WorldWideScience

Sample records for birth season effects

  1. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita V. Alfimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74. We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p=0.007 and η2=0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p=0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  2. Interaction Effects of Season of Birth and Cytokine Genes on Schizotypal Traits in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, Margarita V; Korovaitseva, Galina I; Lezheiko, Tatyana V; Golimbet, Vera E

    2017-01-01

    Literature suggests that the effect of winter birth on vulnerability to schizophrenia might be mediated by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines due to prenatal infection and its inadequate regulation by anti-inflammatory factors. As the response of the immune system depends on genotype, this study assessed the interaction effects of cytokine genes and season of birth (SOB) on schizotypy measured with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ-74). We searched for associations of IL1B rs16944, IL4 rs2243250, and IL-1RN VNTR polymorphisms, SOB, and their interactions with the SPQ-74 total score in a sample of 278 healthy individuals. A significant effect of the IL4 X SOB interaction was found, p = 0.007 and η 2 = 0.028. We confirmed this effect using an extended sample of 373 individuals. Homozygotes CC born in winter showed the highest SPQ total score and differed significantly from winter-born T allele carriers, p = 0.049. This difference was demonstrated for cognitive-perceptual and disorganized but not interpersonal dimensions. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the cytokine genes by SOB interaction can influence variability of schizotypal traits in the general population. The IL4 T allele appeared to have a protective effect against the development of positive and disorganized schizotypal traits in winter-born individuals.

  3. [The effects of season at time of birth on asthma and pneumonia in childhood and adulthood in a birth cohort in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, David Alejandro; Victora, Cesar G; Gonçalves, Helen

    2008-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of seasonal weather at time of birth and ambient temperature during the first six months of life on hospitalizations due to asthma and pneumonia in preschool children and on diagnosis of asthma in adulthood among individuals from the 1982 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The cohort included 5,914 live births, of which 77% were followed up until adulthood (23-24 yr). The risk of hospitalization due to pneumonia and asthma among children born from April to June (autumn) was 1.31 (95%CI: 0.99-1.73) to 2.4 (95%CI: 1.11-4.99) times higher than that of children born from January to March (summer). For temperature in the first six months of life, risk of hospitalization was 1.64 (95%CI: 1.26-2.13) to 3.16 (95%CI: 1.63-6.12) times higher for children born in the coldest as compared to the hottest temperature tertile. The effects of seasonality decreased with age, and the association with asthma in adulthood was weak. Hospitalizations in poor children were more frequent, but the effects of seasonality on pneumonia were more evident among the wealthiest.

  4. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied...... to determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function...

  5. The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Yazawa

    Full Text Available Season of birth (SOB has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL, a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP concentration (i.e., inflammatory status among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  6. The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Aki; Inoue, Yosuke; Stickley, Andrew; Li, Dandan; Du, Jianwei; Watanabe, Chiho

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth (SOB) has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL), a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration (i.e., inflammatory status) among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old) in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  7. Season and preterm birth in Norway: A cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Clarice R; Shi, Min; DeRoo, Lisa A; Basso, Olga; Skjærven, Rolv

    2015-06-01

    Preterm birth is a common, costly and dangerous pregnancy complication. Seasonality of risk would suggest modifiable causes. We examine seasonal effects on preterm birth, using data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (2,321,652 births), and show that results based on births are misleading and a fetuses-at-risk approach is essential. In our harmonic-regression Cox proportional hazards model we consider fetal risk of birth between 22 and 37 completed weeks of gestation. We examine effects of both day of year of conception (for early effects) and day of ongoing gestation (for seasonal effects on labour onset) as modifiers of gestational-age-based risk. Naïve analysis of preterm rates across days of birth shows compelling evidence for seasonality (P distribution of the fetal population at risk. When we instead properly treat fetuses as the individuals at risk, restrict analysis to pregnancies with relatively accurate ultrasound-based assessment of gestational age (available since 1998) and adjust for socio-demographic factors and maternal smoking, we find modest effects of both time of year of conception and time of year at risk, with peaks for early preterm near early January and early July. Analyses of seasonal effects on preterm birth are demonstrably vulnerable to confounding by seasonality of conception, measurement error in conception dating, and socio-demographic factors. The seasonal variation based on fetuses reveals two peaks for early preterm, coinciding with New Year's Day and the early July beginning of Norway's summer break, and may simply reflect a holiday-related pattern of unintended conception. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2015. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Association between the Brain Laterality, Gender and Birth Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Baghdasarians

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: in recent years different hypotheses with respect to the formation of cerebral laterality were proposed. Some of the researchers claim that cerebral dominance and laterality are determined by genetic factors, just as the case with eye color and blood type. However, another group states that in addition to genetic factors, environmental factors, too, have a remarkable role in hemispheric dominance and lateral dominance. Hence, the present research was designed to study the relationship between 1- lateral dominance and birth season 2- lateral dominance and gender. "n "nMethod:1355(girls and boys fifth graders from the 19 educational regions of Tehran were selected using multi stage cluster sampling in the 2003-2004 school year. Coren lateral preference and personal information questionnaire were applied. "nResults:The following results were obtained at the level of ل=0.05 and probability of 95%. There were significant association between lateral dominance and birth season, between lateral dominance and gender, between ambidexterity and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and birth season, between dexterality and gender, between ambidexterity and gender, between genetic sinistrality and gender. There were no significant associations between dexterality and birth season, genetic sinistrality and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and gender. "nConclusion: The gestational environmental factors can have significant effect on the formation of lateral dominance and cerebral laterality.

  9. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and personality traits: the modifying effect of season of birth and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E

    2015-01-02

    Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Season of Birth and Risk for Adult Onset Glioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy T. Efird

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive.

  11. Season of birth and multiple sclerosis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhom, Youssef; Kacem, Imen; Bayoudh, Lamia; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Hizem, Yosr; Ben Abdelfettah, Sami; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on date of birth of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients showed an association between month of birth and the risk of developing MS. This association has not been investigated in an African country. We aimed to determine if the risk of MS is associated with month of birth in Tunisia. Data concerning date of birth for MS patients in Tunisia (n = 1912) was obtained. Birth rates of MS patients were compared with all births in Tunisia matched by year of birth (n = 11,615,912). We used a chi-squared analysis and the Hewitt's non-parametric test for seasonality. The distribution of births among MS patients compared with the control population was not different when tested by the chi-squared test. The Hewitt's test for seasonality showed an excess of births between May and October among MS patients (p = 0.03). The peak of Births of MS patients in Tunisia was in July and the nadir in December. Our data does support the seasonality hypothesis of month of birth as risk factor for MS in Tunisia. Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy could be a possible explanation that needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of season of birth with DNA methylation and allergic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockett, G. A.; Soto-Ramirez, N.; Ray, M. A.; Everson, T. M.; Xu, C-J.; Patil, V. K.; Terry, W.; Kaushal, A.; Rezwan, F. I.; Ewart, S. L.; Gehring, U.; Postma, D. S.; Koppelman, G. H.; Arshad, S. H.; Zhang, H.; Karmaus, W.; Holloway, J. W.

    Background Season of birth influences allergy risk; however, the biological mechanisms underlying this observation are unclear. The environment affects DNA methylation, with potentially long-lasting effects on gene expression and disease. This study examined whether DNA methylation could underlie

  13. The effect of seasonal harvesting on a single-species discrete population model with stage structure and birth pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shujing; Chen Lansun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an exploited single-species discrete model with stage structure for the dynamics in a fish population for which births occur in a single pulse once per time period. Using the stroboscopic map, we obtain an exact cycle of the system, and obtain the threshold conditions for its stability. Bifurcation diagrams are constructed with the birth rate as the bifurcation parameter, and these are observed to display complex dynamic behaviors, including chaotic bands with period windows, pitch-fork and tangent bifurcation. This suggests that birth pulse provides a natural period or cyclicity that makes the dynamical behavior more complex. Moreover, we show that the timing of harvesting has a strong impact on the persistence of the fish population, on the volume of mature fish stock and on the maximum annual-sustainable yield. An interesting result is obtained that, after the birth pulse, the earlier culling the mature fish, the larger harvest can tolerate

  14. Alterations of white matter integrity related to the season of birth in schizophrenia: a DTI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Giezendanner

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia there is a consistent epidemiological finding of a birth excess in winter and spring. Season of birth is thought to act as a proxy indicator for harmful environmental factors during foetal maturation. There is evidence that prenatal exposure to harmful environmental factors may trigger pathologic processes in the neurodevelopment, which subsequently increase the risk of schizophrenia. Since brain white matter alterations have repeatedly been found in schizophrenia, the objective of this study was to investigate whether white matter integrity was related to the season of birth in patients with schizophrenia. Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Differences in the fractional anisotropy maps of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls born in different seasons were analysed with tract-based spatial statistics. A significant main effect of season of birth and an interaction of group and season of birth showed that patients born in summer had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter regions than those born in the remainder of the year. Additionally, later age of schizophrenia onset was found in patients born in winter months. The current findings indicate a relationship of season of birth and white matter alterations in schizophrenia and consequently support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of early pathological mechanisms in schizophrenia.

  15. Season of sampling and season of birth influence serotonin metabolite levels in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen J Luykx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal studies have revealed seasonal patterns in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF monoamine (MA turnover. In humans, no study had systematically assessed seasonal patterns in CSF MA turnover in a large set of healthy adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Standardized amounts of CSF were prospectively collected from 223 healthy individuals undergoing spinal anesthesia for minor surgical procedures. The metabolites of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA, dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA and norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MPHG were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Concentration measurements by sampling and birth dates were modeled using a non-linear quantile cosine function and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS, span = 0.75. The cosine model showed a unimodal season of sampling 5-HIAA zenith in April and a nadir in October (p-value of the amplitude of the cosine = 0.00050, with predicted maximum (PC(max and minimum (PC(min concentrations of 173 and 108 nmol/L, respectively, implying a 60% increase from trough to peak. Season of birth showed a unimodal 5-HIAA zenith in May and a nadir in November (p = 0.00339; PC(max = 172 and PC(min = 126. The non-parametric LOESS showed a similar pattern to the cosine in both season of sampling and season of birth models, validating the cosine model. A final model including both sampling and birth months demonstrated that both sampling and birth seasons were independent predictors of 5-HIAA concentrations. CONCLUSION: In subjects without mental illness, 5-HT turnover shows circannual variation by season of sampling as well as season of birth, with peaks in spring and troughs in fall.

  16. Is Season of Birth Related to Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Iozzino, Roberto; Caruso, Barbara; Ferrante, Laura; Mugnaini, Daniele; Talamo, Alessandra; Miano, Silvia; Dimitri, Andrea; Masi, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Different moderators/mediators of risk are involved in developmental dyslexia (DD), but data are inconsistent. We explored the prevalence of season of birth and its association with gender and age of school entry in an Italian sample of dyslexic children compared to an Italian normal control group. The clinical sample included 498 children (345…

  17. Seasonality in twin birth rates, Denmark, 1936-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnelykke, B; Søgaard, J; Nielsen, J

    1987-12-01

    A study was made of seasonality in twin birth rate in Denmark between 1977 and 1984. We studied all twin births (N = 45,550) in all deliveries (N = 3,679,932) during that period. Statistical analysis using a simple harmonic sinusoidal model provided no evidence for seasonality. However, sequential polynomial analysis disclosed a significant fit to a fifth order polynomial curve with peaks in twin birth rates in May-June and December, along with troughs in February and September. A falling trend in twinning rate broke off in Denmark around 1970, and from 1970 to 1984 an increasing trend was found. The results are discussed in terms of possible environmental influences on twinning.

  18. Season of birth, clinical manifestations and Dexamethasone Suppression Test in unipolar major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaprinis George S

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports in the literature suggest that the season of birth might constitute a risk factor for the development of a major psychiatric disorder, possibly because of the effect environmental factors have during the second trimester of gestation. The aim of the current paper was to study the possible relationship of the season of birth and current clinical symptoms in unipolar major depression. Methods The study sample included 45 DSM-IV major depressive patients and 90 matched controls. The SCAN v. 2.0, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS were used to assess symptomatology, and the 1 mg Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST was used to subcategorize patients. Results Depressed patients as a whole did not show differences in birth season from controls. However, those patients born during the spring manifested higher HDRS while those born during the summer manifested the lowest HAS scores. DST non-suppressors were almost exclusively (90% likely to be born during autumn and winter. No effect from the season of birth was found concerning the current severity of suicidal ideation or attempts. Discussion The current study is the first in this area of research using modern and rigid diagnostic methodology and a biological marker (DST to categorize patients. Its disadvantages are the lack of data concerning DST in controls and a relatively small size of patient sample. The results confirm the effect of seasonality of birth on patients suffering from specific types of depression.

  19. T198. A SCHIZOPHRENIA-LIKE BIRTH SEASONALITY AMONG MATHEMATICIANS AND AN OPPOSITE SEASONALITY AMONG BIOLOGISTS: MORE EVIDENCE IMPLICATING BIMODAL RHYTHMS OF GENERAL BIRTHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Based on early-20th century births, a pre-electric illumination time of comparatively normal human exposure to sunlight, studies of schizophrenia (SCZ) found a birth seasonality with two opposite effects: a SCZ-liability peak among subjects born around late-February and an equally significant SCZ-resistance peak among those born six months later, around late-August. We previously investigated this rhythm in connection with a sunlight-dependent bimodal rhythm of general births that, prior to the full advent of electric lighting (but not later), occurred ubiquitously in non-equatorial parts of the world. We found that the SCZ-liability peak coincided with a first, Feb-Mar peak of general-population births (the GP1) while the SCZ-resistance peak coincided with a second, Aug-Sep peak of those births (the GP2). Moreover, in a study of hand and visual-field preferences among professional baseball players, we found the SCZ-liability, GP1-coincident seasonality among players with preferences denoting cerebral asymmetry “deficits” (CADs) and the SCZ-resistance, GP2-coincident seasonality among those with preferences denoting cerebral asymmetry “excesses.” Also, in a study suggested by associations of CADs with artistic abilities, we found the SCZ-liability, GP1-coincident seasonality among groups representing visual, performing and literary art “creators” (VPL-Artists) and the SCZ-resistance, GP2-coincident seasonality among groups representing art critics, historians, curators and other art “observers” (Para-Artists). Together, these findings suggested, as one possibility (but see later), that the SCZ-liability, CAD effects and artistic abilities could all three represent traits genetically or otherwise selected into the GP1 excess population of newborns and out of the GP2 population. The present study of “scientists” was initially aimed at the purported arts/science antithesis. Methods Birth seasonalities were examined among early

  20. No seasonality of birth in BMI at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Heitmann, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal variation in birth weight was found in a previous Danish study. In the present study we investigated if the seasonality in birth weight tracked into BMI at 7 years of age, but found no seasonality of birth in either BMI, overweight, or obesity. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd...

  1. Dynamic complexities in a seasonal prevention epidemic model with birth pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shujing; Chen Lansun; Sun Lihua

    2005-01-01

    In most of population dynamics, increases in population due to birth are assumed to be time-dependent, but many species reproduce only during a single period of the year. In this paper, we propose an epidemic model with density-dependent birth pulses and seasonal prevention. Using the discrete dynamical system determined by stroboscopic map, we obtain the local or global stability, numerical simulation shows there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations, leading to chaotic dynamics, which implies that the dynamical behaviors of the epidemic model with birth pulses and seasonal prevention are very complex, including small amplitude oscillations, large-amplitude multi-annual cycles and chaos. This suggests that birth pulse, in effect, provides a natural period or cyclicity that may lead a period-doubling route to chaos

  2. Association of season of birth with DNA methylation and allergic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockett, G. A.; Soto-Ramirez, N.; Ray, M. A.; Everson, T. M.; Xu, C-J.; Patil, V. K.; Terry, W.; Kaushal, A.; Rezwan, F. I.; Ewart, S. L.; Gehring, U.; Postma, D. S.; Koppelman, G. H.; Arshad, S. H.; Zhang, H.; Karmaus, W.; Holloway, J. W.

    BackgroundSeason of birth influences allergy risk; however, the biological mechanisms underlying this observation are unclear. The environment affects DNA methylation, with potentially long-lasting effects on gene expression and disease. This study examined whether DNA methylation could underlie the

  3. Birth seasonality in Korean Prader-Willi syndrome with chromosome 15 microdeletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposePrader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a well-known genetic disorder, and microdeletion on chromosome 15 is the most common causal mechanism. Several previous studies have suggested that various environmental factors might be related to the pathogenesis of microdeletion in PWS. In this study, we investigated birth seasonality in Korean PWS.MethodsA total of 211 PWS patients born from 1980 to 2014 were diagnosed by methylation polymerase chain reaction at Samsung Medical Center. Of the 211 patients, 138 were born from 2000-2013. Among them, the 74 patients of a deletion group and the 22 patients of a maternal uniparental disomy (UPD group were compared with general populations born from 2000 using the Walter and Elwood method and cosinor analysis.ResultsThere was no statistical significance in seasonal variation in births of the total 211 patients with PWS (χ2=7.2522, P=0.2982. However, a significant difference was found in the monthly variation between PWS with the deletion group and the at-risk general population (P<0.05. In the cosinor model, the peak month of birth for PWS patients in the deletion group was January, while the nadir occurred in July, with statistical significance (amplitude=0.23, phase=1.2, low point=7.2. The UPD group showed the peak birth month in spring; however, this result was not statistically significant (χ2=3.39, P=0.1836.ConclusionCorrelation with birth seasonality was identified in a deletion group of Korean PWS patients. Further studies are required to identify the mechanism related to seasonal effects of environmental factors on microdeletion on chromosome 15.

  4. No evidence of seasonality of birth in adult type 2 diabetes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, M

    2015-01-01

    on the risk of type 2 diabetes was assessed using Cox regression, with month or season of birth as the predictor. The underlying time variable was age, and follow-up started in 1977 or at age 30 years. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 223,099 people, of whom 12,486 developed adult type 2 diabetes......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The season of birth might influence prenatal circumstances, which may influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in Denmark changed with the season of birth. METHODS: This study used data from....... Using January as the reference month, the risk of type 2 diabetes by month of birth was not statistically different for any of the 11 comparative birth months. Grouping month of birth into seasons (spring was the reference) gave essentially similar results, showing no difference in the risk of type 2...

  5. Seasonal variations of neuromotor development by 14 months of age: Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for mothers and children (HBC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji J Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development.

  6. Seasonally adjusted birth frequencies follow the Poisson distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Mathias; Lindstrøm, Jonas C; Adams, Samantha S; Augestad, Liv A

    2015-12-15

    Variations in birth frequencies have an impact on activity planning in maternity wards. Previous studies of this phenomenon have commonly included elective births. A Danish study of spontaneous births found that birth frequencies were well modelled by a Poisson process. Somewhat unexpectedly, there were also weekly variations in the frequency of spontaneous births. Another study claimed that birth frequencies follow the Benford distribution. Our objective was to test these results. We analysed 50,017 spontaneous births at Akershus University Hospital in the period 1999-2014. To investigate the Poisson distribution of these births, we plotted their variance over a sliding average. We specified various Poisson regression models, with the number of births on a given day as the outcome variable. The explanatory variables included various combinations of years, months, days of the week and the digit sum of the date. The relationship between the variance and the average fits well with an underlying Poisson process. A Benford distribution was disproved by a goodness-of-fit test (p Poisson process when monthly and day-of-the-week variation is included. The frequency is highest in summer towards June and July, Friday and Tuesday stand out as particularly busy days, and the activity level is at its lowest during weekends.

  7. Influence of season of birth on growth and reproductive development of Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatman, Shawn R; Neuendorff, Don A; Wilson, Timothy W; Randel, Ronald D

    2004-07-01

    Seasonal effects on reproduction are more dramatic in Bos indicus than Bos taurus cattle. This experiment evaluated reproductive development of fall- (n=7) versus spring- (n = 10) born Brahman bulls to determine if season of birth affects reproductive development. Measurements of growth and reproductive development began after weaning and continued at bi-weekly intervals until each bull reached sexual maturity. Different stages of sexual development were classified according to characteristics of the ejaculate and included first sperm in the ejaculate, puberty (> 50 x 10(6) sperm/ejaculate), and sexual maturity (two ejaculates with > 500 = 10(6) sperm/ejaculate). Average daily increases in all measured traits were similar in fall- and spring-born bulls and there were no differences in age, body weight, scrotal circumference, or paired testis volume between groups at first sperm or puberty. However, fall-born bulls were older (P days versus 481 days, respectively) as the interval between puberty and sexual maturity was longer (P days versus 54 days, respectively). The prolonged interval between puberty and sexual maturity in fall-born calves coincided with a short photoperiod (winter) whereas the short interval between puberty and sexual maturity in spring-born calves coincided with a long photoperiod (summer). In conclusion, season of birth affected sexual development; photoperiod might be involved in regulating testicular function immediately after puberty in Brahman bulls.

  8. No effect of season of birth on risk of type 1diabetes, cancer, schizophrenia and ischemic heart disease, while some variations may be seen for pneumonia and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Streym, Súsanna við; Rejnmark, Lars; Mosekilde, Leif

    2013-01-01

    Background: The risk of type 1 diabetes (T1DM), infections, cancer, schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with environmental factors including vitamin D status. Results: No associations between season of birth and risk of MS were seen in the 1940 cohort or the 1996 cohort...... of birth as a proxy variable for vitamin D status (summer: April– September and winter: October–March). Conclusion: MS and pneumonia in young subjects may be related to season of birth and thus maternal vitamin D exposure. Low sunlight exposure in the winter time leading to low vitamin D levels during......1DM before 10 y, infection, any type of cancer, schizophrenia and myocardial infarction. In the 1977 cohort the risk of pneumonia was significantly lower among those born in the summer compared with the winter at any age (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.97, p

  9. THE IMPACT OF SEASON OF BIRTH AND BREEDING OF BOARS OF POLISH LANDRACE BREED ON THEIR INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Pokrywka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of breeding boars in insemination depends mainly on the skill of optimal use of their reproductive potential. Nevertheless, their semen is highly variable in its quality and physical characteristics, which makes it difficult to organise semen production for artificial insemination purposes. The present study contains an analysis of semen collected from Polish Landrace breed boars - the most popular pigs bred in Poland. It demonstrates that there is a statistically significant interaction between season of birth and reproductive season of Polish Landrace boars. What is more, it proves that these significant differences between reproductive performances of boars are closely connected to their breeding season and seasons of their birth and life. The results also illustrate how to improve organisation of insemination centres and make them better financially efficient.

  10. Seasonality in birth defects, agricultural production and urban location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Rees, Daniel I; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    This paper tests whether the strength of the "spring spike" in birth defects is related to agricultural production and urban location using Texas Birth Defects Registry data for the period 1996-2007. We find evidence of a spike in birth defects among children conceived in the spring and summer, but it is more pronounced in urban non-agricultural counties than in other types of counties. Furthermore, the spike lasts longer in urban non-agricultural counties as compared to other types of counties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Similar photoperiod-related birth seasonalities among professional baseball players and lesbian women with an opposite seasonality among gay men: Maternal melatonin may affect fetal sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Giovanni

    2014-05-30

    Based on pre-mid-20th-century data, the same photoperiod-related birth seasonality previously observed in schizophrenia was also recently found in neural-tube defects and in extreme left-handedness among professional baseball players. This led to a hypothesis implicating maternal melatonin and other mediators of sunlight actions capable of affecting 4th-embryonic-week developments including neural-tube closure and left-right differentiation of the brain. Here, new studies of baseball players suggest that the same sunlight actions could also affect testosterone-dependent male-female differentiation in the 4-month-old fetus. Independently of hand-preferences, baseball players (n=6829), and particularly the stronger hitters among them, showed a unique birth seasonality with an excess around early-November and an equally significant deficit 6 months later around early-May. In two smaller studies, north-American and other northern-hemisphere born lesbians showed the same strong-hitter birth seasonality while gay men showed the opposite seasonality. The sexual dimorphism-critical 4th-fetal-month testosterone surge coincides with the summer-solstice in early-November births and the winter-solstice in early-May births. These coincidences are discussed and a "melatonin mechanism" is proposed based on evidence that in seasonal breeders maternal melatonin imparts "photoperiodic history" to the newborn by direct inhibition of fetal testicular testosterone synthesis. The present effects could represent a vestige of this same phenomenon in man. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonality of birth in children with central nervous system tumours in Denmark, 1970-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L S; Grell, Kathrine; Frederiksen, K

    2008-01-01

    We investigated possible seasonal variation of births among children central nervous system tumour in Denmark (N=1640), comparing them with 2,582,714 children born between 1970 and 2003. No such variation was seen overall, but ependymoma showed seasonal variation....

  13. Secular trends in seasonal variation in birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Gamborg, M; Raymond, K

    2015-01-01

    and phase of the yearly cycles to change. RESULTS: There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW which, however, changed gradually across the study period. The highest BWs were seen during fall (September - October) from 1936 to 1963, but a new peak gradually grew from the early 1940s during early summer (May...... again. Sunshine did not explain the seasonal variation in BW. CONCLUSION: There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW in Denmark 1936-1989, which however changed across the study period. Throughout the study period we observed a peak in BW during the fall, but gradually, starting in the early 1940s...

  14. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants by domestic water hardness and season of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane A; Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) appears to be more common in regions with hard domestic water and in children with a fall/winter birth. However, it is unknown whether a synergistic effect exists. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the association between domestic water hardness and season of birth...... the Civil Registration System, and domestic water hardness data were obtained from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. The relative prevalence (RP) of AD was calculated by using log-linear binomial regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of AD was 15.0% (7,942/52,950). The RP of AD was 5% (RPtrend......, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.07) higher for each 5° increase in domestic water hardness (range, 6.60-35.90 German degrees of hardness [118-641 mg/L]). Although the RP of AD was higher in children with a fall (RP, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.31) or winter (RP, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25) birth, no significant...

  15. Birth seasonality and offspring production in threatened neotropical primates related to climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, R.; Post, E.

    2011-01-01

    Given the threatened status of many primate species, the impacts of global warming on primate reproduction and, consequently, population growth should be of concern. We examined relations between climatic variability and birth seasonality, offspring production, and infant sex ratios in two ateline primates, northern muriquis, and woolly monkeys. In both species, the annual birth season was delayed by dry conditions and El Ni??o years, and delayed birth seasons were linked to lower birth rates. Additionally, increased mean annual temperatures were associated with lower birth rates for northern muriquis. Offspring sex ratios varied with climatic conditions in both species, but in different ways: directly in woolly monkeys and indirectly in northern muriquis. Woolly monkeys displayed an increase in the proportion of males among offspring in association with El Ni??o events, whereas in northern muriquis, increases in the proportion of males among offspring were associated with delayed onset of the birth season, which itself was related, although weakly, to warm, dry conditions. These results illustrate that global warming, increased drought frequency, and changes in the frequency of El Ni??o events could limit primate reproductive output, threatening the persistence and recovery of ateline primate populations. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Vitamin D fortification and seasonality of birth in type 1 diabetic cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, R; Moldovan, M.; Vaag, A A

    2016-01-01

    Fortification of margarine with vitamin D was mandatory in Denmark during 1961-1985. The aim of the study was to assess whether gestational and early infancy exposure to margarine fortification was associated with seasonality of birth in Danish type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients. The risks of T1D......) in various exposure groups ranged from 1.74 (1.112/2.708) to 37.43 (1.804/776.558). There were no indications of seasonality of birth in males exposed to fortification, nor in both exposed and unexposed females. The study suggests that early life exposure to low-dose vitamin D from fortified food eliminates...... seasonality of birth in T1D male patients. Further studies are required to investigate the identified gender differences. © Cambridge University Press and the International Society for Developmental Origins of Health and Disease 2015....

  17. Season of birth is different in Inuit suicide victims born into Traditional than into Modern Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkstén, Karin S; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that living conditions at birth play a role in medical conditions later in life. Population-based studies from the Northern Hemisphere have shown that persons born in the spring or summer are at greater risk of committing suicide. A statistical correlation...... with light availability at birth has been observed in past research, but the cause remains unknown. Greenland is one of the most extreme of natural human habitats with regard to seasonal changes in light. The combination of rapid social changes and reliable population statistics offers a unique opportunity....... The suicide rate increased from very low rates to about 140 suicides/100 000 person-years in the 1980s. CONCLUSIONS: The reason behind a variation in season of birth in suicide victims born into the old lifestyle is unknown. It is also unknown why the seasonal difference had disappeared with modern lifestyle...

  18. A review of terrorism and its reduction of the gender ratio at birth after seasonal adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Zammit, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    Males are born in excess of females, a ratio expressed as M/T (males:total births). The ratio exhibits seasonal variation. Furthermore, acute stressful events may result in a transient dip in male births due to excess foetal losses, reducing M/T. This study was carried out in order to identify significant M/T dips after adjusting for seasonality. Live births by gender and month were sought for acute stressful events. After seasonal correction (where appropriate), M/T dips were sought. Live births. M/T dips. This paper studied 112,226,306 live births. The following events showed dips ≤5th percentile 3-5months after these acute episodes: the Brooklyn Bridge protests, Katrina Hurricane for all 4 states and for each individual state (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi), the Battle in Seattle, the London bombings, The Madrid bombings (for Madrid and for Spain), the Breivik shooting, the Oklahoma City bombing and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University shooting the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster also showed dips albeit slightly later. Seasonal adjustments should be taken into consideration in order to avoid Type 1 or 2 error pitfalls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The association between season of birth, age at onset, and clozapine use in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J S; Park, C M; Choi, J A; Park, E; Tchoe, H J; Choi, M; Suh, J K; Kim, Y H; Won, S H; Chung, Y C; Bae, K Y; Lee, S K; Park, S C; Lee, S H

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the rate of clozapine use, an indicator of refractoriness in schizophrenia, is associated with the season of birth and age at onset in patients with schizophrenia based on nationwide data. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 114 749) who received prescriptions for antipsychotic medication between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively identified from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. The study population was divided into three groups based on their age at the onset of schizophrenia (early, middle, and late onset). We assessed differences in the month of birth between patients and the general population. In addition, the cumulative clozapine use was calculated. Compared to the late-onset schizophrenia group, the early- and middle-onset groups showed a higher probability of birth during the winter season. In addition, the early-onset group showed the highest cumulative clozapine use rate. In the middle-onset group, the initiation of clozapine use was significantly earlier for patients born in winter compared to those born in summer. Our results indicate that the age at onset is an important factor in predicting the prognosis of schizophrenia patients. The season of birth also affects the prognosis, but with less robustness. Specifically, it appears that early disease onset and winter birth might be associated with poor outcomes in Korean patients with schizophrenia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Efeitos das condições climáticas no trimestre de nascimento sobre asma e pneumonia na infância e na vida adulta em uma coorte no Sul do Brasil The effects of season at time of birth on asthma and pneumonia in childhood and adulthood in a birth cohort in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alejandro González

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos do clima no trimestre do nascimento e nos seis primeiros meses de vida (temperatura média em tercis sobre as hospitalizações por asma e pneumonia em pré-escolares e sobre o diagnóstico de asma em adultos pertencentes ao estudo de coorte de nascimento de 1982 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Essa coorte incluiu todos os 5.914 nascidos vivos naquele ano, dos quais, 77% foram acompanhados até a idade adulta (23-24 anos. Os resultados demonstraram que os nascidos entre abril e junho (outono apresentaram risco de hospitalização por pneumonia e asma/"bronquite" 1,31 (IC95%: 0,99-1,73 a 2,35 (IC95%: 1,11-4,99 vezes maior do que os nascidos entre janeiro-março (verão. O risco de hospitalizações conforme a temperatura média nos seis primeiros meses de vida foi 1,64 (IC95%: 1,26-2,13 a 3,16 (IC95%: 1,63-6,12 vezes maior no tercil frio do que no quente. Os efeitos da sazonalidade diminuíram com a idade, sendo pouco evidente a associação com asma aos 23-24 anos. As hospitalizações foram mais freqüentes entre crianças pobres, mas os efeitos da sazonalidade sobre a pneumonia foram mais evidentes entre os ricos.This study evaluated the effects of seasonal weather at time of birth and ambient temperature during the first six months of life on hospitalizations due to asthma and pneumonia in preschool children and on diagnosis of asthma in adulthood among individuals from the 1982 birth cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The cohort included 5,914 live births, of which 77% were followed up until adulthood (23-24 yr. The risk of hospitalization due to pneumonia and asthma among children born from April to June (autumn was 1.31 (95%CI: 0.99-1.73 to 2.4 (95%CI: 1.11-4.99 times higher than that of children born from January to March (summer. For temperature in the first six months of life, risk of hospitalization was 1.64 (95%CI: 1.26-2.13 to 3.16 (95%CI: 1.63-6.12 times higher for children born in the

  1. Influence of birth rates and transmission rates on the global seasonality of rotavirus incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Virginia E; Viboud, Cécile; Lopman, Ben A; Patel, Manish M; Parashar, Umesh D; Grenfell, Bryan T

    2011-11-07

    Rotavirus is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, and yet the dynamics of rotavirus in such settings are poorly understood. Rotavirus is typically less seasonal in the tropics, although recent observational studies have challenged the universality of this pattern. While numerous studies have examined the association between environmental factors and rotavirus incidence, here we explore the role of intrinsic factors. By fitting a mathematical model of rotavirus transmission dynamics to published age distributions of cases from 15 countries, we obtain estimates of local transmission rates. Model-predicted patterns of seasonal incidence based solely on differences in birth rates and transmission rates are significantly correlated with those observed (Spearman's ρ = 0.65, p birth rates and transmission rates and explore how vaccination may impact these patterns. Our results suggest that the relative lack of rotavirus seasonality observed in many tropical countries may be due to the high birth rates and transmission rates typical of developing countries rather than being driven primarily by environmental conditions. While vaccination is expected to decrease the overall burden of disease, it may increase the degree of seasonal variation in the incidence of rotavirus in some settings.

  2. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C; Lähteenmäki, P; Träger, C; Stokland, T; Grell, K; Gustafson, G; Kogner, P; Sehested, A; Schüz, J

    2010-01-01

    Background: An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease. Methods: In a large case–control study nested in the populations of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland of 4.4 million children, we studied the association of birth order and seasonal variation of birth with subsequent risk for CNS tumours. We identified 3983 children from the national cancer registries, and information on exposure was obtained from the high-quality national administrative health registries. We investigated the association between childcare attendance during the first 2 years of life and the risk for CNS tumours in a subset of Danish children with CNS tumours, using information from the Danish Childcare database. Results: We observed no association between birth order and risk of CNS tumours overall (odds ratio (OR) for second born or later born vs first born, 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96–1.10) or by histological subgroup, and children with CNS tumours did not show a seasonal variation of birth that was distinct from that of the background population. Childcare attendance compared with homecare showed a slightly increased OR (1.29; 95% CI, 0.90–1.86) for CNS tumours, with the highest risk observed in children attending a crèche. The strongest association was observed for embryonal CNS tumours. We found no effect of age at enrolment or duration of enrolment in childcare. Conclusion: These results do not support the hypothesis that the burden of exposure to infectious disease in early childhood has an important role in the aetiology of paediatric CNS tumours. PMID:20461079

  3. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K; Johansen, C; Lähteenmäki, P; Träger, C; Stokland, T; Grell, K; Gustafson, G; Kogner, P; Sehested, A; Schüz, J

    2010-05-25

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease. In a large case-control study nested in the populations of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland of 4.4 million children, we studied the association of birth order and seasonal variation of birth with subsequent risk for CNS tumours. We identified 3983 children from the national cancer registries, and information on exposure was obtained from the high-quality national administrative health registries. We investigated the association between childcare attendance during the first 2 years of life and the risk for CNS tumours in a subset of Danish children with CNS tumours, using information from the Danish Childcare database. We observed no association between birth order and risk of CNS tumours overall (odds ratio (OR) for second born or later born vs first born, 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.10) or by histological subgroup, and children with CNS tumours did not show a seasonal variation of birth that was distinct from that of the background population. Childcare attendance compared with homecare showed a slightly increased OR (1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.86) for CNS tumours, with the highest risk observed in children attending a crèche. The strongest association was observed for embryonal CNS tumours. We found no effect of age at enrolment or duration of enrolment in childcare. These results do not support the hypothesis that the burden of exposure to infectious disease in early childhood has an important role in the aetiology of paediatric CNS tumours.

  4. Season of birth and the risk of hip fracture in danish men and women aged 65+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Heitmann, Berit L; Eiken, Pia Agnete

    2012-01-01

    calculated fracture rates and relative risks. The analysis covered 541,109 men and 691,522 women. In women, we observed a small but statistically significant difference between fracture rates by season of birth for all age intervals expect the youngest (age 65-69). A similar pattern was seen in men...... an epidemiological analysis of hip fracture rates as a function of season of birth, age, and sex. We retrieved information on all hip fractures in the 9-year period between 1997 and 2005 in all men and women aged 65-95, excluded hip fractures that occurred in current and recent prednisolone users, and subsequently......, but this was only statistically significant in the two oldest age groups (age 85-89 and 90-95). These findings suggest that vitamin D availability in the first and second trimester of intrauterine life could have a small but lasting impact on bone health and the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Further studies...

  5. Seasonal patterns of birth for subjects with bulimia nervosa, binge eating, and purging: results from the National Women's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewerton, Timothy D; Dansky, Bonnie S; O'Neil, Patrick M; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2012-01-01

    Studies of birth patterns in anorexia nervosa have shown relative increases between March and August, while studies in Bulimia Nervosa (BN) have been negative. Since there are no studies using representative, nonclinical samples, we looked for seasonal birth patterns in women with BN and in those who ever endorsed bingeing or purging. A national, representative sample of 3,006 adult women completed structured telephone interviews including screenings for bulimia nervosa (BN) and questions about month, date, and year of birth. Season of birth was calculated using traditional definitions. Differences across season of birth between subjects with (n = 85) and without BN (n = 2,898), those with (n = 749) and without bingeing (n = 2,229), and those with (n = 267) and without any purging (n = 2,715) were compared using chi-square analyses. There were significant differences across season of birth between subjects: (1) with and without BN (p = 0.033); (2) with and without bingeing (p = 0.034), and; (3) with and without purging (p = 0.001). Fall had the highest relative number of births for all categories, while spring had the lowest. In a national representative study of nontreatment seeking subjects significant differences in season of birth were found for subjects with lifetime histories of BN, binge eating and purging. © 2011 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2012). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Seasonality of hospital admissions and birth dates among inpatients with eating disorders: a nationwide population-based retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Sung; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Chien, Wu-Chien

    2018-04-01

    Seasonal variation exists in the psychopathology of eating disorders. However, it is still unknown whether there is seasonal variation in eating disorder symptom severity. This study investigated seasonal trends in hospital admissions and birth dates among patients with eating disorders in Taiwan (25°N). Subgroup analyses by gender and comorbid affective disorders were also of interest. Data on all hospital admissions between 2000 and 2013 were collected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, and 1954 patients with eating disorders were identified. Hospital admissions and birth dates were recorded by day. The four seasons and cross-seasons were defined by solstices and equinoxes. The expected distribution of births was determined using data from all patients hospitalized from 2000 to 2013 (n = 13,139,306). Hospital admissions among patients with eating disorders exceeded the rate of expected hospital admissions in the summer season (p distributions of birth dates among these patients did not differ from the expected distributions. Interestingly, hospital admissions among patients with comorbid affective disorders exceeded the rates of hospital admissions among non-affective patients during the spring (p = 0.004). Moreover, the number of non-affective patients born during autumn exceeded the birth rates of affective patients during this season (p = 0.001). Gender and comorbid affective disorders were not associated with cross-seasonal differences in either hospitalizations or dates of birth. Affective psychopathology in inpatients with eating disorders may substantially contribute to symptom severity that waxes and wanes with the seasons. Moreover, the seasonal distribution of birth dates was significantly different in patients without comorbid affective disorders.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: Results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Hitzert (Marit); M.A.A. Hermus (Marieke A.A.); Boesveld, I.I.C. (Inge I.C.); A. Franx (Arie); K.M. van der Pal-De Bruin (Karin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); Van Den Akker-Van Marle, E.M.E. (Eiske M.E.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design

  8. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth: results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, M.; Hermus, M.M.; Boesveld, I.I.; Franx, A.; Pal-de Bruin, K.K. van der; Steegers, E.E.; Akker-van Marle, E.M. van den

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  9. Cost-effectiveness of planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth : Results of the Dutch Birth Centre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marit F.; Hermus, Marieke A. A.; Boesveld, Inge I.C.; Franx, Arie; van der Pal-de Bruin, Karin M.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Van Den Akker-Van Marle, Eiske M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a planned birth in a birth centre compared with alternative planned places of birth for low-risk women. In addition, a distinction has been made between different types of locations and integration profiles of birth centres. Design Economic evaluation

  10. Effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socio-economic status on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed J; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Razmifard, Farzad; Afsharnia, Farzaneh

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effects of infants' birth order, maternal age, and socioeconomic status (SES) on birth weight. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 858 mothers recruited over a 6-month period in 2010, in a defined population of 9 urban health centers, and who were admitted for their infants' first vaccination. Maternal clinical data, demographic data, and infants' birth weight were obtained from the interview and maternal hospital files. Multiple regression and analysis of variance were used for data analysis. First and fourth births had lower birth weights compared with second and third births in all maternal ages in controlling parity, birth weight increases with maternal age up to the early 24, and then tends to level off. Male gender, maternal age 20-24 years, second and third births had a significant positive effect on birth weight. Lower family economic status and higher educational attainment were significantly associated with lower birth weight. For women in the 15-19 and 40-44 years age groups, the second birth order was associated with the most undesirable effect on birth weight. Accessibility of health care services, parity, maternal age, and socioeconomic factors are strongly associated with infants' birth weight.

  11. Season of birth is associated with first-lactation milk yield in Holstein Friesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eetvelde, M; Kamal, M M; Vandaele, L; Opsomer, G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present research was to assess factors associated with first-lactation milk yield in dairy heifers, including maternal and environmental factors, factors related to the development of the heifer and factors related to its offspring such as gender of the calf. In addition, the potential underlying mechanism, in particular metabolic adaptations, was further explored. Data on body growth, reproduction and milk yield of 74 Holstein Friesian heifers on three herds in Flanders (Belgium) were collected. At birth, body measurements of the heifers were recorded and blood samples were taken (in order) to determine basal glucose and insulin concentrations. Body measurements were assessed every 3 months until first calving, and gender and weight of their first calf were recorded. Information on fertility and milk yield of the heifer and its dam were collected from the herd databases. Daily temperature and photoperiod were recorded from the database of the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute. Linear mixed models were run with herd as a random factor, to account for differences in herd management. Heifers grew 867±80.7 g/day during their first year of life and were inseminated at 14.8±1.34 months. First calving took place at 24.5±1.93 months, at a weight of 642±61.5 kg and heifers produced 8506±1064 kg energy corrected milk during their first 305-day lactation. Regression models revealed that none of the maternal factors such as milk yield and parity, nor the growth of the heifer during the 1st year of life were associated with milk yield during first lactation. Age, and to a lesser extent BW at first parturition were positively associated with first-lactation milk yield. In addition, the season of birth, but not calving, had a significant influence on milk yield, with winter-born heifers producing less than heifers born in any other season. The lower yielding winter-born heifers had higher insulin concentrations at birth, whereas glucose concentrations

  12. Can the season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia be prevented by bright light treatment for the second trimester mother around the winter solstice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    The season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia exerts a pervasive effect on the global population, particularly at northerly latitudes. The winter infection hypothesis and the low vitamin D hypothesis are both compelling but lack conclusive clinical data. The present work develops a maternal-fetal chronobiological hypothesis for this season of birth risk factor and its prevention by maternal bright light treatment. Around the winter solstice, due to decreased sunlight, the chronobiological apparatus of the at-risk second trimester mother is characterized by a reduced amplitude circadian pacemaker, and a reduced maximum of her nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations (MTmax) and an increased minimum of her nocturnal core body temperatures (Tmin)--both of which exert adverse effects on the fetal hippocampus and dorsal striatum. The consequences for the fetus include reduced volume and increased excitability of the hippocampus, ventral striatal dysfunction, increased presynaptic nigrostriatal dopamine transmission, and increased propensity for pathological nigrostriatal neuronal phasic firing. Thus, the maternal-fetal chronobiological hypothesis fully accounts for the fetal precursors of the major pathognomonic abnormalities in adults with schizophrenia. Bright light treatment for the second trimester mother around the winter solstice, by increasing maternal circadian amplitude, could possibly prevent the fetal hippocampal and striatal abnormalities and eliminate the season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall,

  14. Seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy and the risks of preterm delivery and small for gestational age birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Katherine A; Louik, Carol; Kerr, Stephen; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2014-11-01

    Influenza vaccination is routinely recommended for pregnant women, yet information on perinatal outcomes is sparse. We investigated the associations between trivalent (seasonal) influenza vaccination during pregnancy and the risks of preterm delivery (PTD, live birth vaccination and PTD and SGA were assessed using Cox and logistic regression models, respectively, with propensity scores used to adjust for confounding. Women vaccinated against pandemic H1N1 were excluded from the analysis. Influenza vaccination during pregnancy showed a near null association with PTD for influenza seasons 2006-07 through 2008-09 compared with unvaccinated women [adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) ranged from 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28, 2.21] in 2007-08 to 1.08 [95% CI: 0.40, 2.95] in 2008-09]. For 2009-10, the risk of PTD was higher in vaccinated women (aHR, 7.81 [95% CI: 2.66, 23.0]). Influenza vaccination was not associated with appreciable risks for SGA for all seasons with sufficient numbers of exposed SGA. Though limited by study size, these findings add support to previous observations of little or no increased risk of PTD or SGA associated with seasonal influenza vaccination for three of the four influenza seasons in our study. The increased risk of PTD observed for the 2009-10 influenza season warrants further investigation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of maternal characteristics and climatic variation on birth masses of Alaskan caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Layne G.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence birth mass of mammals provides insights to nutritional trade-offs made by females to optimize their reproduction, growth, and survival. I evaluated variation in birth mass of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in central Alaska relative to maternal characteristics (age, body mass, cohort, and nutritional condition as influenced by winter severity) during 11 years with substantial variation in winter snowfall. Snowfall during gestation was the predominant factor explaining variation in birth masses, influencing birth mass inversely and through interactions with maternal age and lactation status. Maternal age effects were noted for females ≤ 5 years old, declining in magnitude with each successive age class. Birth mass as a proportion of autumn maternal mass was inversely related to winter snowfall, even though there was no decrease in masses of adult females in late winter associated with severe winters. I found no evidence of a hypothesized intergenerational effect of lower birth masses for offspring of females born after severe winters. Caribou produce relatively small offspring but provide exceptional lactation support for those that survive. Conservative maternal investment before parturition may represent an optimal reproductive strategy given that caribou experience stochastic variation in winter severity during gestation, uncertainty of environmental conditions surrounding the birth season, and intense predation on neonates.

  16. Effect of prenatal irradiation on total litter birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Total litter weight at birth was used as a response variable to study the effects of in utero irradiations on birth weight. Analyses were performed in such a manner as to allow for variations in litter size and environmental temperatures. No effects due to irradiation were noted for exposures given 8 days postcoitus (dpc) and 55 dpc. However, for exposures given 28 dpc, a 5% decrement in birth weight was found for an 80 rad dose

  17. Genotype by environment interaction in different birth seasons for weight at 240, 365 and 450 days of age in Tabapuã cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Cavalcante de Sousa Júnior

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of genotype by environment interaction (GEI on the weight of Tabapuã cattle at 240 (W240, 365 (W365 and 450 (W450 days of age. In total, 35,732 records of 8,458 Tabapuã animals which were born in the state of Bahia, Brazil, from 1975 to 2001, from 167 sires and 3,707 dams, were used. Two birth seasons were tested as for the environment effect: the dry (D and rainy (R ones. The covariance components were obtained by a multiple-trait analysis using Bayesian inference, in which each trait was considered as being different in each season. Covariance components were estimated by software gibbs2f90. As for W240, the model was comprised of contemporary groups and cow age (in classes as fixed effects; animal and maternal genetic additive, maternal permanent environmental and residual were considered as random effects. Concerning W365 and W450, the model included only the contemporary aged cow groups as fixed effects and the genetic additive and residual effects of the animal as the random ones. The GEI was assessed considering the genetic correlation, in which values below 0.80 indicated the presence of GEI. Regarding W365 and W450, the GEI was found in both seasons. As for post-weaning weight (W240, the effect of such interaction was not observed.

  18. Maternal attitudes towards home birth and their effect on birth outcomes in Iceland: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Sveinsdottir, Herdis

    2016-03-01

    to examine the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and birth outcomes, and whether women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected this relationship. a prospective cohort study. the study was set in Iceland, a sparsely populated island with harsh terrain, 325,000 inhabitants, high fertility and home birth rates, and less than 5000 births a year. a convenience sample of women who attended antenatal care in Icelandic health care centres, participated in the Childbirth and Health Study in 2009-2011, and expressed consistent attitudes towards home birth (n=809). of the participants, 164 (20.3%) expressed positive attitudes towards choosing home birth and 645 (79.7%) expressed negative attitudes. Women who had a positive attitude towards home birth had significantly more positive attitudes towards birth and more negative attitudes towards intervention than did women who had a negative attitude towards home birth. Of the 340 self-reported low-risk women that answered questionnaires on birth outcomes, 78 (22.9%) had a positive attitude towards home birth and 262 (77.1%) had a negative attitude. Oxytocin augmentation (19.2% (n=15) versus 39.1% (n=100)), epidural analgesia (19.2% (n=15) versus 33.6% (n=88)), and neonatal intensive care unit admission rates (0.0% (n=0) versus 5.0% (n=13)) were significantly lower among women who had a positive attitude towards home birth. Women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and oxytocin augmentation or epidural analgesia. the beneficial effect of planned home birth on maternal outcome in Iceland may depend to some extent on women's attitudes towards birth and intervention. Efforts to de-stigmatise out-of-hospital birth and de-medicalize women's attitudes towards birth might increase women׳s use of health-appropriate birth services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R

    2013-08-01

    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  20. Month and Season of Birth as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease: A Nationwide Nested Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maija Tolppanen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Season of birth, an exogenous indicator of early life environment, has been related to higher risk of adverse psychiatric outcomes but the findings for Alzheimer’s disease (AD have been inconsistent. We investigated whether the month or season of birth are associated with AD. Methods: A nationwide nested case-control study including all community-dwellers with clinically verified AD diagnosed in 2005 to 2012 (n=70 719 and up to four age- sex- and region of residence-matched controls (n=282 862 residing in Finland. Associations between month and season of birth and AD were studied with conditional logistic regression. Results: Month of birth was not associated with AD (p=0.09. No strong associations were observed with season (p=0.13, although in comparison to winter births (December-February summer births (June-August were associated with higher odds of AD (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.05. However, the absolute difference in prevalence in winter births was only 0.5% (prevalence of those born in winter were 31.7% and 32.2% for cases and controls, respectively. Conclusions: Although our findings do not support the hypothesis that season of birth is related to AD/dementia risk, they do not invalidate the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis in late-life cognition. It is possible that season does not adequately capture the early life circumstances, or that other (postnatal risk factors such as lifestyle or socioeconomic factors overrule the impact of prenatal and perinatal factors.

  1. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karema Corine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence decreased over the last six years (2002–2007. Therefore, the impact of malaria on birth outcomes is also expected to vary over time and space. Methods Obstetric indicators (birth weight and pregnancy outcome and malaria incidence were compared and analyzed to their association over time (2002–2007 and space. Birth data from 12,526 deliveries were collected from maternity registers of 11 different primary health centers located in different malaria endemic areas. Malaria data for the same communities were collected from the National Malaria Control Programme. Associations were sought with mixed effects models and logistic regression. Results In all health centres, a significant increase of birth weight over the years was observed (p Conclusion In Rwanda, birth weight and pregnancy outcome are not directly influenced by malaria, which is in contrast to many other studied areas. Although malaria incidence overall has declined and mean birth weight increased over the studied period, no direct association was found between the two. Socio-economic factors and improved nutrition could be responsible for birth weight changes in recent years.

  2. Potential Relationship between Season of Birth and Clinical Characteristics in Major Depressive Disorder in Koreans: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeong-Kyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to examine the potential relationship between season of birth (SOB) and clinical characteristics in Korean patients with unipolar non-psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD). Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in South Korea, 891 MDD patients were divided into two groups, those born in spring/summer (n=457) and those born in autumn/winter (n=434). Measurement tools comprising the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Clinical Global Impression of severity, Social and Occupation Functional Assessment Scale, WHO Quality of Life assessment instrument-abbreviated version, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and Temperament and Character Inventory were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, overall symptoms, suicidal ideation, global severity, social function, quality of life, drinking, and temperament and character, respectively. Using independent t-tests for continuous variables and χ² tests for discrete variables, the clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. MDD patients born in spring/summer were on average younger at onset of first depressive episode (t=2.084, p=0.038), had greater loss of concentration (χ²=4.589, p=0.032), and were more self-directed (t=2.256, p=0.025) than those born in autumn/winter. Clinically, there was a trend for the MDD patients born in spring/summer to display the contradictory characteristics of more severe clinical course and less illness burden; this may have been partly due to a paradoxical effect of the 5-HT system.

  3. Season of birth is different in Inuit suicide victims born into Traditional than into Modern Lifestyle: a register study from Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstén, Karin S; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2015-07-04

    There is growing evidence that living conditions at birth play a role in medical conditions later in life. Population-based studies from the Northern Hemisphere have shown that persons born in the spring or summer are at greater risk of committing suicide. A statistical correlation with light availability at birth has been observed in past research, but the cause remains unknown. Greenland is one of the most extreme of natural human habitats with regard to seasonal changes in light. The combination of rapid social changes and reliable population statistics offers a unique opportunity to make comparisons between persons born into a Traditional Lifestyle and those born into a Modern Lifestyle. The aim of this work was to assess whether season of birth differed between suicide victims born into an old or into a modern lifestyle. Official population and mortality registers were used. Suicide victims born (1903-1950) into the Traditional Lifestyle were compared with those born into the Modern Lifestyle (1961-1980). Rayleigh's test for circular distributions was used to assess the season of birth in suicide victims. Data regarding season of birth in the general population were collected. Persons born in March-June in the Traditional Lifestyle were much less likely to commit suicide than those born during other periods of the year. This is contrary to the findings of other studies. The seasonal differences had disappeared for those born into the Modern Lifestyle. The suicide rate increased from very low rates to about 140 suicides/100 000 person-years in the 1980s. The reason behind a variation in season of birth in suicide victims born into the old lifestyle is unknown. It is also unknown why the seasonal difference had disappeared with modern lifestyle. Possible influence of artificial light, nutrition, microbiota and seasonal infections are discussed. The underlying causes behind suicides may be different in traditional and modern Greenland.

  4. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, Stephen; Mens, Pètra F.; Karema, Corine; Schallig, Henk D. F. H.; Kaligirwa, Nadine; Vyankandondera, Joseph; de Vries, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, the incidence

  5. Effect of maternal country of birth on breastfeeding practices: results from Portuguese GXXI birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Musa Abubakar; Rodrigues, Carina; Fonseca, Maria João; Santos, Ana Cristina; Barros, Henrique

    2018-01-01

    Maternal country of birth has been associated with perinatal health outcomes but less is known regarding breastfeeding practices in contemporary European settings. This study investigated effect of maternal country of birth on breastfeeding initiation and duration by comparing native Portuguese and migrant mothers. We analyzed data of 7065 children of the Generation XXI (GXXI) birth cohort recruited at birth (2005-06) and followed-up 4 years later. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of maternal country of birth on breastfeeding initiation. Kaplan-Meier estimate was used to compare breastfeeding duration by maternal country of birth and length of residence by migrant mothers in Portugal. Breastfeeding initiation and the type of breastfeeding practice were similar for native Portuguese and migrant mothers. The migrants had significantly higher median duration in months of any breastfeeding (Odds Ratio [OR] 6.0, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 5.4,6.6) and exclusive breastfeeding (OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.8,4.2) than native Portuguese mothers (OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.8,4.2 and OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.9,3.0). Migrant mothers who resided in Portugal for either ≤5 years (OR 5.0, 95% CI 3.9,6.1 and OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.8,4.2) or >  5 years (OR 6.0, 95% CI 5.5,6.5 and OR 4.0, 95% CI 3.7,4.3) years had similar duration of any breastfeeding or exclusive breastfeeding, in both cases higher than the native Portuguese mothers. No significant differences were found when world regions were compared. Maternal country of birth does not influence breastfeeding initiation and type of feeding practice. However, migrant mothers have longer breastfeeding duration of either exclusive or any breastfeeding, which was not changed by length of residence in Portugal.

  6. Maternal age, birth order, and race: differential effects on birthweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Edwards, Sharon; Gelfand, Alan; James, Sherman A; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies examining the influence of maternal age and birth order on birthweight have not effectively disentangled the relative contributions of each factor to birthweight, especially as they may differ by race. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study of North Carolina births from 1999 to 2003 was performed. Analysis was restricted to 510 288 singleton births from 28 to 42 weeks’ gestation with no congenital anomalies. Multivariable linear regression was used to model maternal age and birth order on birthweight, adjusting for infant sex, education, marital status, tobacco use and race. Results Mean birthweight was lower for non-Hispanic black individuals (NHB, 3166 g) compared with non-Hispanic white individuals (NHW, 3409 g) and Hispanic individuals (3348 g). Controlling for covariates, birthweight increased with maternal age until the early 30s. Race-specific modelling showed that the upper extremes of maternal age had a significant depressive effect on birthweight for NHW and NHB (35+ years, p<0.001), but only age less than 25 years was a significant contributor to lower birthweights for Hispanic individuals, p<0.0001. Among all racial subgroups, birth order had a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with the largest incremental increase from first to second births. Among NHB, birth order accounted for a smaller increment in birthweight than for NHW and Hispanic women. Conclusion Birth order exerts a greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with signficantly different effects across racial subgroups. PMID:21081308

  7. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  8. Season of birth in Danish children with language disorder born in the 1958-1976 period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Karen-Marie; Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Nielsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    in the same period. For some part of the period (1964-1969), an excess of boys born in November was found. Particular attention was given to the inconsistent findings also found in language-related disorders like infantile autism and dyslexia and the choice of statistical method to determine seasonality....

  9. Quantifying and modeling birth order effects in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tychele Turner

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex genetic disorder with multiple etiologies whose molecular genetic basis is not fully understood. Although a number of rare mutations and dosage abnormalities are specific to autism, these explain no more than 10% of all cases. The high heritability of autism and low recurrence risk suggests multifactorial inheritance from numerous loci but other factors also intervene to modulate risk. In this study, we examine the effect of birth rank on disease risk which is not expected for purely hereditary genetic models. We analyzed the data from three publicly available autism family collections in the USA for potential birth order effects and studied the statistical properties of three tests to show that adequate power to detect these effects exist. We detect statistically significant, yet varying, patterns of birth order effects across these collections. In multiplex families, we identify V-shaped effects where middle births are at high risk; in simplex families, we demonstrate linear effects where risk increases with each additional birth. Moreover, the birth order effect is gender-dependent in the simplex collection. It is currently unknown whether these patterns arise from ascertainment biases or biological factors. Nevertheless, further investigation of parental age-dependent risks yields patterns similar to those observed and could potentially explain part of the increased risk. A search for genes considering these patterns is likely to increase statistical power and uncover novel molecular etiologies.

  10. Season of birth and primary central nervous system tumors: a systematic review of the literature with critical appraisal of underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Marios K; Ntinopoulou, Erato; Chatzopoulou, Despoina; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2017-09-01

    Season of birth has been considered a proxy of seasonally varying exposures around perinatal period, potentially implicated in the etiology of several health outcomes, including malignancies. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we have systematically reviewed published literature on the association of birth seasonality with risk of central nervous system tumors in children and adults. Seventeen eligible studies using various methodologies were identified, encompassing 20,523 cases. Eight of 10 studies in children versus four of eight in adults showed some statistically significant associations between birth seasonality and central nervous system tumor or tumor subtype occurrence, pointing to a clustering of births mostly in fall and winter months, albeit no consistent pattern was identified by histologic subtype. A plethora of perinatal factors might underlie or confound the associations, such as variations in birth weight, maternal diet during pregnancy, perinatal vitamin D levels, pesticides, infectious agents, immune system maturity, and epigenetic modifications. Inherent methodological weaknesses of to-date published individual investigations, including mainly underpowered size to explore the hypothesis by histological subtype, call for more elegant concerted actions using primary data of large datasets taking also into account the interplay between the potential underlying etiologic factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Examining the effects of birth order on personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2015-11-17

    This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panels from the United States (n = 5,240), Great Britain (n = 4,489), and Germany (n = 10,457) to resolve this open research question. This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions (i) within the same family (within-family design) and (ii) between different families (between-family design). In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. Most important, however, we consistently found no birth-order effects on extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or imagination. On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain.

  12. Birth cohort effects on mortality in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    the mothers of the babyboomers, and the women most heavily hit by the epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases in the mid 1940s. These generations of women furthermore entered the Danish labour market in massive numbers in the 1960s. In the present study we examine the mortality of Danish women and compare...... it to mortality of Danish men, Norwegian women and Swedish women. Specifically we aim to answer the questions: 1) Are there comparable birth cohort effects on mortality in Norway and Sweden and what is the impact of the respective Danish birth cohorts on the life expectancy measure 2) Are there specific causes...... groups. The data was analysed using descriptive techniques, Age-period-cohort modelling and age-decomposing of life expectancies. Results: The results showed no similar birth cohort effect for Norway and Sweden when compared to Denmark and a relatively high impact of the birth cohort effect on life...

  13. Confounding Underlies the Apparent Month of Birth Effect in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fiddes, Barnaby; Wason, James; Kemppinen, Anu; Ban, Maria; Compston, Alastair; Sawcer, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several groups have reported apparent association between month of birth and multiple sclerosis. We sought to test the extent to which such studies might be confounded by extraneous variables such as year and place of birth. Methods Using national birth statistics from 2 continents, we assessed the evidence for seasonal variations in birth rate and tested the extent to which these are subject to regional and temporal variation. We then established the age and regional origin distrib...

  14. Low twinning rate and seasonal effects on twinning in a fertile population, the Hutterites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K.; Miura, T.; Peter, K.

    1993-09-01

    This paper analyzes from the mid 18th century to 1987 the birth records of the “Dariusleut,” one of the three subgroups of the Hutterite population. The aim of this study is to describe several aspects of the twinning rate in a fertile population. The overall rate of twinning was 0.90%:103 twins among all 11492 maternities. The rate peaked at the 7th birth order and at the maternal age of 40 years and over. Until the mid 19th century when the Hutterites lived in Russia, the twinning rate was higher (1.5%), and it decreased during the migration period in the second half of the 19th century (0.7%). After the group had settled in the USA and Canada, the population maintained a twinning rate of 1.0% until 1965. After 1965 the rate decreased to 0.7%, partly due to a decline in fertility among women aged 30 years and over. There was a significant seasonal variation: the twinning rate decreased to 0.5% in May July compared to 1.2% for the other three seasons during the years up to 1965 ( P<0.01), while more recent mothers did not show such a seasonal variation. The incidence of twin births in this population seems to have been influenced by environmental factors, which would change their effect seasonally and secularly.

  15. Examining the effects of birth order on personality

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrer, Julia M.; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to laterborns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panel...

  16. Influence of Rabbit Sire Genetic Origin, Season of Birth and Parity Order on Doe and Litter Performance in an Organic Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Dalle Zotte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare both the performance of litters derived from two sire genetic origins (SGO, Vienna Blue (VB and Burgundy Fawn (BF, along successive seasons of birth (SB; winter, spring, summer and autumn, and doe reproductive performance in an organic production system. A total of fifty-eight does consisting of a mixture of crosses of several medium-large size breeds at different parity order (P, 1 = nulliparous; 2 = primiparous; ≥3 = multiparous and twelve males (6 VB and 6 BF were housed indoors at environmental conditions that followed seasonality. An extensive reproductive rhythm was used and kits were weaned at 46±6 d of age. Doe reproductive performance and the data of 105 litters (55 from VB and 50 from BF SGO were recorded throughout the SB. No statistically significant differences related to SGO effect were observed. As regards parity order, multiparous does showed higher live weights (LW (p<0.05, total born (p<0.01, total born alive (p<0.05 per delivery, and litter weight of born alive (p<0.05, but lower milk output at 21st d than primiparous does (p<0.05. The extensive reproductive rhythm mainly increased litter performance at birth in multiparous does but was not sufficient to permit a complete recovery of body reserves lost during lactation. Autumn SB negatively affected doe LW variation between deliveries. The number of pups born and born alive per delivery (p<0.05 and litter size at 21 d of age and at weaning (p<0.01 were lower during hot SB. Due to the lower litter size of pups born in summer and autumn, their individual weight at 21st d of age and daily individual growth rate 0 to 21 d were higher than those of pups born in winter (p<0.001. Litter performance at 21st d of age and individual pup pre-weaning growth rate were poorer for those born in spring than in other seasons due to the harmful effects of increased environmental temperatures. SB affected most of the performance traits of does and young

  17. The effect of cigarette and alcohol consumption on birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    This paper uses Danish survey and register data to examine the effect of maternal inputs on child health at birth. The paper adds to the literature in several ways: First, while previous studies mainly have focused on maternal smoking, this paper factors in a larger number of maternal health beha...... suggest a dose-response relationship. Robustness checks suggest that the sibling sample represents the population of multiple mothers well and that smoking results are not driven by misclassification of smoking status....... by exploiting variation between siblings. The results of the paper confirm and extend earlier findings. Maternal smoking decreases birth weight and fetal growth, with smaller effects in sibling models. The negative alcohol effect on birth outcomes is pronounced and remains intact in sibling models. Both effects...

  18. Short term effect of air pollution, noise and heat waves on preterm births in Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Virginia; Díaz, Julio; Ortiz, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Sáez, Marc; Linares, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) refers to delivery before 37 weeks of gestation and represents the leading cause of early-life mortality and morbidity in developed countries. PTB can lead to serious infant health outcomes. The etiology of PTB remains uncertain, but epidemiologic studies have consistently shown elevated risks with different environmental variables as traffic-related air pollution (TRAP). The aim of the study was to evaluate with time series methodology the short-term effect of air pollutants, noise levels and ambient temperature on the number of births and preterm births occurred in Madrid City during the 2001-2009 period. A time-series analysis was performed to assess the short term impact of daily mean concentrations (µg/m(3)) of PM2.5 and PM10, O3 and NO2. Measurements of Acoustic Pollution in dB(A) analyzed were: Leqd, equivalent diurnal noise level and Leqn, equivalent nocturnal noise level. Maximum and Minimum daily temperature (°C), mean Humidity in the air (%) and Atmospheric Pressure (HPa), were included too. Linear trends, seasonality, as well as the autoregressive nature of the series itself were controlled. We added as covariate the day of the week too. Autoregressive over-dispersed Poisson regression models were performed and the environmental variables were included with short-term lags (from 0 to 7 days) in reference to the date of birth. Firstly, simple models for the total number of births and preterm births were done separately. In a second stage, a model for total births adjusted for preterm births was performed. A total of 298,705 births were analyzed. The results of the final models were expressed in relative risks (RRs) for interquartile increase. We observed evidence of a short term effect at Lag 0, for the following environmental variables analyzed, PM2.5 (RR: 1.020; 95% CI:(1.008 1.032)) and O3 (RR: 1.012; 95% CI:(1.002 1.022)) concentrations and Leqd (RR: 1.139; 95% CI:( (1.124 1.154)) for the total number of births, and besides

  19. Modeling The Effects of Mother’s Age at First Birth on Child Health at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Mbu Daniel Tambi

    2014-01-01

    This study models the impact of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth in Cameroon. The objectives are: (1) investigate the implication of mother’s age at first birth on child health at birth; (2) examine the impact of mother’s age groups on birth weight, and (3) suggest economic policies to ameliorate the mother’s age – child health relationship. We make used of the control function approach to determine the relationship between mother’s age at first birth and birth...

  20. Effect of seasonal collection on callus Induction, proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hevea brasiliensis that is grown in Thailand and Southeast Asia is a very valuable source of natural rubber. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of seasonal effect on plantlet regenera-tion through somatic embryogenesis from anther culture. Thus, this study discussed the effect of season on ...

  1. First description of seasonality of birth and diagnosis amongst teenagers and young adults with cancer aged 15–24 years in England, 1996–2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laar, Marlous van; Kinsey, Sally E; Picton, Susan V; Feltbower, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to examine evidence for an infectious aetiology among teenagers and young adults (TYA) by analysing monthly seasonality of diagnosis and birth amongst 15–24 year olds diagnosed with cancer in England. Cases of leukaemia, lymphoma and central nervous system (CNS) tumours were derived from the national TYA cancer register (1996–2005). Incidence rates (IR) and trends were assessed using Poisson regression. Seasonality of diagnosis and birth was assessed using Poisson and logistic regression respectively with cosine functions of varying periods. There were 6251 cases diagnosed with leukaemia (n = 1299), lymphoma (n = 3070) and CNS tumours (n = 1882), the overall IR was 92 (95% CI 89–96) per 1,000,000 15–24 year olds per year. There was significant evidence of seasonality around the time of diagnosis for Hodgkin’s lymphoma (P < 0.001) with a peak in February, and for ‘other CNS tumours’ (P = 0.010) with peaks in December and June. Birth peaks for those with ‘other Gliomas’ (Gliomas other than Astrocytoma and Ependymoma) were observed in May and November (P = 0.015). Our novel findings support an infectious aetiological hypothesis for certain subgroups of TYA cancer in England. Further work will examine correlation with specific infections occurring around the time of birth and diagnosis within certain diagnostic groups

  2. Birth-Order Effects in the Academically Talented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Wayne D.

    1998-01-01

    Birth-order position was studied among 828 academically talented sixth-grade students. When compared to census data, the sample was disproportionately composed of first-born students. However, this effect was largely explained by the covariate of family size, with small families over represented among the gifted. Other findings indicated no…

  3. Effect of prenatal exposure to kitchen fuel on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugantara Ramesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal exposure to kitchen fuel smoke may lead to impaired fetal growth. Objective: To study the effect of exposure to various kitchen fuels on birth weight. Methodology : Study type: Retrospective analytical. Study setting: Hospital based. Study Subjects: Mothers and their newborns. Inclusion Criteria: Mothers registered in first trimester with minimum 3 visits, non-anemic, full-term, and singleton delivery. Exclusion Criteria: History of Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH, Diabetes Mellitus (DM, tobacco chewers or mishri users. Sample size: 328 mothers and their new-borne. Study period: Six months. Study tools: Chi-square, Z-test, ANOVA, and binary logistic regression. Results: Effect of confounders on birth weight was tested and found to be non-significant. Mean ± SD of birth weight was 2.669 ± 0.442 in Liquid Petroleium Gas (LPG users (n = 178, 2.465 ± 0.465 in wood users (n = 94, 2.557 ± 0.603 in LPG + wood users (n = 27 and 2.617 ± 0.470 in kerosene users (n = 29. Infants born to wood users had lowest birth weight and averagely 204 g lighter than LPG users (F = 4.056, P < 0.01. Percentage of newborns with low birth weight (LBW in wood users was 44.68% which was significantly higher than in LPG users (24.16%, LPG + wood users (40.74% and in kerosene users (34.48% (Chi-square = 12.926, P < 0.01. As duration of exposure to wood fuel increases there is significant decline in birth weight (F = 3.825, P < 0.05. By using logistic regression type of fuel is only best predictor. Conclusion: Cooking with wood fuel is a significant risk-factor for LBW, which is modifiable.

  4. Effect of season on reproductive behaviors and fertilization success in cavies (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribal, Romy; Rübensam, Kathrin; Bernhardt, Sandra; Jewgenow, Katarina; Guenther, Anja

    2018-04-05

    Finding the optimal timing for breeding is crucial for small mammals to ensure survival and maximize lifetime reproductive success. Species living in temperate regions therefore often restrict breeding to seasons with favorable food and weather conditions. Although caviomorph rodents such as guinea pigs are described as non-seasonal breeders, a series of recent publications has shown seasonal adaptations in litter size, offspring birth mass and maternal investment. Here, we aim to test if seasonal patterns of litter size variation found in earlier studies, are mediated by seasonal differences in female estrus length, fertilization rate and mating behavior. The female estrus period was longer in fall compared to all other seasons (p < 0.001), frequently lasting 7-9 days while estrus in spring usually lasted less than 2 days. In fall, females mated later during estrus (p < 0.001), resulting in reduced fertilization rates (p < 0.001). Fertilization rate was well above 95% in summer while it dropped to less than 85% in fall and winter. While none of the male mating characteristics such as number and duration of copulations differed across seasons, the number of mating bouts was reduced in fall (p = 0.04). Finally, the developmental stages of flushed embryos were more diverse in spring and summer compared to fall and winter. These results suggest that seasonal differences in fertilization rate and quality of implanted embryos are mediated by female estrus length and timing and intensity of mating behavior. Together, these effects contribute to the observed differences in litter size across seasons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing incidence of testicular cancer--birth cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekbom, A; Akre, O

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer is rising in most Western populations. A collaborative study between nine population-based cancer registries in countries around the Baltic Sea was utilized in order to analyze in detail geographic variations and temporal trends in the occurrence of testicular cancer. There were 34,309 cases registered up until 1989 starting in Denmark in 1942 and most recently in Latvia in 1977. From the descriptive epidemiology it was obvious that there was a substantial variation in the age-standardized incidence amounting to about a 10-fold difference between the different countries ranging from 0.8 per 100,000 person-years in Lithuania to 7.6 per 100,000 person-years in Denmark. Previous studies have indicated that this increase is due to birth cohort effects. A more detailed analysis was therefore performed in those six countries with a sufficiently long period of cancer registration; Poland, former East Germany, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Sweden. This analysis showed that birth cohort is a more important determinant of testicular cancer risk than year of diagnosis. In Poland, former East Germany and Finland, there was an increasing risk for all birth cohorts. Among men born in Denmark, Norway or Sweden between 1930 and 1945, this increasing trend in risk was interrupted in these birth cohorts but followed thereafter by an uninterrupted increase by birth cohort. In conclusion, life time exposure to environmental factors which are associated with the incidence of testicular cancer appear to be more related to birth cohort than to year of diagnosis. Because testicular cancer typically occurs at an early age, major etiological factors therefore need to operate early in life, perhaps even in utero.

  6. Effect of season on fresh and cryopreserved stallion semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of season on sperm quality parameters, expression of the fertility-related protein SP22 and selected mRNA transcripts infresh and cryopreserved stallion sperm. Four stallions were collected in each of the four seasons: summ...

  7. Effects of regrowth period, season and harvesting frequency on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of regrowth period, season and harvesting frequency on the yield and nutritive value of Chloris gayana in the southern highlands of Tanzania. ... In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolisable energy (ME) declined faster with increasing periods of growth in the early than in the late wet season. ME ranged ...

  8. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  9. Keeping it Natural: Does Persuasive Magazine Content Have an Effect on Young Women's Intentions for Birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kate; Miller, Yvette D

    2015-01-01

    Information in the popular media tends to be biased toward promoting the benefits of medicalized birth for low-risk pregnancies. We aimed to assess the effect of communicating the benefits of non-medicalized birth in magazine articles on women's birth intentions and to identify the mechanisms by which social communication messages affected women's intentions for birth. A convenience sample of 180 nulliparous Australian women aged 18-35 years were randomly exposed to a magazine article endorsing non-medicalized birth (using either celebrity or non-celebrity endorsement) or organic eating (control) throughout June-July 2011. Magazine articles that endorsed non-medicalized birth targeted perceived risk of birth, expectations for labor and birth, and attitudes toward birth. These variables and intention for birth were assessed by self-report before and after exposure. Exposure to a magazine article that endorsed non-medicalized birth significantly reduced women's intentions for a medicalized birth, regardless of whether the endorsement was by celebrities or non-celebrities. Changes in perceived risk of birth mediated the effect of magazine article exposure on women's intentions for a medicalized birth. Persuasive communication that endorses non-medicalized birth could be delivered at the population level and may reduce women's intentions for a medicalized birth.

  10. An association between autumn birth and clozapine treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Foldager, Leslie; Røge, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies on seasonality of birth and schizophrenia risk have been published but it is uncertain whether, among those with schizophrenia, refractory illness exhibits any predilection for birth month. We hypothesized and examined whether a season of birth effect was present in p...... investigated but might be partially explained by early exposures such as winter flu season and low vitamin D levels.......BACKGROUND: Numerous studies on seasonality of birth and schizophrenia risk have been published but it is uncertain whether, among those with schizophrenia, refractory illness exhibits any predilection for birth month. We hypothesized and examined whether a season of birth effect was present...... in patients with schizophrenia with a history of clozapine treatment. METHOD: Using record linkage with Danish registers, we examined patients with schizophrenia born between 1950 and 1970, and between 1995 and 2009 and Cox regression analysis was used to examine season of birth in relation to history...

  11. Seasonality effect on the allelopathy of cerrado species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Gatti

    Full Text Available The Brazilian cerrado presents strong climate seasonality. During the dry season, plants may be exposed to stressful situations, such as a soil surface water deficit, that stimulate their chemical defenses. However, the seasonality effect on the production of allelopathic compounds of cerrado plant species is poorly understood. In this study, the phytotoxic activities of common native cerrado plants were evaluated during rainy and dry seasons. Crude leaves extracts (10% concentration: weight/volume, with dry leaves and distilled water from eleven species were tested on lettuce and sesame germination. The negative effects on germination percentages, rates and informational entropies of the target species were higher when submitted to plant extracts from the dry season, where the germination rate was the most sensible parameter. The higher sensibility of lettuce and the germination rate parameter showed this difference. Only two exceptions had higher effects for rainy season extracts; one species showed higher negative effects on germination informational entropy of lettuce and another species on the germination rate of sesame. Thus, increases in the allelopathic activity were seen in the majority of the studied cerrado plant species during the dry season. These distinct responses to stressful situations in a complex environment such as the Brazilian cerrado may support the establishment and survival of some species.

  12. Effect of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy on neonatal birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Sarafraz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim &Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 hrs per day. Fasting individuals abstain from drinking liquids and eating foods. Manypregnant women and gynecologists are concerned about the possible complicationsassociated with fasting and effects on fetal health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on neonatalbirth weight.Materials and Methods: The current historical cohort study was performed on pregnant women attending maternity hospitals in Kashan in 2008. Twofasting and non-fasting groups were compared. Multiple pregnancies and gestational age less than 37 weeks were considered as the exclusion criteria. In fasting and non-fasting groups, age, parity, gestational age, body mass index (BMI, mother's occupation, prenatal care attendance and intended or unintended pregnancy were matched. For the statistical analysis of the data, covariance analysis and SPSS v16.0 were used. Results: In this study, 293 cases were evaluated among whom 31.7% did notfast. In the two groups, the mean age, gestational age, parity and weight gain during pregnancy were not significantly different. The mean birth weight was 3338 g (±498 g and 3343 g (± 339 g in fasting and non-fasting groups respectively. The results showed that the mean birth weight of the neonates in fasting and non-fasting groups was not significantly different (p=0. 931 Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that there is no significant relationship between the neonatal birth weight and maternal fasting during pregnancy. Therefore we declare thatfasting for pregnant women who receive prenatal care has no effects on neonatal birth weight.

  13. INTERACTION EFFECT OF SEASON Senna occid. CORRECTED. L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June, 2015), 23(1): 39-44 ... ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to assess the effect of season, habitat and leaf age on proximate ... most developing nations, for example in Nigeria, food.

  14. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  15. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  16. The Effect of Activity Restriction on Infant's Birth Weight and Gestational Age at Birth: PRAMS Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Abeer

    2018-01-01

    Activity restriction is extensively prescribed for pregnant women with major comorbidities despite the lack of evidence to support its effectiveness in preventing preterm birth or low birth weight. To determine the moderation effect of home activity restriction for more than a week on infant's birth weight and gestational age at birth for high-risk women with obstetrical and medical comorbidities. A secondary analysis of 2004-2008 New York Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System was conducted with 1426 high-risk women. High-risk group included 41% of women treated with activity restriction and 59% of those not treated with activity restriction. Women with preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM) who were treated with activity restriction had a lower infant birth weight ( b = -202.85, p = ≤.001) and gestational age at birth ( b = -.91, p = ≤.001) than those without activity restriction. However, women with preterm labor and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy who were not treated with activity restriction had lower infant gestational age at birth ( b = -96, p = ≤.01) and ( b = -92, p = ≤.001), respectively, compared to those who were treated with activity restriction. Findings suggest a contrary effect of activity restriction on infants born to women with PPROM, which is a major reason for prescribing activity restriction. The current study results may trigger the need to conduct randomized control trials to determine the effect of severity of activity restriction on maternal and infant outcomes.

  17. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  18. The effects of birth order and birth interval on the phenotypic expression of autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren A Martin

    Full Text Available A rise in the prevalence of diagnosed cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been reported in several studies in recent years. While this rise in ASD prevalence is at least partially related to increased awareness and broadened diagnostic criteria, the role of environmental factors cannot be ruled out, especially considering that the cause of most cases of ASD remains unknown. The study of families with multiple affected children can provide clues about ASD etiology. While the majority of research on ASD multiplex families has focused on identifying genetic anomalies that may underlie the disorder, the study of symptom severity across ASD birth order may provide evidence for environmental factors in ASD. We compared social and cognitive measures of behavior between over 300 first and second affected siblings within multiplex autism families obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange dataset. Measures included nonverbal IQ assessed with the Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, verbal IQ assessed with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and autism severity assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS, an instrument established as a quantitative measure of autism. The results indicated that females were more severely impacted by ASD than males, especially first affected siblings. When first and second affected siblings were compared, significant declines in nonverbal and verbal IQ scores were observed. In addition, SRS results demonstrated a significant increase in autism severity between first and second affected siblings consistent with an overall decline in function as indicated by the IQ data. These results remained significant after controlling for the age and sex of the siblings. Surprisingly, the SRS scores were found to only be significant when the age difference between siblings was less than 2 years. These results suggest that some cases of ASD are influenced by a dosage effect involving unknown epigenetic

  19. EFFECTS OF STRESSFUL EVENTS IN FRANCE (1968) AND JAPAN (1995) ON THE SEX RATIO AT BIRTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Zammit, Dorota; Scherb, Hagen

    2017-09-01

    Males are usually born in excess of females. The sex ratio at birth (SR) is often expressed as the ratio of male to total births. A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence SR, including terrorist attacks, which have been shown to reduce SR. This paper reviews the effects on SR outcomes of the stressful events in France in 1968 (in association with the student and worker riots) and in Japan following the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult's attack on the Tokyo subway using sarin nerve gas in 1995. Both countries displayed seasonal variation in SR. France exhibited a decline in SR in 1968 (p=0.042), with a particularly strong dip in May of that year (p=0.015). For Japan, there was no statistically significant dip for 1995 but there was a significant dip in June of that year (p=0.026). The SR dips follow catastrophic or tragic events if these are perceived to be momentous enough by a given populace. It is believed that SR slumps may be caused by population stress, which is known to lead to the culling of frail/small male fetuses. It has been observed that these fluctuations are comparable in intensity to a substantial proportion of quoted values for perinatal mortality, potentially making this a public health issue.

  20. Birth Order Matters: The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Alison Booth; Hiau Joo Kee

    2005-01-01

    We use unique retrospective family background data from the 2003 British Household Panel Survey to explore the degree to which family size and birth order affect a child's subsequent educational attainment. Theory suggests a trade off between child quantity and 'quality'. Family size might adversely affect the production of child quality within a family. A number of arguments also suggest that siblings are unlikely to receive equal shares of the resources devoted by parents to their childr...

  1. Effect of housing, initial weight and season on feedlot performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feedlot information, submitted by Iowa cattle producers to the Iowa State University Feedlot Performance and Cost Monitoring Program, was examined to determine the effects of housing, initial weight and season interactions on beef steer performance. Feedlot information, consisting of 1225 pens of steers, contained ...

  2. Effects of seasonal variation and tidal regimes on macrobenthic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of the effects of seasonal variation and tidal regimes on the distribution and density of macrobenthic invertebrates of the coastal Warri River, southern Nigeria was carried out from July 2014 to February 2015. Samples were collected from five longitudinal stations from headwater to mouth during high and low ...

  3. Effects of seasonal advancement on the forage availability, quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of seasonal advancement on the forage availability, quality and acceptability by grazing gudali cattle in the humid zone of Nigeria. ... There were significant (p<0.05) differences in the dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) contents of all the forages. DM content ranged from 9.6% (Tridax ...

  4. The effects of seasons on cholesterol content and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of the present study is the determination of the effects of seasonal variations on the proximate analysis, cholesterol content and fatty acid compositions of Helix aspersa. Materials and Methods: Garden snails (Helix aspersa) were picked up by hand from the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, in autumn ...

  5. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i) Low Birth Weight (LBW) infants (1501- 2500 g birth weight), (ii) Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants (1001-1500 g birth weight) and (iii) Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants ( 0.05) were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05) than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05) in ELBW group. Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Combined effects of prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs...... with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures....

  7. Nonspecific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on early childhood infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during the recruitm......BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during...... during the first 3 mo....

  8. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village s...

  9. Effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys during the rainy and cold-dry seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher ( P donkeys were higher ( P donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.

  10. Transfer in planned home births in Sweden--effects on the experience of birth: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena E; Rådestad, Ingela J; Hildingsson, Ingegerd M

    2011-08-01

    More than 10% of all planned home births in high-income countries are completed in the hospital. The aim of this study was to compare the birth experiences among women who planned to give birth at home and completed the birth at home and women who were transferred to hospital during or immediately after the birth. All women in Sweden who had a planned home birth between 1998 and 2005 (n=671) were invited to participate in the study. The women who agreed to participate received one questionnaire for each planned home birth. Mixed methods were used for the analysis. Women who had been transferred during or immediately after the planned home birth had a more negative birth experience in general. In comparison with women who completed the birth at home, the odds ratio for being less satisfied was 13.5, CI 8.1-22.3. Reasons for being dissatisfied related to organizational factors, the way the women were treated or personal ability. Being transferred during a planned home birth negatively affects the birth experience. Treatments as well as organizational factors are considered to be obstacles for a positive birth experience when transfer is needed. Established links between the home birth setting and the hospital might enhance the opportunity for a positive birth experience irrespective of where the birth is completed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children: beneficial nonspecific effects in the neonatal period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam; Ravn, Henrik; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Stensballe, Lone; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2011-07-15

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG. In the period 2004-2008 we recruited 2320 LBW children in Bissau. The children were visited at home at 2, 6, and 12 months of age. With a pretrial infant mortality of 250 per 1000, we hypothesized a 25% reduction in infant mortality for LBW children. Infant mortality was only 101 per 1000 during the trial. In the primary analysis, infant mortality was reduced insignificantly by 17% (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = .83 [.63-1.08]). In secondary analyses, early BCG vaccine was safe with an MRR of .49 (.21-1.15) after 3 days and .55 (.34-.89) after 4 weeks. The reduction in neonatal mortality was mainly due to fewer cases of neonatal sepsis, respiratory infection, and fever. The impact of early BCG on infant mortality was marked for children weighing <1.5 kg (MRR = .43 [.21-.85]) who had lower coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccinations. Though early BCG did not reduce infant mortality significantly, it may have a beneficial effect in the neonatal period. This could be important for public health because BCG is often delayed in low-income countries.

  12. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  13. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christopher J; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-02-03

    To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers' homes, in rural village settings. 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by intervention birth attendants (0.37, 0.17 to 0.81) and by 81% within the first two days

  14. Effect of training traditional birth attendants on neonatal mortality (Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project): randomised controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Guerina, Nicholas G; Kasimba, Joshua; Mulenga, Charity; MacLeod, William B; Waitolo, Nelson; Knapp, Anna B; Mirochnick, Mark; Mazimba, Arthur; Fox, Matthew P; Sabin, Lora; Seidenberg, Philip; Simon, Jonathon L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether training traditional birth attendants to manage several common perinatal conditions could reduce neonatal mortality in the setting of a resource poor country with limited access to healthcare. Design Prospective, cluster randomised and controlled effectiveness study. Setting Lufwanyama, an agrarian, poorly developed district located in the Copperbelt province, Zambia. All births carried out by study birth attendants occurred at mothers’ homes, in rural village settings. Participants 127 traditional birth attendants and mothers and their newborns (3559 infants delivered regardless of vital status) from Lufwanyama district. Interventions Using an unblinded design, birth attendants were cluster randomised to intervention or control groups. The intervention had two components: training in a modified version of the neonatal resuscitation protocol, and single dose amoxicillin coupled with facilitated referral of infants to a health centre. Control birth attendants continued their existing standard of care (basic obstetric skills and use of clean delivery kits). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of liveborn infants who died by day 28 after birth, with rate ratios statistically adjusted for clustering. Secondary outcomes were mortality at different time points; and comparison of causes of death based on verbal autopsy data. Results Among 3497 deliveries with reliable information, mortality at day 28 after birth was 45% lower among liveborn infants delivered by intervention birth attendants than control birth attendants (rate ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 0.90). The greatest reductions in mortality were in the first 24 hours after birth: 7.8 deaths per 1000 live births for infants delivered by intervention birth attendants compared with 19.9 per 1000 for infants delivered by control birth attendants (0.40, 0.19 to 0.83). Deaths due to birth asphyxia were reduced by 63% among infants delivered by

  15. Effects of seasonal variations on thermoregulation of ostrich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuony, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve ostrich aged 7 months old were used during summer and winter from the breeding flock of the ostrich farm, at the Nuclear Research Center in Inshas, of Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. In the study all birds were exposed to ambient temperatures in summer and winter, and the birds were fed grower ration ad libitum (19% protein and 2450 K cal ME /Kg).The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of temperature variation during summer and winter seasons and diurnal effect on changes in some physiological and blood chemical parameters, the daily feed consumption (g/bird/day) and water consumption (ml/bird/day) these parameters were measured during 7 days in each season. Cloacal temperatures was measured and blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 am and once in the afternoon at 3 pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (40±2 degree C) (summer) and the 7 cold days of January (18±2 degree C) (winter). Red blood cell (RBCs) counts and total white blood cell (WBCs) counts, hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC) were calculated. Serum, total protein (TP), albumen (A) and globulin (G) concentrations were measured. Furthermore, serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose and triglycerides concentrations were determined. Also, serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and aldosterone levels were estimated. Also, the amount of total body water was determined by the antipyren method. Finally, serum protein profile it was conducted by Native-PAGE method (Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) on vertical slab gel to determine protein profiles in blood proteins of ostrich. Results indicated that feed consumption unlike water consumption was significantly increased during winter than in summer season. Moreover, body temperature increased significantly during the

  16. Effect of season on peripheral resistance to localised cold stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M.; Harimura, Y.; Tochihara, Y.; Yamazaki, S.; Ohnaka, T.; Matsui, J.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect that seasonal changes have on the effect of localised cold stress on peripheral temperatures using the foot immersion method with a cold water bath. The subjects were six males and four females. The data were obtained in April, July, October and January. Skin temperature of the right index finger, the forehead, the arm, the cheek, the second toe and the instep were measured before, during and after the immersion of the feet in water at 15°C for 10 mins, as well as oxygen consumption before immersion of the feet. The average finger temperature was highest during foot immersion in the summer, next highest in the winter, then spring, and the lowest during foot immersion in the autumn. The finger temperatures during the pre-immersion period in the autumn tended to be lower than in other seasons. The finger temperatures during the pre-immersion period affected the temperature change of the finger during the immersion period. The rate of increase of the toe temperature and the foot temperature during post-immersion in the summer and the spring were greater than those in the autumn and winter. Oxygen consumption during the pre-immersion period in the autumn was significantly lower than in the other seasons (pCooling the feet caused no significant changes in the temperatures the cheek, forehead or forearm. The cheek temperature in the summer and autumn was cooler than corresponding temperatures taken in the winter and spring.

  17. Effect of Implementing a Birth Plan on Womens' Childbirth Experiences and Maternal & Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Amal Hussain; Mohamed, Hanan El Sayed; Elkader, Shadia Abd; El-Nemer, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth satisfaction represents a sense of feeling good about one's birth. It is thought to result from having a sense of control, having expectations met, feeling empowered, confident and supported. The aim of this study was to implement a birth plan and evaluate its effect on women's childbirth experiences and maternal, neonatal outcomes. A…

  18. Effect of maternal smoking on birth weight of twins: a study from the Dutch Twin Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Bleker, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Since twins weigh about 20% less than singletons at birth, maternal smoking may be a more severe risk for them than for singletons. Therefore, the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on birth weight was investigated in a group of 5376 twins. All necessary information was collected by a

  19. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, K S; Fahey, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-03-27

    The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database and the federal income tax T1 Family Files. Separate logistic models were used to quantify the association between socioeconomic position, clinical risk factors and spontaneous preterm birth and iatrogenic preterm birth. The study population included 132,714 singleton deliveries and the rate of preterm birth was 5.5%. Preterm birth rates were significantly higher among the women in the lowest (versus the highest) family income group for spontaneous (rate ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03, 1.25) but not iatrogenic preterm birth (rate ratio 0.95, 95% CI 0.75, 1.19). Adjustment for maternal characteristics attenuated the family income-spontaneous preterm birth relationship but strengthened the relationship with iatrogenic preterm birth. Clinical risk factors such as hypertension were differentially associated with spontaneous (rate ratio 3.92, 95% CI 3.47, 4.44) and iatrogenic preterm (rate ratio 14.1, 95% CI 11.4, 17.4) but factors such as diabetes mellitus were not (rate ratio 4.38, 95% CI 3.21, 5.99 for spontaneous and 4.02, 95% CI 2.07, 7.80 for iatrogenic preterm birth). Socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors have different effects on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm. Recent temporal increases in iatrogenic preterm birth appear to be responsible for the inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth.

  20. Effects of maternal psychotropic drug dosage on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michielsen LA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Michielsen,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,1 Paddy KC Janssen,2 Harold JH Kuijpers11Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, the Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacy, VieCuri Medical Centre, Venlo, the NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this retrospective study was to explore the relationship between psychotropic medication dosage and birth outcomes.Methods: A total of 136 women were enrolled, who had an active mental disorder, were taking medication to prevent a relapse, or had a history of postpartum depression or psychosis. Medication use was evaluated for the three trimesters and during labor. Based on the defined daily dose, medication use was classified into three groups. Primary outcome variables included the infant gestational age at birth, birth weight, and Apgar scores at one and 5 minutes.Results: Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of Apgar score ≤7 at 5 minutes in women taking psychotropic drugs as compared with the group taking no medication, respectively (16.3% versus 0.0%, P=0.01. There was no significant difference between the two groups in Apgar score at one minute or in gestational age and birth weight. The results showed no significant differences in gestational age, birth weight, or Apgar scores for a low–intermediate or high dose of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and for a low or intermediate dose of an antipsychotic.Conclusion: This study does not indicate a relationship between doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and antipsychotics and adverse neonatal outcomes.Keywords: pregnancy, psychotropic medication, dosage, birth outcomes

  1. Analysis of an age structured model for tick populations subject to seasonal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaihui; Lou, Yijun; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    We investigate an age-structured hyperbolic equation model by allowing the birth and death functions to be density dependent and periodic in time with the consideration of seasonal effects. By studying the integral form solution of this general hyperbolic equation obtained through the method of integration along characteristics, we give a detailed proof of the uniqueness and existence of the solution in light of the contraction mapping theorem. With additional biologically natural assumptions, using the tick population growth as a motivating example, we derive an age-structured model with time-dependent periodic maturation delays, which is quite different from the existing population models with time-independent maturation delays. For this periodic differential system with seasonal delays, the basic reproduction number R0 is defined as the spectral radius of the next generation operator. Then, we show the tick population tends to die out when R0 1. When there is no intra-specific competition among immature individuals due to the sufficient availability of immature tick hosts, the global stability of the positive periodic state for the whole model system of four delay differential equations can be obtained with the observation that a scalar subsystem for the adult stage size can be decoupled. The challenge for the proof of such a global stability result can be overcome by introducing a new phase space, based on which, a periodic solution semiflow can be defined which is eventually strongly monotone and strictly subhomogeneous.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT IN BEETAL GOAT KIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Afzal and K. Javed1 and M. Shafiq

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Data on pedigree, breeding and performance records (N=1850 of Beetal goats maintained at the Angora Goat Farm Rakh Kharewala, District Layyah, Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District. Okara and Livestock Experiment Station, Allahdad (Jahanian District Khenawal during the period from 1988 to 2000 were used. Least squares analysis revealed that year of birth, sire, flock, sex of kid and type of birth were significant (P<0.01 sources of variation for birth weight in Beetal kids. The kids born at Bahadurnagar were heavier (3.65 ± 0.13 kg as compared to the kids born at Allahdad (3.55 ± 0.08 kg or Rakh Kharewala (2.96 ± 0.05 kg. Birth weights for male and female kids were 3.48 ± 0.06 and 3.29 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Single born kids were heavier (3.69 ± 0.06 kg than twins (3.37 ± 0.06 kg and triplets (3.08 ± 0.08 kg. There was an appreciable twining rate (47.9% in these flocks.

  3. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F; Wachmann, Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612) answered a questionnaire during 12th to 16th gestational week about their exposure to ETS at home and outside the home. Pregnant nonsmokers exposed to ETS both at home and outside the home gave birth to children with a birth weight of 78.9 g (95% CI -143.7 to -14.1) (P=0.02) lower than the weight of children born to women unexposed to ETS. There was no significant reduction in birth weight among women exposed to ETS at home only or outside the home only. A nonsignificant dose-response association was seen between increasing daily exposure to ETS and reduction in birth weight. Nonsmoking pregnant women who were exposed to ETS at home as well as outside the home gave birth to children with a 79 g reduction in birth weight compared to children of unexposed women. The fact that exposure to ETS has an effect on the birth weight is regarded as essential. The authors recommend that pregnant women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking.

  4. Effect of litter size on the variation in birth and weaning weights of Landrace piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Duarte Prazeres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the size class of the litter at birth on the variation in birth and weaning weights and on the survival rate of piglets from birth to weaning. For this purpose, records of individual weight at birth and weaning of piglets obtained from a database of 295 Landrace litters born between 2000 and 2010 on a pig farm in the western region of the State of Paraná were used. The litters were classified as small (up to 7 piglets, medium (8 to 13 piglets, and large (> 14 piglets according to the total number of piglets born. The data were analyzed considering the effects of the year of sow mating and size class of the litter at birth. The correlations between mean weight and variance in litter weight and size were higher for medium and large litters. The size class of the litter significantly influenced the mean weight of piglets at birth and weaning and the variance in birth weight. Piglets born in medium and large litters weighed less and exhibited greater birth weight variation and a lower survival rate until weaning than piglets born in small litters.

  5. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM 10 , PM 2.5 , CO, NO 2 , and SO 2 . Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  6. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita [School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, 205 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Belanger, Kathleen [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, School of Medicine, Yale University, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)], E-mail: michelle.bell@yale.edu

    2008-10-15

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5}, CO, NO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 2}. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger ({<=}24 years) and older ({>=}40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on low birth weight among African Americans in Cook County, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; David, Richard J; Rankin, Kristin M; Desireddi, Jennifer R

    2009-03-15

    In perinatal epidemiology, transgenerational risk factors are defined as conditions experienced by one generation that affect the pregnancy outcomes of the next generation. The authors investigated the transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on infant birth weight among African Americans. Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational data set with appended US Census income information. Singleton African-American infants (n = 40,648) born in 1989-1991 were considered index births. The mothers of index infants had been born in 1956-1976. The maternal grandmothers of index infants were identified. Rates of infant low birth weight (birth weight for maternal grandmother's residence in a poor neighborhood (compared with an affluent neighborhood) equaled 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.4). This study suggests that maternal grandmother's exposure to neighborhood poverty during her pregnancy is a risk factor for infant low birth weight among African Americans.

  8. The Effect of Birth Weight on Academic Performance: Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C Mary

    2017-05-01

    Observationally, lower birth weight is usually associated with poorer academic performance; whether this association is causal or the result of confounding is unknown. To investigate this question, we obtained an effect estimate, which can have a causal interpretation under specific assumptions, of birth weight on educational attainment using instrumental variable analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms determining birth weight combined with results from the Social Science Genetic Association Consortium study of 126,559 Caucasians. We similarly obtained an estimate of the effect of birth weight on academic performance in 4,067 adolescents from Hong Kong's (Chinese) Children of 1997 birth cohort (1997-2016), using twin status as an instrumental variable. Birth weight was not associated with years of schooling (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.006 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.02, 0.01) or college completion (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.03). Birth weight was also unrelated to academic performance in adolescents (per 100-g increase in birth weight, -0.004 grade, 95% CI: -0.04, 0.04) using instrumental variable analysis, although conventional regression gave a small positive association (0.02 higher grade, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.03). Observed associations of birth weight with academic performance may not be causal, suggesting that interventions should focus on the contextual factors generating this correlation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The effect of genotype and birth type on gestation length and linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of genotype and birth type on gestation length and linear body ... was conducted in Enugu State University of Science and Technology, in the then ... Weekly weights and live body measurements of the kids were recorded from ...

  10. The Consequences of Chorioamnionitis: Preterm Birth and Effects on Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Galinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a major cause of perinatal mortality and long-term morbidity. Chorioamnionitis is a common cause of preterm birth. Clinical chorioamnionitis, characterised by maternal fever, leukocytosis, tachycardia, uterine tenderness, and preterm rupture of membranes, is less common than subclinical/histologic chorioamnionitis, which is asymptomatic and defined by inflammation of the chorion, amnion, and placenta. Chorioamnionitis is often associated with a fetal inflammatory response. The fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS is defined by increased systemic inflammatory cytokine concentrations, funisitis, and fetal vasculitis. Clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that FIRS leads to poor cardiorespiratory, neurological, and renal outcomes. These observations are further supported by experimental studies that have improved our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for these outcomes. This paper outlines clinical and experimental studies that have improved our current understanding of the mechanisms responsible for chorioamnionitis-induced preterm birth and explores the cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying poor cardiorespiratory, neural, retinal, and renal outcomes observed in preterm infants exposed to chorioamnionitis.

  11. Effects of premature birth on the risk for alcoholism appear to be greater in males than females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Madarasz, Wendy V; Penick, Elizabeth C

    2011-01-01

    A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects.......A large Danish birth cohort was used to test the independent and joint effects of perinatal measures associated with premature birth as predictors of the development of alcoholism in male and female subjects....

  12. Understanding heterogeneity in the effects of birth weight on adult cognition and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Cook, C; Fletcher, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    A large economics literature has shown long term impacts of birth weight on adult outcomes, including IQ and earnings that are often robust to sibling or twin fixed effects. We examine potential mechanisms underlying these effects by incorporating findings from the genetics and neuroscience literatures. We use a sample of siblings combined with an "orchids and dandelions hypothesis", where the IQ of genetic dandelions is not affected by in utero nutrition variation but genetic orchids thrive under advantageous conditions and wilt in poor conditions. Indeed, using variation in three candidate genes related to neuroplasticity (APOE, BDNF, and COMT), we find substantial heterogeneity in the associations between birth weight and adult outcomes, where part of the population (i.e., "dandelions") is not affected by birth weight variation. Our results help uncover why birth weight affects adult outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  14. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Maeve E; Mendola, Pauline; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L

    2015-08-01

    We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor's or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur.

  15. Born to Lead? The Effect of Birth Order on Non-Cognitive Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Grönqvist, Erik; Öckert, Björn

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of birth order on personality traits among men using population data on enlistment records and occupations for Sweden. We find that earlier born men are more emotionally stable, persistent, socially outgoing, willing to assume responsibility, and able to take initiative than later-borns. In addition, we find that birth order affects occupational sorting; first-born children are more likely to be managers, while later-born children are more likely to be self-employed. We al...

  16. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han S

    2005-11-01

    mechanism of action of condoms, abstinence, sterilization, and abortion, but a substantial percentage of women (between 19% and 57% were uncertain about the mechanisms of action of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices (IUDs, Depo-Provera, or natural family planning. Conclusion Women who believe that life begins at fertilization may not intend to use a birth control method that could have postfertilization effects. More research is needed to understand the relative importance of postfertilization effects for women in other populations, and in relation to other properties of and priorities for birth control methods. However, many women were uncertain about the mechanisms of action of specific methods. To respect the principles of informed consent, some women may need more education about what is known and not known about the mechanisms of action of birth control methods.

  17. Effects of Gestational Age and Birth Weight on Brain Volumes in Healthy 9 Year-Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soelen, I.L.C.; Brouwer, R.M.; Peper, J.S.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; van Leeuwen, M.; de Vries, L.S.; Kahn, R.S.; Hulshoff Pol, H.E.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of gestational age and birth weight on brain volumes in a population-based sample of normal developing children at the age of 9 years. Study design: A total of 192 children from twin births were included in the analyses. Data on gestational age and birth weight were

  18. Effects of imprint training procedure at birth on the reactions of foals at age six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Friend, T H; Collins, M N; Toscano, M J; Sisto-Burt, A; Nevill, C H

    2003-03-01

    While imprint training procedures have been promoted in popular magazines, they have received limited scientific investigation. To determine the effects of a neonatal imprint training procedure on 6-month-old foals and to determine if any one session had a greater effect than others. Foals (n = 131) were divided into the following treatments: no imprint training, imprint training at birth, 12, 24 and 48 h after birth or imprint training only at birth, 12, 24, 48, or 72 h after birth. Foals then received minimal human handling until they were tested at 6 months. During training, time to complete exposure to the stimulus was significant for only 2 of 6 stimuli. Percentage change in baseline heart rate was significant for only 2 of 10 stimuli. These 4 effects were randomly spread across treatments. Neither the number of imprint training sessions (0, 1, or 4) nor the timing of imprint training sessions (none, birth, 12, 24, 48, or 72 h after birth) influenced the foal's behaviour at 6 months of age. In this study, imprint training did not result in better behaved, less reactive foals.

  19. Short communication. Melatonin improves the reproductive performance of seasonal anoestrus goats exposed to buck effect during early post-partum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zarazaga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether any combination of buck effect and melatonin treatment could improve reproductive performance in Payoya female goats during early postpartum. Forty-four pregnant female goats were used. After birth in spring, they were distributed into two major groups: females submitted to the buck effect (BE, N=22 or not such effect (NBE, N=22. In turn, the BE animals were subdivided into: 1 no further treatment (CBE, N=11 and 2 implanted with melatonin (MELBE, N=11. And the NBE animals were subdivided into: 3 no further treatment (CNBE, N=12 and 4 implanted with melatonin (MELNBE, N=10. Melatonin was implanted 10 days after birth. Oestrus activity was tested daily using entire males from day of birth (D0 in the groups NBE and from D55 after birth in the BE groups. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed 10 days after the detection of oestrus and 45 days after mounting to determine pregnancy. Fecundity, fertility and productivity were higher in MELBE animals compared to CNBE animals (fecundity and fertility: 66.7% vs. 0.0%, and productivity: 0.73 vs. 0.00 kids/female for MELBE and CNBE respectively, p<0.05, and CBE animals (fecundity and fertility: 66.7% vs. 14.3%, and productivity: 0.73 vs. 0.09 kids/female for MELBE and CBE respectively; p<0.05. No significant differences were recorded between the subgroups of the NBE animals. The present results show that exogenous melatonin improves the reproductive performances of early post-partum Payoya does exposed to male effect during the seasonal anoestrus.

  20. The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshibly, Eltahir M; Schmalisch, Gerd

    2008-07-18

    In Africa low birth weight (LBW) (birth weight. In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference) and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002) with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p birth weight. A maternal height of birth weight, while the number of years of education was positively correlated with birth weight (p = 0.01). The LBW rate decreased from 9.2% for 12 years of education. Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

  1. Birth order has no effect on intelligence: a reply and extension of previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichman, Aaron L; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Maccallum, Robert C

    2007-09-01

    We address points raised by Zajonc and Sulloway, who reject findings showing that birth order has no effect on intelligence. Many objections to findings of null birth-order results seem to stem from a misunderstanding of the difference between study designs where birth order is confounded with true causal influences on intelligence across families and designs that control for some of these influences. We discuss some of the consequences of not appreciating the nature of this difference. When between-family confounds are controlled using appropriate study designs and techniques such as multilevel modeling, birth order is shown not to influence intelligence. We conclude with an empirical investigation of the replicability and generalizability of this approach.

  2. EFFECTS OF SEASON OF SOWING ON WATER USE AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Received 9 May, 2000; accepted 5 May, 2002) Abstract Soil water availability is a major constraint to crop production in the post-rainy season period in the humid tropics. The seasonal pattern of water use was, therefore, studied in field-grown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) during two consecutive rainy and post-rainy ...

  3. Association of adoptive child's thought disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with their genetic liability for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, season of birth and parental Communication Deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisko, Riikka; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Tienari, Pekka

    2015-04-30

    Joint effects of genotype and the environment have turned out to be significant in the development of psychotic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of an adoptive child׳s thought and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with genetic and environmental risk indicators and their interactions. A subgroup of the total sample used in the Finnish Adoptive Family Study was considered in the present study. The subjects were 125 adoptees at a high (n=53) or low (n=72) genetic risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their adoptive parents. The risk factors evaluated were the adoptive child's genetic risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, winter or spring birth and parental Communication Deviance (CD). Thought disorders in the adoptees were assessed using the Thought Disorder Index and diagnoses were made according to DSM-III-R criteria. The adoptive child׳s Thought Disorder Index was only associated with parental Communication Deviance. The adoptive child's heightened genetic risk or winter or spring birth or parental CD or their interactions did not predict the adoptee's schizophrenia spectrum disorder. The results suggest that studies taking several risk indicators and their interactions into account may change views on the mutual significance of well-known risk factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Probing Birth-Order Effects on Narrow Traits Using Specification-Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2017-12-01

    The idea that birth-order position has a lasting impact on personality has been discussed for the past 100 years. Recent large-scale studies have indicated that birth-order effects on the Big Five personality traits are negligible. In the current study, we examined a variety of more narrow personality traits in a large representative sample ( n = 6,500-10,500 in between-family analyses; n = 900-1,200 in within-family analyses). We used specification-curve analysis to assess evidence for birth-order effects across a range of models implementing defensible yet arbitrary analytical decisions (e.g., whether to control for age effects or to exclude participants on the basis of sibling spacing). Although specification-curve analysis clearly confirmed the previously reported birth-order effect on intellect, we found no meaningful effects on life satisfaction, locus of control, interpersonal trust, reciprocity, risk taking, patience, impulsivity, or political orientation. The lack of meaningful birth-order effects on self-reports of personality was not limited to broad traits but also held for more narrowly defined characteristics.

  5. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  6. Época de nascimento sobre a composição regional e tecidual da carcaça de cordeiros da raça Texel Birth season on regional and tissue carcass composition in Texel breed lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson de Mendonça

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de épocas alternativas de nascimento sobre a composição regional e tecidual da carcaça em ovinos. Quarenta e nove cordeiros machos não-castrados da raça Texel, nascidos em duas épocas (agosto e novembro, foram mantidos em regime de pastagem e abatidos com média de idade de 129 e 164 dias, respectivamente. Previamente aos abates foi feita a avaliação da produção forrageira do campo pelo método Botanal. Foram verificadas melhores condições forrageiras para os cordeiros nascidos em agosto, que apresentaram maior peso e proporção na maioria dos cortes, assim como menor proporção de músculo na paleta e perna; apresentando maior conteúdo de tecido adiposo na maioria dos cortes da carcaça. Para os cordeiros nascidos em novembro, ocorreu maior relação músculo:gordura e músculo:osso na paleta e na perna, assim como maior relação músculo:gordura no costilhar. As condições nutricionais são responsáveis pelas diferenças nos pesos e rendimentos dos cortes, assim como na composição tecidual da carcaça, em cordeiros mantidos em regime de pasto, viabilizando o uso de época alternativa de nascimentos para incrementar a oferta de animais para o abate.The effect of alternative birth season on regional and tissue carcass composition of sheep was evaluated. Forty nine (49 Texel intact male lambs, born in two seasons (August and November, were kept under grazing and slaughtered with an average age of 129 and 164 days, respectively. Prior to slaughter forage production was measured using Botanal method. Lambs born in August had more favorable forage conditions, showing higher body weight and proportion in the majority of cuts, as well as lower proportion of shoulder and leg muscles showing higher adipose tissue content in the majority of carcass cuts. For lambs born in November, a higher muscle:fat and muscle:bone rate in shoulder and leg, as well as a higher ribcut muscle:fat rate. Nutritional

  7. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Govarts

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures.

  8. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim S; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexyl phthalate metabolites in cord plasma. Daily exposure to particulate matter was modeled and averaged over the duration of gestation. In single pollutant models, arsenic was significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The effect estimate increased when including cadmium, and mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) co-exposure. Combining exposures by principal component analysis generated an exposure factor loaded by cadmium and arsenic that was associated with reduced birth weight. MECPP induced gender specific effects. In girls, the effect estimate was doubled with co-exposure of thallium, PFOS, lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury, while in boys, the mixture of MECPP with cadmium showed the strongest association with birth weight. In conclusion, birth weight was consistently inversely associated with exposure to pollutant mixtures. Chemicals not showing significant associations at single pollutant level contributed to stronger effects when analyzed as mixtures. PMID:27187434

  9. Family Configuration and Achievement: Effects of Birth Order and Family Size in a Sample of Brothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.; Bills, David B.

    1979-01-01

    Birth order effects in brothers were found to derive from difference in family size. Effects for family size were found even with socioeconomic background controlled. Nor were family size effects explained by parental ability. The importance of unmeasured preferences or economic resources that vary across families was suggested. (Author/RD)

  10. The 2009-2010 influenza pandemic: effects on pandemic and seasonal vaccine uptake and lessons learned for seasonal vaccination campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Gregory A

    2010-09-07

    Individual and national/cultural differences were apparent in response to the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic. Overall pandemic influenza immunization rates were low across all nations, including among healthcare workers. Among the reasons for the low coverage rates may have been a lack of concern about the individual risk of influenza, which may translate into a lack of willingness or urgency to be vaccinated, particularly if there is mistrust of information provided by public health or governmental authorities. Intuitively, a link between willingness to be vaccinated against seasonal influenza and against pandemic influenza exists, given the similarities in decision-making for this infection. As such, the public is likely to share common concerns regarding pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccination, particularly in the areas of vaccine safety and side effects, and personal risk. Given the public's perception of the low level of virulence of the recent pandemic influenza virus, there is concern that the perception of a lack of personal risk of infection and risk of vaccine side effects could adversely affect seasonal vaccine uptake. While governments are more often concerned about public anxiety and panic, as well as absenteeism of healthcare and other essential workers during a pandemic, convincing the public of the threat posed by pandemic or seasonal influenza is often the more difficult, and underappreciated task. Thus, appropriate, timely, and data-driven health information are very important issues in increasing influenza vaccine coverage, perhaps even more so in western societies where trust in government and public health reports may be lower than in other countries. This article explores what has been learned about cross-cultural responses to pandemic influenza, and seeks to apply those lessons to seasonal influenza immunization programs. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of birth interval on intellectual development of Saudi school children in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Hassan; Khalil, Mohamed S; Al-Almaie, Sameeh M; Kurashi, Nabil Y; Wahas, Saeed

    2005-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of birth intervals on some aspects of intellectual ability of Saudi primary school boys. This is a cross-sectional study of Saudi school children comparing their intellectual ability (general intelligence) in relation to the length of the birth interval before and after the birth of the index child. The study area comprised 3 townships in the eastern province; Khobar, Thogba and Dhahran. The study was conducted in 2000/2001 and the study population comprised Saudi primary school boys aged 9-10 years from a middle class background. A 2 stage random sampling technique was adopted. Data were collected using student data sheet, a family questionnaire and the Standard Progressive Raven Matrices Test of intellectual ability, standardized for use in Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. More than 90% of children born after a birth interval greater than 35 months were classified as average and above according to the Raven Matrices Test, compared to 79% of children born after a birth interval of less than 19 months (pRaven Matrices Test to be family income and height. Longer birth intervals were shown to be associated with higher general intelligence levels in the 9-10 year olds. These results confirm those obtained in a previous study in Singapore conducted more than 2 decades ago. Our results have also shown that the succeeding birth interval is more significant than the preceding interval in relation to perceptive ability of children. The findings enable us to advise parents that by observing a birth interval between 2-3 years would make their children grow and do better at school.

  12. Effectiveness of Home Visits in Pregnancy as a Public Health Measure to Improve Birth Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Ichikawa

    Full Text Available Birth outcomes, such as preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW, and small for gestational age (SGA, are crucial indicators of child development and health.To evaluate whether home visits from public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women prevent adverse birth outcomes.In this quasi-experimental cohort study in Kyoto city, Japan, high-risk pregnant women were defined as teenage girls (range 14-19 years old, women with a twin pregnancy, women who registered their pregnancy late, had a physical or mental illness, were of single marital status, non-Japanese women who were not fluent in Japanese, or elderly primiparas. We collected data from all high-risk pregnant women at pregnancy registration interviews held at a public health centers between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, as well as birth outcomes when delivered from the Maternal and Child Health Handbook (N = 964, which is a record of prenatal check-ups, delivery, child development and vaccinations. Of these women, 622 women were selected based on the home-visit program propensity score-matched sample (pair of N = 311 and included in the analysis. Data were analyzed between January and June 2014.In the propensity score-matched sample, women who received the home-visit program had lower odds of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.98 and showed a 0.55-week difference in gestational age (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.92 compared to the matched controlled sample. Although the program did not prevent LBW and SGA, children born to mothers who received the program showed an increase in birth weight by 107.8 g (95% CI: 27.0 to 188.5.Home visits by public health nurses for high-risk pregnant women in Japan might be effective in preventing preterm birth, but not SGA.

  13. [Effects of the late marriage of Korean women on the first-birth interval].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woojin; Lee, Kyoungae; Lee, Sunmi

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of women's late age of marriage on the interval between marriage and their first birth. Data from Year 2000 Korea National Fertility Survey was collected through direct interview questionings, and the data was analyzed based on randomly selected sampling. In particular, the married women (N=5,648) were analyzed for the factors that determined the first-birth interval by performing Cox's proportional hazard model survival analysis. Unlike previous findings, the woman whose age of marriage was 30 or more was more likely to delay the birth of her first baby than were the other women who married earlier. Further, a woman's age at marriage, a woman's residence before marriage, her husband's religion, her husband's level of education and the difference in age between the woman and her husband significantly influenced the first-birth interval. In contrast, for a married woman, her age, level of education, current residence and religion were not significant predictors of her first birth interval. Our study showed that women who married at the age of 30 years or more tend to postpone their first birth in Korea. When facing the increasing number of women who marry at a late age, the Korean government should implement population and social policies to encourage married women have their first child as early as possible.

  14. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Rupa; Harris, Maria; Sie, Lillian; Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM 2.5 ) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM 2.5 , which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM 2.5 mass and 23 PM 2.5 constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; 2.5 mass and several PM 2.5 constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM 2.5 constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM 2.5 , especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity

  15. Effect of periodontal treatment on preterm birth rate: a systematic review of meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Néstor J; Uribe, Sergio; Martinez, Benjamín

    2015-02-01

    Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Preterm birth is a highly complex syndrome that includes distinct clinical subtypes in which many different causes may be involved. The results of epidemiological, molecular, microbiological and animal-model studies support a positive association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm birth. However, the results of intervention studies carried out to determine the effect of periodontal treatment on reducing the risk of preterm birth are controversial. This systematic review critically analyzes the methodological issues of meta-analyses of the studies to determine the effect of periodontal treatment to reduce preterm birth. The quality of the individual randomized clinical trials selected is of highest relevance for a systematic review. This article describes the methodological features that should be identified a priori and assessed individually to determine the quality of a randomized controlled trial performed to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment on pregnancy outcomes. The AMSTAR and the PRISMA checklist tools were used to assess the quality of the six meta-analyses selected, and the bias domain of the Cochrane Collaboration's Tool was applied to evaluate each of the trials included in the meta-analyses. In addition, the methodological characteristics of each clinical trial were assessed. The majority of the trials included in the meta-analyses have significant methodological flaws that threaten their internal validity. The lack of effect of periodontal treatment on preterm birth rate concluded by four meta-analyses, and the positive effect of treatment for reducing preterm birth risk concluded by the remaining two meta-analyses are not based on consistent scientific evidence. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials using rigorous methodology, including appropriate definition of the exposure, adequate control of confounders for

  16. Vaccine Effectiveness - How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work. CDC has been working with researchers at universities and hospitals since the 2003-2004 flu season ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email ...

  17. Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-16

    Jul 16, 2006 ... seasonality of hedgerow tree mulch contribution to alley-cropped ... Field experiments were carried out on an alley-cropping farm in Ajibode village, near Ibadan where cassava ...... Research Guide series 61. p.27. Osonubi O ...

  18. Preterm birth and oxidative stress: Effects of acute physical exercise and hypoxia physiological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Martin

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a global health issue that can induce lifelong medical sequela. Presently, at least one in ten newborns are born prematurely. At birth, preterm newborns exhibit higher levels of oxidative stress (OS due to the inability to face the oxygen rich environment in which they are born into. Moreover, their immature respiratory, digestive, immune and antioxidant defense systems, as well as the potential numerous medical interventions following a preterm birth, such as oxygen resuscitation, nutrition, phototherapy and blood transfusion further contribute to high levels of OS. Although the acute effects seem well established, little is known regarding the long-term effects of preterm birth on OS. This matter is especially important given that chronically elevated OS levels may persist into adulthood and consequently contribute to the development of numerous non-communicable diseases observed in people born preterm such as diabetes, hypertension or lung disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the consequences of preterm birth on OS levels from newborn to adulthood. In addition, the effects of physical activity and hypoxia, both known to disrupt redox balance, on OS modulation in preterm individuals are also explored. Keywords: Reactive oxygen species, Antioxidants, Prematurity, Physical exercise, Hypoxia

  19. Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.I.; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T ∼ 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mil032@ucsd.edu; Chen, P.Y.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M.A.

    2011-03-12

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T {approx} 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  1. The effect of seasonality on burn incidence, severity and outcome in Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Anna F; Gallaher, Jared; Mjuweni, Stephen; Cairns, Bruce A; Charles, Anthony G

    2017-08-01

    In much of the world, burns are more common in cold months. However, few studies have described the seasonality of burns in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examines the effect of seasonality on the incidence and outcome of burns in central Malawi. A retrospective analysis was performed at Kamuzu Central Hospital and included all patients admitted from May 2011 to August 2014. Demographic data, burn mechanism, total body surface area (%TBSA), and mortality were analyzed. Seasons were categorized as Rainy (December-February), Lush (March-May), Cold (June-August) and Hot (September-November). A negative binomial regression was used to assess the effect of seasonality on burn incidence. This was performed using both the raw and deseasonalized data in order to evaluate for trends not attributable to random fluctuation. A total of 905 patients were included. Flame (38%) and Scald (59%) burns were the most common mechanism. More burns occurred during the cold season (41% vs 19-20% in the other seasons). Overall mortality was 19%. Only the cold season had a statistically significant increase in burn . The incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the hot, lush, and cold seasons were 0.94 (CI 0.6-1.32), 1.02 (CI 0.72-1.45) and 1.6 (CI 1.17-2.19), respectively, when compared to the rainy season. Burn severity and mortality did not differ between seasons. The results of this study demonstrate the year-round phenomenon of burns treated at our institution, and highlights the slight predominance of burns during the cold season. These data can be used to guide prevention strategies, with special attention to the implications of the increased burn incidence during the cold season. Though burn severity and mortality remain relatively unchanged between seasons, recognizing the seasonal variability in incidence of burns is critical for resource allocation in this low-income setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of climate fluctuation on chimpanzee birth sex ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar S Kühl

    Full Text Available Climate and weather conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, precipitation and temperature influence the birth sex ratio (BSR of various higher latitude species, including deer, elephant seals or northern human populations. Although, tropical regions show only little variation in temperature, climate and weather conditions can fluctuate with consequences for phenology and food resource availability. Here, we evaluate, whether the BSR of chimpanzees, inhabiting African tropical forests, is affected by climate fluctuations as well. Additionally, we evaluate, if variation in consumption of a key food resource with high nutritional value, Coula edulis nuts, is linked to both climate fluctuations and variation in BSR. We use long-term data from two study groups located in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire to assess the influence of local weather conditions and the global climate driver El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO on offspring sex. Côte d'Ivoire has experienced considerable climate variation over the last decades, with increasing temperature and declining precipitation. For both groups we find very similar time windows around the month of conception, in which offspring sex is well predicted by ENSO, with more males following low ENSO values, corresponding to periods of high rainfall. Furthermore, we find that the time spent cracking and feeding on Coula nuts is strongly influenced by climate conditions. Although, some of our analysis suggest that a higher proportion of males is born after periods with higher nut consumption frequency, we cannot conclude decisively at this point that nut consumption may influence shifts in BSR. All results combined suggest that also chimpanzees may experience climate related shifts in offspring sex ratios as response to climate fluctuation.

  3. Direct and maternal genetic effects for birth weight in dorper and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variance components for birth (BWT) in Dorper and Mutton Merino sheep were estimated by Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood (AIREML). Animal model was fitted allowing for genetic maternal effects and a genetic covariance between direct and maternal effects. Estimates of heritability for direct genetic ...

  4. The Effect of Oral Polio Vaccine at Birth on Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Najaaraq; Andersen, Andreas; Hansen, Anna Sofie K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Routine vaccines may have nonspecific effects on mortality. An observational study found that OPV given at birth (OPV0) was associated with increased male infant mortality. We investigated the effect of OPV0 on infant mortality in a randomized trial in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: A total ...

  5. Effects of Sex, Social Desirability, and Birth Order on the Defense Mechanisms Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Gary E.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated effects of sex difference, social desirability instructions, and birth order of respondents on defense mechanisms inventory (DMI). Sex difference was found in projection only. Social desirability effects were found in turning-against-others, projection, principalization, and reversal. Thus, an interpretive caution is in order…

  6. Maternal air pollution exposure and preterm birth in Wuxi, China: Effect modification by maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Jiang, Panhua; Dong, Tianyu; Ding, Xinliang; Chen, Ting; Villanger, Gro Dehli; Aase, Heidi; Huang, Lu; Xia, Yankai

    2018-08-15

    Numerous studies have investigated prenatal air pollution and shown that air pollutants have adverse effect on birth outcomes. However, which trimester was the most sensitive and whether the effect was related to maternal age is still ambiguous. This study aims to explore the association between maternal air pollution exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth, and if this relationship is modified by maternal age. In this retrospective cohort study, we examine the causal relationship of prenatal exposure to air pollutants including particulate matters, which are less than 10 µm (PM 10 ), and ozone (O 3 ), which is one of the gaseous pollutants, on preterm birth by gestational age. A total of 6693 pregnant women were recruited from Wuxi Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital. The participants were dichotomized into child-bearing age group ( = 35 years old) in order to analyze the effect modification by maternal age. Logistic and linear regression models were performed to assess the risk for preterm birth (gestational age air pollution exposure. With adjustment for covariates, the highest level of PM 10 exposure significantly increased the risk of preterm birth by 1.42-fold (95% CI: 1.10, 1.85) compared those with the lowest level in the second trimester. Trimester-specific PM 10 exposure was positively associated with gestational age, whereas O 3 exposure was associated with gestational age in the early pregnancy. When stratified by maternal age, PM 10 exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of preterm birth only in the advanced age group during pregnancy (OR:2.15, 95% CI: 1.13, 4.07). The results suggested that PM 10 exposure associated with preterm birth was modified by advanced maternal age (OR interaction = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.91, P interaction = 0.032). Prenatal air pollution exposure would increase risk of preterm birth and reduced gestational age. Thus, more attention should be paid to the effects of ambient air pollution

  7. Preterm birth and later insulin resistance: Effects of birth weight and postnatal growth in a population based longitudinal study from birth into adult life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finken, M.J.J.; Keijzer-Veen, M.G.; Dekker, F.W.; Frölich, M.; Hille, E.T.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Wit, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: An increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with low birthweight after full-term gestation, including amplification of this risk by weight gain during infancy and adult body composition. Premature birth is also associated with insulin resistance, but studies

  8. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie K Hess

    Full Text Available Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1-3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33-1.1% (p≤0.05 higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01 and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01. Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002. The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood's lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle.

  9. Modifying effect of prenatal care on the association between young maternal age and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C L; Coeli, C M; Pinheiro, R S; Brandão, E R; Camargo, K R; Aguiar, F P

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of adverse birth outcomes according to maternal age range in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2002, and to evaluate the association between maternal age range and adverse birth outcomes using additive interaction to determine whether adequate prenatal care can attenuate the harmful effect of young age on pregnancy outcomes. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in women up to 24 years of age who gave birth to live children in 2002 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. To evaluate adverse outcomes, the exposure variable was maternal age range, and the outcome variables were very preterm birth, low birth weight, prematurity, and low 5-minute Apgar score. The presence of interaction was investigated with the composite variable maternal age plus prenatal care. The proportions and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for adequate schooling, delivery in a public maternity hospital, and adequate prenatal care, and the outcomes according to maternal age range. The chi-square test was used. The association between age range and birth outcomes was evaluated with logistic models adjusted for schooling and type of hospital for each prenatal stratum and outcome. Attributable proportion was calculated in order to measure additive interaction. Of the 40,111 live births in the sample, 1.9% corresponded to children of mothers from 10-14 years of age, 38% from 15-19 years, and 59.9% from 20-24 years. An association between maternal age and adverse outcomes was observed only in adolescent mothers with inadequate prenatal care, and significant additive interaction was observed between prenatal care and maternal age for all the outcomes. Adolescent mothers and their newborns are exposed to greater risk of adverse outcomes when prenatal care fails to comply with current guidelines. Copyright © 2012 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Joint effect of birth weight and obesity measures on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Bo; Cheng, Hong; Chen, Fangfang; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Mi, Jie

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) on abnormal glucose metabolism (including diabetes) at adulthood. Using the historical cohort study design and the convenience sampling method, 1 921 infants who were born in Beijing Union Medical College Hospital from June 1948 to December 1954 were selected to do the follow-up in 1995 and 2001 respectively. Through Beijing Household Registration and Management System, they were invited to participate in this study. A total of 972 subjects (627 were followed up in 1995 and 345 were followed up in 2001) with complete information on genders, age, birth weight, family history of diabetes, BMI, WC, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-hour plasma glucose (2 h PG) met the study inclusion criteria at the follow-up visits. In the data analysis, they were divided into low, normal, and high birth weight, respectively. The ANOVA and Chi-squared tests were used to compare the differences in their characteristics by birth weight group. In addition, multiple binary Logistic regression model was used to investigate the single effect of birth weight, BMI, and waist circumference on abnormal glucose metabolism at adulthood. Stratification analysis was used to investigate the joint effect of birth weight and each of obesity measures (BMI and WC) on abnormal glucose metabolism. There were 972 subjects (males: 50.7%, mean age: (46.0±2.2) years) included in the final data analysis. The 2 h PG in low birth weight group was (7.6±3.2) mmol/L , which was higher than that in normal birth weight group (6.9±2.1) mmol/L and high birth weight group (6.4±1.3) mmol/L (F=3.88, P=0.021). After adjustment for genders, age, body length, gestation age, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption, and duration of follow-up, subjects with overweight and obesity at adulthood had 2.73 (95% confidence interval (CI) =2.06- 3.62) times risk

  11. The Effect of Local Smokefree Regulations on Birth Outcomes and Prenatal Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Karla S; Abouk, Rahi

    2016-07-01

    Objectives We assessed the impact of varying levels of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes and prenatal smoking. Methods We exploited variations in timing and regulation restrictiveness of West Virginia's county smokefree regulations to assess their impact on birthweight, gestational age, low birthweight, very low birthweight, preterm birth, and prenatal smoking. We conducted regression analysis using state Vital Statistics individual-level data for singletons born to West Virginia residents between 1995-2010 (N = 293,715). Results Only more comprehensive smokefree regulations were associated with statistically significant favorable effects on birth outcomes in the full sample: Comprehensive (workplace/restaurant/bar ban) demonstrated increased birthweight (29 grams, p workplace/restaurant ban) demonstrated a small decrease in very low birthweight (-0.2 %, p workplace ban) was associated with a 23 g (p < 0.01) decrease in birthweight; Limited (partial ban) had no effect. Comprehensive's improvements extended to most maternal groups, and were broadest among mothers 21+ years, non-smokers, and unmarried mothers. Prenatal smoking declined slightly (-1.7 %, p < 0.01) only among married women with Comprehensive. Conclusions Regulation restrictiveness is a determining factor in the impact of smokefree regulations on birth outcomes, with comprehensive smokefree regulations showing promise in improving birth outcomes. Favorable effects on birth outcomes appear to stem from reduced secondhand smoke exposure rather than reduced prenatal smoking prevalence. This study is limited by an inability to measure secondhand smoke exposure and the paucity of data on policy implementation and enforcement.

  12. The effects of maternity leave on children's birth and infant health outcomes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin, Maya

    2011-03-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of unpaid maternity leave provisions of the 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) on children's birth and infant health outcomes in the United States. My identification strategy uses variation in pre-FMLA maternity leave policies across states and variation in which firms are covered by FMLA provisions. Using Vital Statistics data and difference-in-difference-in-difference methodology, I find that maternity leave led to small increases in birth weight, decreases in the likelihood of a premature birth, and substantial decreases in infant mortality for children of college-educated and married mothers, who were most able to take advantage of unpaid leave. My results are robust to the inclusion of numerous controls for maternal, child, and county characteristics, state, year, and month fixed effects, and state-year interactions, as well as across several different specifications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of use of insecticide treated nets on birth outcomes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major impact of malaria during pregnancy in these regions is caused by persistent or recurrent, predominantly low-grade, sometimes sub-patent, parasitaemia. In Nigeria, malaria has severe negative effects on maternal health and birth outcomes, resulting in maternal anaemia, a high incidence of miscarriages and low ...

  14. Maternal attachment representations after very preterm birth and the effect of early intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijssen, Dominique; Wolf, Marie-Jeanne; van Bakel, Hedwig; Koldewijn, Karen; Kok, Joke; van Baar, Anneloes

    2011-01-01

    Objective: For very preterm infants the mother-infant relationship may be compromised. Maternal attachment representations 18 (corrected) months after very preterm birth and the effect of the post-discharge Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention Program (IBAIP) were studied. The IBAIP is

  15. Decreased incidence of myelomeningocele at birth: effect of folic acid recommendations or prenatal diagnostics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Dorte; Thygesen, Mathias; Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius

    2011-01-01

    was noted, incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 40% [22% – 73%], p = 0.3%. We found no change in MMC birth rate after introduction of folic acid supplementation, IRR = 121% [81% – 181%], p = 36%. Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings demonstrate no effect of introducing national folic acid recommendations when...

  16. The Effect of Birth Order and Sex on Perceptions of the Sibling Relationship among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkom, Michele; Beaudoin, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined demographic factors (e.g., parental marital status) as well as sex and birth order effects on emerging adults' views of their sibling relationships. One hundred sixty-seven participants completed a demographic and sibling relationship questionnaire designed for the purposes of this study. Factors of the sibling…

  17. Siblings of Disabled Children: Birth Order and Age-Spacing Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi

    1982-01-01

    Siblings (N=237) of disabled children were compared to 248 siblings from a random family sampling to examine the effects of relative birth order and age spacing on psychological functioning. Younger males scored higher than older males on psychological impairment, while younger females were psychologically better off than older females. (CL)

  18. Effect of birth ball on labor pain relief: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvandi, Somayeh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Sadeghi, Ramin; Karimi, Leila

    2015-11-01

    To critically evaluate the available evidence related to the impact of using a birth ball on labor pain relief. The Cochrane library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus were searched from their inception to January 2015 using keywords: (Birth* OR Swiss OR Swedish OR balance OR fitness OR gym* OR Pezzi OR sport* OR stability) AND (ball*) AND (labor OR labour OR Obstetric). All available randomized controlled trials involving women using a birth ball for pain relief during labor were considered. The search resulted in 341 titles and abstracts, which were narrowed down to eight potentially relevant articles. Of these, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Pain intensity on a 10 cm visual analogue scale was used as the main outcome measure. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Version 2 was used for statistical analysis. Four RCTs involving 220 women were included in the systematic review. One study was excluded from the meta-analysis because of heterogeneous interventions and a lack of mean and standard deviation results of labor pain score. The meta-analysis showed that birth ball exercises provided statistically significant improvements to labor pain (pooled mean difference -0.921; 95% confidence interval -1.28, -0.56; P = 0.0000005; I(2)  = 33.7%). The clinical implementation of a birth ball exercise could be an effective tool for parturient women to reduce labor pain. However, rigorous RCTs are needed to evaluate the effect of the birth ball on labor pain relief. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Effects of season and regulated photoperiod on the reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    constant photoperiod (10 h light and 14 h darkness) and control sows (n = 187) ... Keywords: Season, regulated photoperiod, return to oestrus, farrowing rate, litter size .... were exposed to a minimum daylight cycle of 10.4 h during winter and a ...

  20. Effect of seasonal drawdown variations on groundwater quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... each of the 10 selected zones and special attention was given to two abattoirs in .... levels during the two seasons was also shown in Figure. 1. There were ..... Ground Water and Surface Water Pollution by. Open Refuse dump ...

  1. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  2. Exploring weathering: effects of lifelong economic environment and maternal age on low birth weight, small for gestational age, and preterm birth in African-American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Catherine; David, Richard J; Rankin, Kristin M; Collins, James W

    2010-07-15

    White women experience their lowest rate of low birth weight (LBW) in their late 20s; the nadir LBW for African-American women is under 20 years with rates rising monotonically thereafter, hypothesized as due to "weathering" or deteriorating health with cumulative disadvantage. Current residential environment affects birth outcomes for all women, but little is known about the impact of early life environment. The authors linked neighborhood income to a transgenerational birth file containing infant and maternal birth data, allowing assessment of economic effects over a woman's life course. African-American women who were born in poorer neighborhoods and were still poor as mothers showed significant weathering with regard to LBW and small for gestational age (SGA) but not preterm birth (PTB). However, African-American women in upper-income areas at both time points had a steady fall in LBW and SGA rate with age, similar to the pattern seen in white women. No group of white women, even those always living in poorer neighborhoods, exhibited weathering with regard to LBW, SGA, or PTB. In contrast, the degree of weathering among African-American women is related to duration of exposure to low-income areas and disappears for those with a life residence in non-poor neighborhoods.

  3. Kin and birth order effects on male child mortality: three East Asian populations, 1716-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Manfredini, Matteo; Kurosu, Satomi; Yang, Wenshan; Lee, James Z

    2017-03-01

    Human child survival depends on adult investment, typically from parents. However, in spite of recent research advances on kin influence and birth order effects on human infant and child mortality, studies that directly examine the interaction of kin context and birth order on sibling differences in child mortality are still rare. Our study supplements this literature with new findings from large-scale individual-level panel data for three East Asian historical populations from northeast China (1789-1909), northeast Japan (1716-1870), and north Taiwan (1906-1945), where preference for sons and first-borns is common. We examine and compare male child mortality risks by presence/absence of co-resident parents, grandparents, and other kin, as well as their interaction effects with birth order. We apply discrete-time event-history analysis on over 172,000 observations of 69,125 boys aged 1-9 years old. We find that in all three populations, while the presence of parents is important for child survival, it is more beneficial to first/early-borns than to later-borns. Effects of other co-resident kin are however null or inconsistent between populations. Our findings underscore the importance of birth order in understanding how differential parental investment may produce child survival differentials between siblings.

  4. Paternal effects on the human sex ratio at birth: evidence from interracial crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, M J; Erickson, J D; James, L M

    1984-01-01

    The effects of interracial crossing on the human sex ratio at birth were investigated using United States birth-certificate data for 1972-1979. The sex ratio was 1.059 for approximately 14 million singleton infants born to white couples, 1.033 for 2 million born to black couples, and 1.024 for 64,000 born to American Indian couples. Paternal and maternal race influences on the observed racial differences in sex ratio were analyzed using additional data on approximately 97,000 singleton infants born to white-black couples and 60,000 born to white-Indian couples. After adjustment for mother's race, white fathers had significantly more male offspring than did black fathers (ratio of sex ratios [RSR] = 1.027) and Indian fathers (RSR = 1.022). On the other hand, after adjustment for father's race, white mothers did not have more male offspring than did black mothers (RSR = 0.998) or Indian mothers (RSR = 1.009). The paternal-race effect persisted after adjustment for parental ages, education, birth order, and maternal marital status. The study shows that the observed racial differences in the sex ratio at birth are due to the effects of father's race and not the mother's. The study points to paternal determinants of the human sex ratio at fertilization and/or of the prenatal differential sex survival. PMID:6496474

  5. Effect of Maternal Nutritional Status, Socioeconomic Class and Literacy Level on Birth Weight of Babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Ambike

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of Low Birth Weight (LBW is higher in Asia than elsewhere predominantly because of undernutrition and poor socioeconomic status of mothers. Nearly half of the pregnant women still suffer from varying degrees of anaemia with the highest prevalence in India. Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome in terms of normal birth weight of the baby may be a result of synergistic effect of literacy, knowledge, improved food intake, and higher level of socioeconomic status of the pregnant women and their family. Aim: To observe the influence of maternal nutritional, socioeconomic status and literacy level on birth weight of babies. Materials and Methods: Total 250 mothers who delivered babies and admitted to the post natal ward of B.S.T. Rural Hospital, Talegaon Dabhade, District Pune, Maharashtra, India, were randomly selected and the relevant information was recorded in self prepared and pre validated questionnaire. Dietary history was collected by 24 hours recall method. Results: A total of 250 mothers and their babies were included. The average birth weight of babies was 2.65 Kg with the lowest birth weight of 1.2 Kg while the highest birth weight of 4 Kg. The prevalence of LBW babies was 27.6%. Most of the women (77.2% had caloric intake less than 1800 Kcal, 80% of mothers had protein intake of less than 45 gm. Nearly, 31.60% of women who were taking daily intake of calories less than 1800 Kcal delivered LBW babies. About 30.50% of the women with protein intake less than 45 gm/ day delivered LBW babies. In all 34.86% of the women with hemoglobin level below 11 gm% delivered LBW babies. These findings were statistically significant. Conclusion: Maternal caloric and protein deficiencies including anaemia during pregnancy had direct effect on the birth weight of newborns, as less nourished mothers were found to deliver higher percentage of LBW babies as compared to the mothers who were better

  6. Using bayesian models to assess the effects of under-reporting of cannabis use on the association with birth defects, national birth defects prevention study, 1997-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Devine, O.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on associations between periconceptional cannabis exposure and birth defects have mainly relied on self-reported exposure. Therefore, the results may be biased due to under-reporting of the exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential effects of this form of

  7. Using Bayesian Models to Assess the Effects of Under-reporting of Cannabis Use on the Association with Birth Defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Marleen M. H. J.; Rogier, A.; Donders, T.; Devine, Owen; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies on associations between periconceptional cannabis exposure and birth defects have mainly relied on self-reported exposure. Therefore, the results may be biased due to underreporting of the exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential effects of this form of exposure misclassification. Methods Using multivariable logistic regression, we re-analyzed associations between periconceptional cannabis use and 20 specific birth defects using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study from 1997–2005 for 13 859 case infants and 6556 control infants. For seven birth defects, we implemented four Bayesian models based on various assumptions concerning the sensitivity of self-reported cannabis use to estimate odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for confounding and underreporting of the exposure. We used information on sensitivity of self-reported cannabis use from the literature for prior assumptions. Results The results unadjusted for underreporting of the exposure showed an association between cannabis use and anencephaly (posterior OR 1.9 [95% credible interval (CRI) 1.1, 3.2]) which persisted after adjustment for potential exposure misclassification. Initially, no statistically significant associations were observed between cannabis use and the other birth defect categories studied. Although adjustment for underreporting did not notably change these effect estimates, cannabis use was associated with esophageal atresia (posterior OR 1.7 [95% CRI 1.0, 2.9]), diaphragmatic hernia (posterior OR 1.8 [95% CRI 1.1, 3.0]) and gastroschisis (posterior OR 1.7 [95% CRI 1.2, 2.3]) after correction for exposure misclassification. Conclusions Underreporting of the exposure may have obscured some cannabis-birth defect associations in previous studies. However, the resulting bias is likely to be limited. PMID:25155701

  8. Using bayesian models to assess the effects of under-reporting of cannabis use on the association with birth defects, national birth defects prevention study, 1997-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelder, Marleen M H J; Donders, A Rogier T; Devine, Owen; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2014-09-01

    Studies on associations between periconceptional cannabis exposure and birth defects have mainly relied on self-reported exposure. Therefore, the results may be biased due to under-reporting of the exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential effects of this form of exposure misclassification. Using multivariable logistic regression, we re-analysed associations between periconceptional cannabis use and 20 specific birth defects using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study from 1997-2005 for 13 859 case infants and 6556 control infants. For seven birth defects, we implemented four Bayesian models based on various assumptions concerning the sensitivity of self-reported cannabis use to estimate odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for confounding and under-reporting of the exposure. We used information on sensitivity of self-reported cannabis use from the literature for prior assumptions. The results unadjusted for under-reporting of the exposure showed an association between cannabis use and anencephaly (posterior OR 1.9 [95% credible interval (CRI) 1.1, 3.2]) which persisted after adjustment for potential exposure misclassification. Initially, no statistically significant associations were observed between cannabis use and the other birth defect categories studied. Although adjustment for under-reporting did not notably change these effect estimates, cannabis use was associated with esophageal atresia (posterior OR 1.7 [95% CRI 1.0, 2.9]), diaphragmatic hernia (posterior OR 1.8 [95% CRI 1.1, 3.0]), and gastroschisis (posterior OR 1.7 [95% CRI 1.2, 2.3]) after correction for exposure misclassification. Under-reporting of the exposure may have obscured some cannabis-birth defect associations in previous studies. However, the resulting bias is likely to be limited. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Screening to prevent spontaneous preterm birth: systematic reviews of accuracy and effectiveness literature with economic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honest, H; Forbes, C A; Durée, K H; Norman, G; Duffy, S B; Tsourapas, A; Roberts, T E; Barton, P M; Jowett, S M; Hyde, C J; Khan, K S

    2009-09-01

    To identify combinations of tests and treatments to predict and prevent spontaneous preterm birth. Searches were run on the following databases up to September 2005 inclusive: MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL and Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register) and MEDION. We also contacted experts including the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group and checked reference lists of review articles and papers that were eligible for inclusion. Two series of systematic reviews were performed: (1) accuracy of tests for the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women in early pregnancy and in women symptomatic with threatened preterm labour in later pregnancy; (2) effectiveness of interventions with potential to reduce cases of spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women in early pregnancy and to reduce spontaneous preterm birth or improve neonatal outcome in women with a viable pregnancy symptomatic of threatened preterm labour. For the health economic evaluation, a model-based analysis incorporated the combined effect of tests and treatments and their cost-effectiveness. Of the 22 tests reviewed for accuracy, the quality of studies and accuracy of tests was generally poor. Only a few tests had LR+ > 5. In asymptomatic women these were ultrasonographic cervical length measurement and cervicovaginal prolactin and fetal fibronectin screening for predicting spontaneous preterm birth before 34 weeks. In this group, tests with LR- 5 were absence of fetal breathing movements, cervical length and funnelling, amniotic fluid interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum CRP for predicting birth within 2-7 days of testing, and matrix metalloprotease-9, amniotic fluid IL-6, cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin and cervicovaginal human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) for predicting birth before 34 or 37 weeks. In this group, tests with LR- asymptomatic women. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents were the most effective tocolytic agent for reducing

  10. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA are treated with growth hormone (GH, inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a marker of biological age and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To investigate whether LTL is influenced by birth size, childhood growth and long-term GH treatment.We analyzed LTL in 545 young adults with differences in birth size and childhood growth patterns. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA (SGA-GH were compared to untreated short SGA (SGA-S, SGA with spontaneous catch-up to a normal body size (SGA-CU, and appropriate for gestational age with a normal body size (AGA-NS. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay.We found a positive association between birth length and LTL (p = 0.04, and a trend towards a positive association between birth weight and LTL (p = 0.08, after adjustments for gender, age, gestational age and adult body size. Weight gain during infancy and childhood and fat mass percentage were not associated with LTL. Female gender and gestational age were positively associated with LTL, and smoking negatively. After adjustments for gender, age and gestational age, SGA-GH had a similar LTL as SGA-S (p = 0.11, SGA-CU (p = 0.80, and AGA-NS (p = 0.30.Larger size at birth is positively associated with LTL in young adulthood. Growth patterns during infancy and childhood are not associated with LTL. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA have similar LTL as untreated short SGA, SGA with spontaneous catch-up and AGA born controls, indicating no adverse effects of GH-induced catch-up in height on LTL.

  11. Effects of foraging mode and season on the energetics of the Marine Iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, J; Lichtenbelt, WDV; Wikelski, M

    1, Marine Iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) inhabiting the rocky shores of the Galapagos Islands apply two foraging strategies, intertidal and subtidal foraging, in a seasonal climate. Effects of both foraging strategy and seasonality on the daily energy expenditure (DEE) were measured using doubly

  12. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial

  13. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  14. The role of under-employment and unemployment in recent birth cohort effects in Australian suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Milner, Allison; Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard

    2013-09-01

    High suicide rates evident in Australian young adults during an epidemic period in the 1990s appear to have been sustained in older age-groups in the subsequent decade. This period also coincides with changes in employment patterns in Australia. This study investigates age, period, and birth cohort effects in Australian suicide over the 20th century, with particular reference to the period subsequent to the 1990s youth suicide epidemic in young males. Period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide were examined for 1907-2010 based on descriptive analysis of age-specific suicide rates and a series of age-period-cohort (APC) models using Poisson regression. Under-employment rates (those employed part-time seeking additional hours of work) and unemployment rates (those currently seeking employment) for the latter part of this time series (1978-2010) were also examined and compared with period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide. A significant increasing birth cohort effect in male suicide rates was evident in birth cohorts born after 1970-74, after adjusting for the effects age and period. An increasing birth cohort effect was also evident in female suicide rates, but was of a lesser magnitude. Increases in male cohort-specific suicide rates were significantly correlated with increases in cohort-specific under-employment and unemployment rates. Birth cohorts that experienced the peak of the suicide epidemic during the 1990s have continued to have higher suicide rates than cohorts born in earlier epochs. This increase coincides with changes to a labour force characterised by greater 'flexibility' and 'casualised' employment, especially in younger aged cohorts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of fine particulate matter and its constituents on low birth weight among full-term infants in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Rupa, E-mail: Rupa.Basu@oehha.ca.gov [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States); Harris, Maria [School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Sie, Lillian [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Malig, Brian; Broadwin, Rachel; Green, Rochelle [California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Air Pollution Epidemiology Section, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Relationships between prenatal exposure to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) and birth weight have been observed previously. Few studies have investigated specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, which may identify sources and major contributors of risk. We examined the effects of trimester and full gestational prenatal exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and 23 PM{sub 2.5} constituents on birth weight among 646,296 term births in California between 2000 and 2006. We used linear and logistic regression models to assess associations between exposures and birth weight and risk of low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g), respectively. Models were adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, apparent temperature, month and year of birth, region, and socioeconomic indicators. Higher full gestational exposures to PM{sub 2.5} mass and several PM{sub 2.5} constituents were significantly associated with reductions in term birth weight. The largest reductions in birth weight were associated with exposure to vanadium, sulfur, sulfate, iron, elemental carbon, titanium, manganese, bromine, ammonium, zinc, and copper. Several of these PM{sub 2.5} constituents were associated with increased risk of term LBW. Reductions in birth weight were generally larger among younger mothers and varied by race/ethnicity. Exposure to specific constituents of PM{sub 2.5}, especially traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals, were associated with decreased birth weight in California. -- Highlights: • Examine full gestational and trimester fine particle and its constituents on term birth weight. • Fine particles and several of its constituents associated with birth weight reductions. • Largest reductions for traffic-related particles, sulfur constituents, and metals. • Greater birth weight reductions for younger mothers, and varied by race/ethnicity.

  16. Effects of the status of women on the first-birth interval in Indian urban society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, D C; Land, K C; Goswami, G

    1999-01-01

    The status of women, which is relative and multidimensional, has an important bearing on any long-term reduction in fertility. In Indian society, where cohabitation and childbearing are socially sanctioned only after marriage, the length of the first-birth interval affects the completed family size by influencing the spacing and childbearing pattern of a family. This study examines the influence of certain aspects of the status of married women--education, employment, role in family decision making, and age at marriage--along with three socioeconomic variables--per capita income of the family, social position of the household, and the caste system--on the duration of the first-birth interval in an urban Hindu society of the north-east Indian state of Assam. The data were analysed by applying life table and hazard regression techniques. The results indicate that a female's age at marriage, education, current age, role in decision making, and the per capita income of the household are the main covariates that strongly influence the length of the first-birth interval of Hindu females of urban Assam. Of all the covariates studied, a female's education appears to be a key mediating factor, through its influence on her probability of employment outside the home and thereby an earned income and on her role in family decision making. Unlike other Indian communities, the effect of the caste system does not have a significant effect on first-birth timing in this urban Hindu society.

  17. Male sexual orientation in independent samoa: evidence for fraternal birth order and maternal fecundity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2011-06-01

    In Western cultures, male androphiles tend to have greater numbers of older brothers than male gynephiles (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In the non-Western nation of Independent Samoa, androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) have been shown to have greater numbers of older brothers, older sisters, and younger brothers (Vasey & VanderLaan, 2007). It is unclear, however, whether the observed older brother effect, in the context of the additional sibling category effects, represented a genuine fraternal birth order effect or was simply associated with elevated maternal fecundity. To differentiate between these two possibilities, this study employed a larger, independent replication sample of fa'afafine and gynephilic males from Independent Samoa. Fa'afafine had greater numbers of older brothers and sisters. The replication sample and the sample from Vasey and VanderLaan were then combined, facilitating a comparison that showed the older brother effect was significantly greater in magnitude than the older sister effect. These results suggest that fraternal birth order and maternal fecundity effects both exist in Samoa. The existence of these effects cross-culturally is discussed in the context of biological theories for the development of male androphilia.

  18. Effects of seasonality on drosophilids (Insecta, Diptera) in the northern part of the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho-Silva, R D; Montes, M A; Oliveira, G F; de Carvalho-Neto, F G; Rohde, C; Garcia, A C L

    2017-10-01

    Seasonality is an important aspect associated with population dynamic and structure of tropical insect assemblages. This study evaluated the effects of seasonality on abundance, richness, diversity and composition of an insect group, drosophilids, including species native to the Neotropical region and exotic ones. Three preserved fragments of the northern Atlantic Forest were surveyed, where temperatures are above 20 °C throughout the year and rainfall regimes define two seasons (dry and rainy). As opposed to other studies about arthropods in tropical regions, we observed that abundance of drosophilids was significantly higher in the dry season, possibly due to biological aspects and the colonization strategy adopted by the exotic species in these environments. Contrarily to abundance, we did not observe a seasonal pattern for richness. As for other parts of the Atlantic Forest, the most representative Neotropical species (Drosophila willistoni, D. sturtevanti, D. paulistorum and D. prosaltans) were significantly more abundant in the rainy season. Among the most abundant exotic species, D. malerkotliana, Zaprionus indianus and Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis were more importantly represented the dry season, while D. simulans was more abundant in the rainy period. The seasonality patterns exhibited by the most abundant species were compared to findings published in other studies. Our results indicate that exotic species were significantly more abundant in the dry season, while native ones exhibited an opposite pattern.

  19. Effect of season on the quality of forages selected by sheep in citrus plantations in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard K. Adjorlolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the effects of season on chemical composition of forages selected by sheep grazing in a citrus plantation. Forage species growing in a sweet orange (Citrus sinensis plantation were identified and sampled monthly for 2 years. Samples were bulked on monthly basis for chemical analysis. The average dry matter content of the forages increased from the rainy to the dry season but effects of season on the chemical components were inconsistent. Some species, such as Asystasia gangetica, had a higher crude protein concentration in the dry season, whereas for others, such as Panicum repens, the reverse occurred. However, average concentrations of crude protein, detergent fiber and components of fiber for all species for the rainy season were not significantly different from the dry season values. It was concluded that there were differences among forage species in their responses to changing seasons, such that grazing ruminants may select a diet to enable them to meet their nutritional requirements, provided forage biomass is adequate.Keywords: Crop-livestock integration, tree plantations, chemical composition, seasonal effects, forage quality.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2271-277

  20. The Long Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    related leave from 14 to 20 weeks. We use differences-in-differences regression discontinuity design to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and it estimated whether such a large increase in the mandated leave period has a large measurable and persistent effect on children's cognitive...... and educational outcomes. A 100% sample Danish population born in May, June, July, and August 1983, 1984, and 1985 and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the estimations. Preliminary results indicate there is no positive effect on children's cognitive outcomes from increasing parents' mandated......    The length of parents' total birth related leave was increased with almost 50% in 1984 in Denmark. The previous length of the Danish maternity leave was long, especially compared to e.g. the U.S. today. This paper investigates the long term effects on children of increasing length of birth...

  1. Seasonal variability of rocky reef fish assemblages: Detecting functional and structural changes due to fishing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Sofia; Pais, Miguel Pessanha; Costa, Maria José; Cabral, Henrique Nogueira

    2013-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of seasonal variation on the stability of fish-based metrics and their capability to detect changes in fish assemblages, which is yet poorly understood despite the general idea that guilds are more resilient to natural variability than species abundances. Three zones subject to different levels of fishing pressure inside the Arrábida Marine Protected Area (MPA) were sampled seasonally. The results showed differences between warm (summer and autumn) and cold (winter and spring) seasons, with the autumn clearly standing out. In general, the values of the metrics density of juveniles, density of invertebrate feeders and density of omnivores increased in warm seasons, which can be attributed to differences in recruitment patterns, spawning migrations and feeding activity among seasons. The density of generalist/opportunistic individuals was sensitive to the effect of fishing, with higher values at zones with the lowest level of protection, while the density of individuals with high commercial value only responded to fishing in the autumn, due to a cumulative result of both juveniles and adults abundances during this season. Overall, this study showed that seasonal variability affects structural and functional features of the fish assemblage and that might influence the detection of changes as a result of anthropogenic pressures. The choice of a specific season, during warm sea conditions after the spawning period (July-October), seems to be more adequate to assess changes on rocky-reef fish assemblages.

  2. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendola, Pauline; Robinson, Luther K; Buck, Germaine M; Druschel, Charlotte M; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Sever, Lowell E; Vena, John E

    2005-02-01

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for or =2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For > or =2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors.

  3. Birth defects risk associated with maternal sport fish consumption: potential effect modification by sex of offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendola, Pauline; Robinson, L.K.; Buck, G.M.; Druschel, C.M.; Fitzgerald, E.F.; Sever, L.E.; Vena, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Contaminated sport fish consumption may result in exposure to various reproductive and developmental toxicants, including pesticides and other suspected endocrine disruptors. We investigated the relation between maternal sport fish meals and risk of major birth defects among infants born to members of the New York State (NYS) Angler Cohort between 1986 and 1991 (n=2237 births). Birth defects (n=125 cases) were ascertained from both newborn medical records and the NYS Congenital Malformations Registry. For sport fish meals eaten during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for all major malformations combined was slightly elevated for ≤1 meal/month (OR=1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.84, 1.89) and ≥2 meals/month (OR=1.51, CI=0.74, 3.09), with no meals during pregnancy as the reference category. Higher ORs were consistently observed among male offspring compared with females. For ≥2 meals/month, the risk for males was significantly elevated (males: OR=3.01, CI: 1.2, 7.5; females: OR=0.73, CI: 0.2, 2.4). Exposure during pregnancy and effect modification by infants sex could be important considerations for future studies of birth outcomes associated with endocrine disruptors

  4. The effect of at-birth vitamin A supplementation on differential leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias J; Fisker, Ane B; Sartono, Erliyani

    2012-01-01

    received DTP, VAS at birth was associated with two-fold higher mortality than placebo. The objective of the present study was to investigate the immunological effects of VAS at birth within a subgroup of participants in the randomised trial. Guided by the mortality results, we further explored whether VAS...

  5. Number of Siblings, Sibling Spacing, Sex, and Birth Order: Their Effects on Perceived Parent-Adolescent Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Jeannie S.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the effect of the sibling structures of number and spacing, sex composition, and birth order on adolescents' perceptions of the power and support dimensions of parental behavior. Results suggest that research focusing on birth order must control for number of siblings, spacing, and sex composition of siblings. (Author)

  6. The effect of maternal anthropometric characteristics and social factors on gestational age and birth weight in Sudanese newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalisch Gerd

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Africa low birth weight (LBW ( Methods In 1000 Sudanese mothers with singleton births, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-arm circumference and newborn birth weight were taken within 24 hours of delivery. Furthermore, maternal education and socio-economic status were recorded. The effect of these maternal variables on gestational age and birth weight was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Although maternal height was significantly correlated (p = 0.002 with gestational age, we did not find maternal characteristics of value in determining the risk for preterm birth. Birth order was the strongest determinant of birth weight compared to other maternal characteristics. The LBW rate of first born babies of 12.2% was nearly twice that of infants of multiparous mothers. Maternal age and all maternal anthropometric measurements were positively correlated (p 12 years of education. Conclusion Birth order and maternal height were found to be the most important maternal parameters which influences birth weight and the risk for LBW. The duration of maternal education and not social class was found to significantly affect the risk for LBW.

  7. Effect of birth year on birth weight and obesity in adulthood: comparison between subjects born prior to and during the great depression in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Cindy Mari; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Aspelund, Thor; Jonsson, Gudmundur; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2012-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have linked small size at birth to adverse adult health outcomes but the relative influence of environmental exposures is less well established. The authors investigated the impact of prenatal environmental exposure by comparing 2750 participants born before (1925-1929) and during (1930-1934) the Great Depression in Reykjavik, Iceland. Calendar year served as proxy for environmental effects. Anthropometric measurements at birth and school-age (8-13 years) were collected from national registries. Participants were medically examined as adults (33-65 years). Mean birth weight, adjusted for maternal age and parity, decreased by 97 g (95% confidence interval (CI): 39, 156) for men and 70 g (95% CI: 11, 129) for women from 1925 to 1934; growth at school-age was significantly reduced for participants growing during the Depression. As adults, women prenatally exposed to the Depression had higher body mass index (Δ0.6 kg/m(2), 95% CI: 0.2, 1.1), higher fasting blood glucose levels (Δ0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.23) and greater odds of being obese 1.43 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.02) compared to unexposed counterparts. Non-significant associations were observed in men. Reduction in birth weight due to rapid shifts in the economic environment appears to have a modest but significant association with later obesity for women while male offspring appear to be less affected by these conditions.

  8. Birth ball or heat therapy? A randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of birth ball usage with sacrum-perineal heat therapy in labor pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taavoni, Simin; Sheikhan, Fatemeh; Abdolahian, Somayeh; Ghavi, Fatemeh

    2016-08-01

    Labor pain and its management is a major concern for childbearing women, their families and health care providers. This study aimed to investigate the effects of two non-pharmacological methods such as birth ball and heat therapy on labor pain relief. This randomized control trial was undertaken on 90 primiparous women aged 18-35 years old who were randomly assigned to two intervention (birth ball and heat) and control groups. The pain score was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) before the intervention and every 30 min in three groups until cervical dilatation reached 8 cm. The mean pain severity score in the heat therapy group was less than that of in control group at 60 and 90 min after intervention (p pain scores in the birth ball group after all three investigated times in comparison to control group. Both heat therapy and birth ball can use as inexpensive complementary and low risk treatment for labor pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  10. The Effect of Fatherhood on Employment Hours: Variation by Birth Timing, Marriage and Coresidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the life course paradigm, I assess how the effect of fatherhood on employment hours varies by age of becoming a parent and time elapsed since the birth. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth - 1979 Cohort from 1979 to 2002 (N = 28,514 observations), separate effects are estimated based on fathers' marital status and co-residence with own children. Only unmarried men who became fathers before 24 work longer hours immediately after a first birth, but in the long run, most early fathers work fewer hours as a result of parenthood. Over time, unmarried but coresident men who became fathers between 24 and 29 increase their hours, as do married, coresident men who delayed fatherhood until 30 or older. However, the latter increase is moderated by support for egalitarian gender roles. The findings shed light on the contemporary transition to adulthood and on men's work-family balance.

  11. The effect of e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael T; Pesko, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the effect of county-level e-cigarette indoor vaping restrictions on adult prenatal smoking and birth outcomes using United States birth record data for 7 million pregnant women living in places already comprehensively banning the indoor use of traditional cigarettes. We use both cross-sectional and panel data to estimate our difference-in-difference models. Our panel model results suggest that adoption of a comprehensive indoor vaping restriction increased prenatal smoking by 2.0 percentage points, which is double the estimate obtained from a cross-sectional model. We also document heterogeneity in effect sizes along lines of age, education, and type of insurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of irradiation dose on sensory characteristics and microbiological contamination of chosen seasonings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, E.; Wasowicz, E.; Zawirska-Wojtasiak, R.; Czaczyk, K.; Trojanowska, K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation (3, 5, 10 kGy) on sensory characteristics, volatiles constituents and microbiological contamination of several seasonings were studied. The dose of 3 kGy reduced microflora effectively, and did not cause evident changes in aroma. Complete sterilization, however, required 7 or 10 kGy particularly in the case of paprika. Such doses substantially changed the smell and taste of seasonings. Is some of them (paprika, mustard, coriander) the total volatiles content increased after radiation

  13. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    , the SGA outcome remained significant only in women with mean body mass index (BMI ≥ 22 kg/m2. There was an increased risk of neonatal mortality in studies with majority of births at home [RR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.13-1.92]; such an effect was not evident where ≥ 60% of births occurred in facility settings [RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.81-1.09]. Overall there was no increase in the risk of neonatal mortality [RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.92 – 1.19 (fixed model]. Conclusion This review provides evidence of a significant benefit of MMN supplementation during pregnancy on reducing SGA births as compared to iron-folate, with no significant increase in the risk of neonatal mortality in populations where skilled birth care is available and majority of births take place in facilities. Given comparability of impacts on maternal anemia, the decision to replace iron-folate with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy may be taken in the context of available services in health systems and birth outcomes monitored.

  14. Timing of births in sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Mendes, S L; Santos, R R

    2001-10-01

    We monitored the birth patterns of sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus) during a 4-yr period from October 1996 to August 2000 at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brown howler monkey births (n = 34) occurred throughout the year, and birth frequencies did not differ between rainy and dry season months. The aseasonal birth patterns of the howler monkeys differed significantly from the dry season concentration and dry month peak in muriqui births (n = 23). We found no effects of infant sex or the number of females on interbirth intervals (IBIs) in our 10 howler monkey study troops. IBIs of brown howler monkeys averaged 21.2 +/- 2.5 mo (n = 8, median = 21.0 mo), and were significantly shorter following dry season births than rainy season births. Their IBIs and yearling survivorship (74%) were similar to those reported for other species of howler monkeys, but yearling survivorship was much lower than that of muriquis (94%), whose IBIs were more than 12 mo longer than those of the howler monkeys. Our study extends comparative knowledge of birth patterns in Alouatta to a poorly known species, and provides insights into the different ways in which diet and life history may affect the timing of births in large-bodied platyrrhines under the same seasonal ecological conditions. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth order on children's education

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Paul J.; Black, Sandra E.; Salvanes, Kjell G.

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade-off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich data set on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. We find a negative correlation between family size and children's education, but when we include indicators for birt...

  16. The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth children’s education

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul J.; Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a tradeoff between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the educational attainment of children. While we find a negative correlation between family size and children’s education, when we include indicators for birt...

  17. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  18. Combined Effects of Prenatal Exposures to Environmental Chemicals on Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Govarts, Eva; Remy, Sylvie; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Nelen, Vera; Baeyens, Willy; Nawrot, Tim; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nick; Schoeters, Greet

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal chemical exposure has been frequently associated with reduced fetal growth by single pollutant regression models although inconsistent results have been obtained. Our study estimated the effects of exposure to single pollutants and mixtures on birth weight in 248 mother-child pairs. Arsenic, copper, lead, manganese and thallium were measured in cord blood, cadmium in maternal blood, methylmercury in maternal hair, and five organochlorines, two perfluorinated compounds and diethylhexy...

  19. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Peres,Karen Glazer; Barros,Aluísio J D; Peres,Marco Aurélio; Victora,César Gomes

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding bre...

  20. An effective algorithm for approximating adaptive behavior in seasonal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainmont, Julie; Andersen, Ken Haste; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    Behavior affects most aspects of ecological processes and rates, and yet modeling frameworks which efficiently predict and incorporate behavioral responses into ecosystem models remain elusive. Behavioral algorithms based on life-time optimization, adaptive dynamics or game theory are unsuited...... for large global models because of their high computational demand. We compare an easily integrated, computationally efficient behavioral algorithm known as Gilliam's rule against the solution from a life-history optimization. The approximation takes into account only the current conditions to optimize...... behavior; the so-called "myopic approximation", "short sighted", or "static optimization". We explore the performance of the myopic approximation with diel vertical migration (DVM) as an example of a daily routine, a behavior with seasonal dependence that trades off predation risk with foraging...

  1. Seasonal effect on physiological, reproductive and fertility profiles in breeding mithun bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyse the seasonal effect on physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility in breeding mithun bulls.Methods: A total of ten adult mithun bulls age of 5 to 6 years old with good body condition (score 5-6 were selected from ICAR-NRC on Mithun, Jharnapani, Nagaland, India. The seasons were categorised into winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons based on the meteorological data and sunshine hours. The physiological parameters, reproductive profiles and in vitro fertility parameters were assessed during different seasons in mithun under the semi-intensive system of management.Results: The statistical analysis revealed that these experimental parameters were differed significantly (P<0.05 among the seasons and in overall spring and winter seasons were more beneficial in mithun breeding programme, although, the breeding in mithun occurred throughout the year with variation.Conclusions: It is concluded that collection & preservation of mithun semen and artificial insemination in mithun species during the season of spring and winter has significant beneficial effect in terms of semen production, freezability and fertility for artificial breeding programme in mithun under the semi-intensive system.

  2. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirghani, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To find out the effect of prenatal exposure to low lead from cosmetics on gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane and birth weight. Methods: The study was carried out in the mountainous Aseer region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia where the air is thought to be clean and free of lead pollution due to the absence of petroleum smelting and other heavy industries. The region is famous as a holiday resort for tourists from Arabia and the gulf countries. All 176 pregnant women included in the study were of singleton pregnancies of gestational age 27 weeks or more who attended the antenatal outpatient clinic of the main maternity hospital. On the day of delivery 4 milliliters of venous blood from each singleton parturient was placed in a heparinized non-silica containing tube and stored at -20 deg. C prior to analysis. Results: Ninety-four (70.1%) women out of 134 had maternal blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L. The mean difference in gestational age was 10.5 days, showing a non significant difference (P=0.152). Ninety-three women (72.7%) out of a total of 128 who had blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L gave birth to infants weighing an average of 2.99 kg. The mean difference was 0.12 kg which is non-significant (P=0.261). Regarding premature rupture of the membrane a total of 127 women with maternal blood lead levels above 200 mu g/L showed no significant differences (P=0.64). The Chi-square test of the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead below 150 mu g/L was not significant while the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead above 200 mu g/L resulted in very slight differences in the values of infants' birth weight. Conclusion: The detected low lead exposures from cosmetics does not produce statistically significant effects on the three pregnancy outcomes; gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane or birth weight. However, the importance of low lead exposure from the 100% lead

  3. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghani, Zein

    2010-12-01

    To find out the effect of prenatal exposure to low lead from cosmetics on gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane and birth weight. The study was carried out in the mountainous Aseer region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia where the air is thought to be clean and free of lead pollution due to the absence of petroleum smelting and other heavy industries. The region is famous as a holiday resort for tourists from Arabia and the gulf countries. All 176 pregnant women included in the study were of singleton pregnancies of gestational age 27 weeks or more who attended the antenatal outpatient clinic of the main maternity hospital. On the day of delivery 4 milliliters of venous blood from each singleton parturient was placed in a heparinized non-silica containing tube and stored at -20 degrees C prior to analysis. Ninety-four (70.1%) women out of 134 had maternal blood lead concentration 200 microg/L. The mean difference in gestational age was 10.5 days, showing a non significant difference (P=0.152). Ninety-three women (72.7%) out of a total of 128 who had blood lead concentration 200 microg/L gave birth to infants weighing an average of 2.99 kg. The mean difference was 0.12 kg which is non-significant (P=0.261). Regarding premature.rupture of the membrane a total of 127 women with maternal blood lead levels above 200 microg/L showed no significant differences (P=0.64). The Chi-square test of the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead below 150 microg/L was not significant while the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead above 200 microg/L resulted in very slight differences in the values of infants' birth weight. The detected low lead exposures from cosmetics does not produce statistically significant effects on the three pregnancy outcomes; gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane or birth weight. However, the importance of low lead exposure from the 100% lead sulfide eye cosmetic "kohl

  4. Investigation of Seasonal and Latitudinal Effects on the Expression of Clock Genes in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyede Sanaz; Nazarimehr, Fahimeh; Jafari, Sajad

    The primary goal in this work is to develop a dynamical model capturing the influence of seasonal and latitudinal variations on the expression of Drosophila clock genes. To this end, we study a specific dynamical system with strange attractors that exhibit changes of Drosophila activity in a range of latitudes and across different seasons. Bifurcations of this system are analyzed to peruse the effect of season and latitude on the behavior of clock genes. Existing experimental data collected from the activity of Drosophila melanogaster corroborate the dynamical model.

  5. Family Characteristics and Achievement: Effects of Birth Order and Family Size of the Kalamazoo Brothers Sample. Discussion Papers No. 431-77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olneck, Michael R.; Bills, David B.

    Research on the effects of birth order on cognitive ability often fails to control relevant variables related to family background and does not usually investigate the effects of birth order among members of the same family. Consequently, apparently significant birth order effects may in fact be spurious. This study uses a sample of brothers…

  6. Birth order effects on the separation process in young adults: an evolutionary and dynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Hermel, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The present study analyzes the differential contribution of a familial or social focus in imaginative ideation (the personal fable and imagined audience mental constructs) to the separation-individuation process of firstborn, middleborn, and lastborn children. A total of 160 young adults were divided into 3 groups by birth order. Participants' separation-individuation process was evaluated by the Psychological Separation Inventory, and results were cross-validated by the Pathology of Separation-Individuation Inventory. The Imaginative Ideation Inventory tested the relative dominance of the familial and social environments in participants' mental constructs. The findings showed that middleborn children had attained more advanced separation and were lower in family-focused ideation and higher in nonfamilial social ideation. However, the familial and not the social ideation explained the variance in the separation process in all the groups. The findings offer new insights into the effects of birth order on separation and individuation in adolescents and young adults.

  7. Effects of tactile-kinesthetic stimulation on low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Faranak; Askary, Reihaneh K

    2013-06-01

    Low Birth Weight [LBW] (1500gr ≤ Birth Weight ≤ 2499 gr) is one of the most serious health problems in neonates. These neonates need complementary interventions (e.g. tactile-kinesthetic stimulation) to promote development. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation (TKS) on physical and behavioral development of Low Birth Weight neonates. This was a randomized controlled trial with equal randomization (1:1 for two groups) and parallel group design. Forty LBW neonates were randomly allocated into test (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. TKS was provided for three 15 minute periods per day for 10 consecutive days to the test group, with the massages consisting of moderate pressure strokes in supine and prone position and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of limbs. All measurements were taken before and after completion of the study with the same equipment (Philips electronic weighing scale with an accuracy of ±5 grams and Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment) and by the same person. There was a trend towards increased daily weight gain, but without statistical significance. On the Brazelton scale, the test group showed statistically significant improved scores on the 'motor' (P-value <0.001) and 'regulation of state' (P-value = 0.039) clusters after the 10 days TKS. TKS has no adverse effects on physiologic parameters and gives better adaptive behavior of LBW neonates compared to those without TKS.

  8. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  9. Effect of Women's Decision-Making Autonomy on Infant's Birth Weight in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arpana

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight (LBW), an outcome of maternal undernutrition, is a major public health concern in Bangladesh where the problem is most prominent. Women's decision-making autonomy is likely an important factor influencing maternal and child health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of women's decision-making autonomy on infant's birth weight (BW). Methods. The study included data of 2175 enrolled women (14–45 years of age) from the Maternal and Infant Nutritional Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat-study) in Bangladesh. Pearson's chi-square test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and logistic regression analysis were applied at the collected data. Results. Women with lowest decision-making autonomy were significantly more likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) child, after controlling for maternal age, education (woman's and her husband's), socioeconomic status (SES) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0, 1.8). BW was decreased significantly among women with lowest decision making autonomy after adjusting for all confounders. Conclusion. Women's decision-making autonomy has an independent effect on BW and LBW outcome. In addition, there is a need for further exploration to identify sociocultural attributes and gender related determinants of women decision-making autonomy in this study setting. PMID:24575305

  10. Effects of seasonal operation on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M; Jurgens, Bryant C

    2014-09-01

    Seasonal variability in groundwater pumping is common in many places, but resulting effects of seasonal pumping stress on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells are not thoroughly understood. Analysis of historical water-quality samples from public-supply wells completed in deep basin-fill aquifers in Modesto, California (134 wells) and Albuquerque, New Mexico (95 wells) indicates that several wells have seasonal variability in concentrations of contaminants of concern. In Modesto, supply wells are more likely to produce younger groundwater with higher nitrate and uranium concentrations during the summer (high) pumping season than during the winter (low) pumping season. In Albuquerque, supply wells are more likely to produce older groundwater with higher arsenic concentrations during the winter pumping season than during the summer pumping season. Seasonal variability in contaminant concentrations in Modesto is influenced primarily by effects of summer pumping on vertical hydraulic gradients that drive migration of shallow groundwater through the aquifer to supply wells. Variability in Albuquerque is influenced primarily by the period of time that a supply well is idle, allowing its wellbore to act as a conduit for vertical groundwater flow and contaminant migration. However, both processes are observed in each study area. Similar findings would appear to be likely in other alluvial basins with stratified water quality and substantial vertical head gradients. Results suggest that even in aquifers dominated by old groundwater, changes to seasonal pumping patterns and/or to depth of well completion can help reduce vulnerability to selected contaminants of either natural or anthropogenic origin. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Groundwater published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of National Ground Water Association.

  11. Effects of seasonal operation on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal variability in groundwater pumping is common in many places, but resulting effects of seasonal pumping stress on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells are not thoroughly understood. Analysis of historical water-quality samples from public-supply wells completed in deep basin-fill aquifers in Modesto, California (134 wells) and Albuquerque, New Mexico (95 wells) indicates that several wells have seasonal variability in concentrations of contaminants of concern. In Modesto, supply wells are more likely to produce younger groundwater with higher nitrate and uranium concentrations during the summer (high) pumping season than during the winter (low) pumping season. In Albuquerque, supply wells are more likely to produce older groundwater with higher arsenic concentrations during the winter pumping season than during the summer pumping season. Seasonal variability in contaminant concentrations in Modesto is influenced primarily by effects of summer pumping on vertical hydraulic gradients that drive migration of shallow groundwater through the aquifer to supply wells. Variability in Albuquerque is influenced primarily by the period of time that a supply well is idle, allowing its wellbore to act as a conduit for vertical groundwater flow and contaminant migration. However, both processes are observed in each study area. Similar findings would appear to be likely in other alluvial basins with stratified water quality and substantial vertical head gradients. Results suggest that even in aquifers dominated by old groundwater, changes to seasonal pumping patterns and/or to depth of well completion can help reduce vulnerability to selected contaminants of either natural or anthropogenic origin.

  12. Exploring the Bullwhip Effect and Inventory Stability in a Seasonal Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Costantino

    2013-08-01

    when the demand noise is low. In contrast, all the performance measures become less sensitive to the seasonality level when the noise is high. This performance indicates that using the ratios to measure seasonal supply chain dynamics is misleading, and that it is better to directly use the variance (without dividing by the demand variance as the estimates for the bullwhip effect and inventory performance. The results also show that the supply chain performances are highly sensitive to forecasting and safety stock parameters, regardless of the seasonality level. Furthermore, the impact of information sharing quantification shows that all the performance measures are improved regardless of demand seasonality. With information sharing, the bullwhip effect and inventory variance ratios are consistent with average fill rate results.

  13. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  14. Seasonal Changing Effect on Airflow and Pollutant Dispersion Characteristics in Urban Street Canyons

    OpenAIRE

    Jingliang Dong; Zijing Tan; Yimin Xiao; Jiyuan Tu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of seasonal variation on air flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics was numerically investigated. A three-dimensional urban canopy model with unit aspect ratio (H/D = 1) was used to calculate surface temperature distribution in the street canyon. Four representative time events (1000 LST, 1300 LST, 1600 LST and 2000 LST) during typical clear summer and winter days were selected to examine the air flow diurnal variation. The results revealed the seasonal variat...

  15. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    OpenAIRE

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial replacement. The successfulness of managerial turnover depends on specific highly unpredictable circumstances, as we illustrate through case-studies.

  16. Effects of Forecasts on the Revisions of Concurrent Seasonally Adjusted Data Using the X-11 Seasonal Adjustment Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, Larry; Otto, Mark

    Three Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) forecast procedures for Census Bureau X-11 concurrent seasonal adjustment were empirically tested. Forty time series from three Census Bureau economic divisions (business, construction, and industry) were analyzed. Forecasts were obtained from fitted seasonal ARIMA models augmented with…

  17. Effect of Maternal and Pregnancy Risk Factors on Early Neonatal Death in Planned Home Births Delivering at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachilova, Sophia; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2018-05-01

    The prevalence of home birth in the United States is increasing, although its safety is undetermined. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of obstetrical risk factors on early neonatal death in planned home births delivering at home. The authors conducted a retrospective 3-year cohort study consisting of planned home births that delivered at home in the United States between 2011 and 2013. The study excluded infants with congenital and chromosomal anomalies and infants born at ≤34 weeks' gestation. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the adjusted effects of individual obstetrical variables on early neonatal deaths within 7 days of delivery. During the study period, there were 71 704 planned and delivered home births. The overall early neonatal death rate was 1.5 deaths per 1000 planned home births. The risks of early neonatal death were significantly higher in nulliparous births (OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.71-4.31), women with a previous CS (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.25-5.52), non-vertex presentations (OR 4.27; 95% CI 1.33-13.75), plural births (OR 9.79; 95% CI 4.25-22.57), preterm births (OR 4.68; 95% CI 2.30-9.51), and births at ≥41 weeks of gestation (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.09-2.84). Early neonatal deaths occur more commonly in certain obstetrical contexts. Patient selection may reduce adverse neonatal outcomes among planned home births. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Facilitating home birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, Valerie; Chadderton, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The birth of a baby is a family experience. However, in the United Kingdom birth often occurs outside the family environment, in hospital. Both home and hospital births have risks and benefits, but research shows that, for most women, it is as safe to give birth at home as it is in hospital. Women report home-birth to be satisfying with lowered risks of intervention and less likelihood of being separated from their family. It is also more cost effective for the National Health Service. Yet, whilst midwives are working hard to promote home birth as an option, it remains controversial. The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the safety of home birth and the needs of women and midwives when a home birth is chosen. It provides an overview of care required and the role of the midwife in the ensuring care is woman-centred and personalised.

  19. The Effect of Soil Temperature Seasonality on Climate Reconstructions from Paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T. M.; Hren, M. T.; Sheldon, N. D.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate continental temperature reconstructions provide important constraints on climate sensitivity to changes in atmospheric pCO2, the timing and rates of tectonic uplift, and the driving mechanisms and feedbacks associated with major climate events. Temperature seasonality is an important variable to consider, because not only does it exert a strong control on the biosphere, but it can obfuscate changes in mean annual air temperature (MAAT) in the geologic record. In order to better understand the effect temperature seasonality has on paleosol temperature proxies, soil temperature data was compiled from over 200 stations that comprise the NCDC Soil Climate Analysis Network. Observed soil temperature variations were then compared to predicted soil temperature values based on normal seasonal air temperature trends. Approximately one quarter of sites record less temperature variation than predicted. This reduction in soil temperature seasonality is a result of warmer than predicted cold-season temperatures, driven by cold-season processes such as snow cover insulation. The reduction in soil temperature seasonality explains why pedo-transfer functions to break down below MAAT values of 6-8 °C. Greater than predicted soil temperature seasonality is observed at nearly half of the sites, driven primarily by direct heating of the soil surface by solar radiation. Deviations larger than 2 °C are not common until mean annual precipitation falls below 300 mm, suggesting that complications introduced by ground heating are primarily restricted to paleosols that formed in more arid environments. Clumped isotope measurements of pedogenic carbonate and bulk paleosol elemental data from a stacked series of paleosols spanning the Eocene-Oligocene in Northeastern Spain are also examined to demonstrate how the documented seasonal trends in modern soils can help inform paleo-applications.

  20. Contrasting the Effects of Maternal and Behavioral Characteristics on Fawn Birth Mass in White-Tailed Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Michel

    Full Text Available Maternal care influences offspring quality and can improve a mother's inclusive fitness. However, improved fitness may only occur when offspring quality (i.e., offspring birth mass persists throughout life and enhances survival and/or reproductive success. Although maternal body mass, age, and social rank have been shown to influence offspring birth mass, the inter-dependence among these variables makes identifying causation problematic. We established that fawn birth mass was related to adult body mass for captive male and female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, thus maternal care should improve offspring fitness. We then used path analysis to identify which maternal characteristic(s most influenced fawn birth mass of captive female white-tailed deer. Maternal age, body mass and social rank had varying effects on fawn birth mass. Maternal body mass displayed the strongest direct effect on fawn birth mass, followed by maternal age and social rank. Maternal body mass had a greater effect on social rank than age. The direct path between social rank and fawn birth mass may indicate dominance as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that heavier mothers could use dominance to improve access to resources, resulting in increased fitness through production of heavier offspring.

  1. The Effects of Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Separation and Crowding on the Academic Achievement of Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)

  2. Family matters: effects of birth order, culture, and family dynamics on surrogate decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Christopher T; McMahan, Ryan D; Williams, Brie A; Sharma, Rashmi K; Sudore, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Cultural attitudes about medical decision-making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English and Spanish speakers from county and Veterans Affairs hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants' experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision-making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis, and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 ± 14, and 29% were African American, 26% were white, 26% were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within three overarching categories: communication (unspoken expectations and discussion of death as taboo), emotion (emotional stress and feelings of loneliness), and conflict (family conflict and potential solutions to prevent conflict). These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  3. Family Matters: Effects of Birth Order, Culture, and Family Dynamics on Surrogate Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Christopher T.; McMahan, Ryan D.; Williams, Brie A.; Sharma, Rashmi K.; Sudore, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Cultural attitudes about medical decision making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English- and Spanish-speakers from county and Veterans hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants’ experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 years ± 14 and 29% were African American, 26% were White, 26% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within 3 overarching categories of communication, emotion, and conflict: Communication – (1) unspoken expectations and (2) discussion of death as taboo; Emotion – (3) emotional stress and (4) feelings of loneliness; and Conflict – (5) family conflict and (6) potential solutions to prevent conflict. These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict. PMID:24383459

  4. Effect of placental malaria on birth weight of babies in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraneli, Boniface U; Okeke, Ogochukwu C; Ubachukwu, Patience O

    2013-03-01

    In malaria-endemic countries, one adverse consequence of placental malaria on infants is low birth weight (LBW) caused by intra-uterine growth retardation and pre-term delivery. The effect of placental malaria on birth weight of babies was investigated in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. Placental blood was collected from 364 women who gave birth in NAUTH. Thin and thick placental blood smears were made and checked for the presence of malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum antigen rapid kit was used to confirm the presence of P. falciparum. New-borns were weighed and classified as normal birth weight (≥2500 g) or LBW (<2500 g). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student's t and Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare means and percentages. Risk factors for LBW were also determined. Placental malaria was found in 55.2% (n = 201) of the women. Placental malaria was associated with gravidity while age was not. In all the age groups, primigravidae and secundigravidae were mostly infected. Women with placental malaria delivered more LBW babies (32.1%) than their uninfected counterparts (5.5%), with primigravidae having more LBW babies. Similarly, weight of babies born by infected women was significantly different from that of uninfected women (p <0.0001). In multivariate analysis, placental malaria was associated with LBW (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.06-0.17, p <0.0001). The result suggests a high prevalence of placental malaria and its close association with LBW in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in NAUTH. It was also found that the percentage of LBW was highest in primigravidae.

  5. Protective Effect of Natural Rotavirus Infection in an Indian Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Beryl P.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Mukhopadhya, Indrani; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Sarkar, Rajiv; Rehman, Andrea M.; Jaffar, Shabbar; Gomara, Miren Iturriza; Gray, James J.; Brown, David W.G.; Desselberger, Ulrich; Crawford, Sue E.; John, Jacob; Babji, Sudhir; Estes, Mary K.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 500,000 deaths are attributed to rotavirus gastroenteritis annually worldwide, with the highest mortality in India. Two successive, naturally occurring rotavirus infections have been shown to confer complete protection against moderate or severe gastroenteritis during subsequent infections in a birth cohort in Mexico. We studied the protective effect of rotavirus infection on subsequent infection and disease in a birth cohort in India (where the efficacy of oral vaccines in general has been lower than expected). METHODS We recruited children at birth in urban slums in Vellore; they were followed for 3 years after birth, with home visits twice weekly. Stool samples were collected every 2 weeks, as well as on alternate days during diarrheal episodes, and were tested by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Serum samples were obtained every 6 months and evaluated for seroconversion, defined as an increase in the IgG antibody level by a factor of 4 or in the IgA antibody level by a factor of 3. RESULTS Of 452 recruited children, 373 completed 3 years of follow-up. Rotavirus infection generally occurred early in life, with 56% of children infected by 6 months of age. Levels of reinfection were high, with only approximately 30% of all infections identified being primary. Protection against moderate or severe disease increased with the order of infection but was only 79% after three infections. With G1P[8], the most common viral strain, there was no evidence of homotypic protection. CONCLUSIONS Early infection and frequent reinfection in a locale with high viral diversity resulted in lower protection than has been reported elsewhere, providing a possible explanation why rotavirus vaccines have had lower-than-expected efficacy in Asia and Africa. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust.) PMID:21793745

  6. Birth Order and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...

  7. THE EFFECT OF KANGAROO METHOD APPLICATION TO BODY TEMPERATURE OF BABY WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT (LBW)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Ayu Erika, Kadek Ayu Erika

    2012-01-01

    - Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW) care in Indonesia is still prioritizing the use of incubators but its presence is still very limited. Kangaroo method is now starting to be used as an alternative to incubator that is economically efficient and effective. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effect of the application of the kangaroo method to body temperature of baby with LBW. Method: This research was conducted at the Hospital Prof. DR. W.Z. Johannes Kupang with a sample of 25 lo...

  8. Seasonality in trauma admissions - Are daylight and weather variables better predictors than general cyclic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røislien, Jo; Søvik, Signe; Eken, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Trauma is a leading global cause of death, and predicting the burden of trauma admissions is vital for good planning of trauma care. Seasonality in trauma admissions has been found in several studies. Seasonal fluctuations in daylight hours, temperature and weather affect social and cultural practices but also individual neuroendocrine rhythms that may ultimately modify behaviour and potentially predispose to trauma. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent the observed seasonality in daily trauma admissions could be explained by changes in daylight and weather variables throughout the year. Retrospective registry study on trauma admissions in the 10-year period 2001-2010 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, where the amount of daylight varies from less than 6 hours to almost 19 hours per day throughout the year. Daily number of admissions was analysed by fitting non-linear Poisson time series regression models, simultaneously adjusting for several layers of temporal patterns, including a non-linear long-term trend and both seasonal and weekly cyclic effects. Five daylight and weather variables were explored, including hours of daylight and amount of precipitation. Models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). A regression model including daylight and weather variables significantly outperformed a traditional seasonality model in terms of AIC. A cyclic week effect was significant in all models. Daylight and weather variables are better predictors of seasonality in daily trauma admissions than mere information on day-of-year.

  9. Seasonality in trauma admissions – Are daylight and weather variables better predictors than general cyclic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Signe; Eken, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Background Trauma is a leading global cause of death, and predicting the burden of trauma admissions is vital for good planning of trauma care. Seasonality in trauma admissions has been found in several studies. Seasonal fluctuations in daylight hours, temperature and weather affect social and cultural practices but also individual neuroendocrine rhythms that may ultimately modify behaviour and potentially predispose to trauma. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent the observed seasonality in daily trauma admissions could be explained by changes in daylight and weather variables throughout the year. Methods Retrospective registry study on trauma admissions in the 10-year period 2001–2010 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, where the amount of daylight varies from less than 6 hours to almost 19 hours per day throughout the year. Daily number of admissions was analysed by fitting non-linear Poisson time series regression models, simultaneously adjusting for several layers of temporal patterns, including a non-linear long-term trend and both seasonal and weekly cyclic effects. Five daylight and weather variables were explored, including hours of daylight and amount of precipitation. Models were compared using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC). Results A regression model including daylight and weather variables significantly outperformed a traditional seasonality model in terms of AIC. A cyclic week effect was significant in all models. Conclusion Daylight and weather variables are better predictors of seasonality in daily trauma admissions than mere information on day-of-year. PMID:29425210

  10. Seasonal effect on trace metal elements behaviour in a reservoir of northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellier, S; Janeau, J L; Thothong, W; Boonsaner, A; Bonnet, M P; Lagane, C; Seyler, P

    2013-07-01

    Trace metal elements (TME) can be real threats for living organisms. However, few studies dealt with TME in reservoirs in rural areas where farming practises could induce negative effects. Mae Thang reservoir (northern Thailand) has been studied for 3 years to understand the seasonal behaviour of dissolved TME: Fe, Mn, Cd, Al, Pb, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, U and As and associated physicochemical parameters. In situ measurements of these parameters were done during the dry and the wet seasons as well as water samples along the water column for further analyses and TME determination by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the dry season, the water column was characterized by a strong stratification and anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion. High rain and water input from the watershed during the wet season induced mixing of the water. All TME, except Ni, Co and Cr were less concentrated in the wet season indicating a dilution effect by water input. There was thus no important dissolved pollution coming from the watershed. The anoxic conditions in the dry season enhanced the reduction of Fe and Mn and the desorption processes. Depth, and thus oxic-anoxic conditions were the main drivers of TME in the dry season, while in the wet season, dissolution processes from parent rocks of watershed were favoured. The average concentrations of TME in the reservoir were in the limit of the international and Thai standards. Only localized values in the bottom of the reservoir for Fe and Mn were higher than the limits.

  11. Effect of birth year on birth weight and obesity in adulthood: comparison between subjects born prior to and during the great depression in Iceland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Mari Imai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have linked small size at birth to adverse adult health outcomes but the relative influence of environmental exposures is less well established. METHODS: The authors investigated the impact of prenatal environmental exposure by comparing 2750 participants born before (1925-1929 and during (1930-1934 the Great Depression in Reykjavik, Iceland. Calendar year served as proxy for environmental effects. Anthropometric measurements at birth and school-age (8-13 years were collected from national registries. Participants were medically examined as adults (33-65 years. RESULTS: Mean birth weight, adjusted for maternal age and parity, decreased by 97 g (95% confidence interval (CI: 39, 156 for men and 70 g (95% CI: 11, 129 for women from 1925 to 1934; growth at school-age was significantly reduced for participants growing during the Depression. As adults, women prenatally exposed to the Depression had higher body mass index (Δ0.6 kg/m(2, 95% CI: 0.2, 1.1, higher fasting blood glucose levels (Δ0.16 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.23 and greater odds of being obese 1.43 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.02 compared to unexposed counterparts. Non-significant associations were observed in men. CONCLUSION: Reduction in birth weight due to rapid shifts in the economic environment appears to have a modest but significant association with later obesity for women while male offspring appear to be less affected by these conditions.

  12. Seasonality of livebirths and climatic factors in Italian regions (1863-1933

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ruiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth seasonality is a phenomenon that characterizes almost all the populations of the world. In spite of this, the causes underlying these seasonal fluctuations represent an as yet unsolved puzzle. Two main theoretical approaches have been proposed to explain birth seasonality. The first encompasses a social explanation and emphasizes the role of social, economic and cultural factors in determining the optimal moment (from a social perspective for conception (e.g., according to the cycle of agricultural workload, religious festivity, marriage seasonality, etc.. The second theoretical approach encompasses an environmental explanation and focuses on the role that climatic factors (e.g., temperature, rainfall, light intensity, etc. play in determining the optimal moment of conception from a biological perspective. Our paper may be collocated in the latter strand of the literature. The aim is to investigate the effects of temperature on conceptions, and subsequently on the seasonality of livebirths, while controlling for a possible social confounding effect, i.e. the seasonal pattern of marriage. To achieve this end, we empirically investigate the role of temperature as well as that of marriage seasonality in Italian regions for the period stretching from the Italian unification to the eve of World War II. We find that extreme temperatures (both cold and hot negatively affect the number of births. At the same time, marriage seasonality also seems to be an important explicative factor of the seasonal fluctuation of live births.

  13. Seasonality, mobility, and livability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Signature project 4a, Seasonality, Mobility, and Livability investigated the effects of weather, season, built environment, community amenities, attitudes, and demographics on mobility and quality of life (QOL). A four season panel survey exami...

  14. Disentangling the effects of date, individual, and territory quality on the seasonal decline in fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärt, Tomas; Knape, Jonas; Low, Matthew; Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora

    2017-08-01

    The seasonal timing of reproduction is a major fitness factor in many organisms. Commonly, individual fitness declines with time in the breeding season. We investigated three suggested but rarely tested hypotheses for this seasonal fitness decline: (1) time per se (date hypothesis), (2) late breeders are of lower quality than early ones (individual quality hypothesis), and (3) late breeders are breeding at poorer territories than early breeders (territory quality hypothesis). We used Bayesian variance component analyses to examine reproductive output (breeding success, number fledged, and number of recruits) from repeated observations of female Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and individual territories from a 20-yr population study. The major part of the observed seasonal decline in reproductive output seemed to be driven by date-related effects, whereas female age and territory type (i.e., known indicators of temporary quality) contributed to a smaller degree. Other, persistent effects linked to individual and territory identity did not show any clear patterns on the seasonal decline in reproductive output. To better disentangle the quality effects (persistent and temporary) of individual and territory from effects caused by the deterioration of the environment we suggest a protocol combining experimental manipulation of breeding time with a variance-covariance partitioning method used here. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  16. The effect of seasonal changes and climatic factors on suicide attempts of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Winkler, Dietmar; Willeit, Matthaeus; Kapusta, Nestor D; Dorffner, Georg; Özlü-Erkilic, Zeliha

    2017-11-15

    Seasonal changes and climatic factors like ambient temperature, sunlight duration and rainfall can influence suicidal behavior. This study analyses the relationship between seasonal changes and climatic variations and suicide attempts in 2131 young patients in Istanbul, Turkey. In our study sample, there was an association between suicide attempts in youths and seasonal changes, as suicide attempts occurred most frequently during summer in females as well as in males. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the mean temperature over the past 10 days and temperature at the index day and suicide attempts in females. After seasonality effects were mathematically removed, the mean temperature 10 days before a suicide attempt remained significant in males only, indicating a possible short-term influence of temperature on suicide attempts. This study shows an association between suicide attempts of young people and climatic changes, in particular temperature changes as well as seasonal changes. Therefore, the influence of seasonal changes and climatic factors on young suicide attempters should get more attention in research to understand the biopsychosocial mechanisms playing a role in suicide attempts of young people. As suicide attempts most frequently occur in young people, further research is of considerable clinical importance.

  17. Causes, Effects and Possible Solution of Seasonal Egg Gluts: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to assess small holder poultry farmers' perspectives on the causes, effects and solution to the cyclical egg glut in Ejigbo, Nigeria using questionnaire for data collection and descriptive data analysis. Farmers interviewed agreed that government policies have a registered effect on drop of egg sales ...

  18. Season and humidity dependence of the effects of air pollution on COPD hospitalizations in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Wang, Xiaorong; Tian, Linwei; Tse, Lap Ah; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-09-01

    Associations between ambient pollution and respiratory morbidity including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been confirmed. Weather factors, such as temperature, season and relative humidity (RH), may modify the effects of air pollution. This time series study was conducted to examine whether the effects of air pollution on emergency COPD hospital admissions in Hong Kong varied across seasons and RH levels, and explore the possible joint modification of season and RH on the effects of pollution. Data of daily air pollution concentrations mean temperature and RH, and COPD hospital admissions from 1998 to 2007 were collected. Generalized additive Poisson models with interaction terms were used to estimate the effects of pollution across seasons and RH levels. We observed an increase in the detrimental effects of air pollution in the cool season and on low humidity days. On the cool and dry days, a 10 μg m-3 increment of lag03 exposure was associated with an increase in emergency COPD admissions by 1.76% (95%CI: 1.19-2.34%), 3.43% (95%CI: 2.80-4.07%), and 1.99% (95%CI: 0.90-3.09%) for nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), respectively, all of which were statistically significantly higher than those on the other days. No consistent modification of weather factors was found for the effects of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10). The results suggested that season and RH jointly modified the effects of gaseous pollutants, resulting in increased emergency COPD hospitalizations on the cool and dry days.

  19. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Heba J.; Innes, Nicola P.; Sallout, Bahauddin I.; Alamoudi, Najlaa M.; Hamdan, Mustafa A.; Alhamlan, Nasir; Al-Khozami, Amaal I.; Abdulhameed, Fatma D.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Mossey, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC) and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035) born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133) were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233) matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL) was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP) was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP) was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46), particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity. PMID:26318465

  20. Birth prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Saudi Arabia and the effects of parental consanguinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba J. Sabbagh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the characteristics and prevalence of non-syndromic orofacial clefting (NSOFC and assess the effects of parental consanguinity on NSOFC phenotypes in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia. Methods: All infants (114,035 born at 3 referral centers in Riyadh, and 6 hospitals in Jeddah and Madinah between January 2010 and December 2011 were screened. The NSOFC cases (n=133 were identified and data was collected through clinical examination and records, and information on consanguinity through parent interviews. The diagnosis was confirmed by reviewing medical records and contacting the infants’ pediatricians. Control infants (n=233 matched for gender and born in the same hospitals during the same period, were selected. Results: The prevalence of NSOFC was 1.07/1000 births in Riyadh, and 1.17/1000 births overall; cleft lip (CL was 0.47/1000 births, cleft lip and palate (CLP was 0.42/1000 births, and cleft palate (CP was 0.28/1000 births. Cleft palate was significantly associated with consanguinity (p=0.047, odds ratio: 2.5, 95% confidence interval: 1 to 6.46, particularly for first cousin marriages. Conclusion: The birth prevalence of NSOFC in Riyadh alone, and in the 3 main cities of Saudi Arabia were marginally lower than the mean global prevalence. While birth prevalence for CLP was comparable to global figures, the CL:CLP ratio was high, and only CP was significantly associated with consanguinity.

  1. The Effects of Chewing Betel Nut with Tobacco and Pre-pregnancy Obesity on Adverse Birth Outcomes Among Palauan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Katherine E; Masterson, James; Mascardo, Joy; Grapa, Jayvee; Appanaitis, Inger; Temengil, Everlynn; Watson, Berry Moon; Cash, Haley L

    2016-08-01

    The small Pacific Island nation of Palau has alarmingly high rates of betel nut with tobacco use and obesity among the entire population including pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the effects of betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity on adverse birth outcomes. This study used retrospective cohort data on 1171 Palauan women who gave birth in Belau National Hospital in Meyuns, Republic of Palau between 2007 and 2013. The exposures of interest were pre-pregnancy obesity and reported betel nut with tobacco use during pregnancy. The primary outcomes measured were preterm birth and low birth weight among full-term infants. A significantly increased risk for low birth weight among full-term infants was demonstrated among those women who chewed betel nut with tobacco during pregnancy when other known risk factors were controlled for. Additionally, pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with a significantly increased risk for preterm birth when other known risk factors were controlled for. Both betel nut with tobacco use and pre-pregnancy obesity were associated with higher risks for adverse birth outcomes. These findings should be used to drive public health efforts in Palau, as well as in other Pacific Island nations where these studies are currently lacking.

  2. Effect of Birth Cohort on Risk of Hip Fracture: Age-Specific Incidence Rates in the Framingham Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yuqing; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian T.; Felson, David T.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of birth cohort on incidence rates of hip fracture among women and men in the Framingham Study. Methods. Age-specific incidence rates of first hip fracture were presented according to tertile of year of birth for 5209 participants of the Framingham Study, a population-based cohort followed since 1948. Sex-specific incidence rate ratios were calculated by Cox regression to assess the relation between birth cohort and hip fracture incidence. Results. An increasing trend in hip fracture incidence rates was observed with year of birth for women (trend, P = .05) and men (trend, P = .03). Relative to those born from 1887 to 1900 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.0), age-specific incidence rates were greatest in the most recent birth cohort, born from 1911 to 1921 (IRR = 1.4 for women, IRR = 2.0 for men), and intermediate in those born from 1901 to 1910 (IRR = 1.2 for women, IRR = 1.5 for men). Conclusions. Results suggest risk of hip fracture is increasing for successive birth cohorts. Projections that fail to account for the increase in rates associated with birth cohort underestimate the future public health impact of hip fracture in the United States. PMID:11988460

  3. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoi Gourangie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  4. A comparison of the effects of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and caffeine on birth size and subsequent growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, P A; O'Connell, C M

    1987-01-01

    Maternal use of cigarettes, alcohol, cannabis, and caffeine was established for four time periods; prepregnancy, first trimester, third trimester and average use over pregnancy. The relationship between such usage and growth parameters of offspring followed up from birth to 12 and 24 months of age were examined. Of the soft drugs used, nicotine had the most pronounced effect. After adjustment for other relevant variables, nicotine use prior to and during pregnancy was negatively related to weight and head circumference at birth. Furthermore, third trimester nicotine use was a stronger predictor of decreased weight and head circumference at birth than was first trimester use. The results obtained are consistent with ponderal index (PI) literature suggesting a recovery of growth retardation in infants with a lowered PI. Average consumption of greater than one ounce of absolute alcohol per day was negatively related to birth weight and length. Neither cannabis nor caffeine use had a significant negative effect on any growth parameter.

  5. Effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy and anthropometrics at birth on offspring metabolic profile at 2.8 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Vinter, Christina A; Jørgensen, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational weight gain are linked to offspring adverse metabolic profile, and lifestyle intervention during pregnancy in obese women may have long-term positive effect on their children. Furthermore, although the association between birth weight and later metabolic...... outcomes is well established, little is known about the predictive value of abdominal circumference at birth. Objectives: To study: i) effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy in obese women on offspring metabolic risk factors and ii) predictive values of birth weight (BW) and birth abdominal...... circumference (BAC). Design: Follow-up of a randomized controlled trial; the Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) study Setting: Odense and Aarhus University Hospitals, Denmark Participants: Offspring of LiP study participants (n=157) and offspring of normal weight mothers (external reference group, ER, n=97...

  6. Influenza vaccine effectiveness assessment through sentinel virological data in three post-pandemic seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Martínez, Ana; Basile, Luca; Marcos, M Angeles; Antón, Andrés; Mar Mosquera, M; Isanta, Ricard; Cabezas, Carmen; Jané, Mireia; Domínguez, Angela; Program of Catalonia, the PIDIRAC Sentinel Surveillance

    2014-01-01

    Influenza vaccination aims at reducing the incidence of serious disease, complications and death among those with the most risk of severe influenza disease. Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) through sentinel surveillance data from the PIDIRAC program (Daily Acute Respiratory Infection Surveillance of Catalonia) during 2010–2011, 2011–2012, and 2012–2013 influenza seasons, with three different predominant circulating influenza virus (IV) types [A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B, respectively] was assessed. The total number of sentinel samples with known vaccination background collected during the study period was 3173, 14.7% of which had received the corresponding seasonal influenza vaccine. 1117 samples (35.2%) were positive for IV. A retrospective negative case control design was used to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) for the entire period and for each epidemic influenza season. An overall VE of 58.1% (95% CI:46.8–67) was obtained. Differences in VE according to epidemic season were observed, being highest for the 2012–2013 season with predominance of IV type B (69.7% ;95% CI:51.5–81) and for the 2010–2011 season, with predominance of the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus strain (67.2% ;95%CI:49.5–78.8) and lowest for the 2011–2012 season with A(H3N2) subtype predominance (34.2% ;95%CI:4.5–54.6). Influenza vaccination prevents a substantial number of influenza-associated illnesses. Although vaccines with increased effectiveness are needed and the search for a universal vaccine that is not subject to genetic modifications might increase VE, nowadays only the efforts to increase vaccination rates of high-risk population and healthcare personnel let reduce the burden of influenza and its complications. PMID:25483540

  7. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  8. Effects of Birth Order and Spacing on Mother-Infant Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Kreitzberg, Valerie S.

    1979-01-01

    Examines early differences in mother-infant interaction as a function of infant birth order and birth spacing. Mother and infant behaviors were observed and recorded in the home for a two-hour period. (SS)

  9. No evidence of purported lunar effect on hospital admission rates or birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Studies indicate that a fraction of nursing professionals believe in a "lunar effect"-a purported correlation between the phases of the Earth's moon and human affairs, such as birth rates, blood loss, or fertility. This article addresses some of the methodological errors and cognitive biases that can explain the human tendency of perceiving a lunar effect where there is none. This article reviews basic standards of evidence and, using an example from the published literature, illustrates how disregarding these standards can lead to erroneous conclusions. Román, Soriano, Fuentes, Gálvez, and Fernández (2004) suggested that the number of hospital admissions related to gastrointestinal bleeding was somehow influenced by the phases of the Earth's moon. Specifically, the authors claimed that the rate of hospital admissions to their bleeding unit is higher during the full moon than at other times. Their report contains a number of methodological and statistical flaws that invalidate their conclusions. Reanalysis of their data with proper procedures shows no evidence that the full moon influences the rate of hospital admissions, a result that is consistent with numerous peer-reviewed studies and meta-analyses. A review of the literature shows that birth rates are also uncorrelated to lunar phases. Data collection and analysis shortcomings, as well as powerful cognitive biases, can lead to erroneous conclusions about the purported lunar effect on human affairs. Adherence to basic standards of evidence can help assess the validity of questionable beliefs.

  10. Effect of seasonal drawdown variations on groundwater quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... Igbinosa and Okoh (2009) reported the damaging conse- quences of leachate infiltration into groundwater bodies on life expectancy of such water consumers, while Quinn et al. (2006) enumerated its effect and that of delayed drawdown on moist plant productivity and wetland ecology. Several studies have ...

  11. Seasonal climate effects anemotaxis in newly emerged adult Anopheles gambiae Giles in Mali, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Baber, Ibrahima; Diallo, Moussa; Sogoba, Nafomon; Ribeiro, José M C

    2011-01-01

    The direction and magnitude of movement by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles has been of great interest to medical entomologists for over 70 years. This direction of movement is likely to be affected by many factors, from environmental conditions and stage of life history of the mosquito to the existence of attractants in the vicinity. We report here the direction of movement of newly emerged An. gambiae in nature, around the village of Donéguébougou, Mali. We assessed the direction of movement for individual mosquitoes by placing them in a novel enclosure with exit traps oriented in the direction of the cardinal and intermediate points of the compass. We consistently found predominantly Southward directions of movement during 2009 and 2010, with an additional Eastward component during the dry season and a Westward one during the wet season. Our data indicate that wind has an important effect on the direction of movement, but that this effect varied by season: Average directions of movement were downwind during the dry season and upwind during the wet season. A switch in anemotactic response suggests that the direction of movement of An. gambiae relative to the wind immediately after emergence under varying conditions of humidity should be further investigated under controlled conditions.

  12. Seasonal climate effects anemotaxis in newly emerged adult Anopheles gambiae Giles in Mali, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C Manoukis

    Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of movement by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles has been of great interest to medical entomologists for over 70 years. This direction of movement is likely to be affected by many factors, from environmental conditions and stage of life history of the mosquito to the existence of attractants in the vicinity. We report here the direction of movement of newly emerged An. gambiae in nature, around the village of Donéguébougou, Mali. We assessed the direction of movement for individual mosquitoes by placing them in a novel enclosure with exit traps oriented in the direction of the cardinal and intermediate points of the compass. We consistently found predominantly Southward directions of movement during 2009 and 2010, with an additional Eastward component during the dry season and a Westward one during the wet season. Our data indicate that wind has an important effect on the direction of movement, but that this effect varied by season: Average directions of movement were downwind during the dry season and upwind during the wet season. A switch in anemotactic response suggests that the direction of movement of An. gambiae relative to the wind immediately after emergence under varying conditions of humidity should be further investigated under controlled conditions.

  13. Effectiveness of 2010/2011 seasonal influenza vaccine in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study to estimate the 2010\\/2011 trivalent influenza vaccine effectiveness (TIVE) using the Irish general practitioners\\' influenza sentinel surveillance scheme. Cases were influenza-like illness (ILI) patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were ILI patients who tested negative for influenza. Participating sentinel general practitioners (GP) collected swabs from patients presenting with ILI along with their vaccination history and other individual characteristics. The TIVE was computed as (1 - odds ratiofor vaccination) x100%. Of 60 sentinel GP practices, 22 expressed interest in participating in the study and 17 (28%) recruited at least one ILI patient. In the analysis, we included 106 cases and 85 controls. Seven controls (8.2%) and one influenza case (0.9%) had been vaccinated in 2010\\/2011. The estimated TIVE against any influenza subtype was 89.4% [95% CI: 13.8; 99.8%], suggesting a protective effect against GP-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. This study design could be used to monitor influenza vaccine effectiveness annually but sample size and vaccination coverage should be increased to obtain precise and adjusted estimates.

  14. Effects on metabolic parameters in young rats born with low birth weight after exposure to a mixture of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Ramhøj, Louise; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup

    2018-01-01

    Pesticide exposure during fetal life can lead to low birth weight and is commonly observed in reproductive toxicology studies. Associations have also been found in low birth weight babies born from pesticide-exposed gardeners. Since low birth weight is also linked to metabolic disorders, it can...... be speculated that early life exposure to pesticides could increase the risk of becoming obese or developing diabetes later in life. We have analyzed potential long-term effects of gestational and lactational exposure to a low dose mixture of six pesticides that individually can cause low birth weight....... Our results suggest that early-life exposure to pesticides may contribute to the development of metabolic disorders later in life....

  15. Effect of Tactile-Kinesthetic Stimulation on Motor Development of Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Askary Kachoosangy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Low Birth Weight neonates need complementary interventions (e.g. tactile kinesthetic stimulation to promote their development. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Tactile- Kinesthetic Stimulation (TKS on motor development of Low Birth Weight neonates. Methods: In this clinical trial study, sample was made out of 40 inborn LBW neonates who were divided into two groups randomly. TKS was provided for three 15-minute periods per day for 10 consecutive days to the test group, with the massages consisting of moderate of pressure strokes in prone position and kinesthetic exercises consisting of flexion and extension of limbs in supine position. All measurements were taken before and after completion of the study with the same equipment and by the same person. Results: Results indicated that motor behavior in the intervention group was significantly higher than the control group after the 10 days TKS (P-Value≤0.0001. Discussion: TKS could be an effective intervention in development of motor behavior of LBW neonates. Because very little is known about neonate's behavior, it seems to need more studies in other aspects of behavior in LBW neonates.

  16. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. Images p724-a p724-b p724-c p724-d p724-e p724-f p724-g PMID:8401097

  17. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-09-18

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty.

  18. Effect of Concomitant Birth Defects and Genetic Anomalies on Infant Mortality in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Eric G; Strassle, Paula D; Stebbins, Rebecca C; Meyer, Robert E; Nelson, Jennifer S

    2017-08-15

    A substantial proportion of infants born with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) die in infancy. A better understanding of the heterogeneity associated with TOF, including extracardiac malformations and chromosomal anomalies is vital to stratifying risk and optimizing outcomes during infancy. Using the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program, infants diagnosed with TOF and born between 2003 and 2012 were included. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to estimate cumulative 1-year mortality, stratified by the presence of concomitant birth defects (BDs) and chromosomal anomalies. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the direct effect of each concomitant BD, after adjusting for all others. A total of 496 infants with TOF were included, and 15% (n = 76) died. The number of concomitant BD systems was significantly associated with the risk of death at 1-year, p < 0.0001. Specifically, the risk of mortality was 8% among infants with TOF with or without additional cardiac defects, 16% among infants with TOF and 1 extracardiac BD system, 19% among infants with 2 extracardiac BD systems, and 39% among infants with ≥ 3 extracardiac BD systems. After adjustment, concomitant eye and gastrointestinal defects were significantly associated increased with 1-year mortality, odds ratio 2.83 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-7.32) and odds ratio 4.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.57, 12.45), respectively. Infants with trisomy 13 or trisomy 18 were also significantly more likely to die, p < 0.0001. Both concomitant BDs and genetic anomalies increase the risk of mortality among infants with TOF. Future studies are needed to identify the underlying genetic and socioeconomic risk factors for high-risk TOF infants. Birth Defects Research 109:1154-1165, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination.

  20. Place of birth effects on self-reported discrimination: Variations by type of discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondolo, Elizabeth; Rahim, Reanne; Grimaldi, Stephanie; Ashraf, Amina; Bui, Nini; Schwartz, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that perceptions of discrimination may vary depending on place of birth and the length of time spent living in the U.S., variables related to acculturation. However, the existing literature provides a mixed picture, with data suggesting that the effects of acculturation on perceptions of discrimination vary by race and other sociodemographic factors. This study evaluated the role of place of birth (POB: defined as U.S.-born vs. foreign-born), age at immigration, and length of residence in the U.S. on self-reported discrimination in a sample of urban-dwelling Asian and Black adults (n= 1454). Analyses examined POB effects on different types of discrimination including race-related stigmatization, exclusion, threat, and workplace discrimination. Sociodemographic variables (including age, gender, employment status and education level) were tested as potential moderators of the relationship between POB and discrimination. The results revealed a significant main effect for POB on discrimination, with U.S.-born individuals reporting significantly more discrimination than foreign-born individuals, although the effect was reduced when sociodemographic variables were controlled. Across the sample, POB effects were seen only for race-related stigmatization and exclusion, not for threat and workplace discrimination. With the exception of limited effects for gender, sociodemographic variables did not moderate these effects. Younger age at immigration and greater years of residence in the U.S. were also positively associated with higher levels of perceived discrimination. These findings suggest increasing acculturation may shape the experience and perception of racial and ethnic discrimination. PMID:27647943

  1. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced (P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  2. The effect of calving season on reproductive performance of Jersey cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Soydan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy records, containing 1269 lactation record of 462 Jersey dairy cows collected over 16 years, from an agricultural state farm were used. Data for reproductive performance of cows were also collected. Means of the herd for lactation milk yield, calving interval, days open, interval from calving to the first insemination, lactation length, gestation length and dry period were 3195.7±20.2 kg, 366.6±1.7 d, 92.9±1.6 d, 78.0±1.3 d, 301.7±1.1 d, 275.2±0.2 d and 69.3±0.8 d, respectively. The effect of calving season (winter, spring, summer and autumn on reproductive performance for high, low and moderate milk-yield cows was investigated. Calving season affected the days from calving to first insemination in high and moderate yielding cows (P<0.001 while didn’t affect low yielding cows. In summer, days open in high yielding cows were 35 days longer compared to winter season (P<0.001 as observed for moderate yielding cows (P<0.01. In high yielding cows, calving interval was 18 days longer in spring compared to winter calving season. Calving season also affected the first service conception rate in high yielding cows (P<0.05. Services per conception in autumn were lower than the other seasons (P<0.001. In conclusion, high yielding dairy cows need more attention in summer season with respect to body condition score, dietary energy: protein ratio, uterus health and elimination of heat stress, to get more profit in dairy farm.

  3. Working memory mediates the effects of gestational age at birth on expressive language development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Valentina; Cantiani, Chiara; Dionne, Ginette; Marini, Andrea; Mascheretti, Sara; Molteni, Massimo; Marino, Cecilia

    2017-07-01

    This study tested the role of temporary memory, measured by phonological short-term memory (pSTM) and verbal working memory (vWM), as a mediator of the effect of 3 putative risk factors (i.e., socioeconomic status, home literacy environment, birth gestational age) upon expressive and receptive language. A community-based sample of 646 Italian children aged 6-11 years was assessed with a comprehensive battery of language and cognitive tests. A mediation analysis was used to examine whether memory mediates environmental/biological effects on language. The results demonstrated a developmental cascade of effects, whereby the duration of pregnancy drives vWM functioning that, in turn, may affect expressive linguistic outcome Conclusion: Treatments focused on vWM, specifically to preterm children, may improve their language development, with enduring consequences on educational and psychosocial outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. [The effect of birth weight on the early postnatal vitality of piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Wähner, M; Puppe, B

    1994-10-01

    Investigations with 1248 newborn piglets in 7 farms showed a high significant influence of birth weight on parameters of early postnatal vitality. The duration between birth and first standing up was by two times, the time between birth and first udder contact by 3.5 times and the duration between birth and first colostrum intake was by 4 times longer in piglets with a low birth weight ( 2200 g). The drop in rectal temperature up to 30 minutes after birth reached 4.5 Kelvin in lightweight piglets, whereas their litter mates with a high body weight at birth had a value of 0.85 K (p vitality of newborn piglets and has a high prognostic value in relation to the risk of losses and the live weight development of neonates.

  5. The effect of low birth weight on height, weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2013-01-01

    as physical growth at ages 6 months, 3½, 7½ and 11 years using data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time enabled us to chart the evolution of anthropometric and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helped......A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run. While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive...... outcomes have found effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthood, others have found a diminishing negative effect over time. The purpose of this paper was to bring new evidence to this issue by analyzing the medium run effects of low birth weight on child behavioral outcomes as well...

  6. Effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nutritional status of the mother prior to and during pregnancy plays a vital role in fetal growth and development, and maternal undernourishment may lead to adverse perinatal outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Several macronutrient interventions had been proposed for adequate protein and energy supplementation during pregnancy. The objective of this paper was to review the effect of balanced protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on birth outcomes. This paper is a part of a series of reviews undertaken for getting estimates of effectiveness of an intervention for input to Lives Saved Tool (LiST model. Methods A literature search was conducted on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional data bases to identify randomized trials (RCTs and quasi RCTs that evaluated the impact of balanced protein energy supplementation in pregnancy. Balanced protein energy supplementation was defined as nutritional supplementation during pregnancy in which proteins provided less than 25% of the total energy content. Those studies were excluded in which the main intervention was dietary advice to pregnant women for increase in protein energy intake, high protein supplementation (i.e. supplementation in which protein provides at least 25% of total energy content, isocaloric protein supplementation (where protein replaces an equal quantity of non-protein energy content, or low energy diet to pregnant women who are either overweight or who exhibit high weight gain earlier in gestation. The primary outcomes were incidence of small for gestational age (SGA birth, mean birth weight and neonatal mortality. Quality of evidence was evaluated according to the Child Health Epidemiology Reference group (CHERG adaptation of Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria. Results The final number of studies included in our review was eleven comprising of both RCTs and quasi-RCTs. Our meta

  7. Precipitation effects on microbial pollution in a river: lag structures and seasonal effect modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tornevi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The river Göta Älv is a source of freshwater for 0.7 million swedes. The river is subject to contamination from sewer systems discharge and runoff from agricultural lands. Climate models projects an increase in precipitation and heavy rainfall in this region. This study aimed to determine how daily rainfall causes variation in indicators of pathogen loads, to increase knowledge of variations in river water quality and discuss implications for risk management. METHODS: Data covering 7 years of daily monitoring of river water turbidity and concentrations of E. coli, Clostridium and coliforms were obtained, and their short-term variations in relation with precipitation were analyzed with time series regression and non-linear distributed lag models. We studied how precipitation effects varied with season and compared different weather stations for predictive ability. RESULTS: Generally, the lowest raw water quality occurs 2 days after rainfall, with poor raw water quality continuing for several more days. A rainfall event of >15 mm/24-h (local 95 percentile was associated with a three-fold higher concentration of E. coli and 30% higher turbidity levels (lag 2. Rainfall was associated with exponential increases in concentrations of indicator bacteria while the effect on turbidity attenuated with very heavy rainfall. Clear associations were also observed between consecutive days of wet weather and decreased water quality. The precipitation effect on increased levels of indicator bacteria was significant in all seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Rainfall elevates microbial risks year-round in this river and freshwater source and acts as the main driver of varying water quality. Heavy rainfall appears to be a better predictor of fecal pollution than water turbidity. An increase of wet weather and extreme events with climate change will lower river water quality even more, indicating greater challenges for drinking water producers, and suggesting better

  8. Influenza epidemics, seasonality, and the effects of cold weather on cardiac mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background More people die in the winter from cardiac disease, and there are competing hypotheses to explain this. The authors conducted a study in 48 US cities to determine how much of the seasonal pattern in cardiac deaths could be explained by influenza epidemics, whether that allowed a more parsimonious control for season than traditional spline models, and whether such control changed the short term association with temperature. Methods The authors obtained counts of daily cardiac deaths and of emergency hospital admissions of the elderly for influenza during 1992–2000. Quasi-Poisson regression models were conducted estimating the association between daily cardiac mortality, and temperature. Results Controlling for influenza admissions provided a more parsimonious model with better Generalized Cross-Validation, lower residual serial correlation, and better captured Winter peaks. The temperature-response function was not greatly affected by adjusting for influenza. The pooled estimated increase in risk for a temperature decrease from 0 to −5°C was 1.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1%). Influenza accounted for 2.3% of cardiac deaths over this period. Conclusions The results suggest that including epidemic data explained most of the irregular seasonal pattern (about 18% of the total seasonal variation), allowing more parsimonious models than when adjusting for seasonality only with smooth functions of time. The effect of cold temperature is not confounded by epidemics. PMID:23025494

  9. The effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on stress response in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Liste, M.G; María, G. A.; García-Belenguer, S.; Chacón, G.; Gazzola, P.; Villarroel, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of transport time, season and position on the truck on physiological stress response of commercial rabbits in Aragón (Spain). A total of 156 animals were sampled in a 2x2x3 factorial design testing two transport times: short, 1 hour (1hT) and long, 7 hours (7hT), in two different seasons: hot, during summer (HT) and cold during winter (CT), and three different positions on the truck: upper, middle or lower decks in multi-floor cages on rolling stands (MFR...

  10. Ecological effects of prescribed fire season: a literature review and synthesis for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric E. Knapp; Becky L. Estes; Carl N. Skinner

    2009-01-01

    Prescribed burning may be conducted at times of the year when fires were infrequent historically, leading to concerns about potential adverse effects on vegetation and wildlife. Historical and prescribed fire regimes for different regions in the continental United States were compared and literature on season of prescribed burning synthesized. In regions and vegetation...

  11. Evaluation of the effects of season on yield, viscosity and colour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper evaluates the effect of production season on pulp yield, apparent viscosity and colour of tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum var. Roma VF), watermelon (Vitrullus vulgaris var. Babyblack) and pineapple (Ananascomosus var. Smooth cayennes) pulps. Tomato, watermelon and pineapple pulps from two harvesting ...

  12. Season and weather effects on travel-related mood and travel satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, Dick; Friman, Margareta; Olsson, Lars E.; Gärling, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the effects of season and weather on mood (valence and activation) and travel satisfaction (measured by the Satisfaction with Travel Scale). Analyses are presented of 562 time-sampled morning commutes to work made by 363 randomly sampled people in three different Swedish cities

  13. The effect of seasonal grazing on the infiltration capacity of soils in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infiltration measurements were determined by means of a flood type concentric ring infiltrometer. The results showed that grazing during any one of the seasons reduced the infiltration capacity of the soils. The detrimental effects of summer and autumn grazing were, however, larger titan those of winter and spring ...

  14. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This paper reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. Method: Global health databases were searched in three

  15. A preliminary note on the effect of season on the reproductive tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary note on the effect of season on the reproductive tract of the eland bull Taurotragus oryx. J.D. Skinner, J.A.H. Heerden, J.H.M. van Zyl. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of buffer width, vegetation, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of vegetative buffer strip (VBS) width, vegetation, and season of the year on herbicide transport in runoff has not been well documented for runoff prone soils. A multi-year replicated plot-scale study was conducted on an eroded claypan soil with the following objectives: 1) assess the ef...

  17. The effect of season on aspects of in vitro embryo production in sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of season on aspects of in vitro embryo production in sub-fertile beef cows. ... Forty beef (40) cows of different breeds and parities were used in a trial ... in follicular populations could be established for different months of the year.

  18. Seasonal influenza vaccine policy, use and effectiveness in the tropics and subtropics - a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirve, S.; Lambach, P.; Paget, J.; Vandemaele, K.; Fitzner, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The evidence needed for tropical countries to take informed decisions on influenza vaccination is scarce. This article reviews policy, availability, use and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine in tropical and subtropical countries. METHOD: Global health databases were searched in three

  19. Physical abuse, smoking, and substance use during pregnancy: prevalence, interrelationships, and effects on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, J; Parker, B; Soeken, K

    1996-05-01

    To establish the singular and combined occurrence of physical abuse, smoking, and substance use (i.e., alcohol and illicit drugs) during pregnancy and its effect on birth weight. Prospective cohort analysis. Urban public prenatal clinics. 414 African American, 412 Hispanic, and 377 white pregnant women. Occurrence of physical abuse was 16%; smoking, 29.5%; and alcohol/illicit drug use, 11.9%. Significant relationships existed between physical abuse and smoking for African American and white women. For African American women, 33.7% of women who were not abused smoked, versus 49.5% of women who were abused (chi 2 = 8.21; df = 1; p drug use was 20.8% for nonabused women compared with 42.1% for abused women (chi 2 = 18.18; df = 1; p abused smoked, versus 59.6% of those who were abused (chi 2 = 5.22; df = 1; p abuse, smoking, and alcohol/ illicit drug use were significantly related to birth weight (F[3, 1040] = 30.19, p abuse during pregnancy is common, readily detected with a five-question screen, and associated with significantly higher use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. Clinical protocols that integrate assessment and intervention for physical abuse, smoking, and substance use are essential for preventing further abuse and improving smoking and substance cessation rates.

  20. Kangaroo position: Immediate effects on the physiological variables of preterm and low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Cesário Defilipo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method is a significant neonatal alternative that ensures better quality humanized care for preterm and low birth weight newborns. Objective: To analyze the immediate physiological effects of the kangaroo position in critically ill newborns. Methods: Open clinical trial with parallel interventions, involving preterm (up to 28 days old low or very low birth weight newborns (minimum weight of 1,250 grams of both sexes, that were clinically stable and undergoing enteral nutrition. The degree of respiratory distress was assessed and quantified using the Silverman-Anderson scoring system. Heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were collected using a pulse oximeter. Respiratory rate was determined by auscultation for one minute. The newborns were submitted to the kangaroo position once only, for 90 minutes. Results: Participants were 30 newborns, 56.7% of which were girls. Comparison of the variables before and after application of the kangaroo position using the Wilcoxon test showed a statistically significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.02 and Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01. The remaining variables showed no significant differences: heart rate (p = 0.21, peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.26 and axillary temperature (p = 0.12. Conclusion: There was a decline in the respiratory rate and Silverman-Anderson score after application of the kangaroo position, while peripheral oxygen saturation, axillary temperature and heart rate remained stable.

  1. [Evaluation of maternal parameters as risk factors for premature birth (individual and combined effects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, M; Briese, V; Pietzner, V; Kirchengast, S; Schneider, K T M; Straube, S; Jorch, G

    2009-08-01

    We aimed to examine the individual and combined effects of nine maternal parameters (biological, medical, and social) on rates of prematurity. Our objective was to provide obstetricians with a way of screening women for likely premature deliveries. We conducted a retrospective analysis on the data of about 2.3 million pregnancies taken from the German perinatal statistics of 1995-2000. Rates of prematurity were calculated with single and multi-dimensional analyses on the basis of nine maternal parameters (age, weight, height, number of previous live births, stillbirths, miscarriages and terminations of pregnancy, smoking status, previous premature delivery). The following combinations of parameters were investigated in particular: rates of prematurity according to the number of previous stillbirths, miscarriages, and terminations; rates of prematurity according to the number of previous live births and maternal age, height and weight. We also included daily cigarette consumption and previous premature deliveries in our analyses. The rate of prematurity (premature deliveries (32-36 weeks) was 5.9%, and the rate of very early premature deliveries (prematurity (prematurity of 27.5% in women with the following combination of parameters: > or =1 stillbirth, > or =2 terminations of pregnancy and > or =2 miscarriages. A rather high risk of premature delivery (>11%) was also found for elderly (> or =40 years) grand multiparous women as well as small (premature deliveries (>10%). The risk table that we present here may assist in predicting premature delivery. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  2. Effect of prophylactic CPAP in very low birth weight infants in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubizarreta, J R; Lorch, S A; Marshall, G; D'Apremont, I; Tapia, J L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of prophylactic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on infants born in 25 South American neonatal intensive care units affiliated with the Neocosur Neonatal Network using novel multivariate matching methods. A prospective cohort was constructed of infants with a birth weight 500 to 1500 g born between 2005 and 2011 who clinically were eligible for prophylactic CPAP. Patients who received prophylactic CPAP were matched to those who did not on 23 clinical and sociodemographic variables (N=1268). Outcomes were analyzed using the McNemar's test. Infants not receiving prophylactic CPAP had higher mortality rates (odds ratio (OR)=1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17, 2.46), need for any mechanical ventilation (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.33, 2.14) and death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.09, 1.98). The benefit of prophylactic CPAP varied by birth weight and gender. The implementation of this process was associated with a significant improvement in survival and survival free of BPD.

  3. Effects of breastfeeding and sucking habits on malocclusion in a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Barros, Aluísio J D; Peres, Marco Aurélio; Victora, César Gomes

    2007-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and to examine the effects of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits on dentition in six-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was carried out nested into a birth cohort conducted in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1999. A sample of 359 children was dentally examined and their mothers interviewed. Anterior open bite and posterior cross bite were recorded using the Foster & Hamilton criteria. Information regarding breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking habits was collected at birth, in the first, third, sixth and 12th months of life, and at six years of age. Control variables included maternal schooling and child's birthweight, cephalic perimeter, and sex. Data were analyzed by Poisson regression. Prevalence of anterior open bite was 46.2%, and that of posterior cross bite was 18.2%. Non-nutritive sucking habits between 12 months and four years of age and digital sucking at age six years were the main risk factors for anterior open bite. Breastfeeding for less than nine months and regular use of pacifier between age 12 months and four years were risk factors for posterior cross bite. Interaction between duration of breastfeeding and the use of pacifier was identified for posterior cross bite. Given that breastfeeding is a protective factor for other diseases of infancy, our findings indicate that the common risks approach is the most appropriate for the prevention of posterior cross bite in primary or initial mixed dentition.

  4. Temperature effects on seaweed-sustaining top-down control vary with season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Franziska J; Graiff, Angelika; Matthiessen, Birte

    2016-03-01

    Rising seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations (ocean acidification) represent two of the most influential factors impacting marine ecosystems in the face of global climate change. In ecological climate change research, full-factorial experiments performed across seasons in multispecies, cross-trophic-level settings are essential as they permit a more realistic estimation of direct and indirect effects as well as the relative importance of the effects of both major environmental stressors on ecosystems. In benthic mesocosm experiments, we tested the responses of coastal Baltic Sea Fucus vesiculosus communities to elevated seawater temperature and CO2 concentrations across four seasons of one year. While increasing [CO2] levels had only minor effects, warming had strong and persistent effects on grazers, and the resulting effects on the Fucus community were found to be season dependent. In late summer, a temperature-driven collapse of grazers caused a cascading effect from the consumers to the foundation species, resulting in overgrowth of Fucus thalli by epiphytes. In fall/winter (outside the growing season of epiphytes), intensified grazing under warming resulted in a significant reduction in Fucus biomass. Thus, we were able to confirm the prediction that future increases in water temperatures will influence marine food-web processes by altering top-down control, but we were also able to show that specific consequences for food-web structure depend on the season. Since F. vesiculosus is the dominant habitat-forming brown algal system in the Baltic Sea, its potential decline under global warming implies a loss of key functions and services such as provision of nutrient storage, substrate, food, shelter, and nursery grounds for a diverse community of marine invertebrates and fish in Baltic Sea coastal waters.

  5. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    The length of parents' birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. In this paper, I will focus on some potential benefits of leave. I investigate the long-term effects on children of increasing the length of parents' birth-related leave using a natural...... experiment from 1984 in Denmark when the leave length was increased quite suddenly by almost 50% from 14 to 20 weeks. Regression discontinuity design is used to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and to estimate whether there is a measurable, persistent effect on children's cognitive...... and educational outcomes at ages 15 and 21. A population sample of Danish children born in the months around implementation of the reform and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect...

  6. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  7. Effect modification by parental education on the associations of birth order and gender with learning achievement in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C-C J; Wang, W-L; Sung, Y-T; Wang, Y-C; Su, S-Y; Li, C-Y

    2013-11-01

    A child's gender and ordinal position within a family have varied implications on his or her personality and cognitive development. However, little is known about whether or not parental educational level may moderate the effects of birth order and gender. Basic Competence Test (BCT) scores of 290,588 young adolescents aged 15-16 years in Taiwan were analysed. Parental educational level was calculated as the highest educational attainment of the subjects' parents. The multiple linear regression model was used to assess the modification effects of parental educational levels on the associations of interest. After controlling for covariates, we noted a clear inverse relationship between birth order and BCT scores in Mandarin, Mathematics and Science. Additionally, boys had significantly lower mean scores in Mandarin, but had significantly higher mean scores in both Mathematics and Science. We also found the significant interactive effects of birth order, gender and parental educational attainment on BCT scores, in which the birth order and gender effects were more evident in higher-educated families than in lower-educated ones. This large cohort study confirmed that both birth order and gender may pose independent influences on BCT scores; moreover, such influences are significantly modified by parental educational attainment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of plant cover on soil N mineralization during the growing season in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y.; Shao, M.; Wei, X.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and its availability plays a vital role in regulating ecosystem productivity and C cycling, particularly in semiarid and desertified ecosystems. To determine the effect of plant cover on N turnover in a sandy soil ecosystem, we measured soil N mineralization and inorganic N pools in soil solution during growing season in a sandy soil covered with various plant species (Artemisia desertorum, Salix psammophila, and Caragana korshinskii). A bare sandy soil without any plant was selected as control. Inorganic N pools and N mineralization rates decreased overtime during the growing season, and were not affected by soil depth in bare land soils, but were significantly higher at the 0-10 cm layer than those at the 10-20 cm soil layer under any plant species. Soil inorganic N pool was dominated by ammonium, and N mineralization was dominated by nitrification regardless of soil depth and plant cover. Soils under C. korshinskii have significant higher inorganic N pools and N mineralization rate than soils under bare land and A. desertorum and S. psammophila, and the effects of plant cover were greater at the 0-10 cm soil layer than at the 10-20 cm layer. The effects of C. korshinskii on soil inorganic N pools and mineralization rate varied with the stage of growing season, with greater effects on N pools in the middle growing season, and greater effects on mineralization rate at the last half of the growing season. The results from this study indicate that introduction of C. korshinskii has the potential to increase soil N turnover and availability in sandy soils, and thus to decrease N limitation. Caragana korshinskii is therefore recommend for the remediation of the desertified land.

  9. The cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women against seasonal influenza in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Cromer, Deborah; Baguelin, Marc; Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth

    2010-12-10

    We assessed the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating pregnant women against seasonal influenza in England and Wales, taking into account the timing of vaccination relative to both the influenza season and trimester of pregnancy. Women were assumed to be vaccinated in their second or third trimester. Vaccination between September and December was found to have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £23,000 per quality adjusted life year (QALY) (95% CI £10,000-£140,000) if it is assumed that infants are partially protected through their mothers, and of £28,000 per QALY gained (95% CI £13,000-£200,000) if infants are not protected. If some vaccine protection lasts for a second season, then the ratio is only £15,000 per QALY gained (95% CI £6,000-£93,000). Most of the benefit of vaccination is in preventing symptomatic episodes, regardless of health care resource use. Extending vaccination beyond December is unlikely to be cost-effective unless there is good protection into a second influenza season. Key sources of uncertainty are the cost of vaccine delivery and the quality of life detriment due to a clinically apparent episode of confirmed influenza. The cost of vaccine purchase itself is relatively low. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Seasonal Changes, Age and Smoking on Haemostatic Factors and Thyroxine Level in Egyptian Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; Bahgat, M. M.; Haggag, A. M.; Taha, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    ONE hundred and twenty male volunteers arranged into 6 equal groups participated in the present study to investigate the influence of age, smoking and season on clot formation, clot lysis and thyroxine hormone. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, clotting time, platelet count, haemoglobin content, red blood cell count, haematocrit, total leukocytic count, fibrinogen, prothrombin time and concentration, partial thromboplastin time, factor V, VIII, plasminogen and thyroxine hormone were estimated in each group. The effect of age was studied by comparing young individuals (11-16 years) with adult non smokers (30-40 years) . Simultaneously adult non smokers were compared to adult smokers to evaluate the effect of smoking.Three groups: young , adult non smokers and adult smokers during winter were compared with their corresponding groups in summer to assess the season effect.The results revealed that most changes in the three groups were due to temperature variation and the young group had a better thermoregulation control than both adult groups .In non smoker adult group winter caused hypercoagulation with a concomitant increase in fibrinolytic activity as a protective mechanism against thrombus formation. Smoking caused disturbances in many coagulation factors and interaction between smoking and season is evident causing vascular disturbances. In summer smokers are more liable to bleeding, while in winter they are more liable to thrombus formation providing the other condition interfering with bleeding and thrombus formation are constant. There is relative hypothyroidism in smoker group only in summer season

  11. The effectiveness of periodontal disease treatment during pregnancy in reducing the risk of experiencing preterm birth and low birth weight: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Anna; Uppal, Shitanshu; Pinto, Andres; Dutta, Moushumi; Shrivatsa, Shwetha; Dandolu, Vani; Mupparapu, Mel

    2010-12-01

    Treating periodontal disease during pregnancy to improve outcomes is controversial, and the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. The authors performed meta-analysis of these RCTs to assess the overall effect of treating periodontal disease during pregnancy. The authors performed a meta-analysis of studies found by means of two database aggregators OvidSP (12 databases) and EBSCOhost (11 databases). They included RCTs in pregnant women with periodontal disease who were assigned to a treatment arm (scaling and root planing with polishing) or a control arm (no treatment or only prophylaxis). Ten RCTs met the inclusion criteria for preterm birth (PTB), and eight RCTs met the inclusion criteria for low birth weight (LBW). The odds ratio of PTB in the treatment group was 0.589 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.396-0.875) and of LBW was 0.717 (95 percent CI = 0.440-1.169). Level of bias was the only significant predictor (P periodontal disease during pregnancy.

  12. Effect of Maternal Diet Diversity and Physical Activity on Neonatal Birth Weight: A Study from Urban Slums of Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal Manerkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: India has the highest prevalence of low birth weight babies. Geographical variation and level of physical activity can influence diet diversity and maternal nutritional status which in turn influences the birth weight of the neonate. Mumbai is a large city comprising of slums in suburbs depicting diet diversity amongst populations. Aim: To study the maternal diet diversity, physical activity and its effect on birth weight of the neonates in urban slums of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A six month follow-up study was carried out in three maternity homes representing different geographical areas of Western, Central and Southern Mumbai. A total number of 131 pregnant women were selected using simple random sampling. Final sample size was n=121 after follow-up loss of 9 and 1 miscarriage. Maternal anthropometric, socio-demographic, physical activity and diet diversity data was collected using structured questionnaires through personal interview after taking written informed consent. Birth weight of the neonate was recorded. Chi-Square, Correlation, ANOVA was used to test the significance. A p-value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: Nineteen (15.7% were low birth weight (LBW infants, 102 (84.3% had normal weight. There was a significant association between place of Antenatal Clinic (ANC visit and diet diversity score and its subsequent effect on birth weight (p<0.05. Geographic variation had an impact on diet diversity scores which in turn affected the birth weight of neonates. Women who delivered low birth weight babies were more involved in household domestic activities (p<0.05 compared to those women who delivered normal weight babies. Conclusion: Diet diversity and physical activity influence the birth weight of neonates across different geographic locations. Despite of ample interventions available to prevent maternal malnutrition, the incidence of LBW was not decreased. Thus, this issue needs to be addressed at

  13. Effects of a Birth Hospital's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Level and Annual Volume of Very Low-Birth-Weight Infant Deliveries on Morbidity and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erik A; Lorch, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    The annual volume of deliveries of very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants has a greater effect on mortality risk than does neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) level. The differential effect of these hospital factors on morbidity among VLBW infants is uncertain. To assess the independent effects of a birth hospital's annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries and NICU level on the risk of several neonatal morbidities and morbidity-mortality composite outcomes that are predictive of future neurocognitive development. Retrospective, population-based cohort study (performed in 2014) of all VLBW infants without severe congenital anomalies delivered in all hospitals in California, Missouri, and Pennsylvania between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2009 (N = 72,431). Risk-adjusted odds ratios and risk-adjusted probabilities were determined by logistic regression. The primary study outcomes were the individual composites of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Among the 72,431 VLBW infants in the present study, birth at a hospital with 10 or less deliveries of VLBW infants per year was associated with the highest risk-adjusted probability of death (15.3% [95% CI, 14.4%-16.3%]), death or severe intraventricular hemorrhage (17.5% [95% CI, 16.5%-18.6%]), and death or necrotizing enterocolitis (19.3% [95% CI, 18.1%-20.4%]). These complications were also more common among infants born at hospitals with a level I or II NICU compared with infants delivered at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU. The risk-adjusted probability of death or retinopathy of prematurity was highest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIB/C NICU and lowest among infants born at hospitals with a level IIIA NICU. When the effects of NICU level and annual volume of VLBW infant deliveries were evaluated simultaneously, the annual volume of deliveries was the stronger contributor to the risk of death, death or

  14. Seasonal variation in standardized litter decomposition and effects of elevation and land use at Mount Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Joscha; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    Decomposition is one of most important ecological steps in organic matter and nutrient cycles, but studies and reliable data from tropical regions in Africa are still scarce. At the global scale, litter decomposition and recycling is controlled by climatic factors and land-use intensity. These factors can be linked to specific ecosystem characteristics along the unique elevation gradient of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Our objectives were to assess the effects of climatic conditions (i.e. elevation) and land-use intensity on C turnover and stabilization and investigated the seasonal variations. Tea-bag Index (see www.teatime4science.org) was used to measure decomposition of a standardized litter substrate by microorganisms and mesofauna coffee plantations or cloud forest (S=0.11) respectively and strongly increased again to a maximum of S=0.41 in the alpine helichrysum ecosystem. During all seasons, we found the highest decomposition rates at mid elevation. However, during both warm seasons the peak is shifted upslope. Savanna experienced the strongest seasonal variation, with 23 times higher S-values in dry- compared to rainy season. Mean annual k-values increased for about 30% with increasing land-use intensity. C stabilization in Mt. Kilimanjaro ecosystems is strongly dependent on seasonal moisture limitation (lower slope) and perennial temperature limitation (alpine zone). Ecosystems at mid elevation (around 1920 & 2120m) represent the interception zone of optimal moisture and temperature conditions. High input and fast turnover drive the C sequestration in these ecosystems, while restrains on decomposition control the C turnover in lower and higher elevation zones. Land-use intensification decreases stabilization from new C inputs in transition zones from savanna to maize monocultures and from traditional homegardens to large-scale coffee plantations.

  15. Simulated effects of a seasonal precipitation change on the vegetation in tropical Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Gritti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen data collected in Africa at high (Kuruyange, valley swamp, Burundi and low altitude (Victoria, lake, Uganda; Ngamakala, pond, Congo showed that after 6 ky before present (BP, pollen of deciduous trees increase their relative percentage, suggesting thus the reduction of the annual amount of precipitation and/or an increase of in the length of the dry season. Until now, pollen-climate transfer functions only investigated mean annual precipitation, due to the absence of modern pollen-assemblage analogs under diversified precipitation regimes. Hence these functions omit the potential effect of a change in precipitation seasonality modifying thus the length of the dry season. In the present study, we use an equilibrium biosphere model (i.e. BIOME3.5 to estimate the sensitivity of equatorial African vegetation, at specific sites, to such changes. Climatic scenarios, differing only in the monthly distribution of the current annual amount of precipitation, are examined at the above three locations in equatorial Africa. Soil characteristics, monthly temperatures and cloudiness are kept constant at their present-day values. Good agreement is shown between model simulations and current biomes assemblages, as inferred from pollen data. To date, the increase of the deciduous forest component in the palaeodata around 6 ky BP has been interpreted as the beginning of a drier climate period. However, our results demonstrate that a change in the seasonal distribution of precipitation could also induce the observed changes in vegetation types. This study confirms the importance of taking into account seasonal changes in the hydrological balance. Palaeoecologists can greatly benefit from the use of dynamic process based vegetation models to acccount for modification of the length of the dry season when they wish to reconstruct vegetation composition or to infer quantitative climate parameters, such as temperature and precipitation, from pollen or vegetation

  16. Worth the Wait? The Effect of Early Term Birth on Maternal and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Early term birth is defined as birth at 37 or 38 weeks gestation. While infants born early term are not considered premature, the medical literature suggests that they have an increased risk of serious adverse health outcomes compared to infants born at term (39 or 40 weeks). Despite these known harms, we document a rise in early term births in the United States from 1989 to the mid-2000's, followed by a decline in recent years. We posit that the recent decline in early term births has been d...

  17. Effects of season on ecological processes in extensive earthen tilapia ponds in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E G P; Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Milstein, A

    2015-11-01

    In Southeastern Brazil tilapia culture is conducted in extensive and semi-intensive flow-through earthen ponds, being water availability and flow management different in the rainy and dry seasons. In this region lettuce wastes are a potential cheap input for tilapia culture. This study examined the ecological processes developing during the rainy and dry seasons in three extensive flow-through earthen tilapia ponds fertilized with lettuce wastes. Water quality, plankton and sediment parameters were sampled monthly during a year. Factor analysis was used to identify the ecological processes occurring within the ponds and to construct a conceptual graphic model of the pond ecosystem functioning during the rainy and dry seasons. Processes related to nitrogen cycling presented differences between both seasons while processes related to phosphorus cycling did not. Ecological differences among ponds were due to effects of wind protection by surrounding vegetation, organic loading entering, tilapia density and its grazing pressure on zooplankton. Differences in tilapia growth among ponds were related to stocking density and ecological process affecting tilapia food availability and intraspecific competition. Lettuce wastes addition into the ponds did not produce negative effects, thus this practice may be considered a disposal option and a low-cost input source for tilapia, at least at the amounts applied in this study.

  18. Effect of season on characteristics of pecorino cheese and ricotta of Pistoiese Appennine: first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giustini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The “Pecorino pistoiese” is made from milk of Massese Sheep. The flocks are reared by grazing on natural pastures of Pistoiese Appennine. The farms product cheeses by milk without pasteurization. The handmade cheeses are characterized by a remarkable variability due to farm and to season. The aim of this work is to study the effect of season on characteristics of the pecorino e ricotta pistoiese with particular attention for the determination of the yield. One trial was run in each season (4 trials and in 3 farms. Every phases of the cheesemaking were controlled and milk, cheese and ricotta were weighed and analysed. The season showed some significant effects on the chemical composition of milk: lactose and SNF showed lower values in summer. The pecorino cheese showed 18.5% of fat and 24.7% of protein on average. In spring and in summer the yield in pecorino cheese (15.8% was significantly worse than in winter (19.3%. The ricotta cheese was fatter in summer (27.6% than in winter (17.5%. The yield of ricotta at 24 hours was 13.5% on average.

  19. The Effect of Agricultural Growing Season Change on Market Prices in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBeurs, K.M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-01-01

    to plan effective adaptation strategies. Remote sensing data can also provide some understanding of the spatial extent of these changes and whether they are likely to continue. Given the agricultural nature of most economies on the African continent, agricultural production continues to be a critical determinant of both food security and economic growth (Funk and Brown, 2009). Crop phenological parameters, such as the start and end of the growing season, the total length of the growing season, and the rate of greening and senescence are important for planning crop management, crop diversification, and intensification. The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as: "when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life". Food security roughly depends on three factors: 1) availability of food; 2) access to food and 3) appropriate use of food, as well as adequate water and sanitation. The first factor is dependent on growing conditions and weather and climate. In a previous paper we have investigated this factor by evaluating the effect of large scale climate oscillation on land surface phenology (Brown et al., 2010). We found that all areas in Africa are significantly affected by at least one type of large scale climate oscillations and concluded that these somewhat predictable oscillations could perhaps be used to forecast agricultural production. In addition, we have evaluated changes in agricultural land surface phenology over time (Brown et al., 2012). We found that land surface phenology models, which link large-scale vegetation indices with accumulated humidity, could successfully predict agricultural productivity in several countries around the world. In this chapter we are interested in the effect of variability in peak timing of the growing season, or phenology, on the second factor of food security, food access. In this chapter we want to determine if there is a link between market prices

  20. The immunological effects of oral polio vaccine provided with BCG vaccine at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Karkov, Hanne Sophie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2014-01-01

    BCG alone at birth, and subsequently randomised to have a blood sample taken at 2, 4 or 6 weeks post-randomisation. Excreted levels of cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ) were measured from whole blood in vitro stimulations with a panel of recall vaccine antigens (BCG, PPD, OPV), mitogen...... prevalence of IFN-γ responses to PPD (prevalence ratio (PR): 0.84 (0.72-0.98)) and reduced IL-5 to PPD (PR: 0.78 (0.64-0.96)). No effects were observed for CPR, RBP, white blood cell distribution, or BCG scar prevalence. CONCLUSION: The results corroborate that OPV attenuates the immune response to co...

  1. Specific immunotherapy has long-term preventive effect of seasonal and perennial asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L; Niggemann, B; Dreborg, S

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 3-year subcutaneous specific immunotherapy (SIT) in children with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis reduced the risk of developing asthma during treatment and 2 years after discontinuation of SIT (5-year follow-up) indicating long-term preventive effect of SIT. OBJECTIVE: We......: Specific immunotherapy has long-term clinical effects and the potential of preventing development of asthma in children with allergic rhino conjunctivitis up to 7 years after treatment termination....

  2. Medium-term consequences of low birth weight on health and behavioral deficits - is there a catch-up effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight.  Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long-run.  While some studies find effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthoo...... Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time allows us to chart the evolution of health and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helps inform the nature and timing of interventions....

  3. Are baby boomer women unique? The moderating effect of birth cohort on age in substance use patterns during midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabia, Stephanie Elias; Martin, James I

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of age to use of alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs, and misuse of prescription drugs, among midlife women and whether these relationships are modified by birth cohort. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, which included 2,035 baby boomer and silent generation cohort women, ages 30 to 55. Midlife women across cohorts reduced alcohol and marijuana use, but not illicit and prescription drug misuse, as they aged. A modifying effect of birth cohort was not supported, but findings did support differential aging effects across substances. Implications are discussed.

  4. Middleborns disadvantaged? Testing birth-order effects on fitness in pre-industrial Finns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Faurie

    Full Text Available Parental investment is a limited resource for which offspring compete in order to increase their own survival and reproductive success. However, parents might be selected to influence the outcome of sibling competition through differential investment. While evidence for this is widespread in egg-laying species, whether or not this may also be the case in viviparous species is more difficult to determine. We use pre-industrial Finns as our model system and an equal investment model as our null hypothesis, which predicts that (all else being equal middleborns should be disadvantaged through competition. We found no overall evidence to suggest that middleborns in a family are disadvantaged in terms of their survival, age at first reproduction or lifetime reproductive success. However, when considering birth-order only among same-sexed siblings, first-, middle- and lastborn sons significantly differed in the number of offspring they were able to rear to adulthood, although there was no similar effect among females. Middleborn sons appeared to produce significantly less offspring than first- or lastborn sons, but they did not significantly differ from lastborn sons in the number of offspring reared to adulthood. Our results thus show that taking sex differences into account is important when modelling birth-order effects. We found clear evidence of firstborn sons being advantaged over other sons in the family, and over firstborn daughters. Therefore, our results suggest that parents invest differentially in their offspring in order to both preferentially favour particular offspring or reduce offspring inequalities arising from sibling competition.

  5. Effect of Consanguinity on Low Birth Weight: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Ameri, Pegah; Soltanian, Alireza; Bahrami, Masoud

    2017-03-01

    Consanguinity (when couples share at least one common ancestor) is a public health issue with a variety of distributions and incidence rates worldwide. Several epidemiological studies have explored the association between consanguinity and low birth weight (LBW). However, the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the overall association between consanguineous marriage and LBW. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and reference lists of articles up to May 2015. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies addressing the association between consanguinity and LBW. We assessed heterogeneity using Q-test and I2 statistic. We explored publication bias using the Egger's and Begg's tests and the funnel plot. We meta-analyzed the data and reported the overall odds ratio (OR) and mean difference with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the random-effects model. We included 24 out of 3941 retrieved studies, with 44,131 participants. We indicated that LBW was associated significantly with first-cousin marriages (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.69) and non-significantly with second-cousin marriages (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.91). Furthermore, first-cousin marriages can reduce the birth weight of siblings of consanguineous couples 144 g more compared to non-consanguineous marriages. This meta-analysis measured the association between consanguinity and LBW. Based on the current evidence, consanguineous marriage can increase the risk for LBW. However, further evidence based on large cohort studies conducted in different settings is required to make a robust conclusion regarding the effect of consanguinity on LBW.

  6. Preliminary data used to assess the accuracy of estimating female white-tailed deer diel birthing-season home ranges using only daytime locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    Because many white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) home-range and habitat-use studies rely only on daytime radio-tracking data, we were interested in whether diurnal data sufficiently represented diel home ranges. We analyzed home-range and core-use size and overlap of 8 adult-female Global-Positioning-System-collared deer during May and June 2001 and 2002 in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, USA. We used 2 traditional means of analysis: minimum-convex polygons (MCP) and fixed kernels (95% FK, home range and 50% FK, core use) and two methods to partition day and night location data: (1) daytime = 0800-2000 h versus nighttime = 2000-0800 h and (2) sunup versus sundown. We found no statistical difference in size of home-range and core-use areas across day and night comparisons; however, in terms of spatial overlap, approximately 30% of night-range areas on average were not accounted for using daytime locations, with even greater differences between core-use areas (on average approximately 50%). We conclude that diurnal data do not adequately describe diel adult-female-deer, May-June home-ranges due to differences in spatial overlap (location). We suggest research to determine (1) if our findings hold in other circumstances (e.g., exclusive of the parturition period, other age classes, etc.), (2) if our conclusions generalize under other conditions (e.g., across deer range, varying seasons, etc.), (3) if habitat-use conclusions are affected by the incomplete overlap between diurnal and diel data, (4) how many nocturnal locations must be included to generate sufficient overlap, and (5) the influence of using other kernel sizes (e.g., 75%, 90%).

  7. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  8. Effectiveness of strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants on perinatal and maternal mortality: meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amie; Gallos, Ioannis D; Plana, Nieves; Lissauer, David; Khan, Khalid S; Zamora, Javier; MacArthur, Christine; Coomarasamy, Arri

    2011-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants on the outcomes of perinatal, neonatal, and maternal death in developing countries. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, the Allied and Complementary Medicine database, British Nursing Index, Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, BioMed Central, PsycINFO, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, African Index Medicus, Web of Science, Reproductive Health Library, and Science Citation Index (from inception to April 2011), without language restrictions. Search terms were "birth attend*", "traditional midwife", "lay birth attendant", "dais", and "comadronas". Review methods We selected randomised and non-randomised controlled studies with outcomes of perinatal, neonatal, and maternal mortality. Two independent reviewers undertook data extraction. We pooled relative risks separately for the randomised and non-randomised controlled studies, using a random effects model. We identified six cluster randomised controlled trials (n=138 549) and seven non-randomised controlled studies (n=72 225) that investigated strategies incorporating training and support of traditional birth attendants. All six randomised controlled trials found a reduction in adverse perinatal outcomes; our meta-analysis showed significant reductions in perinatal death (relative risk 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.88, Ptraditional birth attendants.

  9. Effect of locally tailored labour management guidelines on intrahospital stillbirths and birth asphyxia at the referral hospital of Zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, N.; Housseine, N.; Meguid, T.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effect of locally tailored labour management guidelines (PartoMa guidelines) on intrahospital stillbirths and birth asphyxia. Design: Quasi-experimental pre-post study investigating the causal pathway through changes in clinical practice. Setting: Tanzanian low-resource ref......Objective: To evaluate effect of locally tailored labour management guidelines (PartoMa guidelines) on intrahospital stillbirths and birth asphyxia. Design: Quasi-experimental pre-post study investigating the causal pathway through changes in clinical practice. Setting: Tanzanian low......-resource referral hospital, Mnazi Mmoja Hospital.Population: Facility deliveries during baseline (1 October 2014 until 31 January 2015) and the 9th to 12th intervention month (1 October 2014 until 31 January 2015). Methods: Birth outcome was extracted from all cases of labouring women during baseline (n = 3690...

  10. The 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants (ETTNO)' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Jes; Veiergang, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infants with extremely low birth weight uniformly develop anemia of prematurity and frequently require red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). Although RBCT is widely practiced, the indications remain controversial in the absence of conclusive data on the long-term effects of RBCT....... Objectives: To summarize the current equipoise and to outline the study protocol of the 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of extremely low birth-weight infants (ETTNO)' study. Methods: Review of the literature and design of a large pragmatic randomized controlled trial...... of restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines enrolling 920 infants with birth weights of 400-999 g with long-term neurodevelopmental follow-up. Results and Conclusions: The results of ETTNO will provide definite data about the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal RBCT guidelines in very preterm...

  11. Preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes; antenatal corticosteroids; antibiotic treatment; bed rest; beta mimetics; calcium-channel blockers; elective caesarean; enhanced antenatal care programmes; magnesium sulphate; oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban); progesterone

  12. Seasonal Precipitation Variability Effects on Carbon Exchange in a Tropical Dry Forest of Northwest Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verduzco, V.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Yépez, E. A.; Watts, C. J.; Rodriguez, J. C.; Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Tropical Dry Forest (TDF) cover a large area in tropical and subtropical regions in the Americas and its productivity is thought to have an important contribution to the atmospheric carbon fluxes. However, due to this ecosystem complex dynamics, our understanding about the mechanisms controlling net ecosystem exchange is limited. In this study, five years of continue water and carbon fluxes measurements from eddy covariance complemented with remotely sensed vegetation greenness were used to investigate the ecosystem carbon balance of a TDF in the North American Monsoon region under different hydro climatic conditions. We identified a large CO2 efflux at the start of the summer season that is strongly related to the preceding winter precipitation and greenness. Since this CO2 efflux occurs prior to vegetation green-up, we infer a predominant heterotrophic control owed to high decomposition of accumulated labile soil organic matter from prior growing season. Overall, ecosystem respiration has an important effect on the net ecosystem production over the year, but can be overwhelmed by the strength of the primary productivity during the monsoon season. Precipitation characteristics during the monsoon have significant controls on sustaining carbon fixation in the TDF ecosystem into the fall season. A threshold of ~350 to 400 mm of summer precipitation was identify to switch the annual carbon balance in the TDF ecosystem from a net source (+102 g C/m2/yr) to a net sink (-249 g C/m2/yr). This research points at the needs for understanding the potential effects of changing seasonal precipitation patterns on ecosystem dynamics and carbon sequestration in subtropical regions.

  13. Effects of body weight and season on serum lipid concentrations in sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Arun Attur; Kumar, Jadav Kajal; Selvaraj, Illayaraja; Selvaraj, Vimal

    2011-09-01

    Serum lipid levels were measured in 66 healthy sloth bears (Melursus ursinus ursinus) living under semicaptive conditions with access to natural food resources in the Bannerghatta Biological Park (Karnataka, India), a portion of their native habitat range in the Indian peninsula. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were analyzed. The effects of age, body weight, and season on these lipid parameters were statistically evaluated. There were no correlations between age and any of the serum lipid parameters analyzed. Positive correlations of body weight to both triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in these bears were identified. In addition, seasonal trends in physiological serum lipid values, potentially due to variations in the sloth bear diet, were identified. Serum triglyceride levels were higher during postmonsoon season and cholesterol levels were higher during winter compared to other seasons. Serum lipid values obtained from sloth bears in this study were also compared to previously published data on other members of the family Ursidae. This is the first report of serum lipid values as a reference for sloth bears. These values can be used as sensitive predictors of overall health and nutritional status to aid in the captive management and feeding of these bears.

  14. Large effects on birth weight follow inheritance pattern consistent with gametic imprinting and X chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth weight (BW) records of 28,638 Brangus and Simbrah calves (12,295 of which were produced by embryo transfer) were provided by a private seedstock breeder. The objectives were to determine the genetic mechanism(s) responsible for previously observed 12.3 and 6.9 kg differences in birth weight b...

  15. 4. The Lunar Effect on Delivery and Other Birth Outcomes in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. Objective: It is a widely held belief that the period of a full moon is associated with higher birth rates compared to periods when the moon is not full. We investigated whether more births occurred during a full moon in a rural African population. Design: Data collected from 42 clinical sites in rural.

  16. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  17. Induced abortion in Denmark: effect of socio-economic situation and country of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine; Knudsen, Lisbeth B

    2007-01-01

    study focuses on how socio-economic characteristics and country of birth are associated with induced abortion. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information among 1351 women requesting abortion and a control group of 1306 women intending birth. RESULTS: The strongest factor...

  18. A population-based study of effect of multiple birth on infant mortality in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthman Mubashir B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-foetal pregnancies and multiple births including twins and higher order multiples births such as triplets and quadruplets are high-risk pregnancy and birth. These high-risk groups contribute to the higher rate of childhood mortality especially during early period of life. Methods We examined the relationship between multiple births and infant mortality using univariable and multivariable survival regression procedure with Weibull hazard function, controlling for child's sex, birth order, prenatal care, delivery assistance; mother's age at child birth, nutritional status, education level; household living conditions and several other risk factors. Results Children born multiple births were more than twice as likely to die during infancy as infants born singleton (hazard ratio = 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.50, 3.19 holding other factors constant. Maternal education and household asset index were associated with lower risk of infant mortality. Conclusion Multiple births are strongly negatively associated with infant survival in Nigeria independent of other risk factors. Mother's education played a protective role against infant death. This evidence suggests that improving maternal education may be key to improving child survival in Nigeria. A well-educated mother has a better chance of satisfying important factors that can improve infant survival: the quality of infant feeding, general care, household sanitation, and adequate use of preventive and curative health services.

  19. The effects of season and meteorology on human mortality in tropical climates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain; Schneider, Alexandra; Breitner, Susanne; Langner, Marcel; Krämer, Alexander; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2014-07-01

    Research in the field of atmospheric science and epidemiology has long recognized the health effects of seasonal and meteorological conditions. However, little scientific knowledge exists to date about the impacts of atmospheric parameters on human mortality in tropical regions. Working within the scope of this systematic review, this investigation conducted a literature search using different databases; original research articles were chosen according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Both seasonal and meteorological effects were considered. The findings suggest that high amounts of rainfall and increasing temperatures cause a seasonal excess in infectious disease mortality and are therefore relevant in regions and populations in which such diseases are prevalent. On the contrary, moderately low and very high temperatures exercise an adverse effect on cardio-respiratory mortality and shape the mortality pattern in areas and sub-groups in which these diseases are dominant. Atmospheric effects were subject to population-specific factors such as age and socio-economic status and differed between urban and rural areas. The consequences of climate change as well as environmental, epidemiological and social change (e.g., emerging non-communicable diseases, ageing of the population, urbanization) suggest a growing relevance of heat-related excess mortality in tropical regions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Mid-gestational serum uric acid concentration effect on neonate birth weight and insulin resistance in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Khadijeh; Razavi, Maryamsadat; Rezvanfar, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Esmat; Chehrei, Ali; Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between mid-gestational serum uric acid and birth weight in diabetic pregnant women with or without insulin resistance. In a prospective cohort study, fasting uric acid, blood glucose, and serum insulin were measured in 247 pregnant women between 20-22 weeks of gestational period. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Stratification analysis and independent t-test was used to assess the association between uric acid and birth weights regarding to insulin resistance. The means of the mid-gestational serum uric acid concentrations were not significantly different in women with and without insulin resistance. But stratification analysis showed that there was a significant difference between uric acid concentration and macrosomic birth in diabetic women without insulin resistance. Higher mid - gestation serum uric acid concentration, even if it does not exceed the normal range, is accompanied by lower birth weight only in non-insulin resistance women. Insulin resistance could have a negative confounding effect on hyperuriemia and birth weight.

  1. Genetic modification of the effect of maternal household air pollution exposure on birth weight in Guatemalan newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Yousefi, Paul; Peñaloza, Reneé; Balmes, John; Holland, Nina

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with exposure to air pollution during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether null polymorphisms of Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), specifically GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in infants or mothers, modify the association between high exposures to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking fires and birth weight. Pregnant women in rural Guatemala were randomized to receive a chimney stove or continue to use open fires for cooking. Newborns were measured within 48 h of birth. 132 mother-infant pairs provided infant genotypes (n=130) and/or maternal genotypes (n=116). Maternal null GSTM1 was associated with a 144 g (95% CI, -291, 1) and combined maternal/infant null GSTT1 was associated with a 155 g (95% CI, -303, -8) decrease in birth weight. Although there was a trend toward higher birth weights with increasing number of expressed GST genes, the effect modification by chimney stove use was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of rotating shift work on childbearing and birth weight: a study of women working in a semiconductor manufacturing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-05-01

    Stable circadian rhythm is important for both maternal and fetal health. This retrospective analysis of women in a semiconductor factory evaluated the effect of shift work exposure on childbearing and birth weight. Records of 440 female employees (initial mean age: 28.4 years) including 111 mothers who had 158 live births during the period of observation (1997-2007) were reviewed. The data analyzed included maternal age, general health condition, highest educational level, life-style and occupational factors, as well as newborn gender, birth weight, birth order and gestational age. The childbearing rates of female workers on three different work schedules (consistent daytime work (CDW), intermittent (i-) or persistent (p-) rotating shift works (RSW)) were 32.1%, 20.0% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.047). After controlling for potential confounding factors, childbearing rates among women with CDW exceeded those of shift workers (odds ratio (OR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-3.0). The birth weights of newborns from mothers on the three work schedules (CDW, i-RSW and p-RSW) were significantly different (3271.7±395.4, 3251.3±460.9, and 2998.5±381.2 g, respectively (Pmanufacturing factory. Work schedules should be carefully planned for female employees who are pregnant or preparing for pregnancy. Prenatal evaluations for mothers with persistent day-night rotating shift work exposures are especially necessary.

  3. Month of birth, vitamin D and risk of immune-mediated disease: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disanto Giulio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A season of birth effect in immune-mediated diseases (ID such as multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes has been consistently reported. We aimed to investigate whether season of birth influences the risk of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and systemic lupus erythematosus in addition to multiple sclerosis, and to explore the correlation between the risk of ID and predicted ultraviolet B (UVB light exposure and vitamin D status during gestation. Methods The monthly distribution of births of patients with ID from the UK (n = 115,172 was compared to that of the general population using the Cosinor test. Predicted UVB radiation and vitamin D status in different time windows during pregnancy were calculated for each month of birth and correlated with risk of ID using the Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results The distributions of ID births significantly differed from that of the general population (P = 5e-12 with a peak in April (odds ratio = 1.045, 95% confidence interval = 1.024, 1.067, P P P = 0.00005 and third trimester vitamin D status (Spearman's rho = -0.44, P = 0.0003. Conclusions The risk of different ID in the UK is significantly influenced by the season of birth, suggesting the presence of a shared seasonal risk factor or factors predisposing to ID. Gestational UVB and vitamin D exposure may be implicated in the aetiology of ID.

  4. Seasonal changes and effect of harvest on glucosinolates in Isatis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Tobias; Suter, Kathrin; Hamburger, Matthias

    2008-04-01

    The seasonal fluctuation of glucosinolates in five defined Isatis tinctoria and one Isatis indigotica accessions (first year, rosette stage), grown on field plots under identical conditions, was investigated. Analysis of the intact glucosinolates was carried out with shock frozen, freeze dried leaf samples using a recently developed and validated PLE (pressurized liquid extraction) protocol and ion-pair HPLC coupled with ESI-MS in the negative mode. When comparing the two Isatis species, significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the glucosinolate patterns were observed. Differences among the various Isatis tinctoria accessions were much smaller. We studied the effects of repeated harvesting during the growth season on glucosinolate concentrations and found that repeated harvest did not have a major effect on glucosinolate concentrations of newly grown leaves. Glucosinolates could not be detected in woad leaves submitted to conventional drying.

  5. The effect of the competitive season in professional basketball on inflammation and iron metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzedzej, A; Ignatiuk, W; Jaworska, J; Grzywacz, T; Lipińska, P; Antosiewicz, J; Korek, A

    2016-01-01

    Following acute physical activity, blood hepcidin concentration appears to increase in response to exercise-induced inflammation, but the long-term impact of exercise on hepcidin remains unclear. Here we investigated changes in hepcidin and the inflammation marker interleukin-6 to evaluate professional basketball players’ response to a season of training and games. The analysis also included vitamin D (25(OH)D3) assessment, owing to its anti-inflammatory effects. Blood samples were collected for 14 players and 10 control non-athletes prior to and after the 8-month competitive season. Athletes’ performance was assessed with the NBA efficiency score. At the baseline hepcidin correlated with blood ferritin (r = 0.61; 90% CL ±0.31), but at the end of the season this correlation was absent. Compared with the control subjects, athletes experienced clear large increases in hepcidin (50%; 90% CI 15-96%) and interleukin-6 (77%; 90% CI 35-131%) and a clear small decrease in vitamin D (-12%; 90% CI -20 to -3%) at the season completion. Correlations between change scores of these variables were unclear (r = -0.21 to 0.24, 90% CL ±0.5), but their uncertainty generally excluded strong relationships. Athletes were hence concluded to have experienced acute inflammation at the beginning but chronic inflammation at the end of the competitive season. At the same time, the moderate correlation between changes in vitamin D and players’ performance (r = 0.43) was suggestive of its beneficial influence. Maintaining the appropriative concentration of vitamin D is thus necessary for basketball players’ performance and efficiency. The assessment of hepcidin has proven to be useful in diagnosing inflammation in response to chronic exercise. PMID:27601776

  6. The effect of the competitive season in professional basketball on inflammation and iron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzedzej, A; Ignatiuk, W; Jaworska, J; Grzywacz, T; Lipińska, P; Antosiewicz, J; Korek, A; Ziemann, E

    2016-09-01

    Following acute physical activity, blood hepcidin concentration appears to increase in response to exercise-induced inflammation, but the long-term impact of exercise on hepcidin remains unclear. Here we investigated changes in hepcidin and the inflammation marker interleukin-6 to evaluate professional basketball players' response to a season of training and games. The analysis also included vitamin D (25(OH)D3) assessment, owing to its anti-inflammatory effects. Blood samples were collected for 14 players and 10 control non-athletes prior to and after the 8-month competitive season. Athletes' performance was assessed with the NBA efficiency score. At the baseline hepcidin correlated with blood ferritin (r = 0.61; 90% CL ±0.31), but at the end of the season this correlation was absent. Compared with the control subjects, athletes experienced clear large increases in hepcidin (50%; 90% CI 15-96%) and interleukin-6 (77%; 90% CI 35-131%) and a clear small decrease in vitamin D (-12%; 90% CI -20 to -3%) at the season completion. Correlations between change scores of these variables were unclear (r = -0.21 to 0.24, 90% CL ±0.5), but their uncertainty generally excluded strong relationships. Athletes were hence concluded to have experienced acute inflammation at the beginning but chronic inflammation at the end of the competitive season. At the same time, the moderate correlation between changes in vitamin D and players' performance (r = 0.43) was suggestive of its beneficial influence. Maintaining the appropriative concentration of vitamin D is thus necessary for basketball players' performance and efficiency. The assessment of hepcidin has proven to be useful in diagnosing inflammation in response to chronic exercise.

  7. Pan-Tropical Analysis of Climate Effects on Seasonal Tree Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Fabien; Rossi, Vivien; Aubry-Kientz, Mélaine; Bonal, Damien; Dalitz, Helmut; Gliniars, Robert; Stahl, Clément; Trabucco, Antonio; Hérault, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Climate models predict a range of changes in tropical forest regions, including increased average temperatures, decreased total precipitation, reduced soil moisture and alterations in seasonal climate variations. These changes are directly related to the increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, primarily CO2. Assessing seasonal forest growth responses to climate is of utmost importance because woody tissues, produced by photosynthesis from atmospheric CO2, water and light, constitute the main component of carbon sequestration in the forest ecosystem. In this paper, we combine intra-annual tree growth measurements from published tree growth data and the corresponding monthly climate data for 25 pan-tropical forest sites. This meta-analysis is designed to find the shared climate drivers of tree growth and their relative importance across pan-tropical forests in order to improve carbon uptake models in a global change context. Tree growth reveals significant intra-annual seasonality at seasonally dry sites or in wet tropical forests. Of the overall variation in tree growth, 28.7% was explained by the site effect, i.e. the tree growth average per site. The best predictive model included four climate variables: precipitation, solar radiation (estimated with extrasolar radiation reaching the atmosphere), temperature amplitude and relative soil water content. This model explained more than 50% of the tree growth variations across tropical forests. Precipitation and solar radiation are the main seasonal drivers of tree growth, causing 19.8% and 16.3% of the tree growth variations. Both have a significant positive association with tree growth. These findings suggest that forest productivity due to tropical tree growth will be reduced in the future if climate extremes, such as droughts, become more frequent. PMID:24670981

  8. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  9. The Dutch Birth Centre Study : Study design of a programmatic evaluation of the effect of birth centre care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermus, M.A.A.; Wiegers, T.A.; Hitzert, Margaretha; Boesveld, I.C.; van den Akker-van Marle, E.M.; Akkermans, Henk; Bruijnzeels, M.A.; Franx, A.; de Graaf, J.P.; Rijnders, M.E.B.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Van der Pal-De Bruin, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Birth centres are regarded as settings where women with uncomplicated pregnancies can give birth, assisted by a midwife and a maternity care assistant. In case of (threatening) complications referral to a maternity unit of a hospital is necessary. In the last decade up to 20 different

  10. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E

    2015-01-01

    . The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012). Here......BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine...... administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. METHODS: /Design We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20...

  11. Estimating direct effects of parental occupation on Spaniards’ health by birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pinilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social health inequalities in adult population are partly due to socioeconomic circumstances in childhood. A better understanding of how those circumstances affect health during adulthood may improve the opportunities for reducing health disparities. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of parental socioeconomic status, which is proxied by occupation, on adult Spaniards’ health by birth cohort. The analysis will allow checking not only the direct impact of parental occupation on their offspring’s health, but also whether inherited inequality has been reduced over time. Methods We use data from the Bank of Spain’s Survey of Household Finances on Spanish households from 2002 to 2008. Sequential models were used to estimate the influence of the father’s and mother’s occupation on their offspring’s health, trying to disentangle direct from indirect effects. With a sample of 26,832 persons we consider effects for four different cohorts by birth periods ranging from 1916 to 1981. Results The results show that parental occupation has a significant direct impact on individuals’ health (p < 0.01. The effect of father’s occupation exceeds that of mother’s. For those born before 1936, the probability of reporting a good health status ranges from 0.31 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.14–0.48, when fathers were classified as unskilled elementary workers, to 0.98 (95% CI 0.98–0.99 when they were managers or mid-level professionals. For those born during the period 1959–1975, those probabilities are 0.49 (95% CI 0.39–0.59 and 0.97 (95% CI 0.96–0.98, respectively. Therefore, health inequalities linked to parental socioeconomic status have been noticeably reduced, although discrimination against unskilled workers persists over time. Conclusions Great progress has been made in the health area during the twentieth century, so that the impact of parental socioeconomic status on individuals

  12. Seasonal variation of Brazilian red propolis: Antibacterial activity, synergistic effect and phytochemical screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueira, M S; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Silva, Ana Raquel Pereira; Costa, Maria do Socorro; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Matias, Edinardo F F; de Queiroz Balbino, Valdir; Menezes, Irwin R A; Melo Coutinho, Henrique Douglas

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the dry and rainy season on the antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the Brazilian red propolis. The samples were collected in rainy (RP-PER) and dry (RP-PED) seasons and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. The extracts were tested alone and in association with antibiotics against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The HPLC analysis identified luteolin and quercetin as the main compounds. Seasonal variation was observed according to concentrations of the compounds. The MIC values against E. coli ranged from 128 μg/mL to 512 μg/mL (EC 06 and EC ATCC). The red propolis showed MIC values of 512 μg/mL against both strains of P. aeruginosa used in our study (PA03 and PA24) and against strains of Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus the MICs ranged from 64 μg/mL to ≥1024 μg/mL (SA10). A synergistic effect was observed when we combined the RP-PED with gentamicin against all the strains tested. When we combined the RP-PED with Imipenem, we only observed synergistic effect against P. aeruginosa. According to our synergistic activity results, the utilization of red propolis collected in the drier periods can be used as an adjuvant against multiresistant bacterial infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Dextrose Plus Lactose in the Sows Diet on Subsequent Reproductive Performance and within Litter Birth Weigt Variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Enckevort, van L.C.M.; Hoeven, van der E.M.; Kemp, B.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of dextrose plus lactose in sow's feed were tested on subsequent reproductive performance and within litter birth weight variation. During the last week of gestation and lactation, sows were either fed a commercial lactation diet (Control: C), or an isocaloric diet containing 25 g/kg

  14. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found...

  15. The More the Merrier? The Effect of Family Size and Birth Order on Children's Education. CEE DP 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra E.; Devereux, Paul; Salvanes, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical literature that postulates a trade off between child quantity and quality within a family. However, there is little causal evidence that speaks to this theory. Using a rich dataset on the entire population of Norway over an extended period of time, we examine the effects of family size and birth order on the…

  16. Effects of age, time period, and birth cohort on the prevalence of diabetes and obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Won; Song, Yun-mi; Park, Hye soon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Ho; Cho, Sung-il

    2008-02-01

    We examined changes in the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and overweight in 412,881 Korean men in birth cohorts from 1933 to 1972 over 8 years from 1992 to 2000 and separately analyzed the effects of age, time period, and birth cohort. The study included male employees of Korean government organizations and schools who were between 20 and 59 years of age in 1992. Diabetes was diagnosed on the basis of self-reports in 1992 or fasting blood glucose levels (>or=126 mg/ml, 7.0 mmol/l). The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, time period, and birth cohort. In Korean male birth cohorts from 1933 to 1972, the age-specific prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and overweight in men aged 28-59 years increased annually by 0.41% (3.03 to 6.29%), 0.18% (0.70 to 2.16%), and 1.49% (23.48 to 35.41%), respectively, from 1992 to 2000. The relative change in diabetes was largest among the younger cohorts (>400% increase over 8 years) and corresponded to the change in obesity. Apart from the contribution of age, clear cohort and period effects were evident for diabetes, although the magnitude of the effect was slightly less than that for obesity. Prevention of diabetes through the control of obesity, particularly in young men, clearly needs to be emphasized.

  17. The effects of maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Haliloglu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the influence of third trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels on birth weight.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: Between January 2005 and July 2005, 750 pregnant women applied for delivery at Zeynep Kamil Women’s and Children Education and Research Hospital at 37-40 week’s gestation were examined. Maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels were measured. Data included maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age, birth weight, gender, presence of iron supplementation and its duration.\tRESULTS: The birth weight was significantly higher in anemic and hypoproteinemic groups compared those with normal levels. After adjusting for counfounding factors, significance of both findings lost. The cases received iron supplementation had infants with higher birth weight, however, it was not statistically significant (p: 0.055. A significant positive relation was observed between birth weight and maternal age, gravidity, parity and gestational age. No relation found between maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels and birth weight.\tCONCLUSION: The last trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels seem not to be a determining factor on infant's birth weight.

  18. Does tea consumption during early pregnancy have an adverse effect on birth outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Hua; He, Jian-Rong; Shen, Song-Ying; Wei, Xue-Ling; Chen, Nian-Nian; Yuan, Ming-Yang; Qiu, Lan; Li, Wei-Dong; Chen, Qiao-Zhu; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Bartington, Suzanne; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-09-01

    Tea, a common beverage, has been suggested to exhibit a number of health benefits. However, one of its active ingredients, caffeine, has been associated with preterm birth and low birthweight. We investigated whether tea consumption during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and abnormal fetal growth. A total of 8775 pregnant women were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Tea consumption (type, frequency, and strength) during their first trimester and social and demographic factors were obtained by way of questionnaires administered during pregnancy. Information on birth outcomes and complications during pregnancy was obtained from hospital medical records. Overall habitual tea drinking (≥1 serving/week) prevalence among pregnant women was low, at 16%. After adjustment for potential confounding factors (eg, maternal age, educational level, monthly income) tea drinking during early pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of preterm birth or abnormal fetal growth (small or large for gestational age) (P>.05). We did not identify a consistent association between frequency of tea consumption or tea strength and adverse birth outcomes among Chinese pregnant women with low tea consumption. Our findings suggest that occasional tea drinking during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of preterm birth or abnormal fetal growth. Given the high overall number of annual births in China, our findings have important public health significance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control after they have given birth. Although teen birth rates have been falling for the last two decades, ... effective forms of birth control. SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, teens, ages 15–19, 2010 Larger image ...

  20. Special health care needs explains the effect of extremely low birth weight on math but not language achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Hack, Maureen

    2017-12-01

    Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; math achievement compared to normal birth weight (NBW) peers. SHCN are associated with poor academic achievement among NBW children. We hypothesize that SHCN explain the effect of ELBW on math achievement. We compared age 14 Woodcock-Johnson Calculation standard scores between 181 ELBW infants and 115 NBW controls. Persistent SHCN included: 1) prescription medication or equipment use, 2) subspecialty or therapeutic service use, or 3) hospitalization. We used nonlinear marginal effects models to decompose the total effect of ELBW on math into the following 4 components: the effect of ELBW controlling for SHCN, the effect of SHCN controlling for ELBW, effect modification by SHCN, and mediated interaction where SHCN is both causal mediator and effect modifier. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors. ELBW adolescents had lower mean math scores than NBW peers (81.3 vs. 96.4). SHCN were more common among ELBW adolescents (54.1% vs. 27%). The total effect of ELBW on math scores was -15.7 points (95% CI -21.0, -10.5). The effect of birth weight alone was -7.6 points (95% CI -13.7, -1.4); the effect of SHCN alone was negligible. SHCN interaction and mediated interaction effects each accounted for 25% of the total effect. Birth weight alone explains only half of the effect of ELBW on math achievement. We found evidence of effect modification and mediation by SHCN. Understanding these explanatory pathways may lead to targeted interventions for improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Synergistic effects of seasonal rainfall, parasites and demography on fluctuations in springbok body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy C.; Versfeld, Wilferd D.; Kilian, J. Werner; Getz, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary 1. Seasonality of rainfall can exert a strong influence on animal condition and on host-parasite interactions. The body condition of ruminants fluctuates seasonally in response to changes in energy requirements, foraging patterns and resource availability, and seasonal variation in parasite infections may further alter ruminant body condition. 2. This study disentangles effects of rainfall and gastrointestinal parasite infections on springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) body condition and determines how these factors vary among demographic groups. 3. Using data from four years and three study areas, we investigated i) the influence of rainfall variation, demographic factors and parasite interactions on parasite prevalence or infection intensity, ii) whether parasitism or rainfall is a more important predictor of springbok body condition and iii) how parasitism and condition vary among study areas along a rainfall gradient. 4. We found that increased parasite intensity is associated with reduced body condition only for adult females. For all other demographic groups, body condition was significantly related to prior rainfall and not to parasitism. Rainfall lagged by two months had a positive effect on body condition. 5. Adult females showed evidence of a “periparturient rise” in parasite intensity, and had higher parasite intensity and lower body condition than adult males after parturition and during early lactation. After juveniles were weaned, adult females had lower parasite intensity than adult males. Sex differences in parasitism and condition may be due to differences between adult females and males in the seasonal timing of reproductive effort and its effects on host immunity, as well as documented sex differences in vulnerability to predation. 6. Our results highlight that parasites and the environment can synergistically affect host populations, but that these interactions might be masked by their interwoven relationships, their differential

  2. Effects of season and storage period on accumulation of individual carotenoids in pumpkin flesh (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswir, Irwandi; Shahidan, Norshazila; Othman, Rashidi; Has-Yun Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis; Octavianti, Fitri; bin Salleh, Mohammad Noor

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are antioxidants with pharmaceutical potential. The major carotenoids important to humans are α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Some of the biological functions and actions of these individual carotenoids are quite similar to each other, whereas others are specific. Besides genotype and location, other environmental effects such as temperature, light, mineral uptake, and pH have been found affect carotenoid development in plant tissues and organs. Therefore, this research investigated the effects of the season and storage periods during postharvest handling on the accumulation of carotenoid in pumpkin. This study shows that long-term storage of pumpkins resulted in the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene with a slight decrease in zeaxanthin. The amounts of β-carotene ranged from 174.583±2.105 mg/100g to 692.871±22.019 mg/100g, lutein from 19.841±9.693 mg/100g to 59.481±1.645 mg/100g, and zeaxanthin from not detected to 2.709±0.118 mg/100g. The pumpkins were collected three times in a year; they differed in that zeaxanthin was present only in the first season, while the amounts of β-carotene and lutein were the highest in the second and third seasons, respectively. By identifying the key factors among the postharvest handling conditions that control specific carotenoid accumulations, a greater understanding of how to enhance the nutritional values of pumpkin and other crops will be gained. Postharvest storage conditions can markedly enhance and influence the levels of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene in pumpkin. This study describes how the magnitudes of these effects depend on the storage period and season.

  3. Occurrence of THM and NDMA precursors in a watershed: Effect of seasons and anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Egemen; Yaman, Fatma Busra; Ates Genceli, Esra; Topuz, Emel; Erdim, Esra; Gurel, Melike; Ipek, Murat; Pehlivanoglu-Mantas, Elif

    2012-06-30

    In pristine watersheds, natural organic matter is the main source of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors. However, the presence of point or non-point pollution sources in watersheds may lead to increased levels of DBP precursors which in turn form DBPs in the drinking water treatment plant upon chlorination or chloramination. In this study, water samples were collected from a lake used to obtain drinking water for Istanbul as well as its tributaries to investigate the presence of the precursors of two disinfection by-products, trihalomethanes (THM) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). In addition, the effect of seasons and the possible relationships between these precursors and water quality parameters were evaluated. The concentrations of THM and NDMA precursors measured as total THM formation potential (TTHMFP) and NDMA formation potential (NDMAFP) ranged between 126 and 1523μg/L THM and NDMA, respectively. Such wide ranges imply that some of the tributaries are affected by anthropogenic pollution sources, which is also supported by high DOC, Cl(-) and NH(3) concentrations. No significant correlation was found between the water quality parameters and DBP formation potential, except for a weak correlation between NDMAFP and DOC concentrations. The effect of the sampling location was more pronounced than the seasonal variation due to anthropogenic pollution in some tributaries and no significant correlation was obtained between the seasons and water quality parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal, spatial, and maternal effects on gut microbiome in wild red squirrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tiantian; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Dantzer, Ben; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; McAdam, Andrew G; Wu, Martin

    2017-12-21

    Our understanding of gut microbiota has been limited primarily to findings from human and laboratory animals, but what shapes the gut microbiota in nature remains largely unknown. To fill this gap, we conducted a comprehensive study of gut microbiota of a well-studied North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) population. Red squirrels are territorial, solitary, and live in a highly seasonal environment and therefore represent a very attractive system to study factors that drive the temporal and spatial dynamics of gut microbiota. For the first time, this study revealed significant spatial patterns of gut microbiota within a host population, suggesting limited dispersal could play a role in shaping and maintaining the structure of gut microbial communities. We also found a remarkable seasonal rhythm in red squirrel's gut microbial composition manifested by a tradeoff between relative abundance of two genera Oscillospira and Corpococcus and clearly associated with seasonal variation in diet availability. Our results show that in nature, environmental factors exert a much stronger influence on gut microbiota than host-associated factors including age and sex. Despite strong environmental effects, we found clear evidence of individuality and maternal effects, but host genetics did not seem to be a significant driver of the gut microbial communities in red squirrels. Taken together, the results of this study emphasize the importance of external ecological factors rather than host attributes in driving temporal and spatial patterns of gut microbiota in natural environment.

  5. Seasonality Effects on Nonlinear Properties of Hydrometeorological Records: A New Method of Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livina, V. N.; Ashkenazy, Y.; Bunde, A.; Havlin, S.

    2007-12-01

    Climatic time series in general, and hydrological time series in particular, exhibit pronounced annual periodicity. This periodicity and its corresponding harmonics affect the nonlinear properties of the relevant time series (i.e., the long-range volatility correlations and width of multifractal spectrum) and thus have to be filtered out before studying fractal and volatility properties. We compare several filtering techniques (one of them proposed here) and find that in order to eliminate the periodicity effect on the nonlinear properties of the time series (i.e., the volatility and multifractal properties) it is necessary to filter out the seasonal standard deviation in addition to the filtering of the seasonal mean. The obtained results indicate weak volatility correlations (weak nonlinearity) in the river data, and this can be seen using different filterings approaches. [1] Livina~V.~N., Y.~Ashkenazy, A.~Bunde, and S.~Havlin, Seasonality effects on nonlinear properties of hydrometeorological records, in Extremes, Trends, and Correlations in Hydrology and Climate (ed. by J.P.Kropp & H.-J.Schellnhuber), Springer, Berlin, submitted.

  6. Effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on serum thyroxine level in dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoda, Y [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Ishii, T

    1976-11-01

    Serum thyroxine level was determined monthly for fifteen Holstein cows by radio stereoassay using polyvinyl alcohol (PVF) sponge throughout a year to investigate the effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on the thyroxine level seasonably, the serum thyroxine level was low in summer, and the average level in July and August was 12.6 ..mu..g/dl, which was a half of the average winter level in January and February of 26.2 ..mu..g/dl. It became low level at the late stage of gestation, showing the lowest value of 13.7 ..mu..g/dl just before delivery, and increased suddenly in the second month of lactation attaining the highest level of 27.0 ..mu..g/dl. It reduced slightly thereafter to be 22.1 ..mu..g/dl at the end of lactation.

  7. Effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on serum thyroxine level in dairy cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoda, Yoichi; Ishii, Tadao.

    1976-01-01

    Serum thyroxine level was determined monthly for fifteen Holstein cows by radio stereoassay using polyvinyl alcohol (PVF) sponge throughout a year to investigate the effects of season, pregnancy and lactation on the thyroxine level seasonably, the serum thyroxine level was low in summer, and the average level in July and August was 12.6 μg/dl, which was a half of the average winter level in January and February of 26.2 μg/dl. It became low level at the late stage of gestation, showing the lowest value of 13.7 μg/dl just before delivery, and increased suddenly in the second month of lactation attaining the highest level of 27.0 μg/dl. It reduced slightly thereafter to be 22.1 μg/dl at the end of lactation. (Kobatake, H.)

  8. Age and body weight of Moroccan local cattle at puberty: Effect of season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazouz, A.; Asri, A.

    1988-01-01

    Moroccan local cattle are a distinct breed comprising almost 90% of the total cattle population of 2.5 million. The age and the body weight of some 1662 heifers attaining puberty were determined under two production systems by monitoring plasma progesterone levels as an indicator of the first ovulation. The effect of season on these parameters was also studied. Ovarian cyclicity commenced in 50% of heifers by the age of 16.5 months and at a body weight of 144 kg (70% of the mature body weight). The time of puberty was correlated with both age and body weight and was influenced by both the season of the year at which puberty was reached and the system of rearing. The mean age at which behavioural oestrus was first observed and the heifer inseminated was 26.5 months. Fifty per cent of 546 heifers were pregnant by 27 months of age. (author). 18 refs, 7 figs

  9. The effect of education on health among US residents in relation to country of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Bosu; Senauer, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This research explores the impact of education on health in relation to an individual's country of birth using the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for 2001-2004. We analyze health equations that relate health to education and other variables. Health is measured in terms of self-reported overall health, an index of biological risk factors, and body mass index. The primary hypothesis tested is whether education has a greater impact on immigrants' productive and allocative efficiency, because of their need to learn about how to remain healthy and access appropriate health care in a new environment. The empirical results indicate that for US residents, who were foreign-born, education is associated with a greater beneficial effect on every health outcome compared to those born in the United States. More education is related to an even greater positive effect on health for immigrants from Mexico, the origin of most immigrants, than from other countries. These results provide additional support for the portions of the 2007 Immigration Reform Act rejected by the US Congress, which placed a higher priority on education and job skills than current law. Since increased education and improved health are associated, such policy reform would help reduce the demands on the US health-care system. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effects of continuous ivermectin treatment from birth to puberty on growth and reproduction in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M; Gonzalez-Iglesias, A; Díaz-Torga, G S; Villafañe, P; Formía, N; Libertun, C; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    1999-06-01

    The effect of continuous ivermectin treatment from birth to puberty on growth and reproductive performance was studied in Holstein heifer calves grown on pastures in comparison to naturally nematode-infected, untreated animals. Ivermectin effectively abated the presence of nematode eggs in feces. Eggs per gram (EPG) in parasitized animals increased rapidly from wk 12 to 18 of age and then decreased. Animals treated with ivermectin grew faster than untreated ones, and differences in body weight became significant at 6 wk of life, even before eggs appeared in the feces of either treatment group. Ivermectin-treated heifers reached puberty 3 wk earlier than infected ones as assessed with serum progesterone concentrations (ivermectin, 30.4 +/- .8 vs untreated, 33.7 +/- 1.3 wk of age). This delay was not directly related to body weight. In addition, pelvic area at 39 wk and at 15 mo of age was increased in treated heifers (8 and 11%, respectively) compared with parasitized animals. No differences in the wither heights were observed. We conclude that ivermectin treatment in dairy heifers may increase growth rate during development, advance the onset of ovarian function, and positively affect yearling pelvic area.

  11. Effectiveness of therapeutic behavioral interventions for parents of low birth weight premature infants: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, Carrie; Shaw, Richard J.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; John, Nicholas H. St.

    2014-01-01

    Premature birth has been associated with a number of adverse maternal psychological outcomes that include depression, anxiety, and trauma as well as adverse effects on maternal coping ability and parenting style. Infants and children who were premature are more likely to have poorer cognitive and developmental functioning and, thus, may be harder to parent. In response to these findings, there have been a number of educational and behavioral interventions developed that target maternal psychological functioning, parenting and aspects of the parent-infant relationship. Since the last comprehensive review of this topic in 2002, there have been a significant number of developments in the quality of the studies conducted and the theoretical models that address the experience of parents of premature infants. In the current review, eighteen new interventions were identified and grouped into four categories based on treatment length and the target of the intervention. Findings suggest a trend towards early, brief interventions that are theoretically based, specifically target parent trauma, and utilize cognitive behavioral techniques. Although it is difficult to generalize study findings, conclusions from the review suggest that targeted interventions may have positive effects on both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:24532861

  12. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on semen quality, reproductive hormones and live birth rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2018-01-01

    Context: Animal models and cross-sectional cohort studies have suggested a beneficial role for vitamin D in male reproduction. Objective: Determine the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on semen quality in infertile men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD)≤ 50 nmol/l. Design: A si...... of vitamin D supplementation on live birth rate and serum inhibin B in oligozoospermic and vitamin D deficient men may be of clinical importance and warrant verification by others. Trial ID: NCT01304927.......Context: Animal models and cross-sectional cohort studies have suggested a beneficial role for vitamin D in male reproduction. Objective: Determine the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on semen quality in infertile men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD)≤ 50 nmol/l. Design...... calcium daily for 150 days, while the other group received placebo. Results: Serum concentrations of 25-OHD and 1,25OH2D3 were significantly higher in men treated with vitamin D + calcium for 150 days compared with placebo. Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with changes in semen parameters...

  13. Effects of pushing techniques in birth on mother and fetus: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Gulay; Beji, Nezihe Kizilkaya

    2008-03-01

    The Valsalva pushing technique is used routinely in the second stage of labor in many countries, and it is accepted as standard obstetric management in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pushing techniques on mother and fetus in birth in this setting. This randomized study was conducted between July 2003 and June 2004 in Bakirkoy Maternity and Children's Teaching Hospital in Istanbul, Turkey. One hundred low-risk primiparas between 38 and 42 weeks' gestation, who expected a spontaneous vaginal delivery, were randomized to either a spontaneous pushing group or a Valsalva-type pushing group. Spontaneous pushing women were informed during the first stage of labor about spontaneous pushing technique (open glottis pushing while breathing out) and were supported in pushing spontaneously in the second stage of labor. Similarly, Valsalva pushing women were informed during the first stage of labor about the Valsalva pushing technique (closed glottis pushing while holding their breath) and were supported in using Valsalva pushing in the second stage of labor. Perineal tears, postpartum hemorrhage, and hemoglobin levels were evaluated in mothers; and umbilical artery pH, Po(2) (mmHg), and Pco(2) (mmHg) levels and Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes were evaluated in newborns in both groups. No significant differences were found between the two groups in their demographics, incidence of nonreassuring fetal surveillance patterns, or use of oxytocin. The second stage of labor and duration of the expulsion phase were significantly longer with Valsalva-type pushing. Differences in the incidence of episiotomy, perineal tears, or postpartum hemorrhage were not significant between the groups. The baby fared better with spontaneous pushing, with higher 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, and higher umbilical cord pH and Po(2) levels. After the birth, women expressed greater satisfaction with spontaneous pushing. Educating women about the spontaneous pushing

  14. An association between autumn birth and clozapine treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Foldager, Leslie; Røge, Rasmus; Pristed, Sofie Gry; Andreasen, Jesper T; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies on seasonality of birth and schizophrenia risk have been published but it is uncertain whether, among those with schizophrenia, refractory illness exhibits any predilection for birth month. We hypothesized and examined whether a season of birth effect was present in patients with schizophrenia with a history of clozapine treatment. Using record linkage with Danish registers, we examined patients with schizophrenia born between 1950 and 1970, and between 1995 and 2009 and Cox regression analysis was used to examine season of birth in relation to history of clozapine treatment. In a study population corresponding to 60,062 person-years from 5328 individuals with schizophrenia of which 1223 (23%) received at least one clozapine prescription, birth in the autumn (September-November) was associated with clozapine treatment (HR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.07-1.46) when compared with birth in the spring (March-May). Although replication studies are needed, this is the first evidence from a nationwide study suggesting a possible season-associated risk of clozapine treatment in schizophrenia. The reasons for this relationship remain to be further investigated but might be partially explained by early exposures such as winter flu season and low vitamin D levels.

  15. The effects of maternal depression, anxiety, and perceived stress during pregnancy on preterm birth: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Aleksandra; Bogossian, Fiona; Pritchard, Margo; Wittkowski, Anja

    2015-09-01

    Experiencing psychological distress such as depression, anxiety, and/or perceived stress during pregnancy may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth. Clarifying the association between exposure and outcome may improve the understanding of risk factors for prematurity and guide future clinical and research practices. The aims of the present review were to outline the evidence on the risk of preterm associated with antenatal depression, anxiety, and stress. Four electronic database searches were conducted to identify quantitative population-based, multi-centre, cohort studies and randomised-controlled trial studies focusing on the association between antenatal depression, anxiety, and stress, and preterm birth published in English between 1980 and 2013. Of 1469 electronically retrieved articles, 39 peer-reviewed studies met the final selection criteria and were included in this review following the PRISMA and MOOSE review guidelines. Information was extracted on study characteristics; depression, anxiety and perceived stress were examined as separate and combined exposures. There is strong evidence that antenatal distress during the pregnancy increases the likelihood of preterm birth. Complex paths of significant interactions between depression, anxiety and stress, risk factors and preterm birth were indicated in both direct and indirect ways. The effects of pregnancy distress were associated with spontaneous but not with medically indicated preterm birth. Health practitioners engaged in providing perinatal care to women, such as obstetricians, midwives, nurses, and mental health specialists need to provide appropriate support to women experiencing psychological distress in order to improve outcomes for both mothers and infants. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of thermal vapor diffusion on seasonal dynamics of water in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, Paul C.D.

    1996-01-01

    The response of water in the unsaturated zone to seasonal changes of temperature (T) is determined analytically using the theory of nonisothermal water transport in porous media, and the solutions are tested against field observations of moisture potential and bomb fallout isotopic (36Cl and 3H) concentrations. Seasonally varying land surface temperatures and the resulting subsurface temperature gradients induce thermal vapor diffusion. The annual mean vertical temperature gradient is close to zero; however, the annual mean thermal vapor flux is downward, because the temperature‐dependent vapor diffusion coefficient is larger, on average, during downward diffusion (occurring at high T) than during upward diffusion (low T). The annual mean thermal vapor flux is shown to decay exponentially with depth; the depth (about 1 m) at which it decays to e−1of its surface value is one half of the corresponding decay depth for the amplitude of seasonal temperature changes. This depth‐dependent annual mean flux is effectively a source of water, which must be balanced by a flux divergence associated with other transport processes. In a relatively humid environment the liquid fluxes greatly exceed the thermal vapor fluxes, so such a balance is readily achieved without measurable effect on the dynamics of water in the unsaturated zone. However, if the mean vertical water flux through the unsaturated zone is very small (theoretical prediction is supported by long‐term field measurements in the Chihuahuan Desert. The analysis also makes predictions, confirmed by the field observations, regarding the seasonal variations of matric potential at a given depth. The conceptual model of unsaturated zone water transport developed here implies the possibility of near‐surface trapping of any aqueous constituent introduced at the surface.

  17. The couple context of pregnancy and its effects on prenatal care and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann-Marriott, Bryndl

    2009-11-01

    The couple context of pregnancy and newborn health is gaining importance with the increase in births to unmarried couples, a disproportionate number of which were not intended. This study investigates the association of early prenatal care, preterm birth, and low birth weight with the couple relationship context, including partners' joint intentions for the pregnancy, their marital status at conception, and the presence of relationship problems during pregnancy. Data are drawn from the first wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Birth Cohort, a representative study of births in 2001. The sample is composed of parents residing together with their biological child at the time the child is 9 months old, where both the mother and father completed the self-report interview (N = 5,788). Couple-level multivariate logistic regression models, weighted to account for the complex sampling design, were used in the analysis. Risk of inadequate prenatal care and preterm birth was increased when partners did not share intentions or when neither partner intended the pregnancy. Couples were at additional risk of inadequate prenatal care when the pregnancy was conceived nonmaritally and when the mother did not tell the father about the pregnancy, particularly when neither partner intended the pregnancy. The risk of premature birth was particularly high when the partners were unmarried and either or both did not intend the pregnancy. The couple context of pregnancy is important for a healthy pregnancy and birth. When the partner is present, practitioners and programs should maintain a focus on the couple, and researchers should make every effort to include the father's own perspective.

  18. Effect of maternal age on the risk of preterm birth: A large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Florent; Monet, Barbara; Ducruet, Thierry; Chaillet, Nils; Audibert, Francois

    2018-01-01

    Maternal age at pregnancy is increasing worldwide as well as preterm birth. However, the association between prematurity and advanced maternal age remains controversial. To evaluate the impact of maternal age on the occurrence of preterm birth after controlling for multiple known confounders in a large birth cohort. Retrospective cohort study using data from the QUARISMA study, a large Canadian randomized controlled trial, which collected data from 184,000 births in 32 hospitals. Inclusion criteria were maternal age over 20 years. Exclusion criteria were multiple pregnancy, fetal malformation and intra-uterine fetal death. Five maternal age categories were defined and compared for maternal characteristics, gestational and obstetric complications, and risk factors for prematurity. Risk factors for preterm birth births were included in the study. Chronic hypertension, assisted reproduction techniques, pre-gestational diabetes, invasive procedure in pregnancy, gestational diabetes and placenta praevia were linearly associated with increasing maternal age whereas hypertensive disorders of pregnancy followed a "U" shaped distribution according to maternal age. Crude rates of preterm birth before 37 weeks followed a "U" shaped curve with a nadir at 5.7% for the group of 30-34 years. In multivariate analysis, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of prematurity stratified by age group followed a "U" shaped distribution with an aOR of 1.08 (95%CI; 1.01-1.15) for 20-24 years, and 1.20 (95% CI; 1.06-1.36) for 40 years and older. Confounders found to have the greatest impact were placenta praevia, hypertensive complications, and maternal medical history. Even after adjustment for confounders, advanced maternal age (40 years and over) was associated with preterm birth. A maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with the lowest risk of prematurity.

  19. Effect of Sibling Birth on BMI Trajectory in the First 6 Years of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosli, Rana H; Kaciroti, Niko; Corwyn, Robert F; Bradley, Robert H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between birth of a sibling and changes in body mass index z-score (BMIz) trajectory during the first 6 years of life. Children (n = 697) were recruited across 10 sites in the United States at the time of birth. Sibship composition was assessed every 3 months. Anthropometry was completed when the child was age 15 months, 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, and in first grade. Children were classified based on the timing of their sibling's birth. A piecewise quadratic regression model adjusted for potential confounders examined the association of the birth of a sibling with subsequent BMIz trajectory. Children whose sibling was born when they were 24 to 36 months or 36 to 54 months old, compared with children who did not experience the birth of a sibling by first grade, had a lower subsequent BMIz trajectory and a significantly lower BMIz at first grade (0.27 vs 0.51, P value = 0.04 and 0.26 vs 0.51, P value = 0.03, respectively). Children who did not experience the birth of a sibling by the time they were in first grade had 2.94 greater odds of obesity (P value = 0.046) at first grade compared with children who experienced the birth of a sibling when they were between 36 to 54 months old. A birth of a sibling when the child is 24 to 54 months old is associated with a healthier BMIz trajectory. Identifying the underlying mechanism of association can help inform intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do-Hyun; Jeon, Jihyun; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang-sun

    2016-01-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, a...

  1. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  2. Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even if you aren’t going for birth control. What doesn’t work to prevent pregnancy? top It’s ... and taking care of a baby’s many needs. What if I need birth control in an emergency? top Emergency contraception (EC) is ...

  3. [Home births].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welffens, K; Kirkpatrick, C; Daelemans, C; Derisbourg, S

    In Belgium, very few women give birth outside the delivery room. In the United Kingdom and in the Netherlands, they are more numerous. Several studies evaluated obstetric and neonatal outcomes of home births compared with hospital births. We selected seven recent and large studies (with cohorts of more than 5.000 women) using PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Several questions were examined. Is there any difference in maternal and neonatal outcomes depending on the intended place of birth? Does parity affect outcomes ? What are the characteristics of women who choose to deliver at home ? We conclude that giving birth at home improves obstetric outcomes but is riskier for the baby, especially for the first one. The women delivering at home are mainly white Europeans, between 25 and 35 years old, in a relationship, multiparous and wealthier. In order to avoid this increased risk for the baby while preserving the obstetric advantages, alongside birth centers offer an intermediate solution. They combine the reassuring home-like atmosphere with the safety of the hospital. In Belgium, the first alongside birth center " Le Cocon " (a low technicity unit distinct from the delivery room) offers now this type of alternative place of birth for women in Hôpital Erasme in Brussels.

  4. Impact of maternal smoking on birth size: effect of parity and sex dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Anastasia A; Asimakopoulou, Aspasia; Beratis, Nicholas G

    2009-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay of intrauterine growth. To examine the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on fetal growth in relationship to maternal parity, age and number of cigarettes smoked/day, and offspring's gender. We studied 2,108 term newborns (1,102 male, 1,006 female) delivered at the General University Hospital of Patras from 1994 to 2004. The 1,443 were born to mothers who did not smoke and 665 to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Birth weight, length and head circumference were measured prospectively in all newborns. Also, maternal smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day, age, and parity were recorded. For the analysis, t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman rank correlation, and factorial MANOVA with covariates were used. With increasing parity, in the neonates of nonsmoking mothers there was a gradual increase of growth, whereas in neonates of smoking mothers there was a gradual decrease of growth. This effect was more pronounced in males. A significant negative main effect on growth resulted from the interaction of smoking with parity (p = 0.013), and with gender and parity (p = 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between number of cigarettes smoked per day and growth, the strength of which increased with parity, mainly in males. Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay in fetal growth, which is greater in male offspring, an effect that is enhanced with parity but is independent of maternal age. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration to Nitrogen Fertilization: Varying Effects between Growing and Non-Growing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Rui; Li, Rujian; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization has a considerable effect on food production and carbon cycling in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of N fertilization rates on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) were controversial. Five N rates (N0, N45, N90, N135, and N180) were applied to a continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop on the semi-arid Loess Plateau, and the in situ soil respiration was monitored during five consecutive years from 2008 to 2013. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration rates increased with increasing N fertilization rates, peaking at 1.53 μmol m−2s−1 in the N135 treatment. A similar dynamic pattern was observed during the non-growing season, yet on average with 7.3% greater soil respiration rates than the growing season. In general for all the N fertilization treatments, the mean Q10 value during the non-growing season was significantly greater than that during the growing season. As N fertilization rates increased, the Q10 values did not change significantly in the growing season but significantly decreased in the non-growing season. Overall, N fertilization markedly influenced soil respirations and Q10 values, in particular posing distinct effects on the Q10 values between the growing and non-growing seasons. PMID:27992576

  6. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  7. Effects of depression pharmacotherapy in fertility treatment on conception, birth, and neonatal health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akioyamen, Leo E; Minhas, Hersimren; Holloway, Alison C; Taylor, Valerie H; Akioyamen, Noel O; Sherifali, Diana

    2016-05-01

    While antidepressant medications are currently used during conception, gestation and post-partum, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the benefits and harms conferred to mothers and their offspring. A significant body of evidence has focused on antidepressant use during pregnancy and post-partum. However, it is difficult to know if this translates to specific populations. Women receiving treatment for infertility are especially vulnerable to symptoms of depression and adverse perinatal outcomes. This systematic review aimed to determine the effects of antidepressants taken during the perinatal period by women receiving fertility treatment on conception, birth, and long-term maternal and child health outcomes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses, and Pubmed databases from January 1950 to November 2015. Articles were screened for inclusion independently by two reviewers. Studies were included if they enrolled women of reproductive age exposed to pharmacotherapy for depression and infertility at any point during the perinatal period. A total of 8587 unique citations, and 83 full-text articles were reviewed. Of these, two randomized controlled trials and two retrospective chart reviews were included in the narrative synthesis. While most studies reported on assisted reproduction processes and birth outcomes, none examined long-term impacts on maternal-child health. The few included studies did not find that antidepressant use by women receiving fertility therapy impacted gamete quality or pregnancy success. Currently, no studies address whether pharmacotherapy for the treatment of depression in women undergoing assisted reproduction affects their health or that of their offspring long-term. It appears that much like antidepressant use in fertile women, there are risks associated with both antidepressant use and untreated depression. Decisions regarding the treatment of depression should be made

  8. Seasonal Changing Effect on Airflow and Pollutant Dispersion Characteristics in Urban Street Canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Dong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of seasonal variation on air flow and pollutant dispersion characteristics was numerically investigated. A three-dimensional urban canopy model with unit aspect ratio (H/D = 1 was used to calculate surface temperature distribution in the street canyon. Four representative time events (1000 LST, 1300 LST, 1600 LST and 2000 LST during typical clear summer and winter days were selected to examine the air flow diurnal variation. The results revealed the seasonal variation significantly altered the street canyon microclimate. Compared with the street canyon surface temperature distribution in summer, the winter case showed a more evenly distributed surface temperature. In addition, the summer case showed greater daily temperature fluctuation than that of the winter case. Consequently, distinct pollutant dispersion patterns were observed between summer and winter scenarios, especially for the afternoon (1600 LST and night (2000 LST events. Among all studied time events, the pollutant removal performance of the morning (1000 LST and the night (2000 LST events were more sensitive to the seasonal variation. Lastly, limited natural ventilation performance was found during the summer morning and the winter night, which induced relatively high pollutant concentration along the pedestrian height level.

  9. Effects of 6-week pre-season plyometric training to performance characteristics in female handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kale Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week pre-season plyometric training on the performance characteristics in female handball players. Nineteen female handball players voluntarily participated in the study. They were divided into 2 groups [experimental group (ETG; N = 10, and control group (NTG; N = 9]. Both groups continued regular pre-season training for 6-weeks. The ETG also did plyometric training. Sprints (10 m, 20 m, and 30 m, squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, anaerobic power and capacity (AP and AC, and aerobic variables at fixed blood lactate levels (FBLLs [running velocity (RV, heart rate (HR, and oxygen consumption (VO2] were compared before and after the training. The results have shown that there are significant differences in SJ and CMJ (p<0.05, all sprints (p<0.01, AP and AC (p<0.05, VO2max (p<0.01, RV, HR, and VO2 at each of FBLLs (p<0.01 between pre- and post-training results of ETG. Pre- and post training results also showed significant differences in SJ and CMJ (p<0.05, all sprints (p<0.01, and AP (p<0.05 in NTG. In conclusion, was found that a 6-week plyometric training is an important parameter in addition to physical fitness, technical, and tactical training for the female handball players who get prepared for the woman handball super league which affects pre-season performance characteristics.

  10. Seasonal and depth effects on some parameters of a forest soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to study the effect of wet/dry season and the depth on several parameters of the forest soil. This work has shown that the concentration of Al3+ increases and that the concentration of exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and pHs (distilled water and CaCl2 decreases with the increase in depth and that these results are correlated. The concentrations of exchangeable cations (Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and organic matter (OM are affected by dry/wet season. Rain increases the solubility of organic carbon, thus decreasing OM and releasing exchangeable cations (Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+. P (available shows an increase in its concentration with an increase in depth. The low concentration of P (available in the soil samples could be due to the low pH of the soils. The value of pHpzc is influenced by exchangeable cations (Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and the pHs (CaCl2 and distilled water are higher than pHpzc. This means that the net charge of these soils is negative. CEC and CECpotential decrease with the increase in depth in most soil samples. For mostly of the samples, the season (wet/dry does not affect CEC, CECpotential, K+, or Na+.

  11. Effect of periodontal disease treatment during pregnancy on preterm birth incidence: a metaanalysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Polyzos, Ilias P; Mauri, Davide; Tzioras, Spyridon; Tsappi, Maria; Cortinovis, Ivan; Casazza, Giovanni

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials to determine whether periodontal disease treatment with scaling and/or root planing during pregnancy may reduce preterm birth (PTB) or low birthweight (LBW) infant incidence. Treatment resulted in significantly lower PTB (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.86; P = .008) and borderline significantly lower LBW (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-1.00; P = .049), whereas no difference was found for spontaneous abortion/stillbirth (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.41-1.31; P = .292). Subgroup analysis suggested significant effect of treatment in the absence of history of PTB or LBW (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.29-0.77; P = .003) and less severe periodontal disease as defined by probing depth (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.28-0.87; P = .014) or bleeding on probing site (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14-0.95; P = .04). If ongoing large and well-designed randomized trials support our results, we might need to reassess current practice or at least be cautious prior to rejecting treatment of periodontal disease with scaling and/or root planing during pregnancy.

  12. Effects of seasonings on the stability of ascorbic acid in a cooking model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Etsu; Maeda, Tomoko; Nishihama, Akiko; Kojo, Shosuke; Masuzawa, Yasuo

    2004-12-01

    The thermolability of ascorbic acid (AA) in aqueous solution at 100 degrees C was assessed in the presence of various seasonings commonly used in Japanese-style cooking. A model system approximated Japanese cooking with regard to the concentrations of AA and seasonings and the heating time. The decrease of AA in the reaction system of this experiment was a first-order reaction with respect to the concentration of AA loss. Although kinetic constants for AA loss decreased with increasing concentrations of AA (25-400 microg/mL), the absolute amounts degraded were almost the same for all AA concentrations, suggesting that dissolved oxygen is one of main factors affecting the stability of AA solutions during heating at 100 degrees C. When each seasoning was added to AA solution, salt stabilized AA and Japanese alcohol-containing admixtures, such as sake and sweet sake (mirin), did not have a significant effect on the stability. Conversely, soy sauce, miso (fermented soybean paste) and broth powder from skipjack accelerated the decrease of AA in a concentration-dependent manner. The kinetic study suggested that oxygen was rapidly consumed and AA loss accelerated by addition of soy sauce or miso to AA solution. Consequently it is likely that a reaction mechanism shifts from aerobic to anaerobic and the forward reactions proceed. Of the constituents of Japanese seasonings, not only iron but also amino acids are involved in the acceleration of AA degradation. The presence of amino acids should be taken into account when considering the levels of AA in soups.

  13. Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC using two established programs. Methods This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP. The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training. Results More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96, which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality

  14. Reduced perinatal mortality following enhanced training of birth attendants in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a time-dependent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matendo, Richard; Engmann, Cyril; Ditekemena, John; Gado, Justin; Tshefu, Antoinette; Kinoshita, Rinko; McClure, Elizabeth M; Moore, Janet; Wallace, Dennis; Carlo, Waldemar A; Wright, Linda L; Bose, Carl

    2011-08-04

    In many developing countries, the majority of births are attended by traditional birth attendants, who lack formal training in neonatal resuscitation and other essential care required by the newly born infant. In these countries, the major causes of neonatal mortality are birth asphyxia, infection, and low-birth-weight/prematurity. Death from these causes is potentially modifiable using low-cost interventions, including neonatal resuscitation training. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on perinatal mortality of training birth attendants in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) using two established programs. This study, a secondary analysis of DRC-specific data collected during a multi-country study, was conducted in two phases. The effect of training using the WHO Essential Newborn Care (ENC) program was evaluated using an active baseline design, followed by a cluster randomized trial of training using an adaptation of a neonatal resuscitation program (NRP). The perinatal mortality rates before ENC, after ENC training, and after randomization to additional NRP training or continued care were compared. In addition, the influence of time following resuscitation training was investigated by examining change in perinatal mortality during sequential three-month increments following ENC training. More than two-thirds of deliveries were attended by traditional birth attendants and occurred in homes; these proportions decreased after ENC training. There was no apparent decline in perinatal mortality when the outcome of all deliveries prior to ENC training was compared to those after ENC but before NRP training. However, there was a gradual but significant decline in perinatal mortality during the year following ENC training (RR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96), which was independently associated with time following training. The decline was attributable to a decline in early neonatal mortality. NRP training had no demonstrable effect on early

  15. Advancing maternal age and infant birth weight among urban African Americans: the effect of neighborhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James W; Simon, Dyan M; Jackson, Tara A; Drolet, Aimee

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether neighborhood poverty modifies the relationship between maternal age and infant birth weight among urban African Americans. Stratified analyses were performed on the vital records of African Americans born in Chicago by means of 1992-1995 computerized birth file with appended 1990 US Census income and 1995 Chicago Department of Public Health data. Four neighborhood-level variables (low median family income, high rates of unemployment, homicide, and lead poisoning) were analyzed. This is a population-based study. Twenty-one percent (n=21,811) of women resided in nonimpoverished neighborhoods (zero ecologic risk factors); 23% (n=24,914) of women lived in extremely impoverished neighborhoods (four ecologic risk factors). In nonimpoverished neighborhoods, 30-34 year old women had a moderately low birth weight (1500-2499 g) rate of 13.9% compared to 10.3% for women aged 20-24 years; risk difference (95% confidence interval [CI])=3.5 (2.2-4.6). In contrast, extremely impoverished women aged 30-34 years had a moderately low birth weight rate of 19.8% compared to 11.8% for women aged 20-24 years; risk difference (95% CI)=7.7 (6.1-9.3). This trend persisted among women who received early prenatal care and were primagravids or of low parity. Neighborhood poverty did not modify the association of advancing maternal age and the risk of very low birth weight (poverty accelerates the rise in moderately low birth weight but not very low birth weight; rates were associated with advancing maternal age among urban African Americans.

  16. Modeling spatial effects of PM{sub 2.5} on term low birth weight in Los Angeles County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric, E-mail: cokerer@onid.orst.edu [College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Ghosh, Jokay [School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Jerrett, Michael [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gomez-Rubio, Virgilio [Department of Mathematics, Universidad De Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete (Spain); Beckerman, Bernardo [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cockburn, Myles [Preventive Medicine and Spatial Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Liverani, Silvia [Department of Mathematics, Brunel University, London (United Kingdom); Su, Jason [School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Arthur [Department of Information Science, City of Hope National Cancer Center, Duarte, CA (United States); Kile, Molly L [College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Ritz, Beate [School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Molitor, John [College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Air pollution epidemiological studies suggest that elevated exposure to fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) is associated with higher prevalence of term low birth weight (TLBW). Previous studies have generally assumed the exposure–response of PM{sub 2.5} on TLBW to be the same throughout a large geographical area. Health effects related to PM{sub 2.5} exposures, however, may not be uniformly distributed spatially, creating a need for studies that explicitly investigate the spatial distribution of the exposure–response relationship between individual-level exposure to PM{sub 2.5} and TLBW. Here, we examine the overall and spatially varying exposure–response relationship between PM{sub 2.5} and TLBW throughout urban Los Angeles (LA) County, California. We estimated PM{sub 2.5} from a combination of land use regression (LUR), aerosol optical depth from remote sensing, and atmospheric modeling techniques. Exposures were assigned to LA County individual pregnancies identified from electronic birth certificates between the years 1995-2006 (N=1,359,284) provided by the California Department of Public Health. We used a single pollutant multivariate logistic regression model, with multilevel spatially structured and unstructured random effects set in a Bayesian framework to estimate global and spatially varying pollutant effects on TLBW at the census tract level. Overall, increased PM{sub 2.5} level was associated with higher prevalence of TLBW county-wide. The spatial random effects model, however, demonstrated that the exposure–response for PM{sub 2.5} and TLBW was not uniform across urban LA County. Rather, the magnitude and certainty of the exposure–response estimates for PM{sub 2.5} on log odds of TLBW were greatest in the urban core of Central and Southern LA County census tracts. These results suggest that the effects may be spatially patterned, and that simply estimating global pollutant effects obscures disparities suggested by spatial patterns of

  17. Effect of Weather Variability on Seasonal Influenza Among Different Age Groups in Queensland, Australia: A Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Mengersen, Kerrie; Milinovich, Gabriel; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-06-01

    The effects of weather variability on seasonal influenza among different age groups remain unclear. The comparative study aims to explore the differences in the associations between weather variability and seasonal influenza, and growth rates of seasonal influenza epidemics among different age groups in Queensland, Australia. Three Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive models were fitted at the postal area level to quantify the relationships between seasonal influenza and monthly minimum temperature (MIT), monthly vapor pressure, school calendar pattern, and Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage for 3 age groups (Weather variability appears to be more influential on seasonal influenza transmission in younger (0-14) age groups. The growth rates of influenza at postal area level were relatively small for older (≥65) age groups in Queensland, Australia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-12-05

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): -3.1 (95% CI, -4.6 to -1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC -2.4 (95% CI -2.7 to -2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC -2.5 (95% CI -4.1 to -0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC -5.2 (95% CI -5.7 to -4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): -3.3 (95% CI -4.7 to -1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  19. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yon Ho Jee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984–2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC: −3.1 (95% CI, −4.6 to −1.6 and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC −2.4 (95% CI −2.7 to −2.2. The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC −2.5 (95% CI −4.1 to −0.8 and from 2002 to 2013 (APC −5.2 (95% CI −5.7 to −4.7 and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC: −3.3 (95% CI −4.7 to −1.8. By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  20. Effect of sibling number in the household and birth order on prevalence of Helicobacter pylori: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alexander C; Forman, David; Bailey, Alastair G; Goodman, Karen J; Axon, Anthony T R; Moayyedi, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is acquired mainly in childhood, with studies demonstrating this is related to living conditions. Effects of sibling number and birth order on prevalence of infection have not been extensively studied. The authors performed a cross-sectional survey of adults, aged between 50 and 59 years, previously involved in a community-screening programme for H. pylori in Leeds and Bradford, UK. Prevalence of H. pylori was assessed at baseline with urea breath test. All individuals who were alive, and could be traced, were contacted by postal questionnaire in 2003 obtaining information on number of siblings and birth order. Data concerning childhood socioeconomic conditions were stored on file from the original study. 3928 (47%) of 8407 original participants provided data. Prevalence of infection increased according to sibling number (20% in those with none vs 63% with eight or more). Controlling for childhood socioeconomic conditions and birth order using multivariate logistic regression, infection odds were substantially increased with three siblings compared with none [odds ratio (OR) 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-2.15], and a gradient of effect continued up to eight or more siblings (OR 5.70; 95% CI 2.92-11.14). Odds of infection also increased substantially with birth order, but the positive gradient disappeared on adjustment for sibling number and childhood socioeconomic conditions. : In this cross section of UK adults, aged 50-59 years, sibling number in the household, but not birth order, was independently associated with prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  1. Lysine supplementation in late gestation of gilts: effects on piglet birth weight, and gestational and lactational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Magnabosco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine requirements for gain in maternal body reserves and piglet birth weight, during pregnancy, in contemporary prolific genotypes, are not well established. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine in late pregnancy on piglet birth weight, and on the gestational and lactational performance of gilts. Pregnant gilts were uniformly distributed into two groups and received, from 85 to 110 days of gestation, either of two lysine levels in their diet: Control group - 28g lysine/day (n=136, and Lysine group - 35g lysine/day (n=141. There were no effects (P>0.10 of supplemental lysine on body weight and backfat (BF gain of females or on piglet birth weight. Gilts supplemented with lysine tended to have a lower percentage of stillbirths (P=0.077, reduced within-litter birth weight variation (P=0.094 and a lower percentage of piglets weighing less than 1100g (P=0.082 than in the Control group. During lactation, the performance of sows and litters was also evaluated in a subgroup of sows (n=26/group. There were no differences between the Control and Lysine groups (P>0.10 in voluntary feed intake, body reserve losses (weight and BF, weaning-to-estrus interval of the sows, and litter weaning weight. In conclusion, an increase in lysine (from 28 to 35g/day in late gestation of gilts (85 to 110 days tends to reduce the rate of stillbirths and to improve the uniformity of litter weight at birth, but does not affect the performance of females until farrowing or during subsequent lactation.

  2. Compensatory growth feeding strategy does not overcome negative effects on growth and carcass composition of low birth weight pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J G; Bee, G

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the compensatory growth feeding strategy could be a suitable solution for overcoming the negative effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of low birth weight pigs. Forty-two Swiss Large White barrows from 21 litters were selected at weaning and categorized into either being light (L; >0.8 and 1.7 kg) birth weight pigs. From 27.8 kg BW, pigs were assigned within birth weight group to one of three feeding groups: AA: ad libitum access to the grower and finisher diet, RR: restricted access to the grower and finisher diet or RA: restricted access to the grower diet and ad libitum access to the finisher diet. At slaughter, the longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (STM) muscles were removed from the right side of the carcass. Weight, girth and length of the STM and the LM area were determined after muscle excision. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were assessed. Using mATPase histochemistry, myofibre size and myofibre type distribution were determined in the LM and STM. Because of longer days on feed, total feed intake was greater (Pgrowth period, RA barrows grew faster (PGrowth efficiency did not differ between RA and RR barrows but was greater (Pgrowth feeding strategy was inadequate in overcoming the disadvantages of low birth weight.

  3. Effects of Instruction on Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of the Causes of Night and Day and the Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Ronald K.; Atwood, Virginia A.

    1997-01-01

    Details a study that tests the effectiveness of brief instruction on the causes of night and day and the seasons. Employs simple, inexpensive models. Findings are useful for science teacher educators. Contains 32 references. (DDR)

  4. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A Kushnir

    Full Text Available Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations.We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles, as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles.During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7% involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women 44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P 44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater.Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women.Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women.

  5. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Albertini, David F; Darmon, Sarah K; Gleicher, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations. We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles), as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles). During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7%) involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women women >44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P women age >44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater. Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women.

  6. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The Effect of Seasonal Weather Variation on the Dynamics of the Plague Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigobert C. Ngeleja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a historic disease which is also known to be the most devastating disease that ever occurred in human history, caused by gram-negative bacteria known as Yersinia pestis. The disease is mostly affected by variations of weather conditions as it disturbs the normal behavior of main plague disease transmission agents, namely, human beings, rodents, fleas, and pathogens, in the environment. This in turn changes the way they interact with each other and ultimately leads to a periodic transmission of plague disease. In this paper, we formulate a periodic epidemic model system by incorporating seasonal transmission rate in order to study the effect of seasonal weather variation on the dynamics of plague disease. We compute the basic reproduction number of a proposed model. We then use numerical simulation to illustrate the effect of different weather dependent parameters on the basic reproduction number. We are able to deduce that infection rate, progression rates from primary forms of plague disease to more severe forms of plague disease, and the infectious flea abundance affect, to a large extent, the number of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague infective agents. We recommend that it is more reasonable to consider these factors that have been shown to have a significant effect on RT for effective control strategies.

  8. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae in the Rainy Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, Dyah Rini; Widiyaningrum, Priyantini; Haryuni; Slamet, Muji; Maretta, Yoris Adi

    2017-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae (MET) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are microorganisms that attack the larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros. The effects of MET, EPN and the combination of both on the O. rhinoceros larvae were studied during the rainy season in Jepara Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and entomopathogenic nematodes to control Oryctes rhinoceros larvae in the rainy season. There were four level doses of MET, four level doses of EPN and four mixture of MET and EPN. The experiment used 72 containers that were placed in the garden with coconut palm shade. Five kilograms of organic soil that was mixed with biological control agents (MET, EPN and MET+EPN) and ten O. rhinoceros larvae 3rd instar were put in each other container. The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. Every larvae mortality was observed once a week and observations are for 8 weeks. The result showed that the larval mortality due to MET treatment occurred on 2nd-7th week. Meanwhile, the larval mortality due to EPN treatment took place on 2nd-8th weeks and the larval mortality due to MET+EPN treatment occurred on 1st-5th weeks. The combination of MET and EPN was simultaneously effective to control O. rhinoceros larvae than separate use of MET or EPN. Result of this study showed that using two agents of biocontrol was more effective, so that it can be beneficial for controlling O. rhinoceros larvae in the field.

  9. Heat-Related Hospitalizations in Older Adults: An Amplified Effect of the First Seasonal Heatwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Alexander; Wu, Ruiruo; Chui, Kenneth Kwan Ho; Naumova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are highly vulnerable to the detriment of extreme weather. The rapid non-linear increase in heat-related morbidity is difficult to quantify, hindering the attribution of direct effects of exposure on severe health outcomes. We examine the effects of ambient temperatures on heat-related hospitalizations (HH) among the elderly in presence of strong seasonality and by assessing the effects caused by the first and subsequent seasonal heatwaves. We empirically derived the thresholds for a heatwave episode in Boston MSA based on 16 years of daily observations. We compared the health risks of heatwaves using the proposed and four alternative definitions. 701 cases of HH in older residents of Boston area were examined using harmonic regression models, designed to capture the non-linear effects of ambient temperatures and heatwave episodes when the night-time temperature is above 65.5 °F for 3 consecutive nights. The overall relative risk of HH associated with a heatwave episode was 6.9 [95%CI:4.8-9.8]. The relative risk of HH associated with the first heatwave increases up to 13.3 [95%CI:7.4-24.0]. The risk declined to 3.7 [95%CI:2.4-5.8] for the subsequent heatwave. Four other commonly used heatwave definitions confirmed these findings. Public health actions have to target the first heatwave to maximize the impact of preventive measures.

  10. Seasonal variation of serum vitamin D and the effect of vitamin D supplementation in Irish community-dwelling older people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman

    2011-03-01

    Ireland is at 53°N, and its population risk of vitamin D deficiency is high. Previous Irish studies suggested a significant seasonality of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and a beneficial effect of supplementation in raising 25(OH)D levels. However, in Irish older people, little is known about the magnitude of the supplementation effect and whether supplementation affects 25(OH)D seasonality.

  11. Effects of maternal pregnancy intention, depressive symptoms and social support on risk of low birth weight: a prospective study from southwestern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Dibaba Wado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW is the principal risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality in developing countries. This study examines the effects of unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support on the risk of low birth weight in rural southwestern Ethiopia. We hypothesized that unwanted pregnancy and prenatal depression increase the risk of low birth weight, while social support mediates this association. METHODS: Data for the study comes from a prospective study in which women were followed from pregnancy through to delivery. Six hundred twenty two women were followed and 537 birth weights were measured within 72 hours. Multivariable log binomial regression was used to model the risk of low birth weight. RESULTS: The mean birth weight was 2989 grams (SD ± 504 grams, and the incidence of LBW was 17.88%. The mean birth weight of babies after unwanted pregnancy was 114 g lower compared to births from intended pregnancy. Similarly, mean birth weight for babies among women with symptoms of antenatal depression was 116 grams lower. Results of unadjusted log-binomial regression showed that unwanted pregnancy, prenatal depression and social support were associated with LBW. The relationship between antenatal depressive symptoms and LBW was mediated by the presence of social support, while the association between LBW and unwanted pregnancy remained after multivariable adjustment. CONCLUSION: The incidence of low birth weight is high in the study area. Poverty, nonuse of antenatal care, low social support and unwanted pregnancy contribute to this high incidence of low birth weight. Hence, identifying women's pregnancy intention during antenatal care visits, and providing appropriate counseling and social support will help improve birth outcomes.

  12. Seasonality of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2012-01-01

    A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308

  13. Effects of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on local outdoor microclimate during the growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yafei; Bakker, Frank; de Groot, Rudolf; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed how the variations of plant area index (PAI) and weather conditions alter the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on microclimate. To observe how diverse UGIs affect the ambient microclimate through the seasons, microclimatic data were measured during the growing season at five sites in a local urban area in The Netherlands. Site A was located in an open space; sites B, C, and D were covered by different types and configurations of green infrastructure (grove, a single deciduous tree, and street trees, respectively); and site E was adjacent to buildings to study the effects of their façades on microclimate. Hemispherical photography and globe thermometers were used to quantify PAI and thermal comfort at both shaded and unshaded locations. The results showed that groves with high tree density (site B) have the strongest effect on microclimate conditions. Monthly variations in the differences of mean radiant temperature (∆Tmrt) between shaded and unshaded areas followed the same pattern as the PAI. Linear regression showed a significant positive correlation between PAI and ∆Tmrt. The difference of daily average air temperature (∆T a ) between shaded and unshaded areas was also positively correlated to PAI, but with a slope coefficient below the measurement accuracy (±0.5 °C). This study showed that weather conditions can significantly impact the effectiveness of UGI in regulating microclimate. The results of this study can support the development of appropriate UGI measures to enhance thermal comfort in urban areas.

  14. Variety and Harvesting Season Effects on Antioxidant Activity and Vitamins Content of Citrus sinensis Macfad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cardeñosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Five sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck varieties cultivated in Huelva (Spain and picked at two seasons during two consecutive years, were characterized for their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition and vitamin content (vitamin E and vitamin C. The effects induced by sweet orange variety and stage of maturity were comprehensively compared by applying 2-way ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. The results indicated higher differences in antioxidant activity and vitamin contents in response to the effect of the harvesting season, when compared to the effect of sweet orange variety. Nevertheless, the results observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the assayed sweet orange varieties. Either way, it might be concluded that oranges sampled in January show the highest antioxidant activity and vitamin contents. Furthermore, concerning the properties evaluated in this work, all sweet orange varieties represent good alternatives, except for Rhode Summer, which would not be the preferable choice as a target to enhance sweet orange overall characteristics.

  15. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and co...

  16. Systematic review on adverse birth outcomes of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Poursafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change and global warming have significant effects on human health. This systematic review presents the effects of the climate changes on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: The search process was conducted in electronic databases including ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using key words of "environmental temperature" "pregnancy" "low birth weight (LBW" "pregnancy outcome," "climate change," "preterm birth (PTB," and a combination of them. We did not consider any time limitation; English-language papers were included. The related papers were selected in three phases. After quality assessment, two reviewers extracted the data while the third reviewer checked their extracted data. Finally, 15 related articles were selected and included in the current study. Results: Approximately all studies have reported a significant relationship between exposure variable and intended outcomes including eclampsia, preeclampsia, cataract, LBW, PTB, hypertension, sex ratio and length of pregnancy. According to conducted studies, decrease in birth weight is more possible in cold months. Increase in temperature was followed by increase in PTB rate. According to most of the studies, eclampsia and preeclampsia were more prevalent in cold and humid seasons. Two spectrums of heat extent, different seasons of the year, sunlight intensity and season of fertilization were associated with higher rates of PTB, hypertension, eclampsia, preeclampsia, and cataract. Conclusion: Climate change has unfavorable effects on eclampsia, preeclampsia, PTB, and cataract. The findings of this review confirm the crucial importance of the adverse health effects of climate change especially in the perinatal period.

  17. Low Birth Weight due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction and/or Preterm Birth: Effects on Nephron Number and Long-Term Renal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, Vladislava; Sutherland, Megan R.; Lim, Kyungjoon; Gubhaju, Lina; Zimanyi, Monika A.; Black, M. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a strong association between low birth weight and long-term renal disease. A potential mediator of this long-term risk is a reduction in nephron endowment in the low birth weight infant at the beginning of life. Importantly, nephrons are only formed early in life; during normal gestation, nephrogenesis is complete by about 32–36 weeks, with no new nephrons formed after this time during the lifetime of the individual. Hence, given that a loss of a critical number of nephrons is the hallmark of renal disease, an increased severity and acceleration of renal disease is likely when the number of nephrons is already reduced prior to disease onset. Low birth weight can result from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or preterm birth; a high proportion of babies born prematurely also exhibit IUGR. In this paper, we describe how IUGR and preterm birth adversely impact on nephrogenesis and how a subsequent reduced nephron endowment at the beginning of life may lead to long-term risk of renal disease, but not necessarily hypertension. PMID:22970368

  18. Low Birth Weight due to Intrauterine Growth Restriction and/or Preterm Birth: Effects on Nephron Number and Long-Term Renal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislava Zohdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have clearly demonstrated a strong association between low birth weight and long-term renal disease. A potential mediator of this long-term risk is a reduction in nephron endowment in the low birth weight infant at the beginning of life. Importantly, nephrons are only formed early in life; during normal gestation, nephrogenesis is complete by about 32–36 weeks, with no new nephrons formed after this time during the lifetime of the individual. Hence, given that a loss of a critical number of nephrons is the hallmark of renal disease, an increased severity and acceleration of renal disease is likely when the number of nephrons is already reduced prior to disease onset. Low birth weight can result from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR or preterm birth; a high proportion of babies born prematurely also exhibit IUGR. In this paper, we describe how IUGR and preterm birth adversely impact on nephrogenesis and how a subsequent reduced nephron endowment at the beginning of life may lead to long-term risk of renal disease, but not necessarily hypertension.

  19. The effect of the holiday season on body weight and composition in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Casey N

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the rapid increase in obesity rates, determining critical periods for weight gain and the effects of changes in fat mass is imperative. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body weight and composition over the holiday season (Thanksgiving through New Year's in male and female college students. Methods Subjects completed three visits: the first occurred within 2 weeks prior to Thanksgiving, the second occurred within 5 to 7 days following Thanksgiving, and the third occurred within 10 days following New Year's Day. A total of 82 healthy male and female college age subjects participated. Body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA was assessed at visits 1 and 3 while body weight was assessed at all three visits. Results Average body weight remained relatively unchanged from pre-Thanksgiving to post-New Year's (71.3 ± 14 kg vs. 71.2 ± 15 kg; P = 0.71 and, in fact, a subset of normal weight subjects lost a significant amount of body weight. However, percent body fat (25.9 ± 9 %fat vs. 27.0 ± 9 %fat; P P P = 0.08 was not significantly different than the post-New Year's. A significant positive relationship (P P Conclusion Despite the fact that body weight remained unchanged over the course of the holiday season, a significant increase in %body fat and fat mass was observed. With recent evidence showing marked morbidity and mortality to be associated with increased body fat (particularly abdominal adiposity, results from this study suggest body weight alone may underestimate the potentially deleterious effects of the holiday season.

  20. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Health Care Providers For Health Care Providers: Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Pregnancy CDC Activities Resources ... births and improving neonatal outcomes. View the archived presentation and publication Related Links Is It Worth It? ...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination in a cohort of Thai children ≤60 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Pallas, Sarah E; Abimbola, Taiwo O; Klungthong, Chonticha; Fernandez, Stefan; Srisarang, Suchada; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Dawood, Fatimah S; Olsen, Sonja J; Lindblade, Kim A

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza. We conducted a cost-effectiveness evaluation of trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination, compared to no vaccination, in children ≤60 months of age participating in a prospective cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand. A static decision tree model was constructed to simulate the population of children in the cohort. Proportions of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza were derived from children followed weekly. The societal perspective and one-year analytic horizon were used for each influenza season; the model was repeated for three influenza seasons (2012-2014). Direct and indirect costs associated with influenza illness were collected and summed. Cost of the trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine (IIV3) including promotion, administration, and supervision cost was added for children who were vaccinated. Quality-adjusted life years (QALY), derived from literature, were used to quantify health outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated as the difference in the expected total costs between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups divided by the difference in QALYs for both groups. Compared to no vaccination, IIV3 vaccination among children ≤60 months in our cohort was not cost-effective in the introductory year (2012 season; 24,450 USD/QALY gained), highly cost-effective in the 2013 season (554 USD/QALY gained), and cost-effective in the 2014 season (16,200 USD/QALY gained). The cost-effectiveness of IIV3 vaccination among children participating in the cohort study varied by influenza season, with vaccine cost and proportion of high-risk children demonstrating the greatest influence in sensitivity analyses. Vaccinating children against influenza can be economically favorable depending on the maturity of the program, influenza vaccine performance, and target population.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination in a cohort of Thai children ≤60 months of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanitchaya Kittikraisak

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza. We conducted a cost-effectiveness evaluation of trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination, compared to no vaccination, in children ≤60 months of age participating in a prospective cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand.A static decision tree model was constructed to simulate the population of children in the cohort. Proportions of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza were derived from children followed weekly. The societal perspective and one-year analytic horizon were used for each influenza season; the model was repeated for three influenza seasons (2012-2014. Direct and indirect costs associated with influenza illness were collected and summed. Cost of the trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine (IIV3 including promotion, administration, and supervision cost was added for children who were vaccinated. Quality-adjusted life years (QALY, derived from literature, were used to quantify health outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated as the difference in the expected total costs between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups divided by the difference in QALYs for both groups.Compared to no vaccination, IIV3 vaccination among children ≤60 months in our cohort was not cost-effective in the introductory year (2012 season; 24,450 USD/QALY gained, highly cost-effective in the 2013 season (554 USD/QALY gained, and cost-effective in the 2014 season (16,200 USD/QALY gained.The cost-effectiveness of IIV3 vaccination among children participating in the cohort study varied by influenza season, with vaccine cost and proportion of high-risk children demonstrating the greatest influence in sensitivity analyses. Vaccinating children against influenza can be economically favorable depending on the maturity of the program, influenza vaccine performance, and target population.

  3. The Effect of Birth Order on Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality in Very Preterm Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Dan, Elad; Shah, Jyotsna; Lee, Shoo; Shah, Prakesh S; Murphy, Kellie E

    2017-07-01

    Objective  This retrospective cohort study examined the effect of birth order on neonatal morbidity and mortality in very preterm twins. Study Design  Using 2005 to 2012 data from the Canadian Neonatal Network, very preterm twins born between 24 0/7 and 32 6/7 weeks of gestation were included. Odds of morbidity and mortality of second-born cotwins compared with first-born cotwins were examined by matched-pair analysis. Outcomes were neonatal death, severe brain injury (intraventricular hemorrhage grade 3 or 4 or persistent periventricular echogenicity), bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) (> stage 2), necrotizing enterocolitis (≥ stage 2), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Multivariable analysis was performed adjusting for confounders. Result  There were 6,636 twins (3,318 pairs) included with a mean gestational age (GA) of 28.9 weeks. A higher rate of small for GA occurred in second-born twins (10 vs. 6%). Mortality was significantly lower for second-born twins (4.3 vs. 5.3%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-0.95). RDS (66 vs. 60%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.29-1.52) and severe retinopathy (9 vs. 7%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.07-2.01) were significantly higher in second-born twins. Conclusion  Thus, while second-born twins had reduced odds of mortality, they also had increased odds of RDS and ROP. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Effect of stage of initial labor dystocia on vaginal birth after cesarean success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowitz, Adam Korrick; Nakagawa, Sanae; Thiet, Mari-Paule; Rosenstein, Melissa Greer

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether the stage of labor dystocia causing a primary cesarean delivery (CD) affects a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) success. This was a retrospective cohort study of women who had primary CD of singleton pregnancies for first- or second-stage labor dystocia and attempted TOLAC at a single hospital between 2002 and 2014. We compared TOLAC success rates between women whose primary CD was for first- vs second-stage labor dystocia and investigated whether the effect of prior dystocia stage on TOLAC success was modified by previous vaginal delivery (VD). A total of 238 women were included; nearly half (49%) achieved vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). Women with a history of second-stage labor dystocia were more likely to have VBAC compared with those with first-stage dystocia, although this trend was not statistically significant among the general population (55% vs 45%, adjusted odds ratio, 1.4, 95% confidence interval, 0.8-2.5]). However, among women without a prior VD, those with a history of second-stage dystocia did have statistically higher odds of achieving VBAC than those with prior first-stage dystocia (54% vs 38%, adjusted odds ratio, 1.8 [95% confidence interval, 1.0-3.3], P for interaction = .043). Nearly half of women with a history of primary CD for labor dystocia will achieve VBAC. Women with a history of second-stage labor dystocia have a slightly higher VBAC rate, seen to a statistically significant degree in those without a history of prior VD. TOLAC should be offered to all eligible women and should not be discouraged in women with a prior second-stage arrest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pollen foraging in colonies of Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): effects of season, colony size and queen number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size.

  6. The association of season and temperature with adverse pregnancy outcome in two German states, a time-series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyfer Wolf

    Full Text Available A seasonality of low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth (PTB has been described for most regions and there is evidence that this pattern is caused by ambient outdoor temperature. However, the association as such, the direction of effect and the critical time of exposure remain controversial.Logistic, time-series regression was performed on nearly 300,000 births from two German states to study the association between season and daily mean temperature and changes in daily proportions of term LBW (tLBW or PTB. Analyses were adjusted for time-varying factors. Temperature exposures were examined during different periods of pregnancy.Weak evidence for an association between season of conception, season of birth or ambient outdoor temperature and tLBW or PTB was found. Results of analyses of temperature were not consistent between the two states. Different sources of bias which would have artificially led to stronger findings were detected and are described.No clear evidence for an association between season of conception, season of birth or temperature and tLBW or PTB was found. In the study of pregnancy outcome different sources of bias can be identified which can potentially explain heterogeneous findings of the past.

  7. Quantifying the effect of seasonal and vertical habitat tracking on planktonic foraminifera proxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jonkers

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of planktonic foraminiferal (PF calcite is routinely used to reconstruct climate variability. However, PF ecology leaves a large imprint on the proxy signal: seasonal and vertical habitats of PF species vary spatially, causing variable offsets from annual mean surface conditions recorded by sedimentary assemblages. PF seasonality changes with temperature in a way that minimises the environmental change that individual species experience and it is not unlikely that changes in depth habitat also result from such habitat tracking. While this behaviour could lead to an underestimation of spatial or temporal trends as well as of variability in proxy records, most palaeoceanographic studies are (implicitly based on the assumption of a constant habitat. Up to now, the effect of habitat tracking on foraminifera proxy records has not yet been formally quantified on a global scale. Here we attempt to characterise this effect on the amplitude of environmental change recorded in sedimentary PF using core top δ18O data from six species. We find that the offset from mean annual near-surface δ18O values varies with temperature, with PF δ18O indicating warmer than mean conditions in colder waters (on average by −0.1 ‰ (equivalent to 0.4 °C per °C, thus providing a first-order quantification of the degree of underestimation due to habitat tracking. We use an empirical model to estimate the contribution of seasonality to the observed difference between PF and annual mean δ18O and use the residual Δδ18O to assess trends in calcification depth. Our analysis indicates that given an observation-based model parametrisation calcification depth increases with temperature in all species and sensitivity analysis suggests that a temperature-related seasonal habitat adjustment is essential to explain the observed isotope signal. Habitat tracking can thus lead to a significant reduction in the amplitude of recorded environmental change

  8. Analyzing the edge effects in a Brazilian seasonally dry tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, D M; Eisenlohr, P V

    2016-02-01

    Due to the deciduous nature of dry forests (widely known as seasonally dry tropical forests) they are subject to microclimatic conditions not experienced in other forest formations. Close examinations of the theory of edge effects in dry forests are still rare and a number of questions arise in terms of this topic. In light of this situation we examined a fragment of the dry forest to respond to the following questions: (I) Are there differences in canopy cover along the edge-interior gradient during the dry season? (II) How does the microclimate (air temperature, soil temperature, and relative humidity) vary along that gradient? (III) How does the microclimate influence tree species richness, evenness and abundance along that gradient? (IV) Are certain tree species more dominant closer to the forest edges? Regressions were performed to address these questions. Their coefficients did not significantly vary from zero. Apparently, the uniform openness of the forest canopy caused a homogeneous internal microclimate, without significant differentiation in habitats that would allow modifications in biotic variables tested. We conclude that the processes of edge effect commonly seen in humid forests, not was shared with the dry forest assessed.

  9. Vaccine effectiveness against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza in Japan, 2011-2012 Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2011-2012 season in Japan using a test-negative case-control study design. The effect of co-circulating non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRVs on VE estimates was also explored. Nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illnesses (ILIs in a community hospital in Nagasaki, Japan. Thirteen respiratory viruses (RVs, including influenza A and B, were identified from the samples using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The difference in VE point estimates was assessed using three different controls: ILI patients that tested negative for influenza, those that tested negative for all RVs, and those that tested positive for NIRVs. The adjusted VE against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza using all influenza-negative controls was 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60.5 to 44.1. The adjusted VEs using RV-negative and NIRV-positive controls were -1.5% (95% CI, -74.7 to 41 and 50% (95% CI, -43.2 to 82.5, respectively. Influenza VE was limited in Japan during the 2011-2012 season. Although the evidence is not conclusive, co-circulating NIRVs may affect influenza VE estimates in test-negative case-control studies.

  10. The Effects of Birth Order on Personality Traits and Feelings of Academic Sibling Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Julia; Reddy, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The influence of birth order on personality and sibling rivalry is controversial; little research has been conducted into academic sibling rivalry, and none into the connection with personality traits. This study considers the interaction of all three factors. Firstborns (N=22) and lastborns (N=24) completed online personality tests and an…

  11. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  12. The effect of birth weight of boars and litter size in which were 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eugenia

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... 1.15 kg, 70 boars) and greater birth weight (GBW) (mean: 1.59 kg, 70 boars). Testes volume .... The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the MIXED procedure. The model for all ..... Frontiers. 3,. 62-67.

  13. Gender Differences in Intrahousehold Schooling Outcomes: The Role of Sibling Characteristics and Birth-Order Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Dancer, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of gender, sibling characteristics and birth order on the schooling attainment of school-age Egyptian children. We use multivariate analysis to simultaneously examine three different schooling outcomes of a child having "no schooling", "less than the desired level of schooling", and an…

  14. Direct and Indirect Effects of Birth Order on Personality and Identity: Support for the Null Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S.; Harbke, Colin R.; Papini, Dennis R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors proposed that birth order affects psychosocial outcomes through differential investment from parent to child and differences in the degree of identification from child to parent. The authors conducted this study to test these 2 models. Despite the use of statistical and methodological procedures to increase sensitivity and reduce…

  15. Born to learn or born to win? Birth order effects on achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2011-01-01

    Given the widespread use and well-known consequences of achievement goals in different competence-relevant situations, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of how these differences in goal pursuit are formed. Using different analytic approaches, we show that birth order lies at the heart

  16. Growth of preterm low birth weight infants until 24 months corrected age: effect of maternal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. Kiy

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: Preterm low birth weight born infants to hypertensive mothers have an increased risk of overweight at 24 months CA. Being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the 1st year of life are risk factors for growth disorders at 24 months CA.

  17. Intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of succession: Effects of habitat age and season on an aquatic insect community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G; Ives, Anthony R; Juliano, Steven A

    2014-06-01

    1. Classical studies of succession, largely dominated by plant community studies, focus on intrinsic drivers of change in community composition, such as interspecific competition and changes to the abiotic environment. They often do not consider extrinsic drivers of colonization, such as seasonal phenology, that can affect community change. 2. We investigated both intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of succession for dipteran communities that occupy ephemeral pools, such as those in artificial containers. By initiating communities at different times in the season and following them over time, we compared the relative importance of intrinsic (i.e., habitat age) vs. extrinsic (i.e., seasonal phenology) drivers of succession. 3. We placed water-filled artificial containers in a deciduous forest with 20 containers initiated in each of three months. Containers were sampled weekly to assess community composition. Repeated-measures mixed-effects analysis of community correspondence analysis (CA) scores enabled us to partition intrinsic and extrinsic effects on succession. Covariates of temperature and precipitation were also tested. 4. Community trajectories (as defined by CA) differed significantly with habitat age and season, indicating that both intrinsic and extrinsic effects influence succession patterns. Comparisons of AICcs showed that habitat age was more important than season for species composition. Temperature and precipitation did not explain composition changes beyond those explained by habitat age and season. 5. Quantification of relative strengths of intrinsic and extrinsic effects on succession in dipteran and other ephemeral communities enables us to disentangle processes that must be understood for predicting changes in community composition.

  18. Effect of land use on the seasonal variation of streamwater quality in the Wei River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Xu, Z.; Wu, W.; Zuo, D.

    2015-05-01

    The temporal effect of land use on streamwater quality needs to be addressed for a better understanding of the complex relationship between land use and streamwater quality. In this study, GIS and Pearson correlation analysis were used to determine whether there were correlations of land-use types with streamwater quality at the sub-basin scale in the Wei River basin, China, during dry and rainy seasons in 2012. Temporal variation of these relations was observed, indicating that relationships between water quality variables and proportions of different land uses were weaker in the rainy season than that in the dry season. Comparing with other land uses, agriculture and urban lands had a stronger relationship with water quality variables in both the rainy and dry seasons. These results suggest that the aspect of temporal effects should be taken into account for better land-use management.

  19. Effects of seasonal smog on asthma and COPD exacerbations requiring emergency visits in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Tosukhowong, Apiwat; Chaiwong, Warawut; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Inchai, Juthamas

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal smog produces particulate matters that are less than 10 microns in diameter (PM₁₀), which are known to have several impacts on the respiratory system. This study was to determine the association of an increased PM10 level due to seasonal smog in Chiang Mai and emergency visits for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of January and March from 2006 until 2009. The association of an increased PM₁₀ level and the daily number of asthma and COPD exacerbations were analyzed using a generalized linear model; a Poisson regression model was fit to the number of daily emergency visits using predictor variables: lags of PM10, day of the week, and time. There were a total of 917 emergency visits for acute exacerbations of asthma and COPD, with a median of 2 visits per day (range 0-10). The median PM₁₀ level during the same interval was 64.5 microgram per cubic meter (μg/m3) (16-304). For every 10 μg/m3 rise in PM10 concentration, there was a lag time of 6 days for asthma exacerbations [Adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.020; 95% confident interval (CI), 1.001-1.040; (p=0.014)], 7 days for COPD exacerbations [RR=1.030; 95%CI, 1.010-1.050 (p=0.024)] and 7 days for all exacerbations [RR=1.030 95%CI, 1.010-1.040 (p<0.001)]. This study confirms the effect of increasing PM₁₀ concentrations from seasonal smog on asthma and COPD exacerbations. However, there was an approximately 1 week lag time between the elevated PM₁₀ levels and time to emergency visits due to disease exacerbation.

  20. Seasonal variation in human reproduction: environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, F H

    1995-06-01

    Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the

  1. Effect of prematurity and low birth weight in visual abilities and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Roche, T; Altemir, I; Giménez, G; Prieto, E; González, I; Peña-Segura, J L; Castillo, O; Pueyo, V

    2016-12-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight are known risk factors for cognitive and developmental impairments, and school failure. Visual perceptual and visual motor skills seem to be among the most affected cognitive domains in these children. To assess the influence of prematurity and low birth weight in visual cognitive skills and school performance. We performed a prospective cohort study, which included 80 boys and girls in an age range from 5 to 13. Subjects were grouped by gestational age at birth (preterm, birth weight (small for gestational age (SGA), school performance in children. Figure-ground skill and visual motor integration were significantly decreased in the preterm birth group, compared with term control subjects (figure-ground: 45.7 vs 66.5, p=0.012; visual motor integration, TVAS: (9.9 vs 11.8, p=0.018), while outcomes of visual memory (29.0 vs 47.7, p=0.012), form constancy (33.3 vs 52.8, p=0.019), figure-ground (37.4 vs 65.6, p=0.001), and visual closure (43.7 vs 62.6 p=0.016) testing were lower in the SGA (vs AGA) group. Visual cognitive difficulties corresponded with worse performance in mathematics (r=0.414, p=0.004) and reading (r=0.343, p=0.018). Specific patterns of visual perceptual and visual motor deficits are displayed by children born preterm or SGA, which hinder mathematics and reading performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness: Maintained Protection Throughout the Duration of Influenza Seasons 2010-2011 through 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    effectiveness: Maintained protection throughout the duration of influenza seasons 2010–2011 through 2013–2014http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine...Unfortunately, we did not have data on the proportion who received the higher-dose vaccine. Another limitation of our study is that we did not conduct a...significant protection against influenza infection for the duration of the influenza season or up to 6 months postvac- cination. Since the start of the

  3. A risk prediction model for severe intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants and the effect of prophylactic indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, M J; Tapia, J L; Villarroel, L; Marshall, G; Musante, G; Carlo, W; Kattan, J

    2014-01-01

    Develop a risk prediction model for severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI). Prospectively collected data of infants with birth weight 500 to 1249 g born between 2001 and 2010 in centers from the Neocosur Network were used. Forward stepwise logistic regression model was employed. The model was tested in the 2011 cohort and then applied to the population of VLBWI that received prophylactic indomethacin to analyze its effect in the risk of severe IVH. Data from 6538 VLBWI were analyzed. The area under ROC curve for the model was 0.79 and 0.76 when tested in the 2011 cohort. The prophylactic indomethacin group had lower incidence of severe IVH, especially in the highest-risk groups. A model for early severe IVH prediction was developed and tested in our population. Prophylactic indomethacin was associated with a lower risk-adjusted incidence of severe IVH.

  4. Effects of low birth weight on time to BCG vaccination in an urban poor settlement in Nairobi, Kenya: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Martin Kavao; Ochako, Rhoune; Ettarh, Remare; Ravn, Henrik; Echoka, Elizabeth; Mwaniki, Peter

    2015-04-18

    The World Health Organization recommends Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis be given at birth. However, in many developing countries, pre-term and low birth weight infants get vaccinated only after they gain the desired weight. In Kenya, the ministry of health recommends pre-term and low birth weight infants to be immunized at the time of discharge from hospital irrespective of their weight. This paper seeks to understand the effects of birth weight on timing of BCG vaccine. The study was conducted in two Nairobi urban informal settlements, Korogocho and Viwandani which hosts the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. All infants born in the study area since September 2006 were included in the study. Data on immunization history and birth weight of the infant were recorded from child's clinic card. Follow up visits were done every four months to update immunization status of the child. A total of 3,602 infants were included in this analysis. Log normal accelerated failure time parametric model was used to assess the association between low birth weight infants and time to BCG immunization. In total, 229 (6.4%) infants were low birth weight. About 16.6% of the low birth weight infants weighed less than 2000 grams and 83.4% weighed between 2000 and 2490 grams. Results showed that, 60% of the low birth weight infants received BCG vaccine after more than five weeks of life. Private health facilities were less likely to administer a BCG vaccine on time compared to public health facilities. The effects of low birth weight on females was 0.60 and 0.97-times that of males for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and for infants weighing <2000 grams respectively. The effect of low birth weight among infants born in public health facilities was 1.52 and 3.94-times that of infants delivered in private health facilities for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and those weighing < 2000 grams respectively. Low birth weight infants

  5. EFFECT OF KANGAROO MOTHER CARE ON OUTCOME IN PRETERM AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sekhar Kondapalli

    2017-09-01

    or development and would humanise the practice of neonatology. It is superior alternative to conventional method of care in institutions with limited resources. We recommend Kangaroo Mother Care for low birth weight infants, which is cost effective and easy to follow even in tertiary care hospitals. It is definitely feasible, acceptable to mothers and can be continued at home in the Indian setup.

  6. Exploring the mid-infrared region for urban remote sensing: seasonal and view angle effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C. P.; Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning 3-5 microns, the mid-infrared (MIR) region is the mixing zone between reflected sunlight and emitted earthlight in roughly equal proportions. While the MIR has been utilized in atmospheric remote sensing, its potential in terrestrial remote sensing--particularly urban remote sensing, has yet to be realized. One major advantage of the MIR is the ability to penetrate most anthropogenic haze and smog. Green vegetation appears MIR-dark, urban building materials appear MIR-grey, and bare soil and dried vegetation appear MIR-bright. Thus, there is an intrinsic seasonality in MIR radiance dynamics due both to surface type differences and to seasonal change in insolation. These factors merit exploration into the potential applications of the MIR for monitoring urban change. We investigated MIR radiance dynamics in relation to (1) the spectral properties of land cover types, (2) time of year and (3) sensor view zenith angle (VZA). We used Aqua MODIS daily swaths for band 23 (~ 4.05 μm) at 1 km spatial resolution from 2009-2010 and the NLCD Percent Impervious Surface Area (%ISA) 30 m product from 2001 and 2006. We found the effects of time of year, sensor VZA, and %ISA to be three principal factors influencing MIR radiance dynamics. We focused on analyzing the relationship between MIR radiance and %ISA over eight major cities in the Great Plains of the USA. This region is characterized by four distinct seasons, relatively flat terrain, and isolated urban centers situated within a vegetated landscape. We used west-east transects beginning in the agricultural areas outside of each city, passing through the urban core and extending back out into the agricultural periphery to observe the spatial pattern of MIR radiance and how it changes seasonally. Sensor VZA influences radiance dynamics by affecting the proportion of surface elements detected--especially pertinent at the coarse spatial resolution (~1 km) of MODIS. For example, smaller VZAs (30°). Larger VZAs detect

  7. The effectiveness of continuing training for traditional birth attendants on their reproductive health-care knowledge and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Wang, Jung-Der; Ward, Aimee Lou; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chiang, Hung-Che; Kolola-Dzimadzi, Rose; Nyasulu, Yohane M Z; Yu, Joseph Kwong-Leung

    2011-10-01

    to evaluate the effectiveness of continuing training for traditional birth attendants (TBAs) on their reproductive knowledge and performance. Mzuzu Central Hospital in the northern region of Malawi. PARTICIPANTS AND ANALYSIS: a total of 81 TBAs trained during 2004 and 2006 in Mzuzu, Malawi received continuing training courses. Their reproductive knowledge was assessed by a structured questionnaire during 2004 and 2007. A multivariate generalised estimating equation (GEE) model was constructed to determine the associations between their reproductive knowledge scores and age, years of education, time since the last training course, test frequency and number of babies delivered. from July 2004 to June 2007, a total of 1984 pregnant women visited these trained TBAs. A total of 79 (4.0%) mothers were referred to health facilities before the birth due to first-born or difficult pregnancies. No maternal deaths occurred among the remaining mothers. There were 26 deaths among 1905 newborn babies, giving a perinatal mortality rate of 13.6 per 1000 live births. The GEE model demonstrated that knowledge scores of TBAs were significantly higher for TBAs under the age of 45 years, TBAs with more than five years of education, TBAs who had taken a training course within one year, and TBAs with a higher test frequency. continuing training courses are effective to maintain the reproductive knowledge and performance of trained TBAs. It is recommended that continuing training should be offered regularly, at least annually. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of elevated [CO2] and nutrient management on wet and dry season rice production in subtropical India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushree Sagarika Satapathy; Dillip Kumar Swain; Surendranath Pasupalak; Pratap Bhanu Singh Bhadoria

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of elevated [CO2] with varying nutrient management on rice–rice production system. The experiment was conducted in the open field and inside open-top chambers (OTCs) of ambient [CO2] (≈390μmol L−1) and elevated [CO2] environment (25%above ambient) during wet and dry seasons in 2011–2013 at Kharagpur, India. The nutrient management included recommended doses of N, P, and K as chemical fertilizer (CF), integration of chemical and organic sources, and application of increased (25%higher) doses of CF. The higher [CO2] level in the OTC increased aboveground biomass but marginally decreased filled grains per panicle and grain yield of rice, compared to the ambient environment. However, crop root biomass was increased significantly under elevated [CO2]. With respect to nutrient management, increasing the dose of CF increased grain yield significantly in both seasons. At the recommended dose of nutrients, integrated nutrient management was comparable to CF in the wet season, but significantly inferior in the dry season, in its effect on growth and yield of rice. The [CO2] elevation in OTC led to a marginal increase in organic C and available P content of soil, but a decrease in available N content. It was concluded that increased doses of nutrients via integration of chemical and organic sources in the wet season and chemical sources alone in the dry season will minimize the adverse effect of future climate on rice production in subtropical India.

  9. Birth Order, Schooling, and Earnings.

    OpenAIRE

    Behrman, Jere R; Taubman, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Birth-order effects are posited by many to affect earnings and schooling. The authors show how such effects can be interpreted to shift either the earnings possibility frontier for siblings or parental preferences. The authors find empirical evidence for birth- order effects on (age-adjusted) schooling and on earnings for young U.S. adults, though the latter is not robust for all specifications. The examination of intrahousehold allocations suggests that these birth-order differences occur, d...

  10. The effects of work-related maternal risk factors on time to pregnancy, preterm birth and birth weight: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Brand, T.; Jaddoe, V. W.; Hofman, A.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Steegers, E. A. P.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the influence of maternal working conditions on fertility and pregnancy outcomes. 8880 women were enrolled in a large prospective birth cohort during early (76%), mid (21%) or late pregnancy (3%) (61% participation). Complete questionnaire information was available for 6302 women (71%

  11. The effects of work-related maternal risk factors on time to pregnancy, preterm birth and birth weight: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdorf, A.; Brand, T.; Jaddoe, V.W.; Hofman, A.; Mackenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of maternal working conditions on fertility and pregnancy outcomes. Methods 8880 women were enrolled in a large prospective birth cohort during early (76%), mid (21%) or late pregnancy (3%) (61% participation). Complete questionnaire information was available

  12. Comparison of effects of breast-feeding practices on birth-spacing in three societies: nomadic Turkana, Gainj, and Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S J

    1994-01-01

    Variation in the duration and pattern of breast-feeding contributes significantly to inter-population differences in fertility. In this paper, measures of suckling frequency and intensity are used to compare the effects of breast-feeding practices on the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, and on the length of the birth interval in three prospective studies undertaken during the 1980s, among Quechua Indians of Peru, Turkana nomads of Kenya, and Gainj of Papua New Guinea. In all three societies, lactation is prolonged well into the second year postpartum, and frequent, on-demand breast-feeding is the norm. However, the duration of lactational amenorrhoea and the length of birth intervals vary considerably. Breast-feeding patterns among Gainj and Turkana are similar, but Turkana women resume menses some 3 months earlier than do the Gainj. The average birth interval among the Gainj exceeds that of nomadic Turkana by over 15 months. Suckling activity decreases significantly with increasing age of nurslings among both Gainj and Quechua, but not among Turkana. Earlier resumption of menses among Turkana women may be linked to the unpredictable demands of the pastoral system, which increase day-to-day variation in the number of periods of on-demand breast-feeding, although not in suckling patterns. This effect is independent of the age of infants. The short birth intervals of Turkana women, relative to those of the Gainj, may be related to early supplementation of Turkana nurslings with butterfat and animals' milk, which reduces energetic demands on lactating women at risk of negative energy balance.

  13. Effects of irrigation on the seasonal abundance of Empoasca vitis in north-Italian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Duso, C; Pozzebon, A; Tomasi, D; Gaiotti, F; Pavan, F

    2012-02-01

    The effect of irrigation on the abundance of Empoasca vitis (Göthe) populations was investigated in four vineyards located in northeastern Italy. In two experiments, we compared leafhopper population densities in plots irrigated (micro-spray irrigation system) or nonirrigated. In another experiment, we studied the effect of various irrigation systems on E. vitis populations over two successive seasons. In particular, five treatments were compared: control (not irrigated), traditional drip system, three types of subirrigation varying in distance from the row (40, 135, and 95 cm). In this vineyard, stem water potential was monitored with a pressure chamber. E. vitis population densities were affected by irrigation, with higher densities of this pest recorded on irrigated vines. Highest E. vitis densities were detected in drip irrigation plots compared with nonirrigated plots where water stress was highest. Moderate water stress (subirrigation plots) was associated with intermediate leafhopper densities. Implications for integrated pest management are discussed.

  14. Observation of seasonal effects in traveling ionospheric disturbances by the directional deviation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, E.K.; Bailey, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment was performed during the years 1962 through 1964 in which direction of arrival data were collected on pulse signals received over a 450 km east-west path. In order to determine the effect that traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) had on these data, a ''corrugation'' model was proposed. The corrugation model assumes that TIDs can be treated as if they were moving cylindrical sinusoidal perturbations on the ionospheric reflecting surface. Lateral deviations in the experimental data of the type predicted by this model were found to be quite common. Variations in the detected TIDs as a function of time of year were found to be consistent with the ''seasonal effect'' studied by Munro in 1958, Jones 1969, and Davies and Jones in 1971

  15. Mid-Season Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Estimates for the 2016-2017 Influenza Season (Open Access Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    VE) and findings are shared annually at the Food and Drug Administration’s advisory committee meet- ing on U.S. influenza vaccine strain selec- tion...Aeromedical Services Information Manage - ment System) and self-report from patient questionnaires. Individuals were consid- ered vaccinated if they received...surveillance are used to estimate midseason influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) and findings are shared annually at the Food and Drug

  16. The Effect of Seasonal and Long-Period Geopotential Variations on the GPS Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melachroinos, Stavros A.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Beckley, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of using seasonal and long-period time-variable gravity field (TVG) models on GPS orbit determination, through simulations from 1994 to 2012. The models of time-variable gravity that we test include the GRGS release RL02 GRACE-derived 10-day gravity field models up to degree and order 20 (grgs20x20), a 4 x 4 series of weekly coefficients using GGM03S as a base derived from SLR and DORIS tracking to 11 satellites (tvg4x4), and a harmonic fit to the above 4 x 4 SLR-DORIS time series (goco2s_fit2). These detailed models are compared to GPS orbit simulations using a reference model (stdtvg) based on the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) and International GNSS Service (IGS) repro1 standards. We find that the new TVG modeling produces significant along, cross-track orbit differences as well as annual, semi-annual, draconitic and long-period effects in the Helmert translation parameters (Tx, Ty, Tz) of the GPS orbits with magnitudes of several mm. We show that the simplistic TVG modeling approach used by all of the IGS Analysis Centers, which is based on the models provided by the IERS standards, becomes progressively less adequate following 2006 when compared to the seasonal and long-period TVG models.

  17. The Effect of PM10 on Allergy Symptoms in Allergic Rhinitis Patients During Spring Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Gyu Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asian sand dust (ASD that originates in the Mongolian Desert in the spring induces serious respiratory health problems throughout East Asia (China, Korea, Japan. PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm is a major air pollutant component in ASD. We studied the effects of PM10 on allergy symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis during the spring season, when ASD frequently develops. Methods: We investigated the changes in allergic symptoms in 108 allergic patients and 47 healthy subjects by comparing their 120-day symptom scores from February to May 2012. At the same time, the contributions of pollen count and PM10 concentration were also assessed. We also compared symptom scores before and 2 days after the daily PM10 concentration was >100 μg/m3. Results: The PM10 concentration during the 120 days was <150 μg/m3. No significant correlations were observed between changes in the PM10 concentration and allergic symptom scores (p > 0.05. However, allergic symptoms were significantly correlated with outdoor activity time (p < 0.001. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that a PM10 concentration <150 μg/m3 did not influence allergy symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis during the 2012 ASD season.

  18. Effect of the Holiday Season on Weight Gain: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Zavala, Rolando G; Castro-Cantú, María F; Valencia, Mauro E; Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Haby, Michelle M; Esparza-Romero, Julián

    2017-01-01

    Several studies suggest that the holiday season, starting from the last week of November to the first or second week of January, could be critical to gaining weight. This study aims to review the literature to determine the effects of the holidays on body weight. In studies of adults, a significant weight gain was consistently observed during this period (0.4 to 0.9 kg, p 0.05) during this period. Among individuals with obesity who attempt to lose weight, an increase in weight was observed (0.3 to 0.9 kg, significant in some but not in all studies), as well as increase in weight in motivated self-monitoring people (0.4 to 0.6%, p holidays (phone calls and daily mailing) appeared to prevent weight gain, but information is limited. The holiday season seems to increase body weight in adults, even in participants seeking to lose weight and in motivated self-monitoring people, whereas in children, adolescents, and college students, very few studies were found to make accurate conclusions.

  19. Effects of ocean initial perturbation on developing phase of ENSO in a coupled seasonal prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Kumar, Arun; Wang, Wanqiu

    2018-03-01

    Coupled prediction systems for seasonal and inter-annual variability in the tropical Pacific are initialized from ocean analyses. In ocean initial states, small scale perturbations are inevitably smoothed or distorted by the observational limits and data assimilation procedures, which tends to induce potential ocean initial errors for the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction. Here, the evolution and effects of ocean initial errors from the small scale perturbation on the developing phase of ENSO are investigated by an ensemble of coupled model predictions. Results show that the ocean initial errors at the thermocline in the western tropical Pacific grow rapidly to project on the first mode of equatorial Kelvin wave and propagate to the east along the thermocline. In boreal spring when the surface buoyancy flux weakens in the eastern tropical Pacific, the subsurface errors influence sea surface temperature variability and would account for the seasonal dependence of prediction skill in the NINO3 region. It is concluded that the ENSO prediction in the eastern tropical Pacific after boreal spring can be improved by increasing the observational accuracy of subsurface ocean initial states in the western tropical Pacific.

  20. Effect of the Holiday Season on Weight Gain: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando G. Díaz-Zavala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that the holiday season, starting from the last week of November to the first or second week of January, could be critical to gaining weight. This study aims to review the literature to determine the effects of the holidays on body weight. In studies of adults, a significant weight gain was consistently observed during this period (0.4 to 0.9 kg, p0.05 during this period. Among individuals with obesity who attempt to lose weight, an increase in weight was observed (0.3 to 0.9 kg, significant in some but not in all studies, as well as increase in weight in motivated self-monitoring people (0.4 to 0.6%, p<0.001. Programs focused on self-monitoring during the holidays (phone calls and daily mailing appeared to prevent weight gain, but information is limited. The holiday season seems to increase body weight in adults, even in participants seeking to lose weight and in motivated self-monitoring people, whereas in children, adolescents, and college students, very few studies were found to make accurate conclusions.

  1. Coupling Mars' Dust and Water Cycles: Effects on Dust Lifting Vigor, Spatial Extent and Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.

    2012-01-01

    The dust cycle is an important component of Mars' current climate system. Airborne dust affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere, thus greatly influencing the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere. Dust raising events on Mars occur at spatial scales ranging from meters to planet-wide. Although the occurrence and season of large regional and global dust storms are highly variable from one year to the next, there are many features of the dust cycle that occur year after year. Generally, a low-level dust haze is maintained during northern spring and summer, while elevated levels of atmospheric dust occur during northern autumn and winter. During years without global-scale dust storms, two peaks in total dust loading were observed by MGS/TES: one peak occurred before northern winter solstice at Ls 200-240, and one peak occurred after northern winter solstice at L(sub s) 305-340. These maxima in dust loading are thought to be associated with transient eddy activity in the northern hemisphere, which has been observed to maximize pre- and post-solstice. Interactive dust cycle studies with Mars General Circulation Models (MGCMs) have included the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Although the predicted global dust loadings from these simulations capture some aspects of the observed dust cycle, there are marked differences between the simulated and observed dust cycles. Most notably, the maximum dust loading is robustly predicted by models to occur near northern winter solstice and is due to dust lifting associated with down slope flows on the flanks of the Hellas basin. Thus far, models have had difficulty simulating the observed pre- and post- solstice peaks in dust loading. Interactive dust cycle studies typically have not included the formation of water ice clouds or their radiative effects. Water ice clouds can influence the dust cycle by scavenging dust from atmosphere and by interacting with solar and infrared radiation

  2. Effect of Environmental Factors on Low Weight in Non-Premature Births: A Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; Arroyo, Virginia; Ortiz, Cristina; Carmona, Rocío; Linares, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to pollutants during pregnancy has been related to adverse birth outcomes. LBW can give rise to lifelong impairments. Prematurity is the leading cause of LBW, yet few studies have attempted to analyse how environmental factors can influence LBW in infants who are not premature. This study therefore sought to analyse the influence of air pollution, noise levels and temperature on LBW in non-premature births in Madrid during the period 2001-2009. Ecological time-series study to assess the impact of PM2.5, NO2 and O3 concentrations, noise levels, and temperatures on LBW among non-premature infants across the period 2001-2009. Our analysis extended to infants having birth weights of 1,500 g to 2,500 g (VLBW) and less than 1,500 g (ELBW). Environmental variables were lagged until 37 weeks with respect to the date of birth, and cross-correlation functions were used to identify explaining lags. Results were quantified using Poisson regression models. Across the study period 298,705 births were registered in Madrid, 3,290 of which had LBW; of this latter total, 1,492 were non-premature. PM2.5 was the only pollutant to show an association with the three variables of LBW in non-premature births. This association occurred at around the third month of gestation for LBW and VLBW (LBW: lag 23 and VLBW: lag 25), and at around the eighth month of gestation for ELBW (lag 6). Leqd was linked to LBW at lag zero. The RR of PM2.5 on LBW was 1.01 (1.00 1.03). The RR of Leqd on LBW was 1.09 (0.99 1.19)(p<0.1). The results obtained indicate that PM2.5 had influence on LBW. The adoption of measures aimed at reducing the number of vehicles would serve to lower pregnant women's exposure. In the case of noise should be limited the exposure to high levels during the final weeks of pregnancy.

  3. Neonatal and Infant Mortality in Korea, Japan, and the U.S.: Effect of Birth Weight Distribution and Birth Weight-Specific Mortality Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Jeon, Jihyun; Park, Chang Gi; Sriram, Sudhir; Lee, Kwang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Difference in crude neonatal and infant mortality rates (NMR and IMR) among different countries is due to the differences in its two determinants: birth weight distribution (BWD) and birth weight-specific mortality rates (BW-SMRs). We aimed to determine impact of BWD and BW-SMRs on differences in crude NMR and IMR among Korea, Japan, and the U.S. Our study used the live birth data of the period 2009 through 2010. Crude NMR/IMR are the lowest in Japan, 1.1/2.1, compared to 1.8/3.2, in Korea, and 4.1/6.2, in the U.S., respectively. Japanese had the best BW-SMRs of all birth weight groups compared to the Koreans and the U.S. The U.S. BWD was unfavorable with very low birth weight (rate of 1.4%, compared to 0.6% in Korea, and 0.8% in Japan. If Koreans and Japanese had the same BWD as in the U.S., their crude NMR/IMR would be 3.9/6.1 for the Koreans and 1.5/2.5 for the Japanese. If both Koreans and Japanese had the same BW-SMRs as in the U.S., the crude NMR/IMR would be 2.0/3.8 for the Koreans and 2.7/5.0 for the Japanese. In conclusion, compared to the U.S., lower crude NMR or IMR in Japan is mainly attributable to its better BW-SMRs. Koreans had lower crude NMR and IMR, primarily from its favorable BWD. Comparing crude NMR or IMR among different countries should include further exploration of its two determinants, BW-SMRs reflecting medical care, and BWD reflecting socio-demographic conditions.

  4. Lack of effectiveness of primary conservative management for infants with brachial plexus birth palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialocerkowski, Andrea Emmi; Vladusic, Sharon; Moore, Rosemary Patricia

    Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is the most common peripheral nerve injury in children (prevalence microsurgical repair of the brachial plexus, surgical management of secondary deformities or received other treatments traditionally delivered by surgeons, such as Botulinum toxin injections. The eligibility of each study identified from the database searches was evaluated against the inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. These studies were then critically appraised for level of evidence using the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Hierarchy of Evidence and methodological quality using the Critical Review Form - Quantitative Studies. Data pertaining to the demographic characteristics of study participants, treatments received, main results and outcome measures used were also extracted. Where any disagreement between reviewers occurred, consensus was reached by discussion. Data from the recently published studies were narratively synthesised and then combined with the data gained from our previous systematic review to create a body of evidence on primary conservative management for BPBP infants. Four publications, representing three studies (one comparative study, two case series), were sourced. Methodological quality scores of these studies ranged from 6 to 12 (maximum =16). The current body of evidence (publications from 1992 to 2008) therefore comprises 11 studies, four using a comparative design and seven using a case series design. Six of the 11 studies were classified as being of "poor" methodological quality (score <8). Conservative management mainly consisted of exercise therapy, although splinting, massage and dynamic traction were also used. All studies lacked a clear definition of conservative management sufficient to allow replication of the treatment in a clinical setting. A variety of outcome measures were used, limiting comparability of the studies. Data from the three case studies suggests that conservative

  5. Precipitous Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the management of a precipitous birth in the emergency department (ED. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as reviewing the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Patients with precipitous birth require providers to manage two patients simultaneously with limited time and resources. Crisis resource management skills will be tested once baby is delivered, and the neonate will require assessment for potential neonatal resuscitation. Objectives: At the conclusion of the simulation session, learners will be able to manage women who have precipitous deliveries, as well as perform neonatal assessment and management. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on precipitous birth management and neonatal evaluation.

  6. Effects of seasonality, transport pathway, and spatial structure on greenhouse gas fluxes in a restored wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, Gavin; Sturtevant, Cove S; Knox, Sara H; Dronova, Iryna; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Silver, Whendee L

    2017-07-01

    Wetlands can influence global climate via greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Few studies have quantified the full GHG budget of wetlands due to the high spatial and temporal variability of fluxes. We report annual open-water diffusion and ebullition fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O from a restored emergent marsh ecosystem. We combined these data with concurrent eddy-covariance measurements of whole-ecosystem CO 2 and CH 4 exchange to estimate GHG fluxes and associated radiative forcing effects for the whole wetland, and separately for open-water and vegetated cover types. Annual open-water CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O emissions were 915 ± 95 g C-CO 2  m -2  yr -1 , 2.9 ± 0.5 g C-CH 4  m -2  yr -1 , and 62 ± 17 mg N-N 2 O m -2  yr -1 , respectively. Diffusion dominated open-water GHG transport, accounting for >99% of CO 2 and N 2 O emissions, and ~71% of CH 4 emissions. Seasonality was minor for CO 2 emissions, whereas CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes displayed strong and asynchronous seasonal dynamics. Notably, the overall radiative forcing of open-water fluxes (3.5 ± 0.3 kg CO 2 -eq m -2  yr -1 ) exceeded that of vegetated zones (1.4 ± 0.4 kg CO 2 -eq m -2  yr -1 ) due to high ecosystem respiration. After scaling results to the entire wetland using object-based cover classification of remote sensing imagery, net uptake of CO 2 (-1.4 ± 0.6 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 ) did not offset CH 4 emission (3.7 ± 0.03 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 ), producing an overall positive radiative forcing effect of 2.4 ± 0.3 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 . These results demonstrate clear effects of seasonality, spatial structure, and transport pathway on the magnitude and composition of wetland GHG emissions, and the efficacy of multiscale flux measurement to overcome challenges of wetland heterogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Suboptimal effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine in adult Korean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Suk Choi

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was evaluated in adult Korean populations with regard to how well it could prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza and influenza-related complications.A retrospective case-control and retrospective cohort study was conducted among patients who visited four selected hospitals from September 2011 to May 2012. The analysis included 1,130 laboratory-confirmed influenza patients. For each influenza case, one control patient was chosen at a ratio of 1:1. A control was defined as an age group-matched patient who visited the same hospital with influenza-like illness within 48 hours of symptom onset but for whom laboratory tests were negative for influenza. Age group and visit date were matched between the cases and controls. Vaccine effectiveness (VE was defined as [100 × (1-odds ratio for influenza in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated persons]. The patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza were followed for at least one month through reviewing the medical records and conducting a telephone interview.The VE of the 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI, -16.5% to 20.6%] for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza, -16.1% (95% CI, -48.3 to 9.1 for influenza A and 26.2% (95% CI, -2.6 to 46.2 for influenza B. The age-specific adjusted VE was 0.3% (95% CI, -29.4 to 23.1 among participants aged 19 to 49 years, 11.9% (95% CI, -34.3 to 42.2 among those aged 50 to 64 years and -3.9% (-60.1 to 32.5 among those aged ≥65 years. The adjusted VE for preventing any influenza-related complications was -10.7% (95% CI, -41.1% to 42.2%.The 2011-2012 seasonal influenza vaccine was not effective in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza or influenza-related complications in adult Korean populations.

  8. The effect of prenatal support on birth outcomes in an urban midwestern county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Dresang, Lee T; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Buckingham, William R; Leavitt, Judith W

    2012-12-01

    In Dane County, Wisconsin, the black-white infant mortality gap started decreasing from 2000 and was eliminated from 2004 to 2007. Unfortunately, it has reappeared since 2008. This paper examines risk factors and levels of prenatal care to identify key contributors to the dramatic decline and recent increase in black infant mortality and extremely premature birth rates. This retrospective cohort study analyzed approximately 100,000 Dane County birth, fetal, and infant death records from 1990 to 2007. Levels of prenatal care received were categorized as "less-than-standard," "standard routine" or "intensive." US Census data analysis identified demographic and socioeconomic changes. Infant mortality rates and extremely premature ( birth rates were main outcome measures. Contributions to improved outcomes were measured by calculating relative risk, risk difference and population attributable fraction (PAF). Mean income and food stamp use by race were analyzed as indicators of general socioeconomic changes suspected to be responsible for worsening outcomes since 2008. Risk of extremely premature delivery for black women receiving standard routine care and intensive care decreased from 1990-2000 to 2001-2007 by 77.8% (95% CI = 49.9-90.1%) and 57.3% (95% CI = 27.6-74.8%) respectively. Women receiving less-than-standard care showed no significant improvement over time. Racial gaps in mean income and food stamp use narrowed 2002-2007 and widened since 2008. Prenatal support played an important role in improving black birth outcomes and eliminating the Dane County black-white infant mortality gap. Increasing socioeconomic disparities with worsening US economy since 2008 likely contributed to the gap's reappearance.

  9. Review on the effects of influenza vaccination during pregnancy on preterm births

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Marta C; Madhi, Shabir A

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant women are considered to be susceptible to severe influenza illness and are recommended as a priority group to be targeted for influenza vaccination in countries with vaccination programs. Increased rates of poor birth outcomes have also been temporally associated with influenza infection, especially when pandemics strains emerge. Even though the primary purpose for influenza vaccination during pregnancy is to decrease the risk of influenza infection in the women, other potential bene...

  10. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  11. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18); skin prick test (SPT) at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP), rs1800925 (promoter region) and rs2066960 (intron 1). Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs). Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456); SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens) increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69). Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57) and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13). Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene. PMID:20403202

  12. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

  13. PREVALENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST PREGNANT WOMEN AND EFFECTS ON MATERNAL AND BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nojomi Z. Akrami

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence and the threat of violence against pregnant women are main barriers to women’s empowerment and equal participation in society. When stress and violence increase in developing societies, women’s safety in the home, workplace and community is often seriously affected. To determine the prevalence of physical abuse in pregnant women and to assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and maternal complications and birth outcomes, we used clinicbased data from a sample of 403 women who delivered live born infants during the summer of 2002 in our hospital. Data of physical violence against women’s during pregnancy and 3 months before that were based on questionnaire and interview. Outcomes data including antenatal hospitalization, labor and delivery complications were obtained from the records. Prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy was reported as 10.7%. Prevalence of experience of physical abuse 3 months before pregnancy was 11.9%. Women who experienced physical violence compared with those not reporting abuse were more likely to be smoker and hospitalized before delivery for maternal complications such as preterm labor, kidney infections, premature rupture of membranes and vaginal bleeding with pain. There was a significant association between physical violence and low birth weight and mother’s education. Physical violence during pregnancy is common and is associated with maternal complications and adverse birth outcomes. We suggest including methods to determine frequency of violence during pregnancy and assessment of violence in pregnancy by a screening program integrated in prenatal care.

  14. EFFECT OF MELATONIN DURING THE SEASONAL ANOESTROUS ON THE REACTIVATION OF THE SEXUAL ACTIVITY AND SEMEN PRODUCTION AT THE NORMAL BREEDING SEASON ON MEDITERRANEAN BUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Zarazaga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One experiment was conducted to determine if the onset of the reproductive activity and semen production could be modified by a previous treatment with exogenous melatonin, used to enhance reproductive activity during the seasonal anoestrous in Mediterranean bucks. Two balanced groups of bucks were used. The 18th march 2005, one group (M group received 3 s.c. implants of melatonin (N=7 and other group (N=4 was used like control (C group. From June to September, body weight and testosterone was measured weekly and testicular weight every 15 days. The reproductive activity of each buck was assessed using characteristics of the testosterone profile. During the first 8 days of each month, volume of ejaculate and sperm concentration was assessed. Each of these 8-d periods was divided into 3-d periods of daily sperm collection separated by 2 d of rest. The semen was collected using an artificial vagina. The effect of treatment and month was studied on each variable. An interaction, month-treatment was observed on ejaculate volume, July was the month with higher volume (0.62 ± 0.06 mL vs 1.07 ± 0.15 mL for M and C group respectively, P < 0.05. Sperm concentration was influenced by treatment (6.13 x109 ± 2.49 x108 vs 4.26 x109 ± 3.12 x108 sperm/mL, for M and C, respectively, P < 0.05. The onset of the reproductive activity, after the study of the testosterone concentrations was similar for both groups (31st August ± 7.89 days and 4th September ± 25.66 days for M and C group, respectively. Results demonstrate that melatonin treatment during the seasonal anoestrous does not influence the onset of the normal breeding season or ejaculate volume but it seems that could increases the sperm concentration at the normal breeding season in Mediterranean goat males.

  15. On the effect of cover tilt angle of the simple solar still on its productivity in different seasons and latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Abdul Jabbar N.

    2011-01-01

    Many experimental and numerical studies have been carried out on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by investigating the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the main parameters that have received a considerable attention is the cover tilt angle. A large number of studies on the effect of cover tilt angle on productivity in different seasons and latitude angles are cited in this article. The investigation that tackle the detailed effect of the cover tilt angle on productivity report contradictory conclusions about the effect of tilt angle on productivity and the value of the optimum tilt angle. A relation between the cover tilt angle and productivity of simple solar still in various seasons is established together with a relation between the optimum tilt angle and the latitude angle by an extensive review of the literature. The conclusions of this study should assist in choosing the proper cover tilt angle in various seasons and latitudes.

  16. Phytoestrogens and Their Metabolites in Bulk-Tank Milk: Effects of Farm Management and Season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Steffen A; Purup, Stig; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Phytoestrogens have structures similar to endogenous steroids and may induce or inhibit the response of hormone receptors. The objectives of the present study were to compare the effects of long-term vs. short-term grassland management in organic and conventional dairy production systems, compare...... organic and conventional production systems and assess seasonal variation on phytoestrogen concentrations in bulk-tank milk. The concentrations of phytoestrogens were analyzed in bulk-tank milk sampled three times in two subsequent years from 28 dairy farms: Fourteen organic (ORG) dairy farms with either...... short-term or long-term grassland management were paired with 14 conventional (CON) farms with respect to grassland management. Grassland management varied in terms of time since establishment. Short-term grassland management (SG) was defined as establishment or reseeding every fourth year or more often...

  17. Revealing livestock effects on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat ETM+ data across a grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Vincent S.

    Remote sensing provides monitoring solutions for more informed grazing management. To investigate the ability to detect the effects of cattle grazing on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, we conducted a study on the Zumwalt Prairie in northeastern Oregon across a gradient of grazing intensities. Biophysical vegetation data was collected on vertical structure, biomass, and cover at three different time periods during the grazing season: June, August, and October 2012. To relate these measures to the remotely sensed Landsat ETM+ data, Pearson's correlations and multiple regression models were computed. Using the best models, predicted vegetation metrics were then mapped across the study area. Results indicated that models using common vegetation indices had the ability to discern different levels of grazing across the study area. Results can be distributed to land managers to help guide grassland conservation by improving monitoring of bunchgrass vegetation for sustainable livestock management.

  18. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  19. Effects of parenting role and parent-child interaction on infant motor development in Taiwan Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lin, Dai-Chan; Lee, Chun-Yang; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have rarely focused on healthy infants' motor development, and nationwide birth cohort studies in Taiwan are limited. It has been shown that parent-child interactions significantly influence infant motor development and the effect of mother-infant attachment on infant development is stronger than father-infant attachment. However, it is not well understood that whether the mother-infant or father-infant interaction has the confounding effect on infant motor development. To understand healthy infant motor development in Taiwan; and to investigate the effects of parenting roles and parent-child interactions on infant motor development. Data were derived from the 1st through the 2nd waves of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Pilot Database. Infants were classified into two categories (complete or incomplete development) according to their developmental milestones. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) and random effects models were used to clarify the possible long-term effects. The rate of infants who completed development in 6 months was 30.50%; however the rate was increased in 18 month-old children (80.01%). A mother's perceived infant care competence was the most important factor for infant motor development. "Whether or not the infant was the only baby in the family" and "parent-child interaction" had slightly significant effect on infant motor development. In conclusion, the mother's perceived competence must be strengthened and parent-infant interactions should be emphasized on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. THE EFFECT OF DECOMPOSITION METHOD AS DATA PREPROCESSING ON NEURAL NETWORKS MODEL FOR FORECASTING TREND AND SEASONAL TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subanar Subanar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, one of the central topics for the neural networks (NN community is the issue of data preprocessing on the use of NN. In this paper, we will investigate this topic particularly on the effect of Decomposition method as data processing and the use of NN for modeling effectively time series with both trend and seasonal patterns. Limited empirical studies on seasonal time series forecasting with neural networks show that some find neural networks are able to model seasonality directly and prior deseasonalization is not necessary, and others conclude just the opposite. In this research, we study particularly on the effectiveness of data preprocessing, including detrending and deseasonalization by applying Decomposition method on NN modeling and forecasting performance. We use two kinds of data, simulation and real data. Simulation data are examined on multiplicative of trend and seasonality patterns. The results are compared to those obtained from the classical time series model. Our result shows that a combination of detrending and deseasonalization by applying Decomposition method is the effective data preprocessing on the use of NN for forecasting trend and seasonal time series.

  1. Combined advanced parental age has an additive negative effect on live birth rates-data from 4057 first IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Nicole O; Zander-Fox, Deirdre; Vincent, Andrew D; Lane, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if there is an additive effect of combined advanced maternal and paternal age on pregnancy and live birth rates. Retrospective data analysis of 4057 first cycles at a fertility centre between 2009 and 2013 was compiled. Donor, preimplantation genetic screening and double embryo transfer cycles were excluded. Main outcomes measured were clinical pregnancy, viable pregnancy, live birth and term birth. Logistic regression indicated strong negative associations for maternal ages exceeding 27 years with clinical pregnancies (p < 0.001), viable pregnancies (p < 0.001), live births (p < 0.001) and term births (p < 0.001). There was evidence of negative associations between paternal age and both viable pregnancies (p = 0.06) and live births (p = 0.04), such that the probability of pregnancy was 10% further reduced for women who were 35 years with a partner over 40 years vs. women aged 35 years with a partner under 30 years. There was evidence of an interaction between maternal age and the paternal age on term births (p = 0.02) such that advanced paternal age's effect on the probability of a term birth was only evident in couples where the maternal age ranged between ~27 and 35 years. There is an additive effect to pregnancy and live birth rates when both partners are of an advanced age, thus highlighting the need for pre-conception public health messaging and a combined approach to ART counselling assessing both parental ages in combination.

  2. The birth order puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R B; Markus, H; Markus, G B

    1979-08-01

    Studies relating intellectual performance to birth order report conflicting results, some finding intellectual scores to increase, others to decrease with birth order. In contrast, the relationship between intellectual performance and family size is stable and consistently replicable. Why do these two highly related variables generate such divergent results? This birth order puzzle is resolved by means of the confluence model that quantifies the influences upon intellectual growth arising within the family context. At the time of a new birth, two opposing influences act upon intellectual growth of the elder sibling: (a) his or her intellectual environment is "diluted" and (b) he or she loses the "last-born's handicap" and begins serving as an intellectual resource to the younger sibling. Since these opposite effects are not equal in magnitude, the differences in intellectual performance among birth ranks are shown to be age dependent. While elder children may surpass their younger siblings in intellectual performance at some ages, they may be overtaken by them at others. Thus when age is taken into consideration, the birth order literature loses its chaotic character and an orderly pattern of results emerges.

  3. Chronic allopurinol treatment during the last trimester of pregnancy in sows: effects on low and normal birth weight offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise T Gieling

    Full Text Available Low-birth-weight (LBW children are born with several risk factors for disease, morbidity and neonatal mortality, even if carried to term. Placental insufficiency leading to hypoxemia and reduced nutritional supply is the main cause for LBW. Brain damage and poor neurological outcome can be the consequence. LBW after being carried to term gives better chances for survival, but these children are still at risk for poor health and the development of cognitive impairments. Preventive therapies are not yet available. We studied the risk/efficacy of chronic prenatal treatment with the anti-oxidative drug allopurinol, as putative preventive treatment in piglets. LBW piglets served as a natural model for LBW. A cognitive holeboard test was applied to study the learning and memory abilities of these allopurinol treated piglets after weaning. Preliminary analysis of the plasma concentrations in sows and their piglets suggested that a daily dose of 15 mg.kg(-1 resulted in effective plasma concentration of allopurinol in piglets. No adverse effects of chronic allopurinol treatment were found on farrowing, birth weight, open field behavior, learning abilities, relative brain, hippocampus and spleen weights. LBW piglets showed increased anxiety levels in an open field test, but cognitive performance was not affected by allopurinol treatment. LBW animals treated with allopurinol showed the largest postnatal compensatory body weight gain. In contrast to a previous study, no differences in learning abilities were found between LBW and normal-birth-weight piglets. This discrepancy might be attributable to experimental differences. Our results indicate that chronic prenatal allopurinol treatment during the third trimester of pregnancy is safe, as no adverse side effects were observed. Compensatory weight gain of treated piglets is a positive indication for the chronic prenatal use of allopurinol in these animals. Further studies are needed to assess the possible

  4. Reproductive pattern of local sheep in Egypt with special reference to the effects of breed, season and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakha, A.M.; Essawy, S.A.; El Azab, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of season on ovulation has been monitored in two local breeds of Egyptian ewes - the Barki (desert type), and the Rahmani (fat tailed Nile valley breed), by sequentially measuring cyclic changes in plasma progesterone concentration throughout a period of one year in the absence of any possible ram effect. The modal length of the ovulatory cycle was 17-18 days for both breeds, with the progesterone concentration peaking around day 11. No effect of season on progesterone concentration was apparent for the Barki breed but in the Rahmani, progesterone values were lower (P < 0.05) during the summer than during the autumn months. While the Barki have a restricted breeding season from June to November, the Rahmani have only a short period of anovulation within April. Thirty-three per cent of the Rahmani breed were identified as having cycled throughout the year. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  5. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  6. Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza in 2012-2013 : A hospital-based case-control study in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gefenaite, Giedre; Rahamat-Langendoen, Janette; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Mickiene, Aukse; Jancoriene, Ligita; Kuliese, Monika; Velyvyte, Daiva; Niesters, Hubert; Stolk, Ronald P.; Zagminas, Kestutis; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to scarce information on seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (SIVE) against severe clinical influenza outcomes in risk populations, we conducted a case-control study to assess its effects against laboratory-confirmed influenza in hospitalized patients during the 2012-2013

  7. Effect of embryo culture media on percentage of males at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinliang; Zhuang, Xinjie; Chen, Lixue; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2015-05-01

    Does embryo culture medium influence the percentage of males at birth? The percentage of males delivered after ICSI cycles using G5™ medium was statistically significantly higher than after cycles where Global, G5™ PLUS, and Quinn's Advantage Media were used. Male and female embryos have different physiologies during preimplantation development. Manipulating the energy substrate and adding growth factors have a differential impact on the development of male and female embryos. This was a retrospective analysis of the percentage of males at birth, and included 4411 singletons born from fresh embryo transfer cycles between January 2011 and August 2013 at the Center f