females of childbearing age. IIH is a diagnosis of exclusion as raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure may occur secondary to numerous other medical conditions. An atypical phenotype or a...... antibiotic treatment, signs and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure resolved completely. Syphilis is a rare, but very important, differential diagnosis that in this case was clinically indistinguishable from IIH....

  18. Idiopathic epilepsy and school achievement.

    OpenAIRE

    Sturniolo, M G; Galletti, F

    1994-01-01

    Forty one children (20 boys, 21 girls) aged 6-10.8 years (mean age 8.6 years) who were affected with idiopathic epilepsy underwent neuropsychological (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender test) and behavioural assessment (Personality Inventory for Children; this was also used in a matched control group). Further information was obtained by teachers' reports. School underachievement occurred in 25 children (61%). Statistical analysis showed no influence of sex, social background, a...

  19. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Lamb; C.M. Middeldorp; C.E.M. van Beijsterveldt; J.M. Vink; M.C. Haak; D.I. Boomsma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on importan

  20. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  1. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  2. Pathways of the determinants of unfavourable birth outcomes in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Magadi, Monica; Diamond, Ian; Madise, Nyovani; Smith, Peter

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the pathways of the determinants of unfavourable birth outcomes, such as premature birth, the size of the baby at birth, and Caesarean section deliveries in Kenya, using graphical loglinear chain models. The results show that a number of factors which do not have direct associations with unfavourable birth outcomes contribute to these outcomes indirectly through intermediate factors. Marital status, the desirability of a pregnancy, the use of family planning, and access to...

  3. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    OpenAIRE

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM; Middeldorp Christel M; Lamb Diane J; Vink Jacqueline M; Haak Monique C; Boomsma Dorret I

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the N...

  4. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to identify and classify the basic CT appearance of interstitial pneumonia, radiologic-pathologic correlative study was performed using inflated and fixed lungs from autopsy and surgery. The patterns of the abnormalities on the CT images of interstitial pneumonia were classified into 7 categories. Important pathological changes which affected the CT images were alveolar collapse and airway dilatation. Based on the result of above study, we analyzed CT of 22 patients with IIP. The lesions which were classified into a hazy density, micronodular densities, confluence of various sized ring like shadows and subpleural bullous changes were frequently recognized together mostly in the periphery of the lung. (author)

  5. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most effective ... periods Treat acne Prevent ovarian cancer Combination birth control pills contain both estrogen and progestin. Some combination ...

  6. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 5 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... 100% effective method of birth control. LEARN MORE IUD An IUD is a T-shaped device that ...

  7. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity in...

  8. Facts about Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby ...

  9. Birth length and weight as predictors of breast cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatten Lars J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth size, and particularly birth length, is positively associated with breast cancer risk in adulthood. The objective of this study was to examine whether birth size is associated with survival among breast cancer patients. Methods Information on birth size (weight, length and ponderal index (kg/length (m3 was collected from birth archives for 331 breast cancer patients who were diagnosed at two university hospitals in Norway (Bergen and Trondheim. The patients were followed from the time of diagnosis until death from breast cancer, death from another cause, or to the end of follow-up, and birth size was related to survival, using Cox regression analysis. Results Breast cancer patients with birth length ≥ 52 cm had nearly twice the risk of dying (hazard ratio, 1.92, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.41 from breast cancer compared to women with birth length less than 48 cm, after adjustment for place of birth and year of diagnosis. Similar analyses related to birth weight and ponderal index showed no clear association with breast cancer survival. Conclusions Poorer outcome of breast cancer patients with high birth length may reflect effects of factors that stimulate longitudinal growth and simultaneously increase the risk of metastases and fatal outcome. It is possible that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF system is involved in the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Increased birth spacing reduces health risks for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article reports results from multivariate cross-country analyses on the effect of birth intervals on mortality and health. A comparison of six demographic and health surveys in 17 countries revealed that short birth spacing increases health risks for children. Furthermore, mothers were noted to have too many births too soon after another, which causes substantial health and survival risks for their children. Babies were likewise predisposed to a low birth size and birth weight, poor nutritional status, infant mortality and under-five mortality. Data from India and Egypt indicated that most birth intervals were too short, about 60% were under 36 months and over 25% were under 24 months. Although mothers claim their desire to have longer birth intervals, programs must be initiated to inform these women of the advantages of increased birth spacing. PMID:12349603

  11. Posterior asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis

    CERN Document Server

    Rousie, D L; Berthoz, A

    2009-01-01

    Study design Are there neuro-anatomical abnormalities associated with idiopathic scoliosis (IS)? Posterior Basicranium (PBA) reflects cerebellum growth and contains vestibular organs, two structures suspected to be involved in scoliosis. Objective The aim of this study was to compare posterior basicranium asymmetry (PBA) in Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and normal subjects. Method: To measure the shape of PBA in 3D, we defined an intra-cranial frame of reference based on CNS and guided by embryology of the neural tube. Measurements concerned three directions of space referred to a specific intra cranial referential. Data acquisition was performed with T2 MRI (G.E. Excite 1.5T, mode Fiesta). We explored a scoliosis group of 76 women and 20 men with a mean age of 17, 2 and a control group of 26 women and 16 men, with a mean age of 27, 7. Results: IS revealed a significant asymmetry of PBA (Pr>|t|<.0001) in 3 directions of space compared to the control group. This asymmetry was more pronounced in antero-posterior...

  12. Idiopathic epilepsy and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, M G; Galletti, F

    1994-05-01

    Forty one children (20 boys, 21 girls) aged 6-10.8 years (mean age 8.6 years) who were affected with idiopathic epilepsy underwent neuropsychological (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender test) and behavioural assessment (Personality Inventory for Children; this was also used in a matched control group). Further information was obtained by teachers' reports. School underachievement occurred in 25 children (61%). Statistical analysis showed no influence of sex, social background, age of onset, seizure type, duration of illness, features seen on electroencephalography, and treatment. School failure was due to poor performance in almost all academic fields, and was associated with higher visuomotor impairment; children showing good school performance had a higher mean IQ and less visuomotor impairment. The behaviour of children with epilepsy who had a good academic performance did not differ from that of their healthy peers. Emotional maladjustment (social skill impairment, depression, poor motivation, and low self esteem) was associated with poor school performance. Such problems, that may complicate the course of idiopathic epilepsy and require an appropriate educational programme, should be carefully considered by the clinician. PMID:8017966

  13. Unexplained childhood anaemia: idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, K K; Li, Rever; Lam, S Y

    2015-04-01

    This report demonstrates pulmonary haemorrhage as a differential cause of anaemia. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare disease in children; it is classically described as a triad of haemoptysis, pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph, and iron-deficiency anaemia. However, anaemia may be the only presenting feature of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis in children due to occult pulmonary haemorrhage. In addition, the serum ferritin is falsely high in idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis which increases the diagnostic difficulty. We recommend that pulmonary haemorrhage be suspected in any child presenting with iron-deficiency anaemia and persistent bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. PMID:25904566

  14. Jonah’s Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Rachel Goldstein shares her experience of exploring options related to care provider and place of birth early in her pregnancy. Goldstein and her husband, Marc, after reading and research, chose midwifery care and a home birth. She shares the story of a long labor at home supported by her husband, her doula, and her midwife. Her positive attitude, her ability to use various comfort strategies, and the support she received throughout labor contributed to being able to give birth naturally and ...

  15. Detection of pathogenic copy number variants in children with idiopathic intellectual disability using 500 K SNP array genomic hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Li H Irene; Lemyre Emmanuelle; Langlois Sylvie; Gibson William T; Flibotte Stephane; Delaney Allen D; Chai David; Chan Susanna; Boerkoel Cornelius; Birch Patricia; Baross Agnes; Armstrong Linlea; Arbour Laura; Adam Shelin; Friedman JM

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Array genomic hybridization is being used clinically to detect pathogenic copy number variants in children with intellectual disability and other birth defects. However, there is no agreement regarding the kind of array, the distribution of probes across the genome, or the resolution that is most appropriate for clinical use. Results We performed 500 K Affymetrix GeneChip® array genomic hybridization in 100 idiopathic intellectual disability trios, each comprised of a chil...

  16. An unusual case of epidermolysis bullosa complicated by persistent oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis; lessons to be learned

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheriou Despina; Mellerio Jemima E; Martinez Anna E; Maritsi Despoina; Pilkington Clarissa A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa (RDEB) is a rare and severe hereditary skin disease. Oligoarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) although infrequent in the general paediatric population, is the most frequent type of autoimmune joint disease in children. While different in aetiology, both diseases are characterized by gradual deterioration in mobility and function. We report a female patient, diagnosed with RDEB at birth, who presented with inflammatory bowel disease...

  17. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  18. Functional neuroimaging abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques have been used to quantitatively assess focal and network abnormalities. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is characterized by bilateral synchronous spike–wave discharges on electroencephalography (EEG but normal clinical MRI. Dysfunctions involving the neocortex, particularly the prefrontal cortex, and thalamus likely contribute to seizure activity. To identify possible morphometric and functional differences in the brains of IGE patients and normal controls, we employed measures of thalamic volumes, cortical thickness, gray–white blurring, fractional anisotropy (FA measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF in thalamic subregions from resting state functional MRI. Data from 27 patients with IGE and 27 age- and sex-matched controls showed similar thalamic volumes, cortical thickness and gray–white contrast. There were no differences in FA values on DTI in tracts connecting the thalamus and prefrontal cortex. Functional analysis revealed decreased fALFF in the prefrontal cortex (PFC subregion of the thalamus in patients with IGE. We provide minimum detectable effect sizes for each measure used in the study. Our analysis indicates that fMRI-based methods are more sensitive than quantitative structural techniques for characterizing brain abnormalities in IGE.

  19. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Mirjam J G; Birring, Surinder S; Vancheri, Carlo; Cottin, Vincent; Renzoni, Elisabetta A; Russell, Anne-Marie; Wijsenbeek, Marlies S

    2016-09-01

    Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF, which is most probably "multifactorial" and influenced by mechanical, biochemical and neurosensory changes, with an important role for comorbidities as well. Clinical trials of cough treatment in IPF are emerging, and cough is increasingly included as a secondary end-point in trials assessing new compounds for IPF. It is important that such studies include adequate end-points to assess cough both objectively and subjectively. This article summarises the latest insights into chronic cough in IPF. It describes the different theories regarding the pathophysiology of cough, reviews the different methods to assess cough and deals with recent and future developments in the treatment of cough in IPF. PMID:27581827

  20. Antidepressants in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasharpour, Michelle R; Randhawa, Inderpal

    2011-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a common disease estimated to affect 0.1% of the population and can be very difficult to treat. Many psychotropic medications have been reported to be successful in treating refractory CIU. The purpose of this article was to discuss the pathophysiology of chronic urticaria and provide practicing allergists and dermatologists alternative treatment options in the management of refractory CIU, especially in those who have concurrent psychiatric comorbidity. A review was performed of pertinent literature pertaining to the pathophysiology of CIU and the many psychotropic medications reportedly successful in disease management. Although more research is needed, this article serves to broaden the mind of the physician treating CIU. PMID:22221435

  1. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: Classification revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Bouros MD, PhD, FCCP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Thoracic Society (ATS, the European Respiratory Society (ERS and the Japan Respiratory Society (JRS are planning a revision of the 2002 ATS/ERS International Multidisciplinary Classification of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIPs1. In two years’ time it will be 10 years since its publication and with a view to publishing the revision after 10 years (i.e., in 2012, a steering committee has been established, which met in New Orleans during ATS congress in May 2010 and more recently in Barcelona during the ERS congress (Photo. The committee will meet again during the ATS and the ERS congresses that will be held in the next two years, with an additional meeting in Modena, Italy, in Αpril 2011.

  2. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent KURT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM are a heterogeneous group of disease with complex clinical features. It has been sub-classified as: (1 Dermatomyositis, (2 Polymyositis, and (3 Inclusion body myositis (IBM. Nowadays, there are some studies in literature suggest necrotizing autoimmune myopathy and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy should also be added to this group of disease. There is a debate in the diagnosis of IIMs and up until now, about 12 criteria systems have been proposed. Some of the criteria systems have been used widely such as Griggs et al.'s proposal for IBM. Clinical findings, autoantibodies, enzymes, electrophysiological, and muscle biopsy findings are diagnostic tools. Because of diseases' complexity, none of the findings are diagnostic alone. In this study, we discussed the diagnostic criteria of IMMs and described detailed morphological features. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2016; 4(2.000: 41-45

  3. Idiopathic Organ Transplant Chorioretinopathy after Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Abalem; Pedro Carlos Carricondo; Sergio Luis Gianotti Pimentel; Walter Yukihiko Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic organ transplant chorioretinopathy is a rare disease associated with kidney and heart transplantation. We present a case secondary to liver transplantation including its multimodal imaging, differential diagnosis, and physiopathology discussion.

  4. Azathioprine in chronic relapsing idiopathic polyneuropathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pentland, B

    1980-01-01

    A 33-year-old housewife with a 14-year history of relapsing polyneuropathy of unknown cause who has apparently responded to azathioprine therapy is described. The place of this form of treatment in idiopathic polyneuropathy is discussed.

  5. Family history of idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Postuma, Ronald B; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi;

    2013-01-01

    To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort.......To compare the frequency of proxy-reported REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) among relatives of patients with polysomnogram-diagnosed idiopathic RBD (iRBD) in comparison to controls using a large multicenter clinic-based cohort....

  6. Idiopathic Arterial Calcification of Infancy: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Attia, Tarek Hamed; Abd Alhamed, Mohamed Maisara; Selim, Mohamed Fouad; Haggag, Mohamed Salah; Fathalla, Diaa

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of calcium along the internal elastic membrane of arteries, accompanied by fibrous thickening of the intima which causes luminal narrowing. Here we are reporting a case of idiopathic arterial calcification of infancy in a Saudi female newborn of non-consanguineous pregnant woman who had polyhydramnios. The newborn baby had severe respiratory distress, systemic hypertension and persi...

  7. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is the most common skin diseases, characterized by chronic cutaneous lesions which severely debilitates patients in several aspects of their everyday life. Vitamin D is known to exert several actions in the immune system and to influence function and differentiation of mast cells, central role players in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urt...

  8. Adolescent-onset idiopathic hemifacial spasm

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfeng Liang; Zhuangli Guo; Li Zhang; Yanbing Yu

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To study the clinical manifestations, illness-related factors and microsurgical management of adolescent-onset idiopathic hemifacial spasm. Materials and Methods: Of the 1221 microvascular decompression procedures performed for idiopathic hemifacial spasm between March 2001 and July 2007, 16 (1.3%) were in adolescent age (≤18). Results: Clinical manifestations in the adolescent-onset were typical, but milder when compared with late-onset. Gender, thickening and adhesion of the arachnoid...

  9. Birth control failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocles, A M

    1986-10-01

    Birth control failure usually results from the incorrect or inconsistent use of contraceptives. By providing anticipatory counseling, based on an understanding of the reasons for birth control failure, family physicians can help curtail the current epidemic of unwanted pregnancies. PMID:3766356

  10. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  11. A Season for Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education reflects on changing seasons and how birth remains a constant wonder. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  12. Safely Giving Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the editor of the Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the growing challenge of assuring a safe birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote, support, and protect normal birth.

  13. Microstructural effects of intravitreal bevacizumab in idiopathic choroidal neovascularisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic choroidal neovascularization (ICNV) is a unilateral ocular disease which occurs in patients younger than 50 years and accounts for approximately 17% of patients with CNV. We evaluated microstructural effects of intravitreal bevacizumab in eyes with treatment-naive idiopathic choroidal neovascularisation. Methods: In this case series study we reviewed the treatment and follow up records of 40 symptomatic eyes having ICNV, who received an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) followed by additional doses based on optical coherence tomography findings, including intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, or pigment epithelial detachment. We analysed the results of best-corrected visual acuity, central retinal thickness, neovessels size (thickness and diameter), and disrupted photoreceptor length at baseline and at final visit with paired t-test. Difference in best corrected visual acuity was correlated with difference in optical coherence tomography parameters by Pearson's correlation. Results: Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity improved from 0.60 initially to 0.24 after treatment (p=0.01). Difference in mean central retinal thickness (82.65 ± 44.1) micro m, choroidal neovessels thickness (149.58 ± 71.1) micro m, choroidal neovessels diameter (1250.8 ± 145.1) micro m, photoreceptor disruption length (2141.20 ± 318.8) micro m were all statistically significant (p=0.01). Difference in best corrected visual acuity was correlated with optical coherence tomography parameters found no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab therapy is safe and well tolerated in ICNV eyes. Restoration of photoreceptor disruption length, decrease in central retinal thickness and choroidal neovessels size has association with visual improvement in idiopathic choroidal neovascularisation. (author)

  14. Adolescent Births 2010-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — http://tinyurl.com/AdolescentBirthRatesMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfRepeatBirthsMap, http://tinyurl.com/PercentOfBirthsInHighPoverty. This dataset contains...

  15. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search ... for Birth Defects FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a ...

  16. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  17. Neandertal birth canal shape and the evolution of human childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Timothy D.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Childbirth is complicated in humans relative to other primates. Unlike the situation in great apes, human neonates are about the same size as the birth canal, making passage difficult. The birth mechanism (the series of rotations that the neonate must undergo to successfully negotiate its mother's birth canal) distinguishes humans not only from great apes, but also from lesser apes and monkeys. Tracing the evolution of human childbirth is difficult, because the pelvic skeleton, which forms th...

  18. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  19. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  20. Cancer risk after cyclophosphamide treatment in idiopathic membranous nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, J.A. van den; Dijk, P.R. van; Hofstra, J.M.; Wetzels, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cyclophosphamide treatment improves renal survival in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. However, use of cyclophosphamide is associated with cancer. The incidence of malignancies in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy was evaluated, and the cancer

  1. Idiopathic aneurysm of pulmonary artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Julio B. Cota; Pimentel, Patricia N.; Knust, Beatriz S., E-mail: jcota@uol.com.br [Clinica de Cardiologia Cota Pacheco, Mogi das Cruzes, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Because it is a very rare isolated lesion, we decided to present this case of idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm (IPAA) and review the cases published in the literature in order to correlate our clinical and imaging findings, as well as management based on patient data. IPAA was first described in a case of autopsy by Bristowe in 1860 and later in 1947 by Deterling and Claggett, whose prevalence was lower than eight to one hundred thousand. Although the use of diagnostic imaging methods has been applied in a very large population in recent decades, this lesion has been most often described in postmortem examinations. Therefore, it is important to be aware of possible clinical symptoms, at times non-specific, as well as the signs on imaging studies. In this study, therefore, the report of a case of an asymptomatic patient whose diagnosis was done through color Doppler echocardiography in a routine test in 2012, later confirmed by simple chest computed tomography (chest CT) and cardiac catheterization as IPAA and its branches. We discussed the literature available and the possibilities for treatment and the use of color Doppler echocardiography as an initial diagnostic tool for such a rare and intriguing disease. (author)

  2. Idiopathic aneurysm of pulmonary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because it is a very rare isolated lesion, we decided to present this case of idiopathic pulmonary artery aneurysm (IPAA) and review the cases published in the literature in order to correlate our clinical and imaging findings, as well as management based on patient data. IPAA was first described in a case of autopsy by Bristowe in 1860 and later in 1947 by Deterling and Claggett, whose prevalence was lower than eight to one hundred thousand. Although the use of diagnostic imaging methods has been applied in a very large population in recent decades, this lesion has been most often described in postmortem examinations. Therefore, it is important to be aware of possible clinical symptoms, at times non-specific, as well as the signs on imaging studies. In this study, therefore, the report of a case of an asymptomatic patient whose diagnosis was done through color Doppler echocardiography in a routine test in 2012, later confirmed by simple chest computed tomography (chest CT) and cardiac catheterization as IPAA and its branches. We discussed the literature available and the possibilities for treatment and the use of color Doppler echocardiography as an initial diagnostic tool for such a rare and intriguing disease. (author)

  3. Pneumothorax and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the relation between the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and the incidence of pneumothorax on computed tomography (CT) images. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the presence of pneumothorax in 56 consecutive patients who died of IPF from the initial CT to death. We quantitatively analyzed a total of 207 CT images and measured the volume of the normal pattern (N-pattern) and each lesion pattern on the initial CT and their serial changes. The effects of pneumothorax and clinical and CT features on survival were evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Pneumothorax occurred in 17 of 56 patients. Comparison of the pneumothorax (+) and (-) groups showed the initial vital capacity (VC) was lower (P=0.005) and the follow-up period was shorter (P=0.03) in the former group. The decrease in the N-pattern volume in the pneumothorax (+) group was significantly faster than in the pneumothorax (-) group (P=0.013). Cox regression analyses identified a rapid decrease in N-pattern volume (P=0.008) and a rapid decrease in VC (P=0.002), but not pneumothorax, as significant predictors of poor survival. Pneumothorax in IPF patients is associated with lower VC and rapid deterioration of CT findings. The findings suggest that pneumothorax is a complication of advanced IPF. (author)

  4. Pharmacotherapy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Acharya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis is a form of chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease causing scarring of lung tissue and usually affect adults. Treatment is usually aimed at controlling inflammation and thus slowing the process of fibrosis. With only few patients responding to treatment and the disease being ultimately fatal with poor progression, the underlying lesion was considered to be fibrotic rather than inflammatory. Fibrotic foci, deposition of collagen, and lack of inflammatory cells are a predominant finding. Pirfenidone and N-acetyl cysteine are the only effective pharmacotherapy available till date. Interim results of PANTHER Trial clearly indicate more risk with triple therapy. However, in Indian patients, trial of steroid therapy may be tried when there is doubt of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. BIBF 1120 has also shown positive results in Phase II clinical trial and shows a positive response in deteriorating lung function. Supplemental oxygen, education of patient, pulmonary rehabilitation, and Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza vaccine are the most important supportive care. Pulmonary rehabilitation should be used as a treatment in the majority of patients. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(5.000: 761-763

  5. Telltale teeth: Idiopathic Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Lele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of any atypical extraoral or intraoral features warrants a thorough investigation, even if the patient is asymptomatic or unaware of these. At times, dental findings help in the diagnosis of an underlying systemic problem. These findings may or may not be associated with any syndrome. Thus, thorough examination and exhaustive investigations should be carried out for every atypical finding to ensure optimal oral and general health for the patient. Case Description: This is a case report of seventeen year old male who presented with peculiar/atypical dentition which ′told the tale′ and led to the diagnosis of underlying endocrinological problem about which the parents were totally unaware. The patient was short with central obesity and microcephaly. Intraorally, there was presence of thirty six microdonts. Consultation with pediatrician and endocrinologist, and thorough investigations confirmed the condition to be of ′Idiopathic Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism′. The patient underwent not only oral rehabilitation, but also timely consultation and treatment from a pediatrician and an endocrinologist.

  6. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... there is a problem with a baby's body chemistry, it is called a metabolic birth defect. Metabolic ...

  7. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after they're born. We also give a shot of vitamin K. That helps control bleeding. There's ... born. Parents can elect to have their hepatitis shot also given at birth or they can elect ...

  8. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... births can also take a heavy emotional and economic toll on families. 5 American College of Obstetricians ... Dimes. (2012). The March of Dimes Foundation Data Book for Policy Makers: Maternal, Infant, and Child Health ...

  9. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... Actually, data would indicate that those kinds of issues with bladder problems and reproductive tract prolapse can ...

  10. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actually, data would indicate that those kinds of issues with bladder problems and reproductive tract prolapse can ... birth versus a repeat cesarean delivery. There's an issue called placenta accreta, which if you have multiple ...

  11. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... later if you prefer. Now let me turn things over to the obstetrician performing the delivery to ...

  12. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 717-933-9743 Accredited since January 2016 100 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited ... Birthing Center-Cedar Park Accredited 1130 Cottonwood Creek Trail Building D Suite 2 Cedar Park, TX 78613 ...

  13. Emmetropisation following preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, K J; McCulloch, D L; Shepherd, A.J.; Wilkinson, A. G.

    2002-01-01

    Background/aims: Even in the absence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), premature birth signals increased risk for abnormal refractive development. The present study examined the relation between clinical risk factors and refractive development among preterm infants without ROP.

  14. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I know that we have a very formal process in our office for patients with a prior ... with a vaginal birth, we have a formalized process where we go through an information sheet that ...

  15. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to be able to schedule the birth. Some women have a preference for a cesarean delivery because ... subject doesn't really come up. But in women with a prior uterine incision that's compatible with ...

  16. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center ... hour, operating surgeon Dr. Leah Ridgway will perform a caesarean section delivery while Dr. Reagan Wittek will ...

  17. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, ... to learn more. Just click on the "request information" button on your webcast screen and open the ...

  18. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  19. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... after delivery. And that's over here so that mom can hear the baby and the baby will ... So we don't encourage elective first-time moms having a cesarean birth. 00:09:12 LEAH ...

  20. Evaluation of Idiopathic Choroidal Neovascularization with Indocyanine Green Angiography in Patients Undergoing Bevacizumab Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan B. Rush

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the clinical implications of change in choroidal neovascularization (CNV size on indocyanine green (ICG angiography in subjects with idiopathic CNV undergoing bevacizumab therapy. Methods. The charts of subjects with an idiopathic CNV treated by a modified PRN regimen with intravitreal bevacizumab over a 12-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Results. There were 34 subjects included in the analysis. Baseline CNV sizes of less than 1.0 mm2 on ICG angiography correlated with complete CNV resolution (P=0.0404, fewer injections delivered (P=0.0002, and better Snellen visual acuity (P=0.0098 at 12 months. Subjects that experienced a 33% or more reduction in CNV size on ICG angiography at 2 months had complete CNV resolution (P=0.0047 and fewer injections (P<0.0001 at 12 months compared to subjects that did not experience a 33% or more reduction in CNV size on ICG angiography at 2 months. Conclusions. Smaller baseline CNV size on ICG angiography resulted in better visual acuity and fewer injections at 12 months, and a reduction of 33% or more in CNV size after 2 months may predict a better clinical course in subjects with idiopathic CNV undergoing bevacizumab therapy.

  1. Single night postoperative prone posturing in idiopathic macular hole surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the role of postoperative prone posturing for a single night in the outcome of trans pars plana vitrectomy (TPPV) with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peel and 20% perfluoroethane (C2F6) internal tamponade for idiopathic macular hole. Methods. This prospective trial enrolled 14 eyes in 14 consecutive patients with idiopathic macular hole. All eyes underwent TPPV with vision blue assisted ILM peeling with and without phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) for macular hole. Intraocular gas tamponade (20% C2F6) was used in all cases with postoperative face-down posturing overnight and without specific posturing afterwards. LogMAR visual acuity, appearance by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) scans were compared preoperatively and postoperatively to assess outcome. Results. Among 14 eyes recruited, all eyes were phakic; 50% of patients underwent concurrent phacoemulsification with IOL. The macular holes were categorized preoperatively by OCT appearance, 4 (28.57%) were stage 2, 7 (50%) were stage 3, and 3 (21.43%) were stage 4. Mean macular hole size was 0.35 disk diameters. Symptoms of macular hole had been present for an average of 6.5 months. All holes (100%) were closed 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Mean visual acuity (logMAR) was improved to 0.61 at 3 months and was stable at 6 months after the surgery. None of the eyes had worse vision postoperatively. Conclusions. Vitrectomy with ILM peeling and 20% C2F6 gas with a brief postoperative 1 night prone posturing regimen is a reasonable approach to achieve anatomic closure in idiopathic macular hole. Concurrent cataract extraction did not alter outcomes and was not associated with any additional complications.

  2. Tamanho da leitegada e pesos médios, ao nascer e aos 21 dias de idade, de leitões da raça Large White Litter size and average weights at birth and at 21 days of age of Large White piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.R. Holanda

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da época de parto e idade da matriz ao parto (IMP sobre o tamanho da leitegada (TL, da época de parto, idade da matriz ao parto e tamanho da leitegada sobre o peso médio ao nascer (PMN, e da época de parto, idade da matriz ao parto, número de nascidos vivos (NV e percentual de machos na leitegada (PERCM sobre o peso aos 21 dias de idade (PM21 de leitões Large White. Utilizaram-se dados de 3259 leitões nascidos no período de junho/85 a junho/96. A avaliação foi feita por meio de regressão múltipla. Para TL apenas o efeito de IMP determinou modificações significativas sobre o número de leitões nascidos. TL médio foi 9,73±2,78, observando-se maiores leitegadas em fêmeas de 2,84 a 3,83 anos. PMN e PM21 foram 1,35kg±0,18 e 5,06kg±1,00, respectivamente. Para PMN foram significativos os efeitos de IMP e TL, com redução do peso em 20g para cada leitão adicional. Para PM21 apenas o número de NV apresentou efeito significativo.The effects of season of birth (PE and age of sow at birth (IMP on litter size (TL; season of birth, age of sow and litter size on average weight at birth (PMN; season of birth age of sow, number of alive piglets at birth (NV, and percentage of alive males on average weight at 21 days of age (PM21 of 3259 Large White piglets born from June/85 to June/96 were evaluated by multiple regression analyses. The IMP effect on TL was significant. The average TL was 9.73±2.78. Larger litters were observed for sows from 2.84 to 3.83 years of age. The average PMN and PM21 were 1.35kg±0.18 e 5.06kg±1.00, respectively. The IMP and TL effects on PMN traits were linear and significant. A decrease of 20g on piglet weight was estimated for each additional piglet in the litter. The effect of NV was significant only for PM21 trait.

  3. Optimal management of idiopathic macular holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Haifa A; Masri, Ibrahim; Steel, David H

    2016-01-01

    This review evaluates the current surgical options for the management of idiopathic macular holes (IMHs), including vitrectomy, ocriplasmin (OCP), and expansile gas use, and discusses key background information to inform the choice of treatment. An evidence-based approach to selecting the best treatment option for the individual patient based on IMH characteristics and patient-specific factors is suggested. For holes without vitreomacular attachment (VMA), vitrectomy is the only option with three key surgical variables: whether to peel the inner limiting membrane (ILM), the type of tamponade agent to be used, and the requirement for postoperative face-down posturing. There is a general consensus that ILM peeling improves primary anatomical hole closure rate; however, in small holes (400 µm) and chronic holes (>1-year history) are usually treated with long-acting gas and posturing. Several studies on posturing and gas choice were carried out in combination with ILM peeling, which may also influence the gas and posturing requirement. Combined phacovitrectomy appears to offer more rapid visual recovery without affecting the long-term outcomes of vitrectomy for IMH. OCP is licensed for use in patients with small- or medium-sized holes and VMA. A greater success rate in using OCP has been reported in smaller holes, but further predictive factors for its success are needed to refine its use. It is important to counsel patients realistically regarding the rates of success with intravitreal OCP and its potential complications. Expansile gas can be considered as a further option in small holes with VMA; however, larger studies are required to provide guidance on its use. PMID:26834454

  4. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wang QK, Liu JY. Identification of a novel genetic locus on chromosome 8p21.1-q11.23 for idiopathic ... DH. Analysis of candidate genes at the IBGC1 locus associated with idiopathic basal ... DH. Genetic heterogeneity in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr ...

  5. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: progress in classification, diagnosis, pathogenesis and management.

    OpenAIRE

    King, Talmadge E.

    2004-01-01

    The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a heterogeneous group of poorly understood diseases with often devastating consequences for those afflicted. Subclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonia based on clinical-radiological-pathological criteria has highlighted important pathogenic, therapeutic and prognostic implications. The most critical distinction is the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia, the histopathological pattern seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Idiopa...

  6. Birth weight in a large series of triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beijsterveldt Catharina EM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triplets are often born premature and with a low birth weight. Because the incidence of triplet births is rare, there are relatively few studies describing triplet birth weight characteristics. Earlier studies are often characterized by small sample sizes and lack information on important background variables such as zygosity. The objective of this study is to examine factors associated with birth weight in a large, population-based sample of triplets registered with the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR. Methods In a sample of 1230 triplets from 410 families, the effects of assisted reproductive techniques, zygosity, birth order, gestational age, sex, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on birth weight were assessed. The resemblance among triplets for birth weight was estimated as a function of zygosity. Birth weight discordance within families was studied by the pair-wise difference between triplets, expressed as a percentage of the birth weight of the heaviest child. We compare data from triplets registered with the NTR with data from population records, which include live births, stillbirths and children that have deceased within days after birth. Results There was no effect of assisted reproductive techniques on triplet birth weight. At gestational age 24 to 40 weeks triplets gained on average 130 grams per week; boys weighed 110 grams more than girls and triplets of smoking mothers weighted 104 grams less than children of non-smoking mothers. Monozygotic triplets had lower birth weights than di- and trizygotic triplets and birth weight discordance was smaller in monozygotic triplets than in di- and trizygotic triplets. The correlation in birth weight among monozygotic and dizygotic triplets was 0.42 and 0.32, respectively. In nearly two-thirds of the families, the heaviest and the lightest triplet had a birth weight discordance over 15%. The NTR sample is representative for the Dutch triplet

  7. Birth Order and Intellectual Development among Zimbabwean Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the research debate over the question whether intelligence diminishes as a function of birth order. Presents a study of Zimbabwean children confirming the general downward trend of intelligence as a function of birth order. Addresses the influence of family size. (DB)

  8. Nonsurgical Management of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jaime A; Hresko, M Timothy; Glotzbecker, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Pediatric patient visits for spinal deformity are common. Most of these visits are for nonsurgical management of scoliosis, with approximately 600,000 visits for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) annually. Appropriate management of scoliotic curves that do not meet surgical indication parameters is essential. Renewed enthusiasm for nonsurgical management of AIS (eg, bracing, physical therapy) exists in part because of the results of the Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial, which is the only randomized controlled trial available on the use of bracing for AIS. Bracing is appropriate for idiopathic curves between 20° and 40°, with successful control of these curves reported in >70% of patients. Patient adherence to the prescribed duration of wear is essential to maximize the effectiveness of the brace. The choice of brace type must be individualized according to the deformity and the patient's personality as well as the practice setting and brace availability. PMID:27388720

  9. Genetic polymorphisms and idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Nazzareno; Verrotti, Alberto; Napolioni, Valerio; Bosco, Guido; Curatolo, Paolo

    2007-09-01

    In recent years, progress in understanding the genetic basis of idiopathic generalized epilepsies has proven challenging because of their complex inheritance patterns and genetic heterogeneity. Genetic polymorphisms offer a convenient avenue for a better understanding of the genetic basis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy by providing evidence for the involvement of a given gene in these disorders, and by clarifying its pathogenetic mechanisms. Many of these genes encode for some important central nervous system ion channels (KCNJ10, KCNJ3, KCNQ2/KCNQ3, CLCN2, GABRG2, GABRA1, SCN1B, and SCN1A), while many others encode for ubiquitary enzymes that play crucial roles in various metabolic pathways (HP, ACP1, ME2, LGI4, OPRM1, GRIK1, BRD2, EFHC1, and EFHC2). We review the main genetic polymorphisms reported in idiopathic generalized epilepsy, and discusses their possible functional significance in the pathogenesis of seizures. PMID:17765802

  10. Birth Defects. Matrix No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert L.

    This report discusses the magnitude of the problem of birth defects, outlines advances in the birth defects field in the past decade, and identifies those areas where research is needed for the prevention, treatment, and management of birth defects. The problem of birth defects has consumed a greater portion of our health care resources because of…

  11. Older and wiser? : birth order and IQ of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar; Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway and focuses on the effect of birth order and family size on IQ, an outcome not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Importantly, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest th...

  12. Older and wiser? : birth order and IQ of young men

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E; Paul J Devereux; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    While recent research finds strong evidence that birth order affects children’s outcomes such as education and earnings, the evidence on the effects of birth order on IQ is decidedly mixed. This paper uses a large dataset on the population of Norway and focuses on the effect of birth order and family size on IQ, an outcome not previously available in datasets of this magnitude. Importantly, we find a strong and significant effect of birth order on IQ, and our results suggest that earlier born...

  13. Total fertilization failure and idiopathic subfertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goverde Angelique J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain more insight in whether failure of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment in patients with idiopathic subfertility could be related to diminished fertilization, the aim of this study is to compare the fertilization of an initial IVF procedure after six cycles of IUI and the fertilization of an initial IVF procedure without preceding IUI cycles in couples with idiopathic subfertility. Methods We performed a complimentary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, in which the number of total fertilization failure (TFF in the first IVF procedure after unsuccessful IUI was compared to those of IVF without preceding IUI in patients with idiopathic subfertility. These patients participated in a previous study that assessed the cost effectiveness of IUI versus IVF in idiopathic subfertility and were randomized to either IUI or IVF treatment. Results 45 patients underwent IVF after 6 cycles of unsuccessful IUI and 58 patients underwent IVF immediately without preceding IUI. In 7 patients the IVF treatment was cancelled before ovum pick. In the IVF after unsuccessful IUI group TFF was seen in 2 of the 39 patients (5% versus 7 of the 56 patients (13% in the immediate IVF group. After correction for confounding factors the TFF rate was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.08, OR 7.4; 95% CI: 0.5–14.9. Conclusion Our data showed that TFF and the fertilization rate in the first IVF treatment were not significantly different between couples with idiopathic subfertility undergoing IVF after failure of IUI versus those couples undergoing IVF immediately without prior IUI treatment. Apparently, impaired fertilization does not play a significant role in the success rate of IUI in patients with idiopathic subfertility.

  14. Periviable birth: Interim update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  15. #3: Periviable birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Jeffrey L; Kaimal, Anjali; Mercer, Brian M; Blackwell, Sean C; deRegnier, Raye Ann O; Farrell, Ruth M; Grobman, William A; Resnik, Jamie L; Sciscione, Anthony C

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  16. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, J; Holland, A E; Glaspole, I; Westall, G

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown aetiology with a dismal median survival of 3 years. Patients typically develop progressive dyspnoea and increasing exercise limitation. With a rising incidence and prevalence, an unpredictable disease course and limited treatment options, it is rapidly becoming an important public health concern. To date, lung transplantation has been the sole viable hope for treatment for those who qualify. However, the landscape of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis management is changing, with the recent emergence of novel pharmacotherapy shown to have a favourable influence on the natural history of this disease. PMID:27257148

  17. Management of severe and rigid idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Luis Eduardo Carelli; de Barros, Alderico Girão Campos; de Azevedo, Gustavo Borges Laurindo

    2015-07-01

    Frequently, severe idiopathic scoliosis patients are first seen in a spine centre after years of deformity evolution, presenting with large curves, severe rib hump, shoulder and trunk imbalance and cardiorespiratory complications related to neglected scoliosis. Severe rigid idiopathic scoliosis has traction, internal temporary distraction, releases, osteotomies and apical vertebral resection are often used in combination to achieve optimal results. Indications must be tailored by surgeons considering resources, deformity characteristics and patient's profile. Vertebral resection procedures may have potential neurological and clinical risks and should be one of the last treatment options performed by experienced surgical team. Neuromonitoring is essential during these procedures. PMID:26033753

  18. Scintigraphic measurement of regional gut transit in idiopathic constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, total gut transit and regional colonic transit in patients with idiopathic constipation were measured scintigraphically. Eight patients with severe constipation were studied, none of whom had evidence of abnormal function of the pelvic floor. 99mTc-radiolabeled Amberlite resin particles with a mixed meal were used to assess gastric emptying and small bowel transit; similar particles labeled with 111In were ingested in a coated capsule that dispersed in the ileocecal region. These were used to quantify colonic transit. Five healthy volunteers were also studied. Two patients showed delayed gastric emptying and two had slow small bowel transit. Seven of the eight patients had slow colonic transit. In five, delay affected the whole colon (pancolonic inertia); in two, transit in the ascending and transverse colon was normal, but solids moved through the left colon slowly. Mean colonic transit was also measured using radiopaque markers; this technique identified the patients with slow transit, as shown by measurements of overall colonic transit by simultaneous scintigraphy. However, estimated transit through the ascending and transverse colons was considerably shorter by the radiopaque marker technique. In conclusion, idiopathic constipation is characterized by either exaggerated reservoir functions of the ascending and transverse colons and/or impairment of propulsive function in the descending colon. Particle size may influence the result of regional colonic transit tests. Transit delays in other parts of the gut suggest that, in some patients, the condition may be a more generalized motor dysfunction

  19. Twin births: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjivani Anil Wanjari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal, foetal and obstetric parameters surrounding twin pregnancies. An attempt was made to find out the perinatal mortality and morbidity rates of twin births and to determine the underlying factors responsible for the increase in these rates. Methods: A one year observational study was done at Daga hospital Nagpur, which is a referral maternity hospital receiving a large number of antenatal patients daily. Perinatal mortality and morbidity rates, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, route of delivery, and caesarean section rates were analysed. Results: The commonest presentation in our study vertex/vertex presentation (62%. A large percentage of twins in our study had a normal delivery. 37% women had caesarean section. In our study nearly 17% of the neonates had birth weights <1.5 kg. In 51 % women the first baby had more birth weight than the second twin. Among the 95 twin births (190 twins studied, we had one discordant twins and one conjoined twins. Conclusions: Twin pregnancies are high risk pregnancies with more obstetrical complications compared to singleton pregnancies. Twin pregnancies have higher perinatal mortality and morbidity rates especially before 34 weeks of gestation. Hence deliveries should be performed in referral centres with competent NICUs. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 995-997

  20. Birth Order and BMI in Teenage Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Koziel, S.; Kolodziej, H.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the relation of birth order to relative weight and prevalence of obesity in a group of 13–15 years old girls. In 1997, 1458 girls were examined. The height and weight measured by trained staff were recorded. Family size and birth order were obtained by a questionnaire. For the purpose of the present study, 776 and 250 girls coming from two- and three-child full families, respectively, were selected from the total sample on the basis of ...

  1. Optimal management of idiopathic macular holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi HA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Haifa A Madi,1,* Ibrahim Masri,1,* David H Steel1,2 1Sunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, 2Institute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University, International Centre for Life, Newcastle, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This review evaluates the current surgical options for the management of idiopathic macular holes (IMHs, including vitrectomy, ocriplasmin (OCP, and expansile gas use, and discusses key background information to inform the choice of treatment. An evidence-based approach to selecting the best treatment option for the individual patient based on IMH characteristics and patient-specific factors is suggested. For holes without vitreomacular attachment (VMA, vitrectomy is the only option with three key surgical variables: whether to peel the inner limiting membrane (ILM, the type of tamponade agent to be used, and the requirement for postoperative face-down posturing. There is a general consensus that ILM peeling improves primary anatomical hole closure rate; however, in small holes (<250 µm, it is uncertain whether peeling is always required. It has been increasingly recognized that long-acting gas and face-down positioning are not always necessary in patients with small- and medium-sized holes, but large (>400 µm and chronic holes (>1-year history are usually treated with long-acting gas and posturing. Several studies on posturing and gas choice were carried out in combination with ILM peeling, which may also influence the gas and posturing requirement. Combined phacovitrectomy appears to offer more rapid visual recovery without affecting the long-term outcomes of vitrectomy for IMH. OCP is licensed for use in patients with small- or medium-sized holes and VMA. A greater success rate in using OCP has been reported in smaller holes, but further predictive factors for its success are needed to refine its use. It is important to counsel patients realistically regarding the rates of success with

  2. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  3. Prenatal Phenol and Phthalate Exposures and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Mary S.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Silva, Manori J.; Zhu, Chenbo; Wetmur, James; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many phthalates and phenols are hormonally active and are suspected to alter the course of development. Objective We investigated prenatal exposures to phthalate and phenol metabolites and their associations with body size measures of the infants at birth. Methods We measured 5 phenol and 10 phthalate urinary metabolites in a multiethnic cohort of 404 women in New York City during their third trimester of pregnancy and recorded size of infants at birth. Results Median urinary conce...

  4. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE...... INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  5. Crohn's colitis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    OpenAIRE

    Boyne, M.; Dye, K.

    2000-01-01

    A 17 year old girl with active Crohn's colitis developed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura that was managed with intravenous immune globulins and cyclosporin A. The possible association between Crohn's disease and immune thrombocytopenia is explored.


Keywords: Crohn's disease; colitis; thrombocytopenia

  6. Idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy in a poodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Aparicio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A seven years old, male poodle is examined presenting acute mandible paralysis (dropped jaw, drooling and difficulty for the apprehension and chewing; not evidence of an other alteration of cranial nerves. The muscular biopsy rules out a myositisof masticatory muscles. The disorder is resolved completely in 3 weeks confirming diagnosis of idiopathic trigeminal neuropathy.

  7. Incidence of Thrombocytopenia in Idiopathic Hyperbilirubinemic Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: This study determines higher rate of thrombocytopenia among idiopathic hyperbilirubinemic neonates (36% and helps the practitioner to be aware of this association and avoid unnecessary investigations.We did not find a significant correlation between serum bilirubin values and thrombocytopenia.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: idiopathic inflammatory myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1001/jama.2010.1977. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Shamim EA, Miller FW. Familial autoimmunity and the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2000 Jun;2(3):201-11. Review. Citation on PubMed Shamim EA, Rider LG, Miller FW. Update on the genetics of ...

  9. Idiopathic cervical osteomyelitis presenting as dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaly GA; Espeso A; Fish B

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a case of idiopathic cervical epidural abscess, complicated by osteomyelitis, presenting with dysphagia as the main complaint. No predisposing factors were identified and blood cultures were negative. Case was treated conservatively by long course of IV antibiotics. We present a review of presentation of spinal epidural abscesses and indications for surgical intervention.

  10. Acute surgical management in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a headache syndrome with progressive symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Most commonly, it is a slow process where surveillance and medical management are the main treatment modalities. We describe herein an acute presentation with bilateral sixth nerve palsies, papilloedema and visual deterioration, where acute surgical intervention was a vision-saving operation.

  11. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: rare but important

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, M J; Rogers, A; Vidya, R.

    2010-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman attended the breast clinic with unresolving mastitis and an associated mass, following failed treatment with antibiotics. Triple assessment confirmed idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Unresponsive to further conservative management and steroid therapy, she underwent surgical excision and made uneventful recovery. No evidence of recurrence was detected at 18 months follow-up.

  12. Idiopathic Aortic Root to Right Atrial Fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Salvatore; Cluzel, Armand; Vola, Marco; Fuzellier, Jean Francois

    2016-06-01

    An aorta to right atrium fistula is rare. We report a case of idiopathic aortic root to right atrial fistula with right heart failure and review the literature. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12751 (J Card Surg 2016;31:373-375). PMID:27109166

  13. Idiopathic hepatic arterial malformation: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蔚巍; 周康荣; 王佩芬; 陈祖望

    2003-01-01

    @@ Hepatic arterial malformation is a rare disorder which either origi nates idiopathically or may be associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiect asia (also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu disease). Although previous reports presented only descriptions of sonographic and angiographic findings,1-6 we present a case of splenic infarct caused by this disorder with CT and CTA findi ngs.

  14. Adolescent-onset idiopathic hemifacial spasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the clinical manifestations, illness-related factors and microsurgical management of adolescent-onset idiopathic hemifacial spasm. Materials and Methods: Of the 1221 microvascular decompression procedures performed for idiopathic hemifacial spasm between March 2001 and July 2007, 16 (1.3% were in adolescent age (≤18. Results: Clinical manifestations in the adolescent-onset were typical, but milder when compared with late-onset. Gender, thickening and adhesion of the arachnoid membrane at the cerebellopontine angle and a small volume of posterior cranial fossa might be important illness-related factors for adolescent-onset idiopathic hemifacial spasm. Arterial compression was the main cause. Typical compression of offending arteries was observed in 14 patients. Compression of petrous bone crest was found in one patient. Immediate effective rate was 100%, and curative rate was 75%. The curative rate, effective rate and delayed resolution rate during the follow-up period (mean: 22.9 months were 87.5%, 100% and 12.5%, respectively. There was no recurrence. The postoperative complications (2; 12.5% included: One patient had transient moderate facial palsy and decreased hearing and one patient had transient decreased hearing and tinnitus. Conclusions: This suggests that microvascular decompression is effective in adolescent-onset idiopathic hemifacial spasm.

  15. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotwicki T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Kotwicki,1 Joanna Chowanska,1,2 Edyta Kinel,3 Dariusz Czaprowski,4,5 Marek Tomaszewski,1 Piotr Janusz1 1Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2National Scoliosis Foundation, Stoughton, MA, USA; 3Department of Rehabilitation, University of Medical Sciences, Poznan Poland; 4Department of Physiotherapy, Józef Rusiecki University College, Olsztyn, 5Rehasport Clinic, Poznan, Poland Abstract: Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid

  16. Exchange-Driven Growth with Birth Rate Less Than Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhen-Quan; KE Jian-Hong; YE Gao-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    We further study the kinetic behavior of the exchange-driven growth with birth and death for the case of birth rate kernel being less than that of death based on the mean-field theory. The symmetric exchange rate kernel is K(k,j) = K'(k,j) = Ikjv, and the birth and death rates are proportional to the aggregate's size. The long time asymptotic behavior of the aggregate size distribution ak(t) is found to obey a much unusual scaling law with an exponentially growing scaling function φ(x) = exp(x).

  17. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A.; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The ...

  18. Births: Final Data for 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Osterman, Michelle J K; Curtin, Sally C; Matthews, T J

    2015-12-01

    This report presents 2014 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at birth, method of delivery, period of gestation, birthweight, and plurality. Birth and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's state of residence and birth rates by age and race of father also are shown. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. PMID:26727629

  19. FAVORED ZODIAC FOR CELEBRITY BIRTHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M. Adel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To find any favored zodiac sign for celebrity births, a sample of 100 celebrities were randomly selected from people of different walks of life. The sample contained politicians, natural scientists, social scientists, Authors of literary works, social workers, humanitarian workers, business personnel, sports icons, singers, actors, actresses, etc. etc. from history and from the current time. The zodiac signs for the celebrities were found from their known dates of births. In the analysis of data, zodiac signs and the number of celebrities were represented as the independent x and the dependent y variables, respectively. For academic interests for the 9th grade high school juniors (at the time of the project performance, the co-authors of this article, as well as for the potentially illustrative uses in high school mathematics textbooks, bar and scatter plots were made, the line of best-fit and the equation of the line were found, probabilities of occurrences of celebrities for each of the zodiac signs were calculated and the correlation coefficients between the variables were determined for the sample. It was found that the zodiac Aquarius has the largest number of celebrities in the sample and that the two variables are moderately correlated. The sample sizes which were increased to 200 and then 300. By including another 100 more celebrities to find if the trend remains unchanged. In all the three cases, Aquarius turned out to be the zodiac when most of the celebrities are born.

  20. Recovering from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish ( en español ) Recovering from birth Related information Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet When to call the baby's doctor – ... Get more details on postpartum depression in our Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet . Emerging research suggests that 1 in ...

  1. The Birth Order Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  2. Cesarean Section Birth

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available CESAREAN SECTION SHAWNEE MISSION MEDICAL CENTER MERRIAM, KANSAS March 13, 2008 00:00:09 ANNOUNCER: Tonight you will experience the miracle of birth during a live Internet broadcast from Shawnee Mission Medical Center in Merriam, Kansas. Over the next hour, ...

  3. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  4. Imaging Diagnosis for Left Ventricular Thrombosis in Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Quan; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Meng-Chao; Liu, Lin; Zeng, Hong; Yang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (IHES) is a rare disease that is frequently associated with cardiac thrombosis and endocardial wall thickness. This case report describes 2 patients who had IHES associated with left ventricular (LV) thrombi. The patients’ symptoms are atypical. Peripheral blood and bone marrow tests showed markedly elevated eosinophils. Electrocardiography showed ischemic changes in both patients. Negative computed tomography (CT) angiography excluded coronary artery stenosis. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), conventional multislice spiral CT, gemstone spectral CT, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging were used to identify the LV intraluminal thrombus and endocardial thickening, and the diagnostic values of each imaging method were analyzed and compared. These patients were clinically diagnosed as “IHES, LV thrombosis, NYHA heart function classification I.” Both patients received oral prednisone and warfarin therapy. At 5 month follow-up, TTE rechecks showed that the size of the LV thrombotic lesion was reduced in the first case but substantially increased in the second case. PMID:25275526

  5. Idiopathic horseshoe-like macular tear: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Masaomi Kubota,1 Tomohiro Shibata,1 Hisato Gunji,1 Hiroshi Tsuneoka2 1Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University School of Medicine Kashiwa Hospital, Chiba, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Background: Although a few cases with idiopathic horseshoe-like macular tear have been reported, the mechanism remains unknown and a standard treatment has yet to be determined. Objective: To report the outcome for a patient with idiopathic horseshoe-like macular tear who underwent vitreous surgery. Case report: A 65-year-old man with no previous injury or ophthalmic disease presented with abnormal vision in his left eye. Best-corrected visual acuity was 0.8 in the right and 0.3 in the left, and the relative afferent pupillary defect was negative. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a horseshoe-like tear on the temporal side of the macula in the left eye. The tear size was 0.75 disc diameters (DD. Optical coherence tomography showed that the focal retinal detachment reached the fovea. A few days after the first visit, there was no longer adhesion of the flap of the tear to the retina and the tear size had increased to 1.5 DD. The patient underwent vitreous surgery similar to large macular hole surgery, with the tear closure repaired using the inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique with 20% SF6 gas tamponade. Although the tear decreased to 0.5 DD after the surgery, complete closure of the tear was not achieved. Conclusion: While cases with horseshoe-like macular tear following trauma and branch retinal vein occlusion have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported idiopathic case. In the present case, there was expansion of the tear until the patient actually underwent surgery. If vertical vitreous traction indeed plays a role in horseshoe-like macular tears, this will need to be taken into consideration at the time of the vitreous surgery in these types of cases. Keywords

  6. EVALUATION OF UNSAFE BIRTHS AND POSTPARTUM HOME CARE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ERGIN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that mother/child deaths can be prevented by having safe births and taking routine postnatal home care. The aim of this study is to evaluate safety of births and postnatal home care visits of mothers having 0-11 month babies in the Center of Aydin. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to study a group of 806 mothers. Multistage sampling method was used. Health stations was taken as cluster units. One rural-one urban health station from ten health-centers was selected by random sampling method. Safety of births, type of births, complications after births, home visits by health personel at postpartum period were asked. Results: Unsafe births was 6,0% in Aydin. It was found that family income, mother?s age/occupation/educational level, social security, number of children, father?s occupation/educational level and household size, effects the safety of births. 59,9% of women were visited by widwives at the postpartum period and mean number of visits were 2,0 ±1,7. At this period 9,4% of women had complications, and these complications were two times greater at unsafe births. Conclusion: Although Aydin is in the west part of Turkey, unsafe births and inadequate postpartum home visits are seen. In order to prevent these problems, health centers must take more active role. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 321-329

  7. Determinants of Low Birth Weight in Malawi: Bayesian Geo-Additive Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Ngwira, Alfred; Stanley, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on factors of low birth weight in Malawi have neglected the flexible approach of using smooth functions for some covariates in models. Such flexible approach reveals detailed relationship of covariates with the response. The study aimed at investigating risk factors of low birth weight in Malawi by assuming a flexible approach for continuous covariates and geographical random effect. A Bayesian geo-additive model for birth weight in kilograms and size of the child at birth (less than ...

  8. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Podcasts & Video E-Cards Flu Badge Real Stories Cleft Lip and Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Eye Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ... premature birth, certain birth defects (such as cleft lip, cleft palate, or both ), and infant death. Quitting smoking before ...

  9. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%-3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid the need for surgical treatment. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe idiopathic scoliosis which is rapidly progressive, with early onset, late diagnosis, and neglected or failed conservative treatment. The psychologic impact of idiopathic scoliosis, a chronic disease occurring in the psychologically fragile period of adolescence, is important because of its body distorting character and the onerous treatment required, either conservative or surgical

  10. MedlinePlus: Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Start Here Birth Control Methods (Department of Health and Human Services, Office ... Male Contraception? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Patient ... Birth control - slow release methods Also in Spanish Birth control ...

  11. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  12. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  13. Clinical Significance of Serum Autoantibodies in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Bo Hyoung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Roh, Jae Hyung; Song, Jin Woo; Lee, Chang Keun; Kim, Miyoung; Jang, Se Jin; Colby, Thomas V.; Kim, Dong Soon

    2013-01-01

    Although autoantibodies are routinely screened in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, there are no reliable data on their clinical usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of autoantibodies for predicting the development of new connective tissue disease in these patients and also mortality. We conducted retrospective analysis of the baseline, and follow-up data for 688 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (526 with idiopathic pulmonary ...

  14. Dietary guidance of selenium supplementation for incipient idiopathic scoliotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-li GUO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study found that there was a correlation between trace element Se and idiopathic scoliosis, and selenium deficiency was probably one of the precipitating factor. According to Chinese dietary reference intakes and selenium content in different food, the plan for filling selenium is conducted, the dietary guidance of filing selenium for incipient idiopathic scoliotic patients is provided, and the disease development is observed so that the basis for etiology and prevention of idiopathic scoliosis can be provided.

  15. [Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Definition and classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslandre, C

    2016-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a group of diseases defined by the presence of arthritis of more than 6weeks duration in patients aged less than 16years and with unknown etiology. The international classification based on clinical and biological criteria define each type of JIA: systemic, oligoarticular, polyarticular with and without rheumatoid factor, enthesitis-related arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis. However, some discussions persist concerning systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, whose clinical symptoms and pathogenic mechanisms are quite similar to those observed in autoinflammatory diseases, arthritis with antinuclear factors (poly- and oligoarticular) that could be considered as a homogenous group, and a family history of psoriasis that frequently led to unclassified arthritis. Better knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms should improve the initial clinical classification with more homogeneous groups of patients and reduce the number of unclassified cases of arthritis. PMID:26968301

  16. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ...

  17. Teen Smoking and Birth Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    MaryBeth Walker; Erdal Tekin; Sally Wallace

    2007-01-01

    In the U.S. teen mothers are more likely to give birth to low birth weight babies than non-teen mothers. There is also substantial evidence that smoking is a risk factor correlated with low birth weight. Low birth weight is a costly outcome in both the short and long term for parents, children, and society at large. This paper examines the causal link between teen age smoking behavior and low birth weight. We use a variety of empirical techniques including fixed effects and a matching estimat...

  18. Capsaicin in Idiopathic Rhinitis A Hot Topic

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijswijk, J B

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter I the currently known causes for nonallergic noninfectious rhinitis and possible treatments are summarised. Also possible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying idiopathic rhinitis (IR) are discussed. In chapter II the aims of the studies are presented. This thesis comprises studies aimed at the therapeutic potential and safety of intranasal capsaicin in IR patients, developing a patient and physician friendly, effective intranasal capsaicin treatment regimen for IR a...

  19. Objective cough frequency in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Angela L; Holt, Kimberley; Hamilton, Andrew; Smith, Jaclyn A; Earis, John E

    2010-01-01

    Background Cough is a common presenting symptom in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). This study measured cough rates in IPF patients and investigated the association between cough and measures of health related quality of life and subjective cough assessments. In addition, IPF cough rates were related to measures of physiological disease severity and compared to cough rates in health and other respiratory conditions. Methods Nineteen IPF patients, mean age 70.8 years ± 8.6, f...

  20. Pulmonary Function Testing in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Fernando J; Flaherty, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse parenchymal lung diseases are a group of disorders that involve the space between the epithelial and endothelial basement membranes and are generally segregated into four major categories. These include the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are further categorized into seven clinical/radiologic/pathologic subsets. These disorders generally share a common pattern of physiologic abnormality characterized by a restrictive ventilatory defect and reduced diffusing capacity (DLCO). ...

  1. Idiopathic Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis in Identical Twins.

    OpenAIRE

    Ju-Bei Yen; Man-Shan Kong; Wan-Jao Wu; Chen-Sheng Huang; Kuei-Wen Chang

    2003-01-01

    Idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) was thought to be a congenital diseasetraditionally, even though several published reports assumed IHPS was an acquired disease.The pathogenesis and inheritance patterns of IHPS are not fully understood. Except for thefamilial recurrence of IHPS, concordance of IHPS in monozygotic or dizygotic twins wasalso noted, but occurrence in female twins is rare. From July 1992 through June 2000, 130patients were diagnosed with IHPS in our hospital includ...

  2. Clomiphene Effects on Idiopathic Premature Ejaculation

    OpenAIRE

    Ketabchi

    2015-01-01

    Background Premature ejaculation (PE) is the inability to delay ejaculation, occurring sooner than they or their partner would like during sexual activities. PE is a challenging problem that can affect sexual enjoyment and may harm relationships of couples and affect their quality of life. In idiopathic PE, several helpful techniques and medicines are recommended, but none of them has yielded satisfactory results. Objectives Our o...

  3. A surgical challenge: Idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Brotherhood, Hilary Laurel; Metcalfe, Michael; Goldenberg, Larry; Pommerville, Peter; Bowman, Cameran; Naysmith, David

    2014-01-01

    Scrotal elephantiasis is a condition rarely encountered in developed nations. It is endemic in tropical regions due to the presence of filariasis (Wucheria bancrofti). We report 2 cases of idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis in Canadian citizens with no history of travel to endemic filariasis regions, malignancy, surgery or radiation. Both patients underwent complete excision of the involved tissue with reconstruction. We found that for advanced cases of scrotal lymphedema, surgery is currently ...

  4. A Case of Idiopathic Thyrotropin (TSH) Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ichida, Tatsuya; Kajita, Yoshihiro

    1997-01-01

    The first case of idiopathic thyrotropin (TSH) deficiency in an old woman with thyroid functioning adenoma was reported. She got subtotal thyroidectomy before about four years of her admission to our hospital because of fatigability, puffy face and leg edema. At that time, she had low TSH and free T4 levels despite replacement therapy with desiccated thyroid. No response of only serum TSH after adminstration of combined stimulant containing TRH and repeated TRH suggested the failure of TSH se...

  5. Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Rekha; Noth, Imre

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we review the evidence for peripheral blood biomarkers in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a life-threatening fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. We focus on selected biomarkers present in peripheral blood, as they are easy to obtain, can be measured longitudinally, and have the greatest likelihood of achieving clinical utility. This article concentrates on biomarkers with mechanistic plausibility that may be directly involved in the development of IPF, including K...

  6. Vitamin D metabolites in idiopathic infantile hypercalcaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, N D; Snodgrass, G J; Cohen, R D; Porteous, C E; Coldwell, R D; Trafford, D J; Makin, H L

    1985-01-01

    Metabolites of vitamin D were measured in plasma from 83 patients with idiopathic infantile hypercalcaemia syndrome who were mentally handicapped but had normal calcium values at the time of the study. No significant difference was detected in the mean plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, or 25,26-dihydroxyvitamin D3 between patients and age matched controls. The mean plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was significantly l...

  7. Relieving idiopathic dental pain without drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Haryono Utomo; M. Rulianto

    2011-01-01

    Background: Teeth are commonly obvious source of orofacial pain. Sometimes the pain source is undetectable, thus called as idiopathic dental pain. Since dentist wants to alleviate or eliminate the pains with every effort in their mind, a lot of drugs could be prescribed. Moreover, it is make sense that endodontic treatment or even tooth extraction will be done. Unfortunately, endodontic treatment may also initiate neuropathic tooth pain that is caused by nerve extirpation, thus worsen the pai...

  8. Current Treatments for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    AlbertoMartini

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) differs markedly from adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is not a single disease, but an exclusion diagnosis that gather together all forms of arthritis that begin before the age of 16 years, persist for more than 6 weeks, and are of unknown origin. The advent of the new biological treatments has dramatically changed both the observed responses to treatment and the expectations of therapies. The implementation of an adequate legislation as well as the ...

  9. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis - a diagnostic challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Bakalli, Ilirjana; Kota, Luljeta; Sala, Durim; Celaj, Ermela; Kola, Elmira; Lluka, Robert; Sallabanda, Sashenka

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare disorder that can occur at any age and is characterized by the triad of hemoptysis, iron deficiency anemia and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. The clinical course is exceedingly variable especially in children and a substantial proportion of this age group is undiagnosed. It is probably due to the fact that iron deficiency anemia may be the first and the only manifestation of IPH, preceding other symptoms and signs by several months and IPH is not c...

  10. Two Sisters with Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Gencer; Erkan Ceylan; Muharrem Bitiren; Ahmet Koc

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with unknown etiology. In the present report, the presentations of two sisters are described: one sister had IPH, eosinophilia and a high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) level; and the other had IPH, pneumothorax, eosinophilia and a high serum IgE level. Both cases had quite unusual presentations. The first patient was 23 years of age, and had suffered from dry cough and progressive dyspnea for four years. He...

  11. Levocetirizine for chronic idiopathic urticaria: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Erin E; Weinberg, Jeffrey M

    2009-03-01

    Only recently available on the US market, levocetirizine has emerged as an effective new option in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Levocetirizine is the active isomer of cetirizine and demonstrates twice the affinity for the H1 receptor compared with the parent compound. In the treatment of CIU, levocetirizine has consistently demonstrated high response rates, fast onset, and a favorable side effect profile. PMID:19271371

  12. Cardiac manifestations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Isha; Shah, Varun; Agarwal, Abhishek; Sikachi, Rutuja R

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, parenchymal disease of the lung with an estimated prevalence of 14–43 per 100,000. Patient usually presents with coughing and exertional dyspnea, which can lead to acute respiratory failure. IPF has been associated with various co-morbidities such as lung cancer, emphysema, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), GERD and multiple cardiovascular consequences. The cardiovascular manifestations of IPF include pulmonary hypertension, heart fa...

  13. Surgical treatment analysis of idiopathic esophageal achalasia

    OpenAIRE

    de Aquino, José Luis Braga; SAID, Marcelo Manzano; PEREIRA, Douglas Rizzanti; do AMARAL, Paula Casals; LIMA, Juliana Carolina Alves; LEANDRO-MERHI, Vânia Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    Background Idiopathic esophageal achalasia is an inflammatory disease of unknown origin, characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter in response to swallowing, with consequent dysphagia. Aim To demonstrate the results of surgical therapy in these patients, evaluating the occurred local and systemic complications. Methods Were studied retrospectively 32 patients, 22 of whom presented non-advanced stage of the disease (Stage I/II) and 10 wi...

  14. Renal involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shehwaro, Nathalie; Langlois, Anne Lyse; Gueutin, Victor; Izzedine, Hassane

    2013-01-01

    The hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a group of disorders marked by the sustained overproduction of eosinophils, in which eosinophilic infiltration and mediator release cause damage to multiple organs. In idiopathic HES, the underlying cause of hypereosinophilia (HE) remains unknown despite thorough aetiological work-up. Kidney disease is thought to be rare in HES. Renal manifestations described include eosinophilic interstitial nephritis, various types of glomerulopathies, thrombotic m...

  15. Managing comorbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton BG; Ryerson CJ

    2015-01-01

    Blair G Fulton,1 Christopher J Ryerson1,2 1Department of Medicine, 2Centre for Heart Lung Innovation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: Major risk factors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) include older age and a history of smoking, which predispose to several pulmonary and extra-pulmonary diseases. IPF can be associated with additional comorbidities through other mechanisms as either a cause or a consequence of these diseases. We review the literature rega...

  16. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and MMR vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, E; Waight, P; Farrington, C.; Andrews, N.; Stowe, J; Taylor, B

    2001-01-01

    A CAUSAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MEASLES—mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was confirmed using immunisation/hospital admission record linkage. The absolute risk within six weeks of immunisation was 1 in 22 300 doses, with two of every three cases occurring in the six week post-immunisation period being caused by MMR. Children with ITP before MMR had no vaccine associated recurrences.



  17. Chronic idiopathic polyneuropathy treated with azathioprine.

    OpenAIRE

    Pentland, B; Adams, G G; Mawdsley, C

    1982-01-01

    The results of azathioprine therapy in five patients with chronic progressive or relapsing idiopathic inflammatory polyneuropathy are described. In four patients a sustained improvement followed treatment and in the other patient azathioprine successfully replaced corticosteroid therapy. The improvement was often delayed for up to three months. The literature on the use of azathioprine in chronic polyneuropathy is reviewed. We suggest that there is a place for azathioprine treatment in patien...

  18. The joints in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Ording Muller, Lil-Sofie; Humphries, Paul; Rosendahl, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common rheumatic entity in childhood. Imaging has become an important supplement to the clinical assessment of children with JIA. Radiographs still play an important role in the workup, and long-term follow-up in children with JIA, but are not sensitive to findings in the early disease stage. Both ultrasound and MRI are more sensitive to inflammatory changes than clinical assessment alone. However, the differentiation between normal findings ...

  19. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a historical review.

    OpenAIRE

    Homolka, J.

    1987-01-01

    Hamman and Rich are generally considered to have been the first to describe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) as a new clinical and pathological entity. However, several earlier reports in the German-language literature described autopsy findings consistent with IPF from a contemporary point of view. The author discusses these and later reports in a review of the history, diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  20. Pulmonary function in children with idiopathic scoliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiligiannis Theofanis; Grivas Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased ...

  1. Invasive diagnostic techniques in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Carlo; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Cavazza, Alberto; Chilosi, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Tomassetti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the aetiology may be identified or, not infrequently, remain unknown. Establishing a correct diagnosis of a distinct f-ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating clinical profile, physiological and laboratory data, radiological appearance and, when appropriate, histological findings. Surgical lung biopsy is still considered the most important diagnostic tool as it is able to provide lung samples large enough for identification of complex patterns such as usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Bronchoalveolar lavage is still a popular diagnostic tool allowing identification of alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when an increase in lymphocytes is detected. Conventional transbronchial lung biopsy has a very low sensitivity in detecting the UIP pattern and its role in this clinical-radiological context is marginal. The introduction of less invasive methods such as transbronchial cryobiopsy show great promise to clinical practice as they can be used to obtain samples large enough to morphologically support a diagnosis of IPF or other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, along with fewer complications. Recent advances in the field suggest that less invasive methods of lung sampling, without significant side effects, in combination with other diagnostic methods could replace the need for surgical lung biopsy in the future. Indeed, these new multidisciplinary procedures may become the main diagnostic work-up method for patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. PMID:26682637

  2. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Jirásková

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nada Jirásková, Pavel RozsívalDepartment of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech RepublicPurpose: To evaluate retrospectively the features, treatment, and outcome of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH in children.Methods: Nine patients, 15 years and younger, diagnosed with IIH. Inclusion criteria were papilledema, normal brain computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid pressure greater than 250 mm H2O, normal cerebrospinal fluid content, and a nonfocal neurologic examination except for sixth nerve palsy.Results: Of the nine patients, eight were girls. Five girls were overweight and one boy was obese. The most common presenting symptom was headache (5 patients. Diplopia or strabismus did not occur in our group. Visual field abnormalities were present in all eyes, and severe visual loss resulting in light perception vision occurred in both eyes of one patient. Eight patients were treated medically with acetazolamide alone, and one girl needed a combination of acetazolamide and corticosteroids. This girl also required optic nerve sheath decompression surgery. Resolution of papilledema and recovery of visual function occurred in all patients.Conclusions: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in prepubertal children is rather uncommon. Prompt diagnosis and management are important to prevent permanent visual loss.Keywords: idiopathic intracranial hypertension, pediatric, treatment

  3. Clomiphene Effects on Idiopathic Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketabchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Premature ejaculation (PE is the inability to delay ejaculation, occurring sooner than they or their partner would like during sexual activities. PE is a challenging problem that can affect sexual enjoyment and may harm relationships of couples and affect their quality of life. In idiopathic PE, several helpful techniques and medicines are recommended, but none of them has yielded satisfactory results. Objectives Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clomiphene as a selective estrogen receptor modulator on the treatment of idiopathic PE. Patients and Methods In a randomized clinical trial, 178 married men with idiopathic PE defined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Third Revised Version (DSM-III-R who referred to urology clinics over a 10-month period in 2012 were randomized into two groups, namely the study (clomiphene and control (placebo groups. They completed self-administered questionnaires that included intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT, erectile dysfunction indexes, quality of life (QOL, sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, and medical illness. After 6 months of intervention, all data were compared with the baseline data and between the groups. Results Within the 10-month study course, 126 patients (70.8% completed this study. After intervention and comparison of the results between the two groups, IELT, sexual indexes, and QOL improved in the study group, but significant differences were observed only in the IELT and QOL findings. Conclusions Clomiphene seems to be useful in the pharmacological treatment of PE compared to the placebo.

  4. Pulmonary function in children with idiopathic scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiligiannis Theofanis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic scoliosis, a common disorder of lateral displacement and rotation of vertebral bodies during periods of rapid somatic growth, has many effects on respiratory function. Scoliosis results in a restrictive lung disease with a multifactorial decrease in lung volumes, displaces the intrathoracic organs, impedes on the movement of ribs and affects the mechanics of the respiratory muscles. Scoliosis decreases the chest wall as well as the lung compliance and results in increased work of breathing at rest, during exercise and sleep. Pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure may develop in severe disease. In this review the epidemiological and anatomical aspects of idiopathic scoliosis are noted, the pathophysiology and effects of idiopathic scoliosis on respiratory function are described, the pulmonary function testing including lung volumes, respiratory flow rates and airway resistance, chest wall movements, regional ventilation and perfusion, blood gases, response to exercise and sleep studies are presented. Preoperative pulmonary function testing required, as well as the effects of various surgical approaches on respiratory function are also discussed.

  5. Congenital malformations in multiple births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was done to know and compare the incidence of congenital malformations in singleton and multiple births in our hospital & compare with other studies. Methods: A retrospective study done by collecting the data from parturition register from Jan 2008 to Dec 2011 (4yrs from Cheluvamba Hospital attached to Mysore Medical College and Research Institute. Total number of the live births, still births, and abortions> 20 wks were collected. Details of multiple births such as maternal age, gestational age, sex & birth weight of the babies, U/S reports and congenital anomalies (CA were noted. Results: The total number of singleton births were 48700 and number of babies who had congenital malformations were 235 (48.25/10,000 births.Total number of multiple births were 579 including 10 triplets and number of babies who had CA were 11 (189.98/10,000 births, P<0.0001. In the present study sex of the babies were noted in all multiple births and zygosity could not be recorded. Among 579 multiple births 404 were of the Same Sex (SS and 165 were of Opposite Sex (OS in twins and 6 were of the same sex and 4 were of opposite sex in triplets. According to Weinberg formula 50% of same sex (SS twins are monozygotic and 50% are dizygotic twins. Among the 11 babies with CA, 4 monozygotic twins had anomalies related to twinning such as Acardia with TRAP sequence (3 twins, and Thoracophagus (1 twin.5 babies had CNS anomalies, 1 with cystic hygroma, 1 baby with multiple system affected. Conclusion: The incidence of birth defects is more in multiple births and especially in monozygotic twins. In the present days increase in twinning rate due to advanced maternal age, hereditary factors and use of ovulation inducing drugs, which results in premature and low birth wt babies associated with poor lung maturity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 216-221

  6. Parental urinary biomarkers of preconception exposure to bisphenol A and phthalates in relation to birth outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Smarr, Melissa M.; Grantz, Katherine L.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, José M.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2015-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are ubiquitous non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals whose relation with infant birth size is not clearly understood. Methods We examined associations between maternal and paternal preconception urinary concentrations of total BPA and 14 phthalate metabolites and birth size for 233 infants. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate parental quartiles of BPA and phthalates in relation to birth weight, length, head circumference,...

  7. Clinical and radiological analysis of children idiopathic diaphragmatic hernia and diaphragmatic eventration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the diagnosis and distinction of idiopathic diaphragmatic hernia and diaphrag-matic eventration. Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of 31 cases of idiopathic diaphragmatic hernia and 12 cases of diaphragmatic eventration treated in our hospital between 1975 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Diaphragmatic hernia happens more early than diaphragmatic Eventration, and have more serious symptoms and worse progmosis. The prognosis is connected with the size of gap in diaphragmatic. There are distinction between them in radiology. It is valuable to avoid an erroneous diagnosis thtough barium meal, especially for some atypical diaphragmatic hernia which is similar to pulmonary. Conclusion: We can find diaphragmatic hernia and diaphrag matic Eventration by radio-graph and barium meal. The percentage of' diagnose attain 90%. If CT, USI and clinical data are combine to diagnosis, the percentage of diagnose will attain 98%. (authors)

  8. Life course path analysis of birth weight, childhood growth, and adult systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Andersen, Per Kragh; Baker, Jennifer L; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Torben; Jensen, Gorm; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2009-01-01

    The inverse associations between birth weight and later adverse health outcomes and the positive associations between adult body size and poor health imply that increases in relative body size between birth and adulthood may be undesirable. In this paper, the authors describe life course path...

  9. Birth Muse: The Birth Story of Eliza Michelle

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Maria J

    2009-01-01

    The author, a birth doula and Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, agreed to attend the birth of a second child to a mother whose military husband was serving overseas. Because labor seemed to be progressing slowly, they waited at a hotel near the birth center. A very quick labor progression led to a rapid birth in the hotel, with the midwife still on her way. The author shares how learning to trust the power of natural childbirth helped her to remain calm and present for the mother for a on...

  10. Aircraft noise and birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipschild, P.; Meijer, H.; Salle, H.

    1981-05-01

    Data from six infant welfare centres in the vicinity of Amsterdam airport were analysed. Birth weights of 902 infants were related to aircraft noise levels to which the mother was exposed in pregnancy. The analysis was restricted to deliveries in hospital, single births and mothers aged 20-34 years. In high noise areas the mean birth weight was 69 g lower than in low noise areas. Of the infants in high noise areas 24% had a birth weight less than 3000 g, compared with 18% in low noise areas. In the analysis the effect of sex of the infant, birth order and to some extent socio-economic status were taken into account. An effect of smoking seemed unlikely. The results, together with existing knowledge, give some suggestion that aircraft noise can decrease birth weight.

  11. Idiopathic Sweet’s Syndrome Accompanying Bullous Lesions: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Akı, Tuba; Karıncaoğlu, Yelda; Özcan, Hamdi; Seyhan, Muammer Eşrefoğlu; Kalaycı, Bülent; Karadağ, Neşe

    2004-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is a rare dermatosis which is characterized by painful red plaques, pyrexia, elevated neutrophil count, and acellular infiltrate consisting predominantly of neutrophils that are diffusely distributed in the upper dermis. It may be either associated with upper respiratory tract infections, hematologic malignancies, drug hypersensitivities, sarcoidosis, autoimmune disorders or may be idiopathic. In this case an idiopathic SS that is associated with bullo...

  12. Hyperoxaluria in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis--what are the limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J

    1999-01-01

    , and the syndrome of mild hyperoxaluric calcium nephrolithiasis could not be identified in our population of idiopathic stone formers. Hence, a limit of abnormal oxalate excretion that distinguishes an idiopathic stone former from a non-stone former could not be defined in our population. Therefore...

  13. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  14. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  15. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  16. Left behind by birth month

    OpenAIRE

    Solli, Ingeborg

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing comprehensive administrative from Norway I investigate birth month effects on school performance at age 16, educational achievement at age 19 and 25 and earnings at age 30. I demonstrate that the oldest children in class have a substantially higher 10th grade GPA than their younger peers. The birth month differences are similar across gender, but stronger for less advantaged children. The birth month effects are robust to controlling for sibling fixed effects. On longer term outcome...

  17. Brain birth and personal identity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of brain birth has assumed a position of some significance in discussions on the status of the human embryo and on the point in embryonic development prior to which experimental procedures may be undertaken on human embryos. This paper reviews previous discussions of this concept, which have placed brain birth at various points between 12 days' and 20 weeks' gestation and which have emphasised the symmetry of brain birth and brain death. Major developmental features of brain devel...

  18. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Sharada B. Menasinkai; Mahantappa A. Chiniwar; Saraswathi, G

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ul...

  19. IDIOPATHIC PYODERMA GANGRENOSUM: REPORT IN A THREE YEAR OLD CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar Kinhal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, non - infectious and destructive skin disease. Its exact etiopathogenesis is not clearly understood and is believed to be due to immune dysfunction. Several theories have been postulated; however none are consistent in all patients. Pyoderma gangrenosum mostly affects adults and rarely in children. An underlying systemic diseas e is often seen in most of the cases. A three - year - old male child presented with a non - healing ulcer over left thigh. Clinical features, histopathology, other investigations and dramatic response to corticosteroids suggested a diagnosis of idiopathic pyo derma gangrenosum. Associated idiopathic thrombocytosis was also seen. Idiopathic pyoderma gangrenosum is very rare in children. Idiopathic pyoderma gangrenosum associated with idiopathic thrombocytosis and keloidal scarring has not been reported earlier

  20. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  1. The National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, P. W.; Rasmussen, S A; Lynberg, M. C.; Moore, C A; Anderka, M.; Carmichael, S.L.; Costa, P.; Druschel, C.; Hobbs, C. A.; Romitti, P A; Langlois, P. H.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2001-01-01

    The National Birth Defects Prevention Study was designed to identify infants with major birth defects and evaluate genetic and environmental factors associated with the occurrence of birth defects. The ongoing case-control study covers an annual birth population of 482,000 and includes cases identified from birth defect surveillance registries in eight states. Infants used as controls are randomly selected from birth certificates or birth hospital records. Mothers of case and control infants ...

  2. Idiopathic Polyhydramnios: Severity and Perinatal Morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Samantha L; Beamon, Carmen J; Chescheir, Nancy C; Stamilio, David

    2016-06-01

    Objective To estimate the association between the severity of idiopathic polyhydramnios and adverse outcomes. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of deliveries at one hospital from 2000 to 2012 with an amniotic fluid index (AFI) measurement ≥24 + 0 weeks' gestation. Pregnancies complicated by diabetes, multiples, or fetal anomalies were excluded. Exposure was the degree of polyhydramnios: normal (AFI 5-24 cm), mild (≥ 24-30 cm), and moderate-severe (> 30 cm). Primary outcomes were perinatal mortality, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, and postpartum hemorrhage. Results There were 10,536 pregnancies: 10,188 with a normal AFI, 274 mild (78.74%), and 74 moderate-severe polyhydramnios (21.26%). Adverse outcomes were increased with idiopathic polyhydramnios: NICU admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.77-4.99), postpartum hemorrhage (AOR 15.81, 95% CI 7.82-31.96), macrosomia (AOR 3.41, 95% CI 2.61-4.47), low 5-minute Apgar score (AOR 2.60, 95% CI 1.57-4.30), and cesarean (AOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.74-2.69). There were increasing odds of macrosomia (mild: AOR 3.19, 95% CI 2.36-4.32; moderate-severe: AOR 4.44, 95% CI 2.53-7.79) and low 5-minute Apgar score (mild: AOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.23-4.08; moderate-severe: AOR 3.93, 95% CI 1.62-9.55) with increasing severity of polyhydramnios. Conclusion Idiopathic polyhydramnios is independently associated with increased risks of morbidity. There appears to be a dose-response relationship for neonatal macrosomia and low 5-minute Apgar score risks. PMID:26862725

  3. Idiopathic Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis in Identical Twins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Bei Yen

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS was thought to be a congenital diseasetraditionally, even though several published reports assumed IHPS was an acquired disease.The pathogenesis and inheritance patterns of IHPS are not fully understood. Except for thefamilial recurrence of IHPS, concordance of IHPS in monozygotic or dizygotic twins wasalso noted, but occurrence in female twins is rare. From July 1992 through June 2000, 130patients were diagnosed with IHPS in our hospital including one pair of female twins. Wepresent the finding in the twins and review the associated articles about the pathogenesis andinheritance patterns of IHPS.

  4. Idiopathic necrotizing sialometaplasia of parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailja Puri Wahal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS is an uncommon non-neoplastic, self-limiting inflammatory condition of the salivary glands. NS of major salivary glands is rare and simulates malignancy. If it is seen at this location, most of the cases are due to ischemia caused by vessel injury secondary to previous dental procedure or parotid gland surgery. We present a case of a parotid swelling that appeared as Warthin tumor on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC. On histology it turned out to be NS of parotid gland. The well known etiologies were absent in this case and hence it was labeled as idiopathic.

  5. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis complicated by Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hirofumi; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Kato, Masataka; Chou, Ami; Komori, Akiko; Abe, Yuriko; Matsumura, Masaharu; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Shori

    2015-10-01

    We report the case of a 9-year-old girl with Down syndrome (DS) diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH). Although acute pneumonia complicated by hemolytic anemia was suspected, IPH was finally diagnosed on bronchoscopy. Treatment with prednisolone achieved good clinical response. An association between IPH and DS was not able to be identified, but immunological issues in DS may contribute to the onset of IPH. Recurrent and intractable respiratory symptoms with marked infiltrative shadows in the bilateral lungs and complicated by severe anemia in patients with DS should suggest IPH. PMID:26508184

  6. MR imaging of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four patients with idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN) were evaluated with MR imaging. Vascular contact at the proximal portion of the preganglionic segment (PGS) of the trigeminal nerve and deformity of the PGS was observed on the affected side in 97% and 62% of patients, respectively. Nonsurgical treatments were effective in 11 of the 13 patients without deformed PGS, but they failed to control trigeminal neuralgia in 8 of 21 patients with deformed PGS. This paper suggests that MR imaging could be used in the clinical assessment of trigeminal neuralgia before treatment

  7. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the paediatric perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Alison [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Department of Adolescent Rheumatology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); McDonagh, Janet E. [Birmingham Children' s Hospital, Institute of Child Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    Paediatric rheumatology is a relatively new specialty that has developed rapidly over the last 30 years. There have been major advances, which have included improvements in the classification and management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The former has led to enhanced international collaboration with disease registries, multicentre research and the development of new therapeutic agents. This has resulted in improved disease control and remission induction in many. There is, however, still significant morbidity associated with JIA during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and challenges for the future include early identification of those with a poorer prognosis, appropriate administration of safe therapies and optimizing outcomes as young people move through adolescence into adulthood. (orig.)

  8. Idiopathic lipoid pneumonia successfully treated with prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Cesario, Alfredo; Porziella, Venanzio; Mulè, Antonino; Petrone, Gianluigi; Margaritora, Stefano; Granone, Pierluigi

    2012-01-01

    Lipoid pneumonia (LP) is a rare type of pneumonia that is radiologically characterized by lung infiltrates, although imaging alone may not be diagnostic. We describe an unusual 61-year-old patient with idiopathic LP presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule mimicking lung cancer because of its rapid growth. After treatment with oral prednisone, a control chest radiogram indicated complete normalization of the radiologic features. This case shows that LP should be considered in the diagnostic assessment of any undefined pulmonary mass, after malignancy has been pathologically excluded. PMID:21419490

  9. Genetics of idiopathic generalized epilepsy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. V. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE is a common type of epilepsy. Strong support for a genetic role in IGE comes from twin and family studies. Several subtypes of IGE have been reported but families often have members affected with different subtypes. Major advances have been made in the understanding of genetic basis of monogenic inherited epilepsies. However, most IGEs are complex genetic diseases and some susceptible IGE genes are shared across subtypes that determine subtypes in specific combinations. The high throughput technologies like deoxyribonucleic acid microarrays and sequencing technologies have the potential to identify causative genes or loci in non-familial cases.

  10. Idiopathic Horner's syndrome in Collie dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven cases of idiopathic Horner's Syndrome in the Collie are described. Five males and two females presented with unilateral miosis, ptosis of the upper eyelid, enophthalmos and protrusion of the third eyelid. Thorough examination, pharmacological testing with phenylephrine, complete blood counts and radiography of the tympanic bullae and thorax were performed. The etiology was not identified in any of the cases. Clinical signs improved with pharmacologic testing within 20-40 min. In five dogs, total resolution of clinical signs was observed at 4 and 16 weeks after their initial appearance. Pharmacological testing suggested that the deficit could be at the preganglionic neuron

  11. Renal involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehwaro, Nathalie; Langlois, Anne Lyse; Gueutin, Victor; Izzedine, Hassane

    2013-01-01

    The hypereosinophilic syndromes (HESs) are a group of disorders marked by the sustained overproduction of eosinophils, in which eosinophilic infiltration and mediator release cause damage to multiple organs. In idiopathic HES, the underlying cause of hypereosinophilia (HE) remains unknown despite thorough aetiological work-up. Kidney disease is thought to be rare in HES. Renal manifestations described include eosinophilic interstitial nephritis, various types of glomerulopathies, thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and electrolyte disturbances. The diagnosis must be made in time, because a recovery of renal function can be obtained if treatment is initiated promptly. PMID:26064485

  12. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Misdiagnosed as Hereditary Angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Michelle Fog; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare, but potentially life-threatening genetic disorder that results from an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by acute, recurrent attacks of severe local edema, most commonly affecting the skin and mucosa. Swelling in hereditary angioedema patients does however not always have to be caused by angioedema but can relate to other concomitant disorders. In this report we are focusing on misdiagnosis in a patient with known hereditary angioedema, whose bleeding episode caused by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was mistaken for an acute attack of hereditary angioedema. The case illustrates how clinicians can have difficulties in handling patients with rare diseases, especially in the emergency care setting. PMID:26819784

  13. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Misdiagnosed as Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michelle Fog; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare, but potentially life-threatening genetic disorder that results from an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by acute, recurrent attacks of severe local edema, most commonly affecting the skin and mucosa. Swelling in hereditary angioedema patients does...... however not always have to be caused by angioedema but can relate to other concomitant disorders. In this report we are focusing on misdiagnosis in a patient with known hereditary angioedema, whose bleeding episode caused by idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura was mistaken for an acute attack of...... hereditary angioedema. The case illustrates how clinicians can have difficulties in handling patients with rare diseases, especially in the emergency care setting....

  14. Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sathish

    2016-04-01

    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is an inflammatory condition characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthritis, rash and serositis. In sJIA, systemic inflammation has been associated with dysregulation of the innate immune system, suggesting that it is an autoinflammatory disorder. IL-1 and IL-6 play a major role in the pathogenesis of sJIA and treatment with IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors has shown to be highly effective. Recent data suggests that early cytokine blockage might abrogate chronic, destructive, therapy resistant arthritis phase, reflecting a potential "window of opportunity" in the care of children with sJIA. PMID:26916892

  15. Prenatal sonographic monitoring of idiopathic megacystis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoretto, Paolo; Lesma, Arianna; Spagnolo, Daniele; Valsecchi, Luca; Negretto, Alice; Candiani, Massimo

    2013-02-01

    This case report is of a female fetus diagnosed with severe idiopathic megacystis at 21 weeks of pregnancy. Sonographic monitoring demonstrated normal amniotic fluid volume and renal structures, absence of hydronephrosis, ureteral dilation, and associated abnormalities. Conservative management was chosen with postnatal confirmation of diagnosis. The neonate presented seizures, and subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated transverse sinus thrombosis with adjacent ischemic damage. At present, the infant is 2 years old, and she is thriving normally and maintains urinary continence with spontaneous voidings. PMID:21953421

  16. Phototesting In The Idiopathic Photodermatoses Among Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejoy P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available 50 patients with idiopathic photodermatoses were phototested using the solar simulator, with broad spectrum wavebands of the whole spectrum (WS and the whole spectrum â€" ultraviolet B (WS- UVB to determine the minimal erythema dose. Cases diagnosed as solar urticaria were further tested with visible light. Among the photodermatoses seen in this part of the country polymorphic light eruption (PLE was the commonest followed by chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD and solar urticaria. The UVB wavelengths appeared to be more responsible than UVA in PLE and CAD while the UVA and visible wavelengths were responsible for solar urticaria.

  17. Model of reticuloendothelial iron metabolism in humans: Abnormal behavior in idiopathic hemochromatosis and in inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron transport in the reticuloendothelial (RE) system plays a central role in iron metabolism, but its regulation has not been characterized physiologically in vivo in humans. In particular, why serum iron is elevated and RE cells are much less iron-loaded than parenchymal cells in idiopathic hemochromatosis is not known. The processing of erythrocyte iron by the RE system was studied after intravenous (IV) injection of 59Fe heat-damaged RBCs (HDRBCs) and 55Fe transferrin in normal subjects and in patients with iron deficiency, idiopathic hemochromatosis, inflammation, marrow aplasia, or hyperplastic erythropoiesis. Early release of 59Fe by the RE system was calculated from the plasma iron turnover and the 59Fe plasma reappearance curve. Late release was calculated from the ratio of 59Fe/55Fe RBC utilization in 2 weeks. The partitioning of iron between the early (release from heme catabolism) and late (release from RE stores) phases depended on the size of RE iron stores, as illustrated by the inverse relationship observed between early release and plasma ferritin (P less than .001). There was a strong correlation between early release and the rate of change of serum iron levels during the first three hours in normal subjects (r = .85, P less than .001). Inflammation produced a blockade of the early release phase, whereas in idiopathic hemochromatosis early release was considerably increased as compared with subjects with similar iron stores. Based on these results, we describe a model of RE iron metabolism in humans. We conclude that the RE system appears to determine the diurnal fluctuations in serum iron levels through variations in the immediate output of heme iron. In idiopathic hemochromatosis, a defect of the RE cell in withholding iron freed from hemoglobin could be responsible for the high serum iron levels and low RE iron stores

  18. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  19. Birth Order: Reconciling Conflicting Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Robert B.; Mullally, Patricia R.

    1997-01-01

    Introduces the confluence model as a theory specifying the process by which the intellectual environment modifies intellectual development. Using this model, explores the contradiction between prediction of secular trends in test scores by trends in aggregate birth order and the lack of prediction of individual test scores by birth order using…

  20. Radiographic Evaluation of Idiopathic Osteosclerosis in Patients Referring to Mashhad Dental School from November 2002 to May 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eatemadi-Sadjadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Idiopathic osteosclerosis is a common radiopaque lesion in the jaw bones, which is asymptomatic and usually detected accidentally in various radiographs. The purpose of this study was to determine the radiographic features of idiopathic osteosclerosis in the jawbones of patients referring to the maxillofacial radiology center of Mashhad Dental Faculty. Methods: In this descriptive study, panoramic radiographs of 300 patients ( 125 males, 175 females who had referred to the maxillofacial radiology department were evaluated for the presence of idiopathic osteosclerosis. The radiographic information included location, number, shape, size, relationship with teeth, pattern of density ( trabecular-cortical and demographic data ( age, sex and evidence of disease in the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys were also recorded . Then data was analyzed using chi-square and t-student test. Results : A total of 27 patients (9%, exhibited 40 foci of idiopathic osteosclerosis with different shapes and sizes (4 cm2 to 1/09 cm 2 , most of which had well defined borders (65% and trabecular density (62/5% . The most common region for these lesions was in the mandible, especially in the second premolar (47/5% and first molar (42/5% regions and the majority had no connection to the teeth (57/5%. The lesions were most prevalent in the second decade of life (29/6% followed by third and fourth decades. (25/9% Conclusion: The results of this study were the same as that of previous similar studies. In addition, chronic renal failure was seen in 1/3 of patients with idiopathic osteosclerosis .

  1. Are environmental pollutants risk factors for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to air pollutants and low birth weight in a medium-sized city. An ecological study was performed, using live birth data from São José dos Campos, São Paulo State, Brazil. The environmental data were obtained from the São Paul State Environmental Agency. The study included full-term newborns whose mothers were 20 to 34 years of age and had at least a complete high school education, seven or more prenatal visits, singleton pregnancy, and vaginal delivery, in order to minimize potential confounding from these variables. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of each pollutant. Low birth weight was defined as less than 2,500g. The sample included a total of 2,529 data from 2001 that met the inclusion criteria (25.6% of the total. We identified 99 newborns (3.95% of the sample with low birth weight, and the pollutants sulfur dioxide and ozone were associated with low birth weight. The final model was À(x = -1.79 + 1.30 (SO2 + 1.26 (O3. Thus, sulfur dioxide and ozone were identified as risk factors for low birth weight in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil.

  2. New Advances in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Long Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA comprises a group ofheterogeneous disorders of chronic arthritis in childhood withno apparent etiology. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the mostcommon pediatric rheumatic disease and is associated withsignificant long-term morbidity and mortality. There have beenmajor advances in recent years in our understanding of thepathogenesis of JIA, the definition of disease control, and biological treatments for JIA. Multiple environmental and geneticfactors have been linked with the onset and / or the exacerbation of JIA, including perinatal factors, viral and bacterialinfections, epigenetic factors, and malnutrition. However, nosingle causative factor has been identified to date. As ourunderstanding of the complex network of immune cells andinflammatory cytokines has improved, biologics have beendeveloped to modulate the inflammatory processes. Indeed, anumber of such biologics have been demonstrated effective for the treatment of JIA.Although biologic agents may alleviate the inflammation associated with JIA and preventdisability caused by joint destruction, continued and comprehensive observation is requiredto determine the long-term outcomes associated with such treatment

  3. Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis: A current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowilaty Sawsan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis (IJFT, also known as parafoveal telangiectasis or idiopathic macular telangiectasia, refers to a heterogeneous group of well-recognized clinical entities characterized by telangiectatic alterations of the juxtafoveolar capillary network of one or both eyes, but which differ in appearance, presumed pathogenesis, and management strategies. Classically, three groups of IJFT are identified. Group I is unilateral easily visible telangiectasis occurring predominantly in males, and causing visual loss as a result of macular edema. Group II, the most common, is bilateral occurring in both middle-aged men and women, and presenting with telangiectasis that is more difficult to detect on biomicroscopy, but with characteristic and diagnostic angiographic and optical coherence tomography features. Vision loss is due to retinal atrophy, not exudation, and subretinal neovascularization is common. Group III is very rare characterized predominantly by progressive obliteration of the perifoveal capillary network, occurring usually in association with a medical or neurologic disease. This paper presents a current review of juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis, reviewing the classification of these entities and focusing primarily on the two most common types encountered in clinical practice, i.e., groups I and II, describing their clinical features, histopathology, natural history, complications, latest results from imaging modalities and functional studies, differential diagnosis, and treatment modalities.

  4. RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION OF IDIOPATHIC RIGHT VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华伟; JituVohra

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents our experieaee with radioreqencey ablation (RFA) for idiopathic ventricular tschycardia (VT) arising from right ventricle in 12 patients(pts). The age range d patients was 21~50, with a mean of 38. 5 years. Ten out of 12 were females, 1 patient had eandia failure due to almost incessant VT while the rest had normal left ventricular function.Twelve pts had VT arising from the fight ventricle; of those, 9 were from the outflow truct, 2 from the RV apex, and l from the RV inflow. In all tats the diagnostic study and therapeutic RFA were combined in a single procedure, pacemapping and local aetlvition time were used to guide the site of RFA in Ors with VT arising froth the tight ventricle.RFA was successful in 11 of the 12 pts ( 91%). Ntmaher of RF applications were 1~27, mean 9. 6; fluoroscopy time were 4~75, mean 26. 9 minutes. RFA for idiopathic RV has a high success rate. This mode of treament should be considered as a nonphartaaeologieal curative treatment for symptomatic pts.

  5. Idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum: radiologic and clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Seo, Jung Wook; Han, Yoon Hee; Cha, Soon Joo; Hur, Gham [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentations, radiological characteristics, and natural history of healthy adolescents presenting with idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed the simple radiographs of 14 consecutive patients (11 males) with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, who were examined over a period of 8 years, and analyzed their clinical history, radiographic findings including distribution, combined subcutaneous emphysema, mediastinal widening, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and resolving period on follow up chest radiographs. We also obtained CT images of 7 patients for the assessment of additional information. The most common complaint at the time of presentation was chest pain and chest discomfort (8/14), followed by neck discomfort (6/14). The chest radiograph was of diagnostic value in alI cases. The main distribution of the pneumomediastinum was cervical (14/14), upper lung (13/14) and lower lung (6/14). Combined subcutaneous emphysema was observed in 6 patients. However, there were no cases of mediastinal widening, pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Complete resolution of the pneumomediastinum on the radiograph was observed after 10 days (mean 5.6), following purely conservative treatment. There was no additional information on the CT images, as compared with that on the radiographs. Idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a benign entity that usually goes undiagnosed, but which responds very weIl to conservative treatment.

  6. Idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum: radiologic and clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the clinical presentations, radiological characteristics, and natural history of healthy adolescents presenting with idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed the simple radiographs of 14 consecutive patients (11 males) with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, who were examined over a period of 8 years, and analyzed their clinical history, radiographic findings including distribution, combined subcutaneous emphysema, mediastinal widening, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, and resolving period on follow up chest radiographs. We also obtained CT images of 7 patients for the assessment of additional information. The most common complaint at the time of presentation was chest pain and chest discomfort (8/14), followed by neck discomfort (6/14). The chest radiograph was of diagnostic value in alI cases. The main distribution of the pneumomediastinum was cervical (14/14), upper lung (13/14) and lower lung (6/14). Combined subcutaneous emphysema was observed in 6 patients. However, there were no cases of mediastinal widening, pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Complete resolution of the pneumomediastinum on the radiograph was observed after 10 days (mean 5.6), following purely conservative treatment. There was no additional information on the CT images, as compared with that on the radiographs. Idiopathic spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a benign entity that usually goes undiagnosed, but which responds very weIl to conservative treatment

  7. Idiopathic incus necrosis: Analysis of 4 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansu, Leyla; Yilmaz, Ismail; Akdogan, Volkan; Avci, Suat; Ozluoglu, Levent

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated ossicular chain reconstruction in patients with idiopathic incus necrosis who have conductive hearing loss and an intact ear drum. The study included four patients (3 women and 1 man; the ages of the patients were 22, 31, 35, and 56 years, respectively) with unilateral conductive hearing loss, no history of chronic serous otitis media, an intact ear drum, normal middle ear mucosa, and necrosis of the long processes of the incus. On preoperative pure tone audiometry, air-bone gaps were 24, 25, 38, and 33 dB. Bilateral tympanometry and temporal bone computed tomography results were normal. All 4 patients underwent an exploratory tympanotomy. During the operation, the mucosa of the middle ear was normal, with a mobile stapes foot plate and malleus. No evidence of any granulation tissue was found; however, necrosis of the incus long processes was seen. For ossicular reconstruction, we used tragal cartilage between the incus and the stapes in 1 patient; in the other 3 patients, glass ionomer bone cement was used (an interposition cartilage graft also was used in the patients who received the glass ionomer bone cement). In all patients, air-bone gaps under 20 dB were established in the first year after surgery. In the ossicular disorders within the middle ear, the incus is the most commonly affected ossicle. While, the most common cause of these disorders is chronic otitis media, it may be idiopathic rarely. Several ossicular reconstruction techniques have been used to repair incudostapedial discontinuity. PMID:23460219

  8. Idiopathic Adrenal Hematoma Masquerading as Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sasaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a case of idiopathic adrenal hematoma. A 59-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a 7.0 cm mass in the right upper abdominal cavity. The tumor was suspected to originate from either the posterior segment of the liver or the right adrenal gland. His chief complaint was weight loss of 8 kg over the previous 6 months. He had no past medical history and took no medications, including no anticoagulants. Laboratory data were almost normal except for a slight elevation of PIVKA-II. The origin of the tumor was found to be the adrenal gland, as angiography revealed the blood supply to the mass to derive from the right superior and inferior adrenal arteries. A fine needle biopsy of the lesion was unable to confirm the diagnosis. Open right adrenalectomy was performed. The histopathological findings of the surgical specimen revealed a hematoma with normal adrenal tissue. In the absence of any obvious etiology, the diagnosis was idiopathic adrenal hematoma.

  9. Medical Therapy in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Katerina M; Wuyts, Wim; Wijsenbeek, Marlies; Wells, Athol U

    2016-06-01

    Medical therapy for idiopathic fibrosis remains controversial. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) was uniformly a disease that progressed inexorably, typically leading to death within 3 to 5 years from onset of symptoms. Until recently, lung transplantation was the only effective transplant option. Within the past decade, several placebo-controlled trials failed to show benefit in patients with IPF. However, within the past 2 years, two novel antifibrotic agents (pirfenidone and nintedanib) were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States and European Medicines Agency (EMA) based upon pivotal studies that showed benefit (specifically slowing of the rate of disease progression) with both agents. Short-term outcomes (12 months) showed less deterioration of physiological parameters (e.g., change in forced vital capacity), although survival benefit has not convincingly been established with either agent. Nonetheless, these agents bring a glimmer of hope to patients with this deadly disease. The appropriate indications for initiating therapy, best candidates for therapy, and possible role for combination therapy remain controversial. Additional studies using agents that attenuate or abrogate profibrotic cytokines and chemokines may provide even further improvement in the future. PMID:27231861

  10. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia. PMID:27123874

  11. Birth, meaningful viability and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2015-06-01

    What role does birth play in the debate about elective abortion? Does the wrongness of infanticide imply the wrongness of late-term abortion? In this paper, I argue that the same or similar factors that make birth morally significant with regard to abortion make meaningful viability morally significant due to the relatively arbitrary time of birth. I do this by considering the positions of Mary Anne Warren and José Luis Bermúdez who argue that birth is significant enough that the wrongness of infanticide does not imply the wrongness of late-term abortion. On the basis of the relatively arbitrary timing of birth, I argue that meaningful viability is the point at which elective abortion is prima facie morally wrong. PMID:25012846

  12. Birth Weight, Postnatal Growth, and Age at Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Mary Beth; Ferris, Jennifer S.; Tehranifar, Parisa; Wei, Ying; Flom, Julie D.

    2009-01-01

    Larger body size in childhood is correlated with earlier age at menarche; whether birth and infant body size changes are also associated with age at menarche is less clear. The authors contacted female participants enrolled in the New York site of the US National Collaborative Perinatal Project born between 1959 and 1963 (n = 262). This racially and ethnically diverse cohort (38% white, 40% African American, and 22% Puerto Rican) was used to investigate whether maternal (body size, pregnancy ...

  13. Birth(death)/birth-death processes and their computable transition probabilities with statistical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Lam Si Tung; Xu, Jason; Crawford, Forrest W.; Minin, Vladimir N.; Suchard, Marc A.

    2016-01-01

    Birth-death processes track the size of a univariate population, but many biological systems involve interaction between populations, necessitating models for two or more populations simultaneously. A lack of efficient methods for evaluating finite-time transition probabilities of bivariate processes, however, has restricted statistical inference in these models. Researchers rely on computationally expensive methods such as matrix exponentiation or Monte Carlo approximation, restricting likel...

  14. Differentiation of ischemic cardiomyopathy from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether ischemic cardiomyopathy (ischemic DCM) could be distinguished from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (idiopathic DCM) by radionuclide cardiac imaging, seven patients with ischemic DCM and eight patients with idiopathic DCM were studied with thallium scanning and gated cardiac blood pool imaging at rest and during exercise. The resting ejection fraction of the two groups were similar (ischemic DCM 20.7+-9.0%, idiopathic DCM 26.0+-13.4%, ns), and the change in the ejection fraction during exercise were also similar. Both groups showed no increment of ejection fraction during exercise. Thallium scan showed perfusion defect in 14 of 15 patients. The perfusion defects were extensive in ischemic DCM than idiopathic DCM (defect score 49.6+-5.7 vs. 21.1+-13.2%, p>0.001). Moreover, the distribution of the defects were different; in ischemic DCM the defects were distributed according to the territory of coronary arteries, but in idiopathic DCM, defects were seen frequently in the apex or at the base of left ventricle. In conclusion, resting thallium scan was most reliable imaging technique to distinguish ischemic DCM from idiopathic DCM. (author)

  15. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  17. Idiopathic Calcium Nephrolithiasis And Hypercalciuria: The Role Of Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Abaterusso, Cataldo

    2007-04-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria are multifactorial disease conditions, the pathogenesis of which involves the interaction of environmental and individual factors. Data support a strong role of genes in the pathogenesis of these two conditions. Findings obtained in monogenic disorders characterized by renal calcium stones, and/or hypercalciuria, and/or nephrocalcinosis have proposed a number of genes as candidate genes in the pathogenesis of the common idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypercalciuria. The physiological role of these genes, and findings in monogenic disorders and idiopathic, multifactorial disorders will be presented.

  18. Infliximab for Idiopathic Deep Cutaneous Vasculitis Refractory to Cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Derbli Schafranski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous vasculitis can be classified as primary or idiopathic; or secondary, when it presents as a manifestation of connective tissue diseases, infections, drug reactions or malignancies. Although most of the idiopathic cases are self-limited and responsive to supportive measures and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, potent immunosuppressants are sometimes required for the management of the refractory situations. Here we describe a case of a 32-year-old Caucasian female patient with history of idiopathic cutaneous deep vasculitis unresponsive to methotrexate, dapsone, and cyclophosphamide who was effectively treated with infliximab.

  19. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  20. Prepregnancy Obesity and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan L; Fletcher, Erin K

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the association between prepregnancy obesity and birth outcomes using fixed effect models comparing siblings from the same mother. Methods A total of 7496 births to 3990 mothers from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 survey are examined. Outcomes include macrosomia, gestational length, incidence of low birthweight, preterm birth, large and small for gestational age (LGA, SGA), c-section, infant doctor visits, mother's and infant's days in hospital post-partum, whether the mother breastfed, and duration of breastfeeding. Association of outcomes with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was examined using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression to compare across mothers and fixed effects to compare within families. Results In fixed effect models we find no statistically significant association between most outcomes and prepregnancy obesity with the exception of LGA, SGA, low birth weight, and preterm birth. We find that prepregnancy obesity is associated with a with lower risk of low birthweight, SGA, and preterm birth but controlling for prepregnancy obesity, increases in GWG lead to increased risk of LGA. Conclusions Contrary to previous studies, which have found that maternal obesity increases the risk of c-section, macrosomia, and LGA, while decreasing the probability of breastfeeding, our sibling comparison models reveal no such association. In fact, our results suggest a protective effect of obesity in that women who are obese prepregnancy have longer gestation lengths, and are less likely to give birth to a preterm or low birthweight infant. PMID:26515472

  1. Duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abera Mulumebet; Wondafrash Mekitie; Yohannes Samuel; Girma Eshetu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Longer intervals between consecutive births decrease the number of children a woman can have. This results in beneficial effects on population size and on the health status of mothers and children. Therefore, understanding the practice of birth interval and its determinants is helpful to design evidence based strategies for interventions. The objective of this study was to determine duration and determinants of birth interval among women of child bearing age in Lemo distri...

  2. Determinants of Low Birth Weight in Malawi: Bayesian Geo-Additive Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ngwira

    Full Text Available Studies on factors of low birth weight in Malawi have neglected the flexible approach of using smooth functions for some covariates in models. Such flexible approach reveals detailed relationship of covariates with the response. The study aimed at investigating risk factors of low birth weight in Malawi by assuming a flexible approach for continuous covariates and geographical random effect. A Bayesian geo-additive model for birth weight in kilograms and size of the child at birth (less than average or average and higher with district as a spatial effect using the 2010 Malawi demographic and health survey data was adopted. A Gaussian model for birth weight in kilograms and a binary logistic model for the binary outcome (size of child at birth were fitted. Continuous covariates were modelled by the penalized (p splines and spatial effects were smoothed by the two dimensional p-spline. The study found that child birth order, mother weight and height are significant predictors of birth weight. Secondary education for mother, birth order categories 2-3 and 4-5, wealth index of richer family and mother height were significant predictors of child size at birth. The area associated with low birth weight was Chitipa and areas with increased risk to less than average size at birth were Chitipa and Mchinji. The study found support for the flexible modelling of some covariates that clearly have nonlinear influences. Nevertheless there is no strong support for inclusion of geographical spatial analysis. The spatial patterns though point to the influence of omitted variables with some spatial structure or possibly epidemiological processes that account for this spatial structure and the maps generated could be used for targeting development efforts at a glance.

  3. Prenatal exposure to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and reproductive effects in a multicentre birth cohort in spain

    OpenAIRE

    Basterrechea, Mikel; Lertxundi, Aitana; Íñiguez, Carmen; Méndez, Michelle Ann; Murcia, Mario; Mozo, Imanol; Goñi, Fernando; Grimalt, Joan; Fernández, Mariana Fátima; Guxens, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible association between birth size or gestational length and maternal serum concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in a population exposed to background levels. Methods: A total of 1568 mother-child pairs recruited in three Spanish areas (INMA Project) from 2004 to 2008 participated in the study. Multivariate analysis was performed between birth weight and length, weeks of gestation, preterm birth or small for gestational age and HCB concentrations in mat...

  4. An Evolutionary Genomic Approach to Identify Genes Involved in Human Birth Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Jevon Plunkett; Scott Doniger; Guilherme Orabona; Thomas Morgan; Ritva Haataja; Mikko Hallman; Hilkka Puttonen; Ramkumar Menon; Edward Kuczynski; Errol Norwitz; Victoria Snegovskikh; Aarno Palotie; Leena Peltonen; Vineta Fellman; DeFranco, Emily A

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of fetal maturation with birth timing is essential for mammalian reproduction. In humans, preterm birth is a disorder of profound global health significance. The signals initiating parturition in humans have remained elusive, due to divergence in physiological mechanisms between humans and model organisms typically studied. Because of relatively large human head size and narrow birth canal cross-sectional area compared to other primates, we hypothesized that genes involved in par...

  5. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C;

    2006-01-01

    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies of...... limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...

  6. Breakdown of Benford's Law for Birth Data

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, M; Ileanu, B

    2014-01-01

    Long birth time series for Romania are investigated from Benford's law point of view, distinguishing between families with a religious (Orthodox and Non-Orthodox) affiliation. The data extend from Jan. 01, 1905 till Dec. 31, 2001, i.e. over 97 years or 35 429 days. The results point to a drastic breakdown of Benford's law. Some interpretation is proposed, based on the statistical aspects due to population sizes, rather than on human thought constraints when the law breakdown is usually expected. Benford's law breakdown clearly points to natural causes.

  7. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo Leal Maria; da Silva Antônio Augusto; Dias Marcos Augusto; da Gama Silvana Granado; Rattner Daphne; Moreira Maria; Filha Mariza Miranda; Domingues RosaMariaSoaresMadeira; Pereira Ana Paula; Torres Jacqueline; Bittencourt Sonia Duarte; D’orsi Eleonora; Cunha Antonio JLA; Leite Alvaro Jorge; Cavalcante Rejane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods ...

  8. Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification: imaging evaluation and the usefulness of MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic infantile arterial calcification (IIAC) is a rare condition characterized by extensive calcification and stenosis of large and medium-size arteries. The etiology of the disease is unknown. However, the inheritance pattern has been shown to be autosomal recessive. The clinical presentation is variable, including cardiac failure (most common clinical finding), hypertension, and respiratory failure. Plain radiography, sonography and MRI can aid in the diagnosis. We present a case in which contrast-enhanced MR angiography with breath-hold and cardiac gating techniques allowed complete evaluation of the extent of this disease. (orig.)

  9. The BirthPlace collaborative practice model: results from the San Diego Birth Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz; Jackson; Lang; Ecker; Ganiats; Dickinson; Nguyen

    1998-07-01

    Objective: The search for quality, cost-effective health care programs in the United States is now a major focus in the era of health care reform. New programs need to be evaluated as alternatives are developed in the health care system. The BirthPlace program provides comprehensive perinatal services with certified nurse-midwives and obstetricians working together in an integrated collaborative practice serving a primarily low-income population. Low-risk women are delivered by nurse-midwives in a freestanding birth center (The BirthPlace), which is one component of a larger integrated health network. All others are delivered by team obstetricians at the affiliated tertiary hospital. Wellness, preventive measures, early intervention, and family involvement are emphasized. The San Diego Birth Center Study is a 4-year research project funded by the U.S. Federal Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (#R01-HS07161) to evaluate this program. The National Birth Center Study (NEJM, 1989; 321(26): 1801-11) described the advantages and safety of freestanding birth centers. However, a prospective cohort study with a concurrent comparison group of comparable risk had not been conducted on a collaborative practice-freestanding birth center model to address questions of safety, cost, and patient satisfaction.Methods: The specific aims of this study are to compare this collaborative practice model to the traditional model of perinatal health care (physician providers and hospital delivery). A prospective cohort study comparing these two health care models was conducted with a final expected sample size of approximately 2,000 birth center and 1,350 traditional care subjects. Women were recruited from both the birth center and traditional care programs (private physicians offices and hospital based clinics) at the beginning of prenatal care and followed through the end of the perinatal period. Prenatal, intrapartum, postpartum and infant morbidity and mortality are being

  10. Cyclosporin-A efficacy in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leo, E; Nettis, E; Aloia, A M; Moschetta, M; Carbonara, M; Dammacco, F; Vacca, A

    2011-01-01

    Common drugs in the therapy of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) include antihistamines alone or combined with corticosteroids, but severe unresponsive patients require alternative treatments. This retrospective study aims to evaluate clinical response and safety of low-dose and long-term oral Cyclosporin-A (CyA) in unresponsive patients. One hundred and ten CIU patients, unresponsive to a previous treatment (antihistamines plus prednisone 0.2 mg/kg/day), received additional oral CyA 1–3 mg/kg/day for 6 months. The patients were subdivided into three groups (A, B, C) according to the different CyA doses. Parameters of clinical efficacy including pruritus, and size and number of wheals were evaluated at baseline, after three and six months. All adverse events were recorded. The mean total symptom severity score decreased by 63% in Group A, 76% in Group B, and 85% in Group C after 6 months. Total disappearance of the symptoms was recorded in 43 patients (39.1%): 7 (28%) of Group A; 12 (37.5%) of Group B and 24 (45%) of Group C. After a mean of 2 months from CyA suspension, 14 patients (11%) had recurrence of symptoms. Minor side effects were noted in 8 patients (7%). Our study indicates that low-dose, long-term CyA therapy is efficacious and safe in severe unresponsive CIU. PMID:21496403

  11. Risk factors for cluster seizures in canine idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Shihab, Nadia K; Torres, Bruno B J; Volk, Holger A

    2016-04-01

    Cluster seizures (CS), two or more seizures within a 24-hour period, are reported in 38-77% of dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE). Negative outcomes associated with CS include a reduced likelihood of achieving seizure freedom, decreased survival time and increased likelihood of euthanasia. Previous studies have found factors including breed, sex and neuter status are associated with CS in dogs with IE; however, only one UK study in a multi-breed study of CS in IE patients exists to the author's knowledge, and thus further data is required to confirm these results. Data from 384 dogs treated at a multi-breed canine specific epilepsy clinic were retrospectively collected from electronic patient records. 384 dogs were included in the study, of which nearly half had a history of CS (49.1%). Dogs with a history of CS had a younger age at onset than those without (p=0.033). In a multivariate model, three variables predicted risk of CS: a history of status epilepticus (p=0.047), age at seizure onset (p=0.066) and breed (German Shepherd Dog) (pbody size and CS. Further studies into the pathophysiology and genetics of CS are required to further understand this phenomenon. PMID:27033922

  12. Isolated unilateral idiopathic transient hypoglossal nerve palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Viqar; Akram, Muhammad Saqub

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset of difficulty in moving his tongue to the left with preceding left-sided headache with no neck pain. Earlier, he had self-limiting chest infection without rashes or tonsillar enlargement. His medical and surgical history was unremarkable with no recent trauma. Oral examination revealed difficulty in protruding his tongue to the left with muscle bulk loss and fasciculation on the same side, suggesting left hypoglossal nerve palsy. Examination of the rest of the cranial nerves and nervous system was normal. The patient's oropharyngeal and laryngeal examination was unremarkable with no cervical lymphadenopathy. He had normal laboratory investigations and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Extensive imaging of the head, neck and chest failed to reveal any pathology. Further review by an otorhinologist and rheumatologist ruled out any other underlying pathology. He made a good recovery without treatment. English literature search revealed very few cases of idiopathic, transient, unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy. PMID:24969070

  13. Malignant Hyperthermia and Idiopathic HyperCKemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a rare but life-threatening condition that is more frequently encountered and discussed within the anesthesia literature. Here we through a case specifically discuss the susceptibility of individuals and/or families with asymptomatic unexplained elevations of creatine kinase (CK, also frequently referred to as hyperCKemia or idiopathic hyperCKemia (IHCK in recent reports. The clinical implications would be to underscore the importance of this as a susceptibility to developing MH and highlight the importance of genetic susceptibility testing in such cases. Anesthesiologists and critical care intensivists as well as primary care physicians should keep this in mind when seeing patients with asymptomatic hyperCKemia and potentially inform them about the possibility of developing MH if exposed to triggering agents. Genetic susceptibility testing should be considered if available and family members should also receive nontriggering agents when undergoing anesthesia and wear Medic Alert tags.

  14. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis - a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalli, Ilirjana; Kota, Luljeta; Sala, Durim; Celaj, Ermela; Kola, Elmira; Lluka, Robert; Sallabanda, Sashenka

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare disorder that can occur at any age and is characterized by the triad of hemoptysis, iron deficiency anemia and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. The clinical course is exceedingly variable especially in children and a substantial proportion of this age group is undiagnosed. It is probably due to the fact that iron deficiency anemia may be the first and the only manifestation of IPH, preceding other symptoms and signs by several months and IPH is not considered as a rare cause of anemia, unless the typical triad is present. We present a case of IPH in a 13-year-old girl, treated for several months with persistent iron deficiency anemia, without response to therapy. PMID:24708654

  15. Chronic idiopathic urticaria: treatment with omalizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaman, Sandra; Sussman, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a common autoimmune skin condition characterized by spontaneously recurring hives for 6 weeks or longer. The new terminology used for CIU in most countries including Canada is chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). CSU is associated with significant psychosocial morbidity with a markedly negative impact on overall quality of life. Conventional approaches with antihistamines, even at high doses, is effective in about 50% of patients suffering from CSU. A new treatment option, omalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the Fc domain of IgE, has undergone the scrutiny of randomized research studies evaluating the efficacy in CSU. This editorial reviews mechanisms of action of omalizumab, efficacy, cost and potential side effect profile. Omalizumab has emerged as a very promising treatment option for patients with CSU. Future research is necessary to establish standardized protocols related to dosing as well as monitoring possible adverse effects of long-term treatment. PMID:25807072

  16. Chronic idiopathic urticaria and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Filipe; Freitas, João; Barbosa, António

    2011-10-01

    Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a frequently disabling disease with a negative influence on the quality of life, and can cause psychopathological symptoms, such as anxiety. Our aim is to study further anxiety symptoms on CIU patients. Both CIU patients and the control group were studied by means of validated scales for psychopathology symptoms, psychological variables and quality of life. In this study, we reported high levels of anxiety symptoms. We found statistically significant correlations between anxiety symptoms, some personality dimensions, insecure attachment styles, alexithymia and with some quality of life dimensions. CIU patients exhibit high levels of psychological distress that could potentiate difficulties at several domains, namely social, emotional, general health perception and interpersonal relationships. PMID:21459916

  17. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension and transverse sinus stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyrman, Simon; Fytagoridis, Anders; Andresen, Morten; Bartek, Jiri Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman was diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and bilateral transverse sinus stenoses (TSS), after presenting with papilledema and decreased visual acuity. Lumbar puncture revealed an opening pressure of >60 cm H2O. MRI showed bilateral TSS believed to be...... associated with the IIH. Initial treatment consisted of symptom relief by a temporary lumbar drain for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, while the pros and cons of a more permanent solution by insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) or bilateral transverse sinus stent was discussed. A VPS was...... inserted since the patient had improved with CSF diversion. MRI verified reopening of the venous sinuses after shunt placement, and the patient remains asymptomatic with no signs of relapse after 3 years of follow-up....

  18. Idiopathic gynaecomastia in twins: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gynaecomastia is a common pathological condition of breast seen in men. This is defined as benign enlargement of breast tissue in males. It was first described by Palus Aegineta (AD 635-690. Herewith we are presenting cases of 14 year old twins attending the surgical O.P.D with bilateral enlarged breasts and pain. A diagnosis of pubertal gynaecomastia was made with no evidence of malignancy by histopathological examinations and mammography. One boy with 5 x 6 cm of right breast and 2 x3 cm of left breast was treated by subcutaneous mastectomy. Other boy had only enlargement of nipple and areola. He was reassured and sent home without surgical intervention. A rare case of idiopathic gynaecomastia in pubertal twins is described here. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(4.000: 1755-1757

  19. Cardiac manifestations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Isha; Shah, Varun; Agarwal, Abhishek; Sikachi, Rutuja R

    2016-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, parenchymal disease of the lung with an estimated prevalence of 14-43 per 100,000. Patient usually presents with coughing and exertional dyspnea, which can lead to acute respiratory failure. IPF has been associated with various co-morbidities such as lung cancer, emphysema, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), GERD and multiple cardiovascular consequences. The cardiovascular manifestations of IPF include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias & cardiac manifestations of drugs used to treat IPF. This review will outline evidence of the association between IPF and cardiovascular conditions and attempt to provide insights into the underlying pathophysiology. We also discuss the impact of these cardiovascular diseases on patients with IPF including increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:27195188

  20. Cognitive function in idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yri, Hanne Maria; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Forchhammer, Hysse Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    -up. At the time of testing, none of the patients took medication potentially affecting cognitive function. Controls were 31 healthy age-matched and sex-matched volunteers from the local community. OUTCOME MEASURES: Executive function, working memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, attention and reaction...... of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate for the first time in a well-defined cohort of patients that IIH may be associated with cognitive dysfunction. This could explain the functional disability of patients with IIH. A focused multidisciplinary approach including neuropsychological rehabilitation, therefore......OBJECTIVE: To explore the extent and nature of cognitive deficits in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) at the time of diagnosis and after 3 months of treatment. DESIGN: Prospective case-control study. SETTING: Neurological department, ophthalmological department...

  1. Imaging findings in idiopathic pelvic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two patients presented with ureteric obstruction, and voiding symptoms and constipation, respectively, and were examined by means of intravenous urography and computed tomography. One patient was additionally examined by means of MR tomography. After CT (performed in both patients) and MRT (performed in one patient) had shown a diffuse, contrast-enhancing, infiltrating process in the small pelvis with infiltration of adjacent organs and vessels, surgical biopsy proved the diagnosis of idopathic pelvic fibrosis. Extension of retroperitoneal fibrosis below the pelvic rim is very rare. Clinical symptoms of pelvic fibrosis are variable and imaging findings may lead to a broad list of differential diagnoses. We present two patients with idiopathic pelvic fibrosis and discuss radiological findings and differential diagnoses of this rare disease. (orig.)

  2. Autonomic symptoms in idiopathic REM behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Oertel, Wolfgang; Dauvilliers, Yves;

    2014-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) are at very high risk of developing neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, which are disorders with prominent autonomic dysfunction. Several studies have documented autonomic dysfunction in iRBD, but large-scale assessment of autonomic...... symptoms has never been systematically performed. Patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD (318 cases) and controls (137 healthy volunteers and 181 sleep center controls with sleep diagnoses other than RBD) were recruited from 13 neurological centers in 10 countries from 2008 to 2011. A validated scale...... to study the disorders of the autonomic nervous system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, the SCOPA-AUT, was administered to all the patients and controls. The SCOPA-AUT consists of 25 items assessing the following domains: gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, pupillomotor...

  3. Dobosiewicz method physiotherapy for idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobosiewicz, Krystyna; Durmala, Jacek; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The method developed since 1979, comprises active 3-dimensional auto-correction, concerning the primary curve mobilization towards the correction of the curvature, with special emphasis on the kyphotization of the thoracic spine, carried on in closed kinematic chains, and developed on a symmetrically positioned pelvis and shoulder girdle, followed by active stabilization of the corrected position, and endured as postural habit. The positions for exercising and the movements involved are described in details. Small, moderate and important curves can be managed with DoboMed, however the effectiveness of the therapy depends on the curve flexibility and patient's compliance. DoboMed has been used as a single therapy or together with bracing, as well as preparation for scoliosis surgery. The published results demonstrated that the DoboMed has a positive influence on inhibition of the curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis, the improvement of respiratory functions, assessed by the spirometric values, and the general exercise efficiency evaluated using ergospirometry. PMID:18401093

  4. Radiographic manifestations of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A relatively high frequency of hyperostosis in various body sites was found in 240 subjects with ''diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis'' (DISH) in the thoracic spine over an average observation period of 11 years. The onset and initial appearance of DISH in the thoracic spine were identified in 69 cases. The age at onset ranged from 40 to 65 years, and the initial sites involved were usually T9-10 and T10-11. As criteria in differentiating DISH from spondylosis deformans the hyperostoses anterior to the vertebral body itself appeared to be more important than the ''bridges'' anterior to the intervertebral spaces. Although it was difficult to differentiate the early appearance of DISH from spondylosis deformans in some cases, these long-term observations suggest that they are different entities. (author)

  5. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension presenting as postpartum headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Mariam; Salahuddin, Ayesha; Mathew, Namitha R; Nandhagopal, Ramachandiran

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum headache is described as headache and neck or shoulder pain during the first 6 weeks after delivery. Common causes of headache in the puerperium are migraine headache and tension headache; other causes include pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, post-dural puncture headache, cortical vein thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, brain tumor, cerebral ischemia, meningitis, and so forth. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare cause of postpartum headache. It is usually associated with papilledema, headache, and elevated intracranial pressure without any focal neurologic abnormality in an otherwise healthy person. It is more commonly seen in obese women of reproductive age group, but rare during pregnancy and postpartum. We present a case of IIH who presented to us 18 days after cesarean section with severe headache and was successfully managed. PMID:26818168

  6. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerbase-DeLima

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P<0.05. In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease

  7. Proton MR spectroscopy in idiopathic spasmodic torticollis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, F.; Lucivero, V.; Simone, I.L.; Defazio, G.; De Salvia, R.; Mezzapesa, D.M.; Petruzzellis, M.; Tortorella, C.; Livrea, P. [Dept. of Neurology and Psychiatry, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), localised to the basal ganglia, was used to determine changes in metabolite levels in idiopathic spasmodic torticollis (IST). We examined nine patients and 13 healthy subjects. The mean values ({+-} SD) of peak area ratios were: IST: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/choline-containing compounds (Cho) 1.79 {+-} 0.39, NAA/creatine and phosphocreatine compounds (Cr) 1.61 {+-} 0.38, Cho/Cr 0.91 {+-} 0.19; controls: NAA/Cho 2.07 {+-} 0.35, NAA/Cr 1.82 {+-} 0.31, Cho/Cr 0.89 {+-} 0.12. Statistical analysis showed that NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.0304 and 0.0431, respectively). These results indicate a reduction in NAA, and suggest striatal involvement in the pathogenesis IST. (orig.)

  8. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: presentation, investigation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, John R; Dumitru, Dorin

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the breast which although benign can mimic carcinoma. Establishing a diagnosis can be challenging and requires a high index of suspicion with exclusion of infective and autoimmune breast diseases. IGM is characterized histologically by noncaseating granulomas which are of a lobulo-centric pattern and often associated with microabscess formation. Management of confirmed cases remains controversial with proponents of initial surgical or medical therapies - each has its associated problems which can be worse than the original symptoms of IGM. However, many patients require more than one modality of treatment to completely resolve IGM lesions and careful judgment is necessary to ensure optimal type and sequencing of treatments. PMID:27067146

  9. Dysphagia due to Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Ohki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH is usually asymptomatic. However, rarely, it causes dysphagia, hoarseness, dyspnea, snoring, stridor, and laryngeal edema. Herein, we present a patient with DISH causing dysphagia. A 70-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of sore throat, dysphagia, and foreign body sensation. Flexible laryngoscopy revealed a leftward-protruding posterior wall in the hypopharynx. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bony mass pushing, anteriorly, on the posterior hypopharyngeal wall. Ossification included an osseous bridge involving 5 contiguous vertebral bodies. Dysphagia due to DISH was diagnosed. His symptoms were relieved by conservative therapy using anti-inflammatory drugs. However, if conservative therapy fails and symptoms are severe, surgical treatments must be considered.

  10. Weight at birth and all-cause mortality in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina W; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small size at birth is associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and large size is associated with obesity and cancer. The overall impact of these opposing effects on mortality throughout the lifespan is unclear because causes of death change with age. METHODS: We...... investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years. Associations with...... death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality was...

  11. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Small size at birth is associated with subsequent cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and large size is associated with obesity and cancer. The overall impact of these opposing effects on mortality throughout the lifespan is unclear because causes of death change with age. METHODS......:: We investigated the association of birth weight with adult all-cause mortality using a Danish school-based cohort of 216,464 men and women born from 1936 through 1979. The cohort was linked to vital statistic registers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality from ages 25 through 68 years....... Associations with death from cancer, circulatory disease, and all other causes were also examined. RESULTS:: During 5,205,477 person-years of follow-up, 11,149 deaths occurred among men and 6609 among women. The cumulative hazard ratios of the association between birth weight categories and all-cause mortality...

  12. CLINICAL HISTORY AND OUTCOME OF 59 PATIENTS WITH IDIOPATHIC HYPERPROLACTINEMIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLUIJMER, AV; LAPPOHN, RE

    1992-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical course of hyperprolactinemia without demonstrable cause. Design: Prospective study of all patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia first seen between 1974 and 1985. Setting: Outpatient Department of University Hospital. Patients: Fifty-nine patients followed

  13. Impairment of Alveolar Macrophage Transcription in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Ping; Rosas, Ivan O.; MacDonald, Sandra D.; Wu, Hai-Ping; Billings, Eric M; Gochuico, Bernadette R.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Alveolar macrophages are inflammatory cells that may contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), which is characterized by excessive alveolar aggregation of cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

  14. Patellofemoral morphometry in patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare clinical and computed tomography (CT) measures in extension, 20o and 30o of flexion of symptomatic knees of patient with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome with the contra lateral asymptomatic knee. Materials and methods: Knees of 52 consecutive patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain were studied with CT. In 28 patients this condition was unilateral and asymptomatic knee was used as control; 76 knees were symptomatic. Results: In patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain we found a greater Q angle and internal condylar facet width in symptomatic knees with regard to asymptomatic knees. Conclusion: Greater Q angle and medial condylar facet can lead to overpressure on the medial knee compartment during maneuvers that increase contact between patella and medial condylar facet, such as knee flexion and squatting, contributing to development of idiopathic patellofemoral pain.

  15. Diagnostic criteria and possible treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Thomas; Hilberg, Ole; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is an idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, recently recognized as a new entity by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society. We present the first Danish cases of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis in two young sisters, who had complained of dyspnoea since...

  16. Computed tomography in the assessment of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Doo Yun; Kim, Hyung Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    It is well known that idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax is caused by rupture of the subpleural bleb and presents difficulty in exact detection and localization of the bleb with plain chest X - ray alone. The authors performed chest CT scans for accurate diagnosis of bleb that would act as a guide for optimal management of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax patients in order to prevent recurrent pneumothorax. We could detect blebs in 93 % (26/28) of the patients with idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax, and 68 % (19/ 28) of the patient had bilateral blebs. Sensitivity was 0.63, and false negative was 37% (37/100) of the blebs, and 51% (19/37) of these 37 false negative cases were ruptured blebs. Only 7 % (2/28) of the patients had a single bleb. The authors concluded that CT is a useful method of study for optimal management of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax patients.

  17. Computed tomography in the assessment of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax is caused by rupture of the subpleural bleb and presents difficulty in exact detection and localization of the bleb with plain chest X - ray alone. The authors performed chest CT scans for accurate diagnosis of bleb that would act as a guide for optimal management of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax patients in order to prevent recurrent pneumothorax. We could detect blebs in 93 % (26/28) of the patients with idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax, and 68 % (19/ 28) of the patient had bilateral blebs. Sensitivity was 0.63, and false negative was 37% (37/100) of the blebs, and 51% (19/37) of these 37 false negative cases were ruptured blebs. Only 7 % (2/28) of the patients had a single bleb. The authors concluded that CT is a useful method of study for optimal management of idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax patients

  18. Patellofemoral morphometry in patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mar Carrion Martin, Maria del [Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Ruiz Santiago, Fernando, E-mail: ferruizsan@terra.e [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Pozuelo Calvo, Rocio [Department of Rehabilitation, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain); Guzman Alvarez, Luis [Department of Radiology, Hospital of Traumatology (Ciudad Sanitaria Virgen de las Nieves), Carretera de Jaen SN, 18014 Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To compare clinical and computed tomography (CT) measures in extension, 20{sup o} and 30{sup o} of flexion of symptomatic knees of patient with idiopathic patellofemoral pain syndrome with the contra lateral asymptomatic knee. Materials and methods: Knees of 52 consecutive patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain were studied with CT. In 28 patients this condition was unilateral and asymptomatic knee was used as control; 76 knees were symptomatic. Results: In patients with idiopathic patellofemoral pain we found a greater Q angle and internal condylar facet width in symptomatic knees with regard to asymptomatic knees. Conclusion: Greater Q angle and medial condylar facet can lead to overpressure on the medial knee compartment during maneuvers that increase contact between patella and medial condylar facet, such as knee flexion and squatting, contributing to development of idiopathic patellofemoral pain.

  19. PATTERN OF INHERITANCE OF IDIOPATHIC HYPERCALCIURIA IN TWO FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nickavar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic hypercalciuria is a leading cause of frequency-dysuria syndrome in childhood. Different modes of inheritance have been suggested in this disease. This article presents the occurrence of idiopathic hypercalciuria in all children of two families. In the first family, a 5.5 year old girl with a history of renal stones and dysuria due to hypercalciuria, had two involved brothers and one sister. In the second family, hypercalciuria and medullary nephrocalcinosis were detected in two siblings who were admitted for polyuria and dysuria. Idiopathic type of hypercalciuria was diagnosed in these two families by normal laboratory exams and exclusion of other causes of normocalcemic hypercalciuria. According to the involvement of all offsprings (both sexes in these two families, it is suggested that idiopathic hypercalciuria is an autosomal dominant disease with complete penetration.

  20. [Idiopathic headache in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwautz, A; Wöber-Bingöl, C; Wöber, C

    1993-12-01

    This review of the literature covers classification, epidemiology and clinical aspects of idiopathic headache in childhood and adolescence. In addition, pathogenetic models taking into account the complex involvement of organic, psychological and psychosocial factors are critically reviewed. A general pathogenetic model of migraine may be characterized by a given predisposition, various co-factors which enhance the tendency, and finally, trigger mechanisms which induce an attack. No generally accepted model exists for tension-type headache. In assessing the importance of various factors thought to be related to idiopathic headache, it is necessary to differentiate between causal relation, unspecific association, and coincidence. The aim of this review is to present potential factors influencing headache in childhood and adolescence and to discuss these factors critically with regard to their etiopathogenetic importance. Organic factors seem to be most important in migraine, whereas psychological and (psycho)social factors may influence any type of headache. Briefly, migraine in childhood and adolescence seems to be definitively associated with vegetative dysfunction, abdominal symptoms and hormonal factors and possibly with allergic reactions, whereas a relation to epilepsy can be excluded. There is absolutely no evidence for a typical personality of migraine patients. Various psychic reactions, however, are important in all types of headache. Depression and anxiety in young headache patients seem to be related generally to pain, but not specifically to headache. However, school problems, learning disabilities and stress coping behaviour seem to be related directly to recurrent headache. Additionally, there is evidence that the prevalence of headache is associated with low economic status. PMID:8114976

  1. An ROC study detecting ability of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis using digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One potential advantage of the digital radiography system is its ability to enhance image quality by various types of processing. Digital unsharp masking is one of the simplest and most useful forms of enhancing processes. The efficacy of unsharp masking in radiological diagnosis has not been investigated thoroughly. To evaluate the effects of unsharp masking in film-digital chest images, 3 observers were shown 150 test radiographs. These test radiographs consisted of 50 unprocessed images (25 normals and 25 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with honey combing) and their 100 processed images by using 450 and 15-sized masks respectively. An ROC analysis of these data suggests that unsharp masking is more effective in detecting idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than unprocessed image (ρ < 0.05), and so it may improve diagnostic accuracy for interstitial fibrosis. In addition, the smaller mask size (15) is more effective than the larger one (mask size 45) (ρ < 0.05). By using this analytic approach, an optimal parameter in digital chest radiography may be investigated in many other forms of pulmonary disease such as pulmonary nodule or mediastinal mass

  2. An ROC study detecting ability of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Chul; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Jong Hyo [College of Medicine, Ewha Womens University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    One potential advantage of the digital radiography system is its ability to enhance image quality by various types of processing. Digital unsharp masking is one of the simplest and most useful forms of enhancing processes. The efficacy of unsharp masking in radiological diagnosis has not been investigated thoroughly. To evaluate the effects of unsharp masking in film-digital chest images, 3 observers were shown 150 test radiographs. These test radiographs consisted of 50 unprocessed images (25 normals and 25 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with honey combing) and their 100 processed images by using 450 and 15-sized masks respectively. An ROC analysis of these data suggests that unsharp masking is more effective in detecting idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis than unprocessed image ({rho} < 0.05), and so it may improve diagnostic accuracy for interstitial fibrosis. In addition, the smaller mask size (15) is more effective than the larger one (mask size 45) ({rho} < 0.05). By using this analytic approach, an optimal parameter in digital chest radiography may be investigated in many other forms of pulmonary disease such as pulmonary nodule or mediastinal mass.

  3. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT scans in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joong Mo; Im, Jung Gi; Yu, Kyu In; Kim, Hyeong Seog [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Young [Chung Buk National University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Pil Mun [Dankuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-09-15

    The increase in size of lymph node on CT scan is the single most important finding of lymphadenopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the size of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with no evidence of malignancy or current infection. CT scans of 70 patients (16 with conventional CT and 54 with high-resolution CT) were assessed for lymph node size and location. The duration of symptoms, and the extent and pattern of the parenchymal lung disease on CT scans were correlated with lymph node enlargement. In 54 of 70 patients, more than one lymph nodes were large than 1-1.5 cm. The prevalence of node enlargement increased significant with a longer duration of symptom (p=0.001), large extent of the disease (p=0.043), and with a greater proportion of honeycomb pattern (p=0.033). Right paratracheal, subcarinal, right tracheobronchial, and paraesophageal nodes were the most common sites of node enlargement. In conclusion, mediastinal lymph node enlargement is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and is more frequently seen in patients with a longer duration of clinical symptoms, greater extent of the disease, and with a larger proportion of honeycomb pattern.

  4. Mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT scans in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase in size of lymph node on CT scan is the single most important finding of lymphadenopathy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the size of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with no evidence of malignancy or current infection. CT scans of 70 patients (16 with conventional CT and 54 with high-resolution CT) were assessed for lymph node size and location. The duration of symptoms, and the extent and pattern of the parenchymal lung disease on CT scans were correlated with lymph node enlargement. In 54 of 70 patients, more than one lymph nodes were large than 1-1.5 cm. The prevalence of node enlargement increased significant with a longer duration of symptom (p=0.001), large extent of the disease (p=0.043), and with a greater proportion of honeycomb pattern (p=0.033). Right paratracheal, subcarinal, right tracheobronchial, and paraesophageal nodes were the most common sites of node enlargement. In conclusion, mediastinal lymph node enlargement is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and is more frequently seen in patients with a longer duration of clinical symptoms, greater extent of the disease, and with a larger proportion of honeycomb pattern

  5. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  6. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  7. Birth Order and Vocational Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, Gerald L.

    1973-01-01

    Investigated birth order differences and the vocational interests of 150 male college students, making use of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Sibling sex and interaction effects were also investigated. (DP)

  8. Birth and death of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of stars is summarized, giving emphasis to the phenomena related with their formation (birth) and their late stages (death). We also remark the basic physical concepts that regulate stellar evolution

  9. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: the need for early diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchitto, Gaetano; Sanguinetti, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a chronic fibrosing lung disease of a progressive nature and unknown etiology, has the largest epidemiological impact and the worst prognosis among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP). Despite the progress in pathogenetic knowledge, many aspects are still dubious, in particular the biomolecular mechanisms activated in the early stages of the disease. Early diagnosis is desirable not only to better define aspects of the natural history of the disea...

  11. IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS: A DISORDER OF EPITHELIAL CELL DYSFUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zoz, Donald F.; Lawson, William E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive dyspnea, interstitial infiltrates in lung parenchyma, and restriction on pulmonary function testing. IPF is the most common and severe of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), with most individuals progressing to respiratory failure. Multiple lines of evidence reveal prominent roles for alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in disease. Our current disease paradigm is that ongoing or repetitive injurious stimuli in the pre...

  12. Oral steroid treatment for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei T.; Lee, Jui W.; Yuan, Chien H.; Chen, Rong F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the efficacy of long-term oral steroids in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL), and to explore potential prognosis factors, the relationship of hearing recovery outcome, and the recovery time-course in ISSHL. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed 215 cases diagnosed with idiopathic unilateral sudden deafness between January 2003 and December 2012 at a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. All of them received oral steroid therapy and were f...

  13. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2010-01-01

    To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI).......To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI)....

  14. Quantitative analysis of macular contraction in idiopathic epiretinal membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jee Wook; Choi, Kyung Seek

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to quantify the displacement of macular capillaries using infrared fundus photographs and image processing software (ImageJ) in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) who have undergone vitrectomy and to analyze the correlation between vessel displacement and retinal thickness. Methods This prospective study included 16 patients who underwent vitrectomy for idiopathic ERM. Ophthalmic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed before and 3...

  15. Research Summaries for Normal Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Amy M.; Goer, Henci

    2008-01-01

    In this column, the authors summarize four research studies relevant to normal birth. Topics of the studies summarized include the harms of screening for macrosomia late in pregnancy, the risk factors for and impact of postpartum pain in childbearing women, the effects of a breastfeeding approach called “biological nurturing” on reflexive behavior in newborns, and the effects of prenatal yoga on labor and birth outcomes.

  16. Cerebral palsy and multiple births.

    OpenAIRE

    Pharoah, P. O.; Cooke, T

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the birthweight specific prevalence of cerebral palsy in singleton and multiple births. METHODS: Registered births of babies with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire during the period 1982 to 1989 were ascertained. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.3 per 1000 infant survivors in singletons, 12.6 in twins, and 44.8 in triplets. The prevalence of cerebral palsy rose with decreasing birthweight. The birthweight sp...

  17. Defying birth defects through diet?

    OpenAIRE

    Crider, Krista S.; Lynn B. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    The risk of certain birth defects can be modified by maternal diet. A high-fat maternal mouse diet has recently been reported to substantially increase the penetrance of birth defects known to be associated with a deficiency of transcription factor Cited2 as well as induce cleft palate. These effects were associated with a more than twofold reduction in embryonic expression of Pitx2c. This investigation suggests the need to further explore this provocative gene-diet interaction in human studies.

  18. Birth in an Ordinary Instant

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Our daily lives are a series of ordinary moments and unnoticed thresholds—times that define us in ways we often do not give much attention. While we consider childbirth to be one of life's extra-ordinary events, the hours of labor and birth need not be dramatic (or traumatic) ones. I describe a quiet, well-supported birth in the Netherlands that is cause for celebration of the beauty of an ordinary instant that can define and enrich the human experience.

  19. Multiple sclerosis and birth order.

    OpenAIRE

    James, W. H.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the birth order of patients with multiple sclerosis have yielded contradictory conclusions. Most of the sets of data, however, have been tested by biased tests. Data that have been submitted to unbiased tests seem to suggest that cases are more likely to occur in early birth ranks. This should be tested on further samples and some comments are offered on how this should be done.

  20. Turning the Tide for Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2010-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the escalating cesarean surgery rate and the need for evidence-based practice changes that support vaginal birth after cesarean. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth practices.

  1. What Causes Birth Order-Intelligence Patterns? The Admixture Hypothesis, Revived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2001-01-01

    Describes why birth order interests both parents and researchers, discussing what really causes apparent birth order effects on intelligence, examining problems with using cross-sectional intelligence data, and noting how to move beyond cross-sectional inferences. Explains the admixture hypothesis, which finds that family size is much more…

  2. Birth-Order Effects in the Academically Talented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Wayne D.

    1998-01-01

    Birth-order position was studied among 828 academically talented sixth-grade students. When compared to census data, the sample was disproportionately composed of first-born students. However, this effect was largely explained by the covariate of family size, with small families over represented among the gifted. Other findings indicated no…

  3. Water Birth at Home: Two Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Angha, Amanda M.; Scaer, Roberta M.

    2008-01-01

    In this column, a grandmother, with a long history as an author and activist for normal birth, and her daughter, a new mother, offer their unique experiences of a water birth at home, attended by family members and midwives. Their unique perspectives demonstrate the trust in the normal birth process that is possible for every birth.

  4. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where...

  5. Relieving idiopathic dental pain without drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teeth are commonly obvious source of orofacial pain. Sometimes the pain source is undetectable, thus called as idiopathic dental pain. Since dentist wants to alleviate or eliminate the pains with every effort in their mind, a lot of drugs could be prescribed. Moreover, it is make sense that endodontic treatment or even tooth extraction will be done. Unfortunately, endodontic treatment may also initiate neuropathic tooth pain that is caused by nerve extirpation, thus worsen the pain. Therefore, another cause of dental pain such as referred pain, periodontal disease, or stress which related to psychoneuroimmunology should be considered. In order to prevent from unnecessary drugs or invasive treatment such as root canal treatment and extraction, correct diagnosis and preliminary non-invasive therapies should be done. Purpose: This review elucidates several therapies that could be done by dentists for relieving idiopathic dental pain which includes massage, the “assisted drainage” therapy, modulation of psychoneuroimmunologic status and dietary omega-3. Reviews: Understanding the basic pathogenesis of pain may help in elucidating the effects of non-drug pain therapy such as muscle massage, the “assisted drainage” therapy, omega-3 and psychological stress relieving. These measures are accounted for eliminating referred pain, reducing proinflammatory mediators and relieving unwanted stress reactions consecutively. Psychological stress increases proinflammatory cytokines and thus lowered pain threshold. Conclusion: As an individual treatment, this non-drug therapy is useful in relieving idiopathic dental pain; nevertheless, if they work together the result could be more superior.Latar belakang: Gigi adalah suatu penyebab umum dari nyeri orofasial. Kadang kala penyebab nyeri tidak dapat ditemukan, sehingga disebut sebagai nyeri gigi idiopatik. Karena dokter gigi berupaya untuk mengurangi atau menghilangkan nyeri dengan segala cara

  6. Home Birth: The Wave of the Future?

    OpenAIRE

    Lothian, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    A childbirth educator expresses frustration with a medical system that does not work for women or for many maternity care providers. She suggests out-of-hospital birth as an alternative. This column explores the safety of home birth, women's experiences of home birth, and the issues related to home birth once again being the standard. Childbirth educators are encouraged to present home birth as a viable choice.

  7. Size at birth and blood pressure in young adults: findings from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cunha Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de presión arterial limítrofe (PAL e hipertensión (HT entre adultos jóvenes y evaluar la asociación entre tamaño al nacer y PAL/HT. MÉTODOS: : Los datos fueron colectados en el primer estudio de cohorte de nacimientos brasileño en Ribeirao Preto (sureste de Brasil, iniciado en 1978/79. De 6.827 recién nacidos de parto único hospitalario, 2.060 fueron evaluados a los 23/25 años. Se realizaron colecta de sangre, evaluación antropométrica y obtenidas informaciones sobre ocupación, escolaridad, hábitos de vida y enfermedades crónicas. Presión arterial (PA fue clasificada en: 1 PAL: PA sistólica (PAS ≥ 130 y < 140 mm Hg y/o PA diastólica (PAD ≥ 85 y < 90 mm Hg; 2 HT: PAS ≥ 140 y/o PAD ≥ 90 mm Hg. Se aplicó modelo de regresión logística politómica. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de PAL fue de 13,5% (hombres 23,2% y la de HT, 9,5% (hombres 17,7%. PAL fue independientemente asociada con sexo masculino (Riesgo Relativo - RR 8,84; 95%IC: 6,09;12,82, estatura al nacer ≥ 50 cm (RR 1,97; 1,04; 3,73, índice de masa corporal (IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,23; 2,02; 5,15 y circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 1,61; 1,13;2,29, mientras el HT se asoció con sexo masculino (RR 15,18; 8,92;25,81, IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,68; 2,23;6,06, circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 2,68; 1,77;4,05 y glicemia elevada (RR 2,55; 1,27;5,10, pero no con estatura al nacer. CONCLUSIONES: Las prevalencias de PAL y HT entre los adultos jóvenes de la cohorte fueron mayores en hombres que en mujeres. Mayor estatura al nacer fue asociado con PAL, pero no con HT, mientras que el peso al nacer no estuvo asociado con PAL o HT. Factores de riesgo de adulto explicaron la mayoría de los aumentos de PAL o HT.

  8. The Effect of Traditional Remedies (Camels Thorn, Flixweed and Sugar Water on Idiopathic Neonatal Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Mafinejad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Jaundice is the most common reason of newborns admission to neonatal ward. Many Iranian families give traditional remedies like sugar water, camels thorn and flixweed extracts to breast-fed babies for reducing jaundice. This study investigated the effect of traditional remedies on idiopathic neonatal jaundice. Methods:This prospective study has been performed on 336 babies with idiopathic jaundice in a four year period (2005-2009 at Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The babies were divided into two groups. In case group (n=234 breast-fed babies received no remedy and in control group (n=102, traditional remedies were given additional to breast milk and the results recorded and compared. Findings:In the present study significant differences were observed between the two groups in age of admission (6.8±3.2 vs 9.2±3.7 day, P<0.001, serum bilirubin values (17.8 vs 21.3 mg/dl, P<0.001 and percent of weight loss (P<0.01. There were no significant differences between the two groups in birth weight, sex, gestational age and duration of hospitalization, age at jaundice remission, hematocrit value and maternal factors (age, gestational order, pregnancy and labor problems(P>0.05. Conclusion:Traditional remedies (camels thorn, flixweed and sugar water cause more weight loss and delayed reexamination of newborns leading to increased hyperbilirubinemia. These remedies may raise pseudo confidence in parents, which postpones reexamination and follow up of the newborns.

  9. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  10. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers.......Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused the...

  11. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  12. Transient probabilities for a simple birth-death-immigration process under the influence of total catastrophes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall J. Swift

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The transient probabilities for a simple birth-death-immigration process are considered. Catastrophes occur at a constant rate, and when they occur, reduce the population to size zero.

  13. Comparing new treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis--a network meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Loveman, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The treatment landscape for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a devastating lung disease, is changing. To investigate the effectiveness of treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis we undertook a systematic review, network meta-analysis and indirect comparison.

  14. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Lega

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM is a group of rare connective tissue diseases (CTDs characterised by muscular and extramuscular signs, in which lung involvement is a challenging issue. Interstitial lung disease (ILD is the hallmark of pulmonary involvement in IIM, and causes morbidity and mortality, resulting in an estimated excess mortality of 50% in some series. Except for inclusion body myositis, these extrapulmonary disorders are associated with the general and visceral involvement frequently found in other CTDs including fever, Raynaud's phenomenon, arthralgia, nonspecific cutaneous modifications and ILD, for which the prevalence is estimated to be up to 65%. Substantial heterogeneity exists within the spectrum of IIMs, and each condition is associated with various frequencies and subtypes of pulmonary involvement. This heterogeneity is partly related to the presence of various autoantibodies encompassing anti-synthetase, anti-MDA5 and anti-PM/Scl. ILD is present in all subsets of IIM including juvenile myositis, but is more frequent in dermatomyositis and overlap myositis. IIM can also be associated with other presentations of respiratory involvement, namely pulmonary arterial hypertension, pleural disease, infections, drug-induced toxicity, malignancy and respiratory muscle weakness. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about adult and juvenile myositis-associated lung disease with a detailed description of therapeutics for chronic and rapidly progressive ILD.

  15. Prognostic markers for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Xiaomin; Jin Hongfang; Du Junbao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to review the research on the prognostic markers of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).Date sources We searched literature from PubMed and CNKI databases both in English and Chinese up to 2013.Study selection Data about mortality and cut-off value are from clinical trials and identified by analysis.Results IPAH is an unexplained,progressive,and rare disease characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance.The diagnosis is difficult,mortality of IPAH is high,and the survival periods are only 2-3 years after diagnosis.Investigations in recent years have identified a range of prognostic markers for IPAH,including the 6-minute walking test,red blood cell distribution width,and platelet levels,as well as imaging findings.Changes in these markers are important sources of information to predict the prognosis of patients with IPAH,which carries significant benefits for treatment planning.Conclusion Even though the prognosis of IPAH has been investigated,the mortality is also high.More accurate and meaningful assessment for the prognosis of IPAH is required.

  16. Colectomy for idiopathic slow transit constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童卫东; 刘宝华; 张胜本; 张连阳; 黄显凯

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the intervention of colectomy on a group of patients with idiopathic slow transit constipation (STC).Methods: Thirty-four patients with STC, underwent colectomy during recent 10 years in our department, were subjected and followed for a mean length of 34 months, and their colon transits, defecograms, colonoscopic examination, sex hormone detection, and immunohistochemical studies were retrospectively reviewed.Results: The colonic transit time ranged from 96 to 240 h, with a mean time of 136 h.Eighty-five percent of patients (29/34) accompanied with outlet obstructed constipation, and 50% (17/34) showed abnormal sex hormone levels.Colectomy obtained satisfactory results in most patients, except one case of recurrence.Moreover, more neurons positive to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lesser to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were seen in the colonic myenteric plexus.Conclusion: Colectomy produces a satisfactory functional outcome in the majority of patients undergoing surgery for slow transit constipation, but accompanied pelvic dysfunction must be corrected simultaneously.

  17. Molecular mechanisms in progressive idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Mark P; Schwartz, David A

    2013-01-01

    There is clear evidence that environmental exposures and genetic predisposition contribute to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing IPF several-fold, as do other exposures such as metal-fume and wood-dust exposure. Occupations that increase the risk of IPF are agricultural work, hairdressing, and stone polishing, supporting the role of environmental exposure in disease pathogenesis. Genetic predisposition to IPF is evident from its familial aggregation and the fact that pulmonary fibrosis develops in several rare genetic disorders. Mutations in surfactant proteins lead to pulmonary fibrosis and are associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress in alveolar type II epithelial cells. Mutations in telomerase have been found in several families with IPF, and shortened telomeres are found in sporadic cases of IPF. A common variant in mucin 5B predisposes to both familial and sporadic IPF and is present in the majority of cases, indicating sporadic IPF occurs in those with genetic predisposition. PMID:23020878

  18. PROFILEing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: rethinking biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Toby M

    2013-06-01

    Despite major advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), diagnosis and management of the condition continue to pose significant challenges. Clinical management of IPF remains unsatisfactory due to limited availability of effective drug therapies, a lack of accurate indicators of disease progression, and an absence of simple short-term measures of therapeutic response. The identification of more accurate predictors of prognosis and survival in IPF would facilitate counseling of patients and their families, aid communication among clinicians, and would guide optimal timing of referral for transplantation. Improvements in molecular techniques have led to the identification of new disease pathways and a more targeted approach to the development of novel anti-fibrotic agents. However, despite an increased interest in biomarkers of IPF disease progression there are a lack of measures that can be used in early phase clinical trials. Careful longitudinal phenotyping of individuals with IPF together with the application of novel omics-based technology should provide important insights into disease pathogenesis and should address some of the major issues holding back drug development in IPF. The PROFILE (Prospective Observation of Fibrosis in the Lung Clinical Endpoints) study is a currently enrolling, prospective cohort study designed to tackle these issues. PMID:23728868

  19. Two Sisters with Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gencer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with unknown etiology. In the present report, the presentations of two sisters are described: one sister had IPH, eosinophilia and a high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE level; and the other had IPH, pneumothorax, eosinophilia and a high serum IgE level. Both cases had quite unusual presentations. The first patient was 23 years of age, and had suffered from dry cough and progressive dyspnea for four years. Her hemoglobin level was 60 g/L, total serum IgE level was 900 U/mL and eosinophilia was 9%. Her chest radiography revealed diffuse infiltration. She died due to respiratory failure. The second patient was 18 years of age. She had also suffered from dry cough and gradually increasing dyspnea for two years. She had partial pneumothorax in the right lung and diffuse infiltration in other pulmonary fields on chest radiography. Her hemoglobin level was 99 g/L, total serum IgE level was 1200 U/mL and eosinophilia was 8%. IPH was diagnosed by open lung biopsy. All these findings suggested that familial or allergic factors, as well as immunological factors, might have contributed to the etiology of IPH.

  20. Lymphatics in lymphangioleiomyomatosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil El-Chemaly

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the lymphatic system is absorbing and transporting macromolecules and immune cells to the general circulation, thereby regulating fluid, nutrient absorption and immune cell trafficking. Lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in tissue inflammation and tumour cell dissemination. Lymphatic involvement is seen in lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. LAM, a disease primarily affecting females, involves the lung (cystic destruction, kidney (angiomyolipoma and axial lymphatics (adenopathy and lymphangioleiomyoma. LAM occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC. Cystic lung destruction results from proliferation of LAM cells, which are abnormal smooth muscle-like cells with mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Lymphatic abnormalities arise from infiltration of LAM cells into the lymphatic wall, leading to damage or obstruction of lymphatic vessels. Benign appearing LAM cells possess metastatic properties and are found in the blood and other body fluids. IPF is a progressive lung disease resulting from fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. Lymphangiogenesis is associated with pulmonary destruction and disease severity. A macrophage subset isolated from IPF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF express lymphatic endothelial cell markers in vitro, in contrast to the same macrophage subset from normal BALF. Herein, we review lymphatic involvement in LAM and IPF.

  1. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  2. Chronic idiopathic urticaria and Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, R M; Imbesi, S; Saitta, S; Campennì, A; Cannavò, S; Trimarchi, F; Gangemi, S

    2013-01-01

    Chronic urticaria is a common condition characterized by recurrent episodes of mast cell-driven wheal and flare-type skin reactions lasting for more than 6 weeks. In about 75% of cases, the underlying causes remain unknown, and the term chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is used to emphasize that wheals develop independently of identified external stimuli. Although CIU affects about 1.0% of the general population, its etiopathogenesis is not yet well understood. It is now widely accepted that in many cases CIU should be regarded as an autoimmune disorder caused by circulating and functionally active IgG autoantibodies specific for the IgE receptor (FceRI) present on mast cells and basophils or for IgE itself. The well-known association of CIU with other autoimmune processes/diseases represents further indirect evidence of its autoimmune origin. Autoimmune thyroid diseases, especially autoimmune thyroiditis, represent the most frequently investigated diseases in association with CIU. Here we review this topic with particular regard to the association between Graves' disease and CIU. The possible pathogenetic mechanisms and the clinical implications of such an association are discussed. PMID:23609949

  3. Imaging: how to recognise idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Devaraj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT is an essential component of the diagnostic pathway in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Honeycombing, a common feature of IPF seen on HRCT, is crucial for an accurate diagnosis. Unfortunately, identification of honeycombing is not always straightforward, and there is some disagreement regarding its imaging features. It can be difficult to distinguish honeycombing from traction bronchiectasis and emphysema, although several imaging characteristics can be helpful. Recently, there has been an interest in expanding the use of HRCT beyond diagnosis for disease monitoring and prognostication, and several studies have provided valuable contributions in this regard. Traction bronchiectasis and the extent of fibrosis, for example, have been reported to be powerful prognostic predictors for mortality. Finally, considering the difficulties in diagnosis of “possible usual interstitial pneumonia”, clinicians should always be aware that clinical factors must be considered together with HRCT in order to reach an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment.

  4. PROFILEing idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: rethinking biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby M. Maher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite major advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, diagnosis and management of the condition continue to pose significant challenges. Clinical management of IPF remains unsatisfactory due to limited availability of effective drug therapies, a lack of accurate indicators of disease progression, and an absence of simple short-term measures of therapeutic response. The identification of more accurate predictors of prognosis and survival in IPF would facilitate counseling of patients and their families, aid communication among clinicians, and would guide optimal timing of referral for transplantation. Improvements in molecular techniques have led to the identification of new disease pathways and a more targeted approach to the development of novel anti-fibrotic agents. However, despite an increased interest in biomarkers of IPF disease progression there are a lack of measures that can be used in early phase clinical trials. Careful longitudinal phenotyping of individuals with IPF together with the application of novel omics-based technology should provide important insights into disease pathogenesis and should address some of the major issues holding back drug development in IPF. The PROFILE (Prospective Observation of Fibrosis in the Lung Clinical Endpoints study is a currently enrolling, prospective cohort study designed to tackle these issues.

  5. Pirfenidone treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Gan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ye Gan1,2, Erica L Herzog2, Richard H Gomer31Department of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; 2Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 3Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USAAbstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a discrete clinicopathologic entity defined by the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia on high-resolution CT scan and/or open lung biopsy and the absence of an alternate diagnosis or exposure explaining these findings. There are currently no FDA-approved therapies available to treat this disease, and the 5-year mortality is ~80%. The pyridone derivative pirfenidone has been studied extensively as a possible therapeutic agent for use in this deadly disease. This review will present the unique clinical features and management issues encountered by physicians caring for IPF patients, including the poor response to conventional therapy. The biochemistry and preclinical efficacy of pirfenidone will be discussed along with a comprehensive review of the clinical efficacy, safety, and side effects and patient-centered foci such as quality of life and tolerability. It is hoped that this information will lend insight into the complex issues surrounding the use of pirfenidone in IPF and lead to further investigation of this agent as a possible therapy in this devastating disease.Keywords: pirfenidone, fibrosis, clinical trials 

  6. Mineralogical microanalysis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mineralogical analysis of lung tissue was conducted on 25 samples from patients who had been diagnosed as having idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low magnification and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) was used. In all samples, the surface silicon/sulfur (Si/S) ratio was calculated. The Si/S ratio for 25 samples of normal lung and 6 samples of pneumoconiotic lung was also determined (upper limit of normal Si/S ratio = 0.3). The difference between the Si/S ratio in the group with IPF and group with normal lung tissue was significantly significant (p less than .007, Wilcoxon test). Six of 12 patients with a previous diagnosis of IPF and a Si/S ratio greater than 0.3 had an exposure history that could imply inhalation of silica/silicates, and the correct diagnosis for these patients is most probably pneumoconiosis. The silica/silicate deposits detected in patients with IPF, and who had a ratio and no past exposure to dusts, could be either a cause or an effect of the disease

  7. Mineralogical microanalysis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monso, E.; Tura, J.M.; Marsal, M.; Morell, F.; Pujadas, J.; Morera, J. (Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Badalona (Spain))

    1990-05-01

    A mineralogical analysis of lung tissue was conducted on 25 samples from patients who had been diagnosed as having idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at low magnification and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA) was used. In all samples, the surface silicon/sulfur (Si/S) ratio was calculated. The Si/S ratio for 25 samples of normal lung and 6 samples of pneumoconiotic lung was also determined (upper limit of normal Si/S ratio = 0.3). The difference between the Si/S ratio in the group with IPF and group with normal lung tissue was significantly significant (p less than .007, Wilcoxon test). Six of 12 patients with a previous diagnosis of IPF and a Si/S ratio greater than 0.3 had an exposure history that could imply inhalation of silica/silicates, and the correct diagnosis for these patients is most probably pneumoconiosis. The silica/silicate deposits detected in patients with IPF, and who had a ratio and no past exposure to dusts, could be either a cause or an effect of the disease.

  8. Psychological functioning in idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeker, Meinolf

    2011-01-01

    Living with idiopathic short stature (ISS) may entail significant risks to psychological functioning and quality of life. Apparent inconsistency among study findings can be resolved if methodological differences among study designs are taken into account (i.e., definition of particular endpoints, sample selection from clinic or population, source of report, specific or generic assessment instruments, statistical control of confounders). Some individuals fail and others succeed in mastering the challenges of ISS. The principles of multifinality and equifinality may explain the emergence of a broad variation of individuals with ISS as a result of an interaction of the individual medical and auxological features on the one side, and psychosocial risk and protective factors on the other. As a result, patients may show heterogeneous developmental outcomes ranging from clinical psychopathology to development of resilience. A taxonomy of four distinct pathways of adaptation to ISS is delineated as a basis for case formulation and treatment planning. Psychological intervention in ISS includes counseling, cognitive-behavioral therapy and assertiveness training to improve psychological functioning via enhancement of target coping behaviors for critical situations. PMID:21912169

  9. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: Clinical Approach and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Asma; Hayat, Ghazala; Kalia, Junaid S; Guzman, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a group of chronic, autoimmune conditions affecting primarily the proximal muscles. The most common types are dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM). Patients typically present with sub-acute to chronic onset of proximal weakness manifested by difficulty with rising from a chair, climbing stairs, lifting objects, and combing hair. They are uniquely identified by their clinical presentation consisting of muscular and extramuscular manifestations. Laboratory investigations, including increased serum creatine kinase (CK) and myositis specific antibodies (MSA) may help in differentiating clinical phenotype and to confirm the diagnosis. However, muscle biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis. These disorders are potentially treatable with proper diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Goals of treatment are to eliminate inflammation, restore muscle performance, reduce morbidity, and improve quality of life. This review aims to provide a basic diagnostic approach to patients with suspected IIM, summarize current therapeutic strategies, and provide an insight into future prospective therapies. PMID:27242652

  10. Proton MR spectroscopy in idiopathic spasmodic torticollis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), localised to the basal ganglia, was used to determine changes in metabolite levels in idiopathic spasmodic torticollis (IST). We examined nine patients and 13 healthy subjects. The mean values (± SD) of peak area ratios were: IST: N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/choline-containing compounds (Cho) 1.79 ± 0.39, NAA/creatine and phosphocreatine compounds (Cr) 1.61 ± 0.38, Cho/Cr 0.91 ± 0.19; controls: NAA/Cho 2.07 ± 0.35, NAA/Cr 1.82 ± 0.31, Cho/Cr 0.89 ± 0.12. Statistical analysis showed that NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr were significantly lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.0304 and 0.0431, respectively). These results indicate a reduction in NAA, and suggest striatal involvement in the pathogenesis IST. (orig.)

  11. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: Clinical Approach and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Asma; Hayat, Ghazala; Kalia, Junaid S.; Guzman, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are a group of chronic, autoimmune conditions affecting primarily the proximal muscles. The most common types are dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM), and sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM). Patients typically present with sub-acute to chronic onset of proximal weakness manifested by difficulty with rising from a chair, climbing stairs, lifting objects, and combing hair. They are uniquely identified by their clinical presentation consisting of muscular and extramuscular manifestations. Laboratory investigations, including increased serum creatine kinase (CK) and myositis specific antibodies (MSA) may help in differentiating clinical phenotype and to confirm the diagnosis. However, muscle biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis. These disorders are potentially treatable with proper diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Goals of treatment are to eliminate inflammation, restore muscle performance, reduce morbidity, and improve quality of life. This review aims to provide a basic diagnostic approach to patients with suspected IIM, summarize current therapeutic strategies, and provide an insight into future prospective therapies. PMID:27242652

  12. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: An Autoimmune Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Altintoprak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to investigate the autoimmune basis of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM by determining the anti-nuclear antibody (ANA and extractable nuclear antigen (ENA levels of patients diagnosed with IGM. Material and Methods. Twenty-six IGM patients were evaluated. Serum samples were analyzed for autoantibodies by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF using a substrate kit that induced fluorescein-conjugated goat antibodies to human immunoglobulin G (IgG. IIF patterns were read at serum dilutions of 1 : 40 and 1 : 100 for ANA positivity. Using the immunoblot technique, the sera of patients were assayed at dilutions of 1 : 40 and 1 : 100 for human autoantibodies of the IgG class to 15 lines of highly purified ENAs. Results. In the IIF studies for ANA, positivity was identified for four different patterns in the 1 : 40 diluted preparations, for three different patients in the 1 : 100 diluted preparations and only one pattern was identified at the 1 : 320 dilution. In the ENA studies, positivity was identified for four different pattern in the 1 : 40 dilution, and only one pattern was identified at the 1 : 100 dilution. Conclusion. This study was not able to support the eventual existence of an autoimmune basis for IGM.

  13. Team training for safer birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios

    2015-11-01

    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women. PMID:25979351

  14. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F;

    2001-01-01

    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child......-pregnancy. Furthermore, a biological bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been...

  15. Risk attitudes and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Philipp; Heindl, Johannes; Jung, Andreas; Langguth, Berthold; Hajak, Göran; Sand, Philipp G

    2014-07-01

    Risk attitudes play important roles in health behavior and everyday decision making. It is unclear, however, whether these attitudes can be predicted from birth order. We investigated 200 mostly male volunteers from two distinct settings. After correcting for multiple comparisons, for the number of siblings and for confounding by gender, ordinal position predicted perception of health-related risks among participants in extreme sports (p theory. Except for alcohol consumption, these findings extended to self-reported risk behavior. Together, the data call for a cautious stand on the impact of birth order on risk attitudes. PMID:23520357

  16. Stressful life events in pregnancy and head circumference at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    A strong association between stress in pregnancy and small head circumference in infants at birth was reported in 1994. This important finding has never been replicated. In a follow-up study of 4211 participants with singleton pregnancies, information on life events was collected twice during...... pregnancy and head circumference measured shortly after birth following standard procedures. No association was found between experienced or perceived stress as a result of life events during pregnancy and head circumference in the infants. In conclusion, stress in pregnancy may influence foetal brain...... development in many ways, but we found no support for an effect on the size of the brain as measured by head circumference at birth. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Dec...

  17. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  18. Differential response of idiopathic sporadic tumoral calcinosis to bisphosphonates

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    Karthik Balachandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tumoral calcinosis is a disorder of phosphate metabolism characterized by ectopic calcification around major joints. Surgery is the current treatment of choice, but a suboptimal choice in recurrent and multicentric lesions. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of bisphosphonates for the management of tumoral calcinosis on optimized medical treatment. Settings and Design: The study was done in the endocrine department of a tertiary care hospital in South India. We prospectively studied two patients with recurrent tumoral calcinosis who had failed therapy with phosphate lowering measures. Materials and Methods: After informed consent, we treated both patients with standard age adjusted doses of bisphosphonates for 18 months. The response was assessed by X ray and whole body 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan at the beginning of therapy and at the end of 1 year. We also estimated serum phosphate levels and urinary phosphate to document serial changes. Results: Two patients (aged 19 and 5 years with recurrent idiopathic hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis, following surgery were studied. Both patients had failed therapy with conventional medical management − low phosphate diet and phosphate binders. They had restriction of joint mobility. Both were given standard doses of oral alendronate and parenteral pamidronate respectively for more than a year, along with phosphate lowering measures. At the end of 1 year, one of the patients had more than 95% and 90% reduction in the size of the lesions in right and left shoulder joints respectively with total improvement in range of motion. In contrast, the other patient (5-year-old had shown no improvement, despite continuing to maintain normophosphatemia following treatment. Conclusions: Bisphosphonate therapy in tumoral calcinosis is associated with lesion resolution and may be used as a viable alternative to surgery, especially in cases with multicentric recurrence or treatment failure to other

  19. WNT7B in fibroblastic foci of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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    Meuten Travis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating interstitial pneumonia causing a loss of respiratory surface area due to a proliferative fibrotic response involving hyperplastic, hypertrophic, and metaplastic epithelium, cystic honeycomb change, septal expansion, and variable inflammation. Wnt (wingless signaling glycoproteins are known to be involved in lung development and tissue repair, and are up-regulated in patients with IPF. Based on previous qRT-PCR data showing increased Wnt7B in lungs of IPF patients, a systematic, quantitative examination of its tissue site distribution was undertaken. Methods Tissue samples from the Lung Tissue Research Consortium (LTRC of 39 patients diagnosed with mild to severe IPF/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and 19 normal patients were examined for the immunolocalization of Wnt7B. Results In normal lung, moderate Wnt7B reactivity was confined to airway epithelium, smooth muscle of airways and vasculature, and macrophages. IPF lung showed strong Wnt7B reactivity in fibroblastic foci, dysplastic airway and alveolar epithelium, and in highly discrete subepithelial, basement membrane-associated regions. All reactive sites were sized and counted relative to specific microscopic regions. Those in the subepithelial sites were found in significantly greater numbers and larger relative area compared with the others. No reactive sites were present in normal patient controls. Conclusions The results demonstrate Wnt7B to be expressed at high concentrations in regions of active hyperplasia, metaplasia, and fibrotic change in IPF patients. In this context and its previously established biologic activities, Wnt7B would be expected to be of potential importance in the pathogenesis of IPF.

  20. Candidate gene analysis and exome sequencing confirm LBX1 as a susceptibility gene for idiopathic scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauers, Anna; Wang, Jingwen; Einarsdottir, Elisabet;

    2015-01-01

    ,739 patients with idiopathic scoliosis and 1,812 controls were included. OUTCOME MEASURE: The outcome measure was idiopathic scoliosis. METHODS: The variants rs10510181, rs11190870, rs12946942, and rs6570507 were genotyped in 1,739 patients with idiopathic scoliosis and 1,812 controls. Exome sequencing was...

  1. Birth order and selected work-related personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A S; Bedeian, A G; Mossholder, K W; Touliatos, J

    1988-12-01

    A possible link between birth order and various individual characteristics (e. g., intelligence, potential eminence, need for achievement, sociability) has been suggested by personality theorists such as Adler for over a century. The present study examines whether birth order is associated with selected personality variables that may be related to various work outcomes. 3 of 7 hypotheses were supported and the effect sizes for these were small. Firstborns scored significantly higher than later borns on measures of dominance, good impression, and achievement via conformity. No differences between firstborns and later borns were found in managerial potential, work orientation, achievement via independence, and sociability. The study's sample consisted of 835 public, government, and industrial accountants responding to a national US survey of accounting professionals. The nature of the sample may have been partially responsible for the results obtained. Its homogeneity may have caused any birth order effects to wash out. It can be argued that successful membership in the accountancy profession requires internalization of a set of prescribed rules and standards. It may be that accountants as a group are locked in to a behavioral framework. Any differentiation would result from spurious interpersonal differences, not from predictable birth-order related characteristics. A final interpretation is that birth order effects are nonexistent or statistical artifacts. Given the present data and particularistic sample, however, the authors have insufficient information from which to draw such a conclusion. PMID:12281942

  2. Birth order and mortality: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Kieron; Kolk, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study uses Swedish population register data to investigate the relationship between birth order and mortality at ages 30 to 69 for Swedish cohorts born between 1938 and 1960, using a within-family comparison. The main analyses are conducted with discrete-time survival analysis using a within-family comparison, and the estimates are adjusted for age, mother's age at the time of birth, and cohort. Focusing on sibships ranging in size from two to six, we find that mortality risk in adulthood increases with later birth order. The results show that the relative effect of birth order is greater among women than among men. This pattern is consistent for all the major causes of death but is particularly pronounced for mortality attributable to cancers of the respiratory system and to external causes. Further analyses in which we adjust for adult socioeconomic status and adult educational attainment suggest that social pathways only mediate the relationship between birth order and mortality risk in adulthood to a limited degree. PMID:25777302

  3. An unusual case of epidermolysis bullosa complicated by persistent oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis; lessons to be learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheriou Despina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa (RDEB is a rare and severe hereditary skin disease. Oligoarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA although infrequent in the general paediatric population, is the most frequent type of autoimmune joint disease in children. While different in aetiology, both diseases are characterized by gradual deterioration in mobility and function. We report a female patient, diagnosed with RDEB at birth, who presented with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD at the age of four years, and subsequently developed oligoarticular JIA at seven years of age, and discuss the diagnostic and treatment challenges of this unusual case. This report, besides presenting a unique case, also highlights the important issues that need to be taken into account when assessing and managing patients with such complex conditions.

  4. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Jin Suh; Lim, Tae Hwan [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement.

  5. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement

  6. Gamma knife radiosurgery for medically refractory idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) has been generally considered as a viable therapeutic option for the management of medically refractory idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN). We reviewed our experience with GKS in patients with TN. Between Feb 1996 and May 2006. 77 patients with medical refractory idiopathic TN were treated using GKS. Thirty-six patients who had undergone other previous procedures, previous GKS, or had brain stem lesion, atypical symptoms, were excluded from this study. Pain improvement was achieved in 38 of the patients with TN (pain response rate 92.7 %). Twenty-three patients were pain free and 15 had reduced pain. There were no serious complications. We think that GKS is an effective treatment option for patients with medical refractory idiopathic TN. (author)

  7. The role of gastroesophageal reflux in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, Ganesh

    2003-08-18

    Fibroblast foci are indicative of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and appear to be a cellular attempt to repair the damaged alveolus. Although this progressive, often fatal, clinical syndrome is thought to be dependent on alveolar injury of unknown origin, significant clinical and preclinical evidence points to gastric acid as a causative harmful agent. Graded instillation of various forms of acid in several animal models resulted in aspiration-induced lung injury, including pulmonary fibrosis in pigs. Moreover, compelling clinical data suggest that a high percentage of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis also experience abnormal esophageal acid exposure, without necessarily experiencing the typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Aggressive, long-term therapeutic trials of patients with GERD and evaluation of the therapeutic effects on pulmonary disease will allow determination of the real influences of abnormal esophageal acid exposure in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:12928077

  8. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  9. The Airway Microbiome at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H.; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  10. Preterm birth and its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Radhanpuri

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: In our population preterm birth is more common in poor socio economic status, women with anaemia, malnutrition and these factors can be eliminated by proper nutrition and health education by health workers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 153-157

  11. The Airway Microbiome at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  12. Birth Defects and Adolescent Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, James

    1975-01-01

    Home economists who work with adolescents can help prepare them for responsible parenthood later in life by explaining the known causes of various birth defects; providing basic information about human genetics, prenatal nutrition, and drug and alcohol effects; and motivating adolescents to exercise increased responsibility in their sexual…

  13. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy during pregnancy, and giving your baby a healthy start in life will help you to have peace of mind. Before pregnancy » During pregnancy » To learn about CDC’s work to help prevent birth defects, visit our Research and Tracking page. Related Links Disability and Health ...

  14. Ultrasound Diagnostics of Premature Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Chekhonatskaya M.L.; Vasilevich L.K.; Petrosyan N.O.; Kolesnikova E.A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to analyze the data of native and foreign literature and to consider the modern aspects of ultrasound diagnostics of premature birth, and new additional criteria for early diagnostics and prediction of preterm delivery. Hemodynamic characteristics in the second and third trimesters of the pregnancy have been covered.

  15. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia: transcatheter ablation or antiarrhythmic drugs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tondo; Corrado Carbucicchio; Antonio Dello Russo; Benedetta Majocchi; Martina Zucchetti; Francesca Pizzamiglio; Fabrizio Bologna; Fabio Cattaneo; Daniele Colombo; Eleonora Russo; Michela Casella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ventricular tachycardia or frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs can occur in the absence of any detectable structural heart disease. In this clinical setting, these arrhythmias are termed idiopathic. Usually, they carry a benign prognosis and any potential ablative intervention is carried out if patients are highly symptomatic or, more importantly, if frequent ventricular arrhythmias can lead to ventricular dysfunction. Methods In this paper, different forms of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia are reviewed. Outflow tract ventricular tachycardia from the right ventricle is the most frequent form of the so-called idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. Other forms of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias include ventricular tachycardia/PVCs arising from tricuspid annulus, from the mitral annulus, inter-fascicular ventricular tachycardia and papillary muscle ventricular tachycardia. When interventional treatment is deemed necessary, detailed mapping ( earliest activation during VT/PVC, pace mapping is crucial as to identify the successful ablation site. Catheter ablation more than antiarrhythmic drug treatment is usually highly effective in eliminating idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias and providing prevention of recurrence. Conclusion Idiopathic VTs are not considered life-threatening arrhythmias and, prevention of recurrences is often achieved by means of catheter ablation that provides an improvement of quality of life. The overall acute success rate of catheter ablation is about 85-90% with a long–term prevention of arrhythmia recurrence of about 75-80%. It is advisable that the procedure is carried out by electrophysiologists with expertise in VT catheter ablation and extensive knowledge of cardiac anatomy as to ensure a high success rate and reduce the likelihood of major complications.

  17. US diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is one of the most common causes of persistent nonbilous vomiting in early infancy. The authors retrospectively studied 123 patients with nonbilous vomiting and analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of 51 cases of surgically proven IHPS. No false negative or false positive cases by ultrasonography were confirmed by follow-up clinical observation. US was performed with real-time scanners equipped with a 5MHz transducer (Acuson 128) and a 10MHz transducer (Spectra, Diasonic). All symptomatic infants were first screened in as supine position to determine the amount of gastric retention. The pylorus was imaged most often with the infants in the right decubitus 30-degree position. To improve imaging of the pylorus, if necessary, the infants were fed E-solution (60-100cc) and then examined. The average sonographic measurements of pyloric muscle thickness (MT), pyloric diameter (PD), and pyloric canal length (PL) were 5.46mm (range 3.6-7.9mm), 15.4mm (range 12.0-18.3mm), and 22.58mm, (range 18.0-29.9mm). The ratio of pyloric muscle thickness to the pylorus (MT/PD) was 0.36 (range 0.22-0.55). With these measurements, the authors considered the hypertrophic pyloric muscle and the elongated pylorus as a cylinder, and so the pyloric volume was calculated. The pyloric volume (PV), which was equated to 1/4 π xPD2xPL, was 4.24mL (range 2.62-6.36mL). It was concluded that high-resolution, real-time sonography is a simple and accurate method for the diagnosis of IHPS and should be the initial imaging modality

  18. Practical management of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishaba, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is relentless progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) of unknown etiology. Main pathogenesis is aberrant recovery of epithelial injury and collagen deposition. Majority of IPF patients have been elderly men with smokers. However, there are important differential diagnosis such as fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) associated ILD, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonia (CHP). Clinical point of view, non-productive cough and progressive exertional dyspnea are main symptoms. In addition, scalene muscle hypertrophy, fine crackles and finger clubbing are key findings. Serum marker such as lactate deydrogenase (LDH), Krebs von den Lungeng-6 (KL-6) are sensitive for ILD detection and activity. Pulmonary function test and 6 minute walk test (6MWT) are quite meaningful physiological examination. Serial change of forced vital capacity 6MWT distance predict mortality of IPF. International IPF guideline published recently and highlighted on the importance of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings. Key findings of IPF are honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and subpleural reticular opacity. IPF is chronic progressive disease. Therefore, tracing disease behavior is crucial and unifying clinical, physiological, imaging information over time provide useful information for physicians.In management, many candidate agent failed to have positive result. Pirfenidone which is anti-fibrotic agent showed to slow the decline of vital capacity and prevent of acute exacerbation. Molecular agent such as nintedanib is promising agent for prevention of progression of IPF. In this review, we review the clinical information of IPF and IPF guideline. Lastly, we show the clinical algorithm of this devastated disease. PMID:26278687

  19. The Etiology of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigante, Donato; Bosco, Annalisa; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Over the years, the commonly used term to describe juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has changed. By definition, JIA includes all types of arthritis with no apparent cause, lasting more than 6 weeks, in patients aged less than 16 years at onset. JIA pathogenesis is still poorly understood: the interaction between environmental factors and multiple genes has been proposed as the most relevant working mechanism to the development of JIA. The concept that various microbes that colonize or infect not only the mucosal surfaces, like the oral cavity, but also the airways and gut might trigger autoimmune processes, resulting in chronic arthritides, and JIA was first drafted at the outset of last century. JIA development might be initiated and sustained by the exposure to environmental factors, including infectious agents which affect people at a young age, depending on the underlying genetic predisposition to synovial inflammation. Many data from patients with JIA suggest a scenario in which different external antigens incite multiple antigen-specific pathways, cytotoxic T cell responses, activation of classical complement cascade, and production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this review, emphasis is paid not only to the potential role of parvovirus B19 and Epstein-Barr virus in primis but also to the general involvement of different bacteria as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bartonella henselae, and Streptococcus pyogenes for the development of immune-mediated arthritides during childhood. No unequivocal evidence favoring or refuting these associations has been clearly proved, and today, the strict definition of JIA etiology remains unknown. The infection can represent a random event in a susceptible individual, or it can be a necessary factor in JIA development, always in combination with a peculiar genetic background. Further studies are needed in order to address the unsolved questions

  20. Chronic idiopathic urticaria: prevalence and clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Jiamton, Sukhum; Thumpimukvatana, Narumol; Pinkaew, Sumruay

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the prevalence and clinical course of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU), as well as possible causes or associated findings, laboratory findings and the duration of the disease in patients with chronic urticaria (CU). We retrospectively reviewed the 450 case record forms of patients with CU and/or angioedema who attended the Department of Dermatology, Siriraj Hospital, during the period 2000-2004. Of 450 patients with CU, 337 patients (75%) were diagnosed as CIU. Forty-three patients (9.5%) had physical urticaria, while 17 patients (3.8%) had infectious causes. Other possible causes were food, thyroid diseases, atopy, drugs, dyspepsia and collagen vascular diseases. In eighty-nine percent of patients, no abnormalities were detected at the time of physical examination. The most common abnormal laboratory finding was minimal elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentary rate (42%). In 61 patients, autologous serum skin tests had been done. Fifteen patients (24.5%) had positive results i.e. autoimmune urticaria. Anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal antibodies were positive in 16 % and 12% of CIU patients respectively. After 1 year from the onset of the symptoms, 34.5% of CIU patients were free of symptoms and after 1.2 years from the onset of the symptoms, 56.5% of autoimmune urticaria patients were free of symptoms. The median disease duration of CIU and autoimmune urticaria were 390 days and 450 days respectively. Our study provided an overview of CU and CIU in a large series of Thai patients, based on etiological aspects and clinical courses. PMID:17408437

  1. Adult idiopathic scoliosis: the tethered spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte Ferguson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an observational and treatment study using three case histories to describe common patterns of muscle and fascial asymmetry in adults with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) who have significant scoliotic curvatures that were not surgically corrected and who have chronic pain. Rather than being located in the paraspinal muscles, the myofascial trigger points (TrPs) apparently responsible for the pain were located at some distance from the spine, yet referred pain to locations throughout the thoracolumbar spine. Asymmetries in these muscles appear to tether the spine in such a way that they contribute to scoliotic curvatures. Evaluation also showed that each of these individuals had major ligamentous laxity and this may also have contributed to development of scoliotic curvatures. Treatment focused on release of TrPs found to refer pain into the spine, release of related fascia, and correction of related joint dysfunction. Treatment resulted in substantial relief of longstanding chronic pain. Treatment thus validated the diagnostic hypothesis that myofascial and fascial asymmetries were to some extent responsible for pain in adults with significant scoliotic curvatures. Treatment of these patterns of TrPs and muscle and fascial asymmetries and related joint dysfunction was also effective in relieving pain in each of these individuals after they were injured in auto accidents. Treatment of myofascial TrPs and asymmetrical fascial tension along with treatment of accompanying joint dysfunction is proposed as an effective approach to treating both chronic and acute pain in adults with scoliosis that has not been surgically corrected. PMID:24411157

  2. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender. PMID:22707916

  3. Birth weight and risk of adiposity among adult Inuit in Greenland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Falberg Rønn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Inuit population in Greenland has undergone rapid socioeconomic and nutritional changes simultaneously with an increasing prevalence of obesity. Therefore, the objective was to examine fetal programming as part of the aetiology of obesity among Inuit in Greenland by investigating the association between birth weight and measures of body composition and fat distribution in adulthood. METHODS: The study was based on cross-sectional data from a total of 1,473 adults aged 18-61 years in two population-based surveys conducted in Greenland between 1999-2001 and 2005-2010. Information on birth weight was collected from birth records. Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI, and visceral (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT estimated by ultrasound. The associations to birth weight were analyzed using linear regression models and quadratic splines. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, birthplace, ancestry and family history of obesity. RESULTS: Spline analyses showed linear relations between birth weight and adult adiposity. In multiple regression analyses, birth weight was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, FMI, FFMI and SAT with generally weaker associations among women compared to men. Birth weight was only associated with VAT after additional adjustment for waist circumference and appeared to be specific and inverse for men only. CONCLUSIONS: Higher birth weight among Inuit was associated with adiposity in adulthood. More studies are needed to explore a potential inverse association between birth size and VAT.

  4. Sex of preceding child and birth spacing among Nigerian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayehun, O A; Omololu, O O; Isiugo-Abanihe, U C

    2011-06-01

    In seeking for more effective ways of fertility control and improvement of maternal and child health through birth spacing in a predominantly patrilineal society like Nigeria, this study explores how the sex of a previous child affects birth interval among ethnic groups, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. The study utilized birth history data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The findings showed that the effect of sex of prior births on the birth interval is slightly significant among the Igbo and the Southern minorities, who tend to desire to have a male child sooner if preceding births were female. Among all the ethnic groups, women who are yet to meet their ideal sex preference have a shorter birth interval than those who have. Apart from the evident sex preferences, these results suggest that Nigerian parents also undertake sex balancing among their children. There is a consistent and strong relationship between the survival of a child and subsequent birth interval, which suggest that women have a short birth interval, and hence a large family size, because they are not certain that their children would survive. PMID:22590895

  5. The usefulness of gallium scintigraphy in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the value of gallium scintigraphy in 23 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The degree of gallium lung uptake was compared with chest radiographic, pathologic as well as clinical findings. Particular attention was paid to pathologic findings which were categorized by the degrees of interstitial infiltrate composed of inflammatory cells, activity of alveolar endothelium, cellularity of fibroblasts and collagen fibers. The degree of gallium lung uptake was not necessarily correlated with the severity of the radiographic findings, but reflected the pathological findings well. We conclude that gallium scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of the activity of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  6. Epiretinal membrane formation associated with idiopathic macular telangiectasia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cid Gomes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old woman complained of blurred and distorted vision in both eyes. Ophthalmic examination showed that visual acuity was 20/200 for the right eye and counting fingers left eye. Fundoscopy revealed perimacular hemorrhages, aneurismal dilatation of the vessels in the posterior pole, and a white and elevated lesion adjacent to vascular changes. We report a case of idiopathic macular telangiectasia and epiretinal membrane that occurs concomitantly. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes an association between idiopathic macular telangiectasia and epiretinal membrane formation.

  7. Profile of idiopathic parkinson’s disease in Moroccan patients

    OpenAIRE

    Regragui, Wafa; Lachhab, Lamiae; Razine, Rachid; Raissouni, Leila; Rasmouni, Khaoula; Imounan, Fatima; Benhaddou, El hachmia Ait; Abouqal, Redouane; Benomar, Ali; Yahyaoui, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize clinical aspects of Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease from a movement disorders consultation in University Hospital of Rabat. Methods Retrospective review of medical records of 117 patients with diagnosis of Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease seen in our outpatient clinic from 2006 to 2011. Results Mean age was 64 ± 10 years with predominance of men (61.5%). Mean age at disease onset was 57 ± 11 years. Early onset Parkinson’s Disease was recorded in 12.8%. The median durati...

  8. Disseminated eosinophilic disease resembling idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroch, I; Perl, S; Markovics, A

    2001-09-29

    True idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome has been described in human beings and cats, but not in dogs. The syndrome is characterised by prolonged unexplained peripheral mature eosinophilia, the infiltration of many organs by eosinophils, organ dysfunction and a fatal outcome. This paper describes an idiopathic disseminated eosinophilic disease in a dog involving various organs, manly the heart and the lungs, accompanied by a leukemoid eosinophilic response, and a fatal outcome. The histopathological findings included the infiltration of the myocardium, lung parenchyma, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and skeletal muscles with eosiniphils. PMID:11601516

  9. Profile of patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis presenting to a university teaching hospital in UAE: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manda Venkatramana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the profile of five patients diagnosed as having idiopathic granulomatous mastitis by histopathological examination. Materials and Methods: This presentation is a case series of patients, diagnosed as idiopathic granulomatous mastitis by histopathological examination of excised specimens. The total number of cases included in the report was five females over a 4-year period from 2005 to 2009. Results: The mean age of the patients was 29.6 years and the duration of symptoms varied from 3 weeks to 4 months. All the patients presented with a palpable mass in the breast, and two patients had associated pain and one had a bloody nipple discharge. The average size of the excised mass was 3.8 × 3.1 cm. Four out of the five patients diagnosed to have breast abscess or segmental mastitis had taken a course of antibiotics. One patient had a persistent wound sinus which subsided with ATT and the rest of the patients had no post-operative complications. Conclusion: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a relatively rare disease which mimics the common breast disorders in the reproductive age group including malignancy

  10. A note on birth interval distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A considerable amount of work has been done regarding the birth interval analysis in mathematical demography. This paper is prepared with the intention of reviewing some probability models related to interlive birth intervals proposed by different researchers. (author). 14 refs

  11. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  12. Thinking about Pregnancy After Premature Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... between pregnancies > Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth Thinking about pregnancy after premature birth E-mail to ... talk to other women like me who are thinking about pregnancy after having a premature baby? Visit ...

  13. Home birth and hospital birth trends in Bo, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Abdirahman, Hafsa A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bangura, Umaru; Jimmy, David Henry; Malanoski, Anthony P; Sundufu, Abu James; Stenger, David A

    2012-06-01

    As of April 2010, all maternity care at government healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone is provided at no cost to patients. In late 2010, we conducted a community health census of 18 sections of the city of Bo (selected via randomized cluster sampling from 68 total sections). Among the 3421 women with a history of pregnancy who participated in the study, older women most often reported having a history of both home and hospital deliveries, while younger women showed a preference for hospital births. The proportion of lastborn children delivered at a healthcare facility increased from 71.8% of offspring 10-14 years old to 81.1% of those one to nine years old and 87.3% of infants born after April 2010. These findings suggest that the new maternal healthcare initiative has accelerated an existing trend toward a preference for healthcare facility births, at least in some urban parts of Sierra Leone. PMID:22375565

  14. Quality of newborn care at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, AJ; Marchant, T

    2014-01-01

    Quality of care can be measured by seeing if skilled birth attendants use simple approaches to save lives. Skilled birth attendants range from trained community health workers to nurses, doctors and midwives. Findings from three low-income settings show quality of care for the newborn is low even when a skilled birth attendant is at the mother’s side during birth. Source: 2012 Baseline survey data, the IDEAS project, based at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Funded by the...

  15. PRETERM BIRTH ASSOCIATION WITH CEREBRAL PALSY

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy ( CP ) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Preterm birth is the birth of baby before 37 completed weeks, a full term birth is birth at 37 to 42 weeks of gestation . AIM: To show the extent of association of preterm deliveries as a risk factor in development of cerebral palsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This r etrospective cohort study wa...

  16. Intergenerational predictors of birth weight in the Philippines: correlations with mother's and father's birth weight and test of maternal constraint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Kuzawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth weight (BW predicts many health outcomes, but the relative contributions of genes and environmental factors to BW remain uncertain. Some studies report stronger mother-offspring than father-offspring BW correlations, with attenuated father-offspring BW correlations when the mother is stunted. These findings have been interpreted as evidence that maternal genetic or environmental factors play an important role in determining birth size, with small maternal size constraining paternal genetic contributions to offspring BW. Here we evaluate mother-offspring and father-offspring birth weight (BW associations and evaluate whether maternal stunting constrains genetic contributions to offspring birth size. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data include BW of offspring (n = 1,101 born to female members (n = 382 and spouses of male members (n = 275 of a birth cohort (born 1983-84 in Metropolitan Cebu, Philippines. Regression was used to relate parental and offspring BW adjusting for confounders. Resampling testing was used to evaluate whether false paternity could explain any evidence for excess matrilineal inheritance. In a pooled model adjusting for maternal height and confounders, parental BW was a borderline-significantly stronger predictor of offspring BW in mothers compared to fathers (sex of parent interaction p = 0.068. In separate multivariate models, each kg in mother's and father's BW predicted a 271±53 g (p25% and likely 50% would be needed to explain these differences. There was no interaction between maternal stature and maternal BW (interaction p = 0.520 or paternal BW (p = 0.545. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Each kg change in mother's BW predicted twice the change in offspring BW as predicted by a change in father's BW, consistent with an intergenerational maternal effect on offspring BW. Evidence for excess matrilineal BW heritability at all levels of maternal stature points to indirect genetic

  17. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  18. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin A., Comp.; Snyder, Nancy O., Comp.

    Between 1986 and 1991 the teen birth rate rose by nearly one-fourth, although very small declines were evident in 1992 and 1993. This decline was concentrated among older teens; the number of births to adolescents aged 17 and younger continued to rise. The percentage of teen births that occurred outside of marriage rose to 72%. In 1991, the most…

  19. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  20. Relationship of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure to Pregnancy Outcome Based on Birth Records in the Mid-Ohio Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Savitz, David A.; Stein, Cheryl R.; Elston, Beth; Wellenius, Gregory A; Bartell, Scott M; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Veronica M; Fletcher, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a potential cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes, but previous studies have been limited by low exposures and small study size. Objectives: Using birth certificate information, we examined the relation between estimated PFOA exposure and birth outcomes in an area of West Virginia and Ohio whose drinking water was contaminated by a chemical plant. Methods: Births in the study area from 1990 through 2004 were examined to generate case groups of stillb...