Sample records for birth order

  1. Narcissism and birth order. (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S


    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  2. The Birth Order Puzzle. (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.; And Others


    Discusses the controversy of the relationship between birth order and intellectual performance through a detailed evaluation of the confluence model which assumes that the rate of intellectual growth is a function of the intellectual environment within the family and associated with the special circumstances of last children. (CM)

  3. Methodology, Birth Order, Intelligence, and Personality. (United States)

    Michalski, Richard L.; Shackelford, Todd K.


    Critiques recent research on the effects of birth order on intelligence and personality, which found that the between-family design revealed that birth order negatively related to intelligence, while the within-family design revealed that birth order was unrelated to intelligence. Suggests that it may not be intelligence that co-varies with birth…

  4. Birth order, family size and educational attainment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.


    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth

  5. Intelligence, birth order, and family size. (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi


    The analysis of the National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom (n = 17,419) replicates some earlier findings and shows that genuine within-family data are not necessary to make the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence disappear. Birth order is not associated with intelligence in between-family data once the number of siblings is statistically controlled. The analyses support the admixture hypothesis, which avers that the apparent birth-order effect on intelligence is an artifact of family size, and cast doubt on the confluence and resource dilution models, both of which claim that birth order has a causal influence on children's cognitive development. The analyses suggest that birth order has no genuine causal effect on general intelligence.

  6. Ordered delinquency: the "effects" of birth order on delinquency. (United States)

    Cundiff, Patrick R


    Juvenile delinquency has long been associated with birth order in popular culture. While images of the middle child acting out for attention or the rebellious youngest child readily spring to mind, little research has attempted to explain why. Drawing from Adlerian birth order theory and Sulloway's born-to-rebel hypothesis, I examine the relationship between birth order and a variety of delinquent outcomes during adolescence. Following some recent research on birth order and intelligence, I use new methods that allow for the examination of between-individual and within-family differences to better address the potential spurious relationship. My findings suggest that contrary to popular belief, the relationship between birth order and delinquency is spurious. Specifically, I find that birth order effects on delinquency are spurious and largely products of the analytic methods used in previous tests of the relationship. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  7. Pedophilia, sexual orientation, and birth order. (United States)

    Bogaert, A F; Bezeau, S; Kuban, M; Blanchard, R


    This study extended research on birth order and erotic preferences by examining birth order in a sample of pedophiles. Charts of 338 pedophiles, assessed from 1980-1994 in the Behavioural Sexology Department of the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in Toronto, were reviewed for family-demographic information. In total, 170 (57 heterosexual pedophiles, 68 homosexual pedophiles, and 45 bisexual pedophiles) of these men had sufficient sibling information to be included in the analyses. The results indicated that homosexual-bisexual pedophiles had a later birth order than heterosexual pedophiles and that this effect was primarily the result of the homosexual-bisexual group being born later among their brothers. The results extend previous findings that homosexual men, regardless of sample composition, have a later birth order than comparable groups of heterosexual men. The results also challenge some existing theories on the nature and origins of pedophilia.

  8. Birth Order and Marital Bliss in Israel (United States)

    Weller, Leonard; And Others


    This study offers a rank order of successful marriages, according to birth order in Israel. The results of two studies show that marriage consisting of a first born and a later born are more successful than marriages composed of two first borns or two later borns. (Author/PC)

  9. Sibship size, birth order, and personality. (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David


    In a sample of 273 American college students who were administered seven personality tests, only death obsession scores were consistently associated with sibship size and birth order (not optimism, pessimism, anxiety, a Taoist orientation, suicidal ideation, or obsessive-compulsive tendencies).

  10. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits. (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  11. Birth order, family size and school failure. (United States)

    Belmont, L; Stein, Z A; Wittes, J T


    The effect of birth order on educational outcome in the Netherlands is reported for two major social classes, manual and non-manual. The rates of school failure (those who attended schools for the mentally retarded and who failed lower school) were studied in a population of some 200,000 young adult Dutch males born between 1944 and 1946 and whose families of origin had from one to six children. The data used were the records of the Dutch military pre-induction examination. Rates of school failure rose both with increased birth order and with increased family-size, with the exception of one-child families. School failure rates for the first, middle-and last-born were examined for the two social classes, with family size controlled. In general, school-failure rates were significantly related to birth-order position. For each family size and in both social classes, the last-born were at greater risk of school failure than were the first-born.

  12. Birth order and neural tube defects: a reappraisal. (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R


    There is evidence that late birth order is associated with some complex disorders. For neural tube defects (NTDs) there is no consensus as to whether first or increased birth order is associated or not. A meta-analysis of published data on NTDs was carried out to ascertain whether there is an increased risk for children first born or of high birth order to have NTDs. All data available with information regarding the frequency of live births and NTDs cases by birth order (1, 2, 3, and 4 or more) were included in the analysis. Effect sizes calculations were performed. Children with higher birth order are more likely to have spina bifida but not anencephaly. This same effect was also seen for all NTDs combined, which probably reflects the association with spina bifida. These results suggest the compilation of anencephaly and spina bifida data can be the explanation for the controversies seen in the literature.

  13. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children. (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  14. Birth order and human capital development: evidence from Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, M.; Plug, E.; Rosero, J.


    In this paper we examine the effect of birth order on human capital development in Ecuador. Using family fixed effects models we find positive and persistent birth order effects; earlier-born children stay behind in their human capital development from infancy to adolescence. Turning to potential me

  15. What Research Shows About Birth Order, Personality, and IQ. (United States)

    Yahraes, Herbert

    This brief report summarizes the findings and conclusions of studies concerning the relation between birth order and various aspects of personality and intellectual development. Major topics discussed are the relation between birth order of the child and: (1) the effects of sex and spacing between siblings on personality characteristics of the…

  16. Brief Report: Asperger's Syndrome and Sibling Birth Order (United States)

    Schmidt, Karmen; Zimmerman, Andrew; Bauman, Margaret; Ferrone, Christine; Venter, Jacob; Spybrook, Jessaca; Henry, Charles


    Prior investigations suggest that birth order position may be associated with the risk for developing a pervasive developmental disorder. This retrospective chart review examined the birth order status of 29 psychiatrically-referred patients with Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Eighty-six percent of the subjects were first born. The finding was…

  17. Examining the effects of birth order on personality. (United States)

    Rohrer, Julia M; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C


    This study examined the long-standing question of whether a person's position among siblings has a lasting impact on that person's life course. Empirical research on the relation between birth order and intelligence has convincingly documented that performances on psychometric intelligence tests decline slightly from firstborns to later-borns. By contrast, the search for birth-order effects on personality has not yet resulted in conclusive findings. We used data from three large national panels from the United States (n = 5,240), Great Britain (n = 4,489), and Germany (n = 10,457) to resolve this open research question. This database allowed us to identify even very small effects of birth order on personality with sufficiently high statistical power and to investigate whether effects emerge across different samples. We furthermore used two different analytical strategies by comparing siblings with different birth-order positions (i) within the same family (within-family design) and (ii) between different families (between-family design). In our analyses, we confirmed the expected birth-order effect on intelligence. We also observed a significant decline of a 10th of a SD in self-reported intellect with increasing birth-order position, and this effect persisted after controlling for objectively measured intelligence. Most important, however, we consistently found no birth-order effects on extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, or imagination. On the basis of the high statistical power and the consistent results across samples and analytical designs, we must conclude that birth order does not have a lasting effect on broad personality traits outside of the intellectual domain.

  18. Birth order and selected work-related personality variables. (United States)

    Phillips, A S; Bedeian, A G; Mossholder, K W; Touliatos, J


    A possible link between birth order and various individual characteristics (e. g., intelligence, potential eminence, need for achievement, sociability) has been suggested by personality theorists such as Adler for over a century. The present study examines whether birth order is associated with selected personality variables that may be related to various work outcomes. 3 of 7 hypotheses were supported and the effect sizes for these were small. Firstborns scored significantly higher than later borns on measures of dominance, good impression, and achievement via conformity. No differences between firstborns and later borns were found in managerial potential, work orientation, achievement via independence, and sociability. The study's sample consisted of 835 public, government, and industrial accountants responding to a national US survey of accounting professionals. The nature of the sample may have been partially responsible for the results obtained. Its homogeneity may have caused any birth order effects to wash out. It can be argued that successful membership in the accountancy profession requires internalization of a set of prescribed rules and standards. It may be that accountants as a group are locked in to a behavioral framework. Any differentiation would result from spurious interpersonal differences, not from predictable birth-order related characteristics. A final interpretation is that birth order effects are nonexistent or statistical artifacts. Given the present data and particularistic sample, however, the authors have insufficient information from which to draw such a conclusion.

  19. Caesarean birth: consumption, safety, order, and good mothering. (United States)

    Bryant, Joanne; Porter, Maree; Tracy, Sally K; Sullivan, Elizabeth A


    This article draws on qualitative data to explore the beliefs through which decisions about caesarean birth are made and to consider how these might contribute to the increasing rate of caesarean birth. A total of 36 interviews were conducted in Australia, including 12 hospital-based midwives, 6 obstetricians, and 18 women who had experienced caesarean birth within the 2 years prior to the research interview. Data reveal a belief derived from the pervasive discourse of neo-liberalism that women are self-governing autonomous subjects in their birth experience, with entitlement to the consumption of birthing information and services, as guided by obstetricians. Feeding into this belief are coexisting discourses that serve to organise 'free choice' in terms of safe/unsafe, order/disorder, life/death; and with ontological meanings, by structuring women's mothering identities as good/bad. The neo-liberal obligation to manage risk and pursue success for both mothers and babies means that women (and others) are obliged to choose what is set up as the most obvious and sensible option: safe, ordered caesareans. The structuring of discourses in this way shows how caesareans can be positioned as a preferential means of birth.

  20. Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation in pedophiles. (United States)

    Blanchard, R; Barbaree, H E; Bogaert, A F; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M E; Zucker, K J


    Whether homosexual pedophiles have more older brothers (a higher fraternal birth order) than do heterosexual pedophiles was investigated. Subjects were 260 sex offenders (against children age 14 or younger) and 260 matched volunteer controls. The subject's relative attraction to male and female children was assessed by phallometric testing in one analysis, and by his offense history in another. Both methods showed that fraternal birth order correlates with homosexuality in pedophiles, just as it does in men attracted to physically mature partners. Results suggest that fraternal birth order (or the underlying variable it represents) may prove the first identified universal factor in homosexual development. Results also argue against a previous explanation of the high prevalence of homosexuality in pedophiles (25% in this study), namely, that the factors that determine sexual preference in pedophiles are different from those that determine sexual preference in men attracted to adults. An alternative explanation in terms of canalization of development is suggested.

  1. Earliest Recollections and Birth Order: Two Adlerian Exercises. (United States)

    Parrott, Les


    Presents two exercises designed to demonstrate the influence of two Adlerian principles on personality. Includes exercises dealing with birth order and earliest recollection. Concludes that the exercises actively demonstrate major concepts for counseling courses in Adlerian psychotherapy. Reports that students rated both exercises highly, with…

  2. Birth Order, Sibling IQ Differences, and Family Relations. (United States)

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    The differential impact of birth order and IQ on sibling roles were examined with particular interest focused on achievement outcomes. Subjects were a stratified sample of 37 pairs of near-in-age siblings, all within the normal range in personality and IQ, but differing significantly in scores on the Slosson IQ Test. Results indicate that when the…

  3. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo


    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years ...

  4. Birth order and communication skills of pharmacy students. (United States)

    Murawski, M M; Miederhoff, P; Rule, W


    Pharmacy educators are training graduates in a concept of practice called pharmaceutical care. The movement towards patient care requires consideration of the personal and social qualities of trainees. All individuals attracted to pharmacy may not desire involvement in patient care. This preliminary study of pharmacy students of the relationships among birth order, empathy, and assertiveness behaviors using the Interpersonal Communication Inventory showed the incidence of firstborn students in this sample was not significantly higher than in the general population but the incidence of those born second was significantly lower. Regression analysis of individual items gave significant correlations between birth order and three items on the inventory. While few conclusions can be drawn, a clear direction for further research is indicated.

  5. Sibship size, birth order, and personality among Kuwaiti college students. (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David


    In a sample of 460 (103 men, 357 women) Kuwaiti college students (M age=21.9 yr., SD=3.0), scores on the Arabic Scale of Optimism and Pessimism, the Death Obsession Scale, the Arabic Scale of Obsession-Compulsion, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, the Taoist Orientation Scale, and the Suicidal Ideation Scale were not associated with sibship size and birth order.

  6. Epilepsia e ordem de nascimento Epilepsy and birth order

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    Paulo Cesar Sandler


    Full Text Available Mediante o método de Greenwood-Yule e o teste estatístico mais sensível de que se dispõe atualmente, o x² de Halperin, foi testada a possível associação entre a prevalência de epilepsia e a ordem de nascimento de 238 pacientes. Estes pacientes foram obtidos em dois hospitais de São Paulo, na tentativa de se controlar sua classe social; tratava-se de epilépticos com variados transtornos psiquiátricos. Concluiu-se por uma associação estatisticamente significante entre a doença e a ordem de nascimento dos 238 pacientes, com uma sobre-representação nos primeiros e nos últimos nascidos.This paper deals with birth order and epilepsy. The Greenwood-Yule's method was applied, with the most powerful statistical test available, Halperin's modified chi-square. The authors concluded that there is a consistent positive association between this illness prevalence and birth order of the patients, being first and last born over-represented, irrespective of their sibship size. The data were obtained in two psychiatric hospitals in the city of São Paulo, being social class factor qualitatively controlled. All the 238 patients studied suffered a wide range of psychiatric symptoms.

  7. Appraising Birth Order in Career Assessment: Linkages to Holland's and Super's Models. (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Hartung, Paul J.; Goh, David; Gaylor, Michael


    Study 1 (n=159) found significant differences in vocational personality types, interests, and values depending on birth order. Study 2 (n=119) found significant differences in occupational interests by birth order. Both results support Alfred Adler's theory that birth order determines aspects of vocational behavior. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  8. A Review of the Evidence for Birth Order Differences in Anxiety and Affiliation in Stressful Situations. (United States)

    Kushnir, T.


    Reviews literature on birth order. An important conclusion is that birth order differences in anxiety level and affiliation are not generalized phenomena. Consistent birth order differences in both variables are found only among females. Firstborns are not habitually more anxious than laterborns and are not generally more affiliative than…

  9. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio of Children and Adolescents Referred to a Gender Identity Service


    Doug P Vanderlaan; Ray Blanchard; Hayley Wood; Kenneth J Zucker


    In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibl...

  10. Birth order and its association with the onset of chronic fatigue syndrome. (United States)

    Brimacombe, Michael; Helmer, Drew A; Natelson, Benjamin H


    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a medically unexplained illness that is diagnosed on the basis of a clinical case definition; so it probably is an illness with multiple causes producing the same clinical picture. One way of dealing with this heterogeneity is to stratify patients based on illness onset. We hypothesized that either the whole group of CFS patients or that group which developed CFS gradually would show a relation with birth order, while patients who developed CFS suddenly, probably due to a viral illness, would not show such a relation. We hypothesized the birth order effect in the gradual onset group because those patients have more psychological problems, and birth order effects have been shown for psychological characteristics. We compared birth order in our CFS patients to that in a comparison group derived from U.S. demographic data. We found a tendency that did not reach formal statistical significance for a birth order effect in the gradual onset group, but not in either the sudden onset or combined total group. However, the birth order effect we found was due to relatively increased rates of CFS in second-born children; prior birth order studies of personality characteristics have found such effects to be skewed toward first-born children. Thus, our data do support a birth order effect in a subset of patients with CFS. The results of this study should encourage a larger multicenter study to further explore and understand this relation.

  11. The New Birth Order Book: Why You Are the Way You Are. Revised Edition. (United States)

    Leman, Kevin

    Based on the premise that birth order powerfully influences one's personality, one's marital partner, and one's parenting style, this book presents personal anecdotes, testimonials, and descriptions of well-known individuals or individuals seen in counseling to illustrate the impact of birth order. The book also presents practical ways to take…

  12. The confluence model: birth order as a within-family or between-family dynamic? (United States)

    Zajonc, R B; Sulloway, Frank J


    The confluence model explains birth-order differences in intellectual performance by quantifying the changing dynamics within the family. Wichman, Rodgers, and MacCallum (2006) claimed that these differences are a between-family phenomenon--and hence are not directly related to birth order itself. The study design and analyses presented by Wichman et al. nevertheless suffer from crucial shortcomings, including their use of unfocused tests, which cause statistically significant trends to be overlooked. In addition, Wichman et al. treated birth-order effects as a linear phenomenon thereby ignoring the confluence model's prediction that these two samples may manifest opposing results based on age. This article cites between- and within-family data that demonstrate systematic birth-order effects as predicted by the confluence model. The corpus of evidence invoked here offers strong support for the assumption of the confluence model that birth-order differences in intellectual performance are primarily a within-family phenomenon.

  13. Gender Nonconformity and Birth Order in Relation to Anal Sex Role Among Gay Men. (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P


    Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.

  14. Subjectivization, Identification, And Act: Birth, Submission, And Re-Birth of Subjects in A Symbolic Order


    Abdol Hossein Joodaki


    This study has taken into consideration Zizek views on the notion of fantasy and its function in controlling thoughts and influencing the public. All of contemplations on subject and its position in society are significant, but Zizeks is a different one. To elaborate this notion more closely this study focuses on the birth and death of subjects in Zizekian perspective. Fantasy plays an important role in symbolic submission and identification. It provides the context for internalization of cul...

  15. Birth order has no effect on intelligence: a reply and extension of previous findings. (United States)

    Wichman, Aaron L; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Maccallum, Robert C


    We address points raised by Zajonc and Sulloway, who reject findings showing that birth order has no effect on intelligence. Many objections to findings of null birth-order results seem to stem from a misunderstanding of the difference between study designs where birth order is confounded with true causal influences on intelligence across families and designs that control for some of these influences. We discuss some of the consequences of not appreciating the nature of this difference. When between-family confounds are controlled using appropriate study designs and techniques such as multilevel modeling, birth order is shown not to influence intelligence. We conclude with an empirical investigation of the replicability and generalizability of this approach.

  16. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

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    Kumar Velusamy Saravana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  17. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study. (United States)

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C


    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  18. The Relationship of Birth Order and Gender with Academic Standing and Substance Use Among Youth in Latin America. (United States)

    Horner, Pilar; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Castillo, Marcela


    Alfred Adler attempted to understand how family affects youth outcomes by considering the order of when a child enters a family (Adler, 1964). Adler's theory posits that birth order formation impacts individuals. We tested Adler's birth order theory using data from a cross-sectional survey of 946 Chilean youths. We examined how birth order and gender are associated with drug use and educational outcomes using three different birth order research models including: (1) Expedient Research, (2) Adler's birth order position, and (3) Family Size theoretical models. Analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that birth order has an important relationship with substance use outcomes for youth but has differing effects for educational achievement across both birth order status and gender.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The experiment had 2 phases:During the first phase 19 sows were monitored during farrowing; the piglets were numbered according to birth order, they were weighed and there were recorded the time each piglet was born and when it first suckled. There was calculated the time from the beginning of the farrowing until the time each piglet was born (TNPP and the time from birth until the first suckle (TPS. A statistical correlation was established between these parameters.During the second experimental phase, for 49 piglets from 5 sows were determined: birth weight, TPS, glycemia at birth (G0 and after the first suckle (G1, rectal temperature at birth (T0 and after the first suckles (T1. This data was statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test.Respecting the birth order, TPS is shorter for piglets born last (p<0.05. Average TPS was 23.04±2.49 minutes; during this time glycemia rises from 58.35 mg% to 64.35 mg% and rectal temperature drops from 38.58°C to 37.35°C. T0 is positively correlated with G0 (p<0.01 with G1 (p<0.01 and T1 (p<0.01. G0 is highly correlated to G1 (r=0.8855; p=0.

  20. A multilevel approach to the relationship between birth order and intelligence. (United States)

    Wichman, Aaron L; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; MacCallum, Robert C


    Many studies show relationships between birth order and intelligence but use cross-sectional designs or manifest other threats to internal validity. Multilevel analyses with a control variable show that when these threats are removed, two major results emerge: (a) birth order has no significant influence on children's intelligence and (b) earlier reported birth order effects on intelligence are attributable to factors that vary between, not within, families. Analyses on 7- to 8 - and 13- to 14-year-old children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth support these conclusions. When hierarchical data structures, age variance of children, and within-family versus between-family variance sources are taken into account, previous research is seen in a new light.

  1. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir;


    The incidence rates of childhood onset type 1 diabetes are almost universally increasing across the globe but the aetiology of the disease remains largely unknown. We investigated whether birth order is associated with the risk of childhood diabetes by performing a pooled analysis of previous...

  2. Born to learn or born to win? Birth order effects on achievement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.


    Given the widespread use and well-known consequences of achievement goals in different competence-relevant situations, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of how these differences in goal pursuit are formed. Using different analytic approaches, we show that birth order lies at the heart

  3. Birth order and sibling sex ratio of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service. (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Zucker, Kenneth J


    In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect). In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768). Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females.

  4. Birth order and sibling sex ratio of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug P Vanderlaan

    Full Text Available In adult male samples, homosexuality is associated with a preponderance of older brothers (i.e., the fraternal birth order effect. In several studies comparing gender dysphoric youth, who are likely to be homosexual in adulthood, to clinical or non-clinical control groups, the findings have been consistent with the fraternal birth order effect in males; however, less is known about unique sibship characteristics of gender dysphoric females. The current study investigated birth order and sibling sex ratio in a large sample of children and adolescents referred to the same Gender Identity Service (N = 768. Probands were classified as heterosexual males, homosexual males, or homosexual females based on clinical diagnostic information. Groups differed significantly in age and sibship size, and homosexual females were significantly more likely to be only children. Subsequent analyses controlled for age and for sibship size. Compared to heterosexual males, homosexual males had a significant preponderance of older brothers and homosexual females had a significant preponderance of older sisters. Similarly, the older sibling sex ratio of homosexual males showed a significant excess of brothers whereas that of homosexual females showed a significant excess of sisters. Like previous studies of gender dysphoric youth and adults, these findings were consistent with the fraternal birth order effect. In addition, the greater frequency of only children and elevated numbers of older sisters among the homosexual female group adds to a small literature on sibship characteristics of potential relevance to the development of gender identity and sexual orientation in females.

  5. The Effects of Birth Order on Personality Traits and Feelings of Academic Sibling Rivalry (United States)

    Badger, Julia; Reddy, Peter


    The influence of birth order on personality and sibling rivalry is controversial; little research has been conducted into academic sibling rivalry, and none into the connection with personality traits. This study considers the interaction of all three factors. Firstborns (N=22) and lastborns (N=24) completed online personality tests and an…

  6. Direct and Indirect Effects of Birth Order on Personality and Identity: Support for the Null Hypothesis (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S.; Harbke, Colin R.; Papini, Dennis R.


    The authors proposed that birth order affects psychosocial outcomes through differential investment from parent to child and differences in the degree of identification from child to parent. The authors conducted this study to test these 2 models. Despite the use of statistical and methodological procedures to increase sensitivity and reduce…

  7. Personality, birth order and attachment styles as related to various types of jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram)


    The relationships between jealousy, personality, attachment styles and birth order were examined in a sample of 100 Dutch men and 100 Dutch women. Three types of jealousy were examined: reactive jealousy (a negative response to the emotional or sexual involvement of the partner with someone else), p


    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Zucker, Kenneth J; Massuda, Raffael; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Borba, André Oliveira; Costa, Angelo Bradelli; Schneider, Maiko Abel; Mueller, Andressa; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; Da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues


    Previous research has indicated that biological older brothers increase the odds of androphilia in males. This finding has been termed the fraternal birth order effect. The maternal immune hypothesis suggests that this effect reflects the progressive immunization of some mothers to male-specific antigens involved in fetal male brain masculinization. Exposure to these antigens, as a result of carrying earlier-born sons, is hypothesized to produce maternal immune responses towards later-born sons, thus leading to female-typical neural development of brain regions underlying sexual orientation. Because this hypothesis posits mechanisms that have the potential to be active in any situation where a mother gestates repeated male fetuses, a key prediction is that the fraternal birth order effect should be observable in diverse populations. The present study assessed the association between sexual orientation and birth order in androphilic male-to-female transsexuals in Brazil, a previously unexamined population. Male-to-female transsexuals who reported attraction to males were recruited from a specialty gender identity service in southern Brazil (n=118) and a comparison group of gynephilic non-transsexual men (n=143) was recruited at the same hospital. Logistic regression showed that the transsexual group had significantly more older brothers and other siblings. These effects were independent of one another and consistent with previous studies of birth order and male sexual orientation. The presence of the fraternal birth order effect in the present sample provides further evidence of the ubiquity of this effect and, therefore, lends support to the maternal immune hypothesis as an explanation of androphilic sexual orientation in some male-to-female transsexuals.

  9. Birth order effects on the separation process in young adults: an evolutionary and dynamic approach. (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Hermel, Orly


    The present study analyzes the differential contribution of a familial or social focus in imaginative ideation (the personal fable and imagined audience mental constructs) to the separation-individuation process of firstborn, middleborn, and lastborn children. A total of 160 young adults were divided into 3 groups by birth order. Participants' separation-individuation process was evaluated by the Psychological Separation Inventory, and results were cross-validated by the Pathology of Separation-Individuation Inventory. The Imaginative Ideation Inventory tested the relative dominance of the familial and social environments in participants' mental constructs. The findings showed that middleborn children had attained more advanced separation and were lower in family-focused ideation and higher in nonfamilial social ideation. However, the familial and not the social ideation explained the variance in the separation process in all the groups. The findings offer new insights into the effects of birth order on separation and individuation in adolescents and young adults.

  10. Sibship Size, Birth Order, and Children's Education Indeveloping Countries : Evidence from Bangladesh


    Park, Cheolsung; Chung, Wankyo


    We examine whether the effect of sibship size on education differs by the individual's birth order in low-income countries, using data from Matlab, Bangladesh. Exploiting exposure to the randomized family planning program in Matlab for identification, we find evidence that sibship size has negative effect on education and positive effect on labor force participation of the first and the second-born children, but no significant effect on education or labor force participation of the later-born...

  11. How Do Children Behave Regarding Their Birth Order in Dental Setting?

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    Faezeh Ghaderi


    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Prediction of child cooperation level in dental setting is an important issue for a dentist to select the proper behavior management method. Many psychological studies have emphasized the effect of birth order on patient behavior and personality; however, only a few researches evaluated the effect of birth order on child’s behavior in dental setting. Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the influence of children ordinal position on their behavior in dental setting. Materials and Method: A total of 158 children with at least one primary mandibular molar needing class I restoration were selected. Children were classified based on the ordinal position; first, middle, or last child as well as single child. A blinded examiner recorded the pain perception of children during injection based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Sound, Eye and Movement (SEM scale. To assess the child's anxiety, the questionnaire known as “Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule” (CFSS-DS was employed. Results: The results showed that single children were significantly less cooperative and more anxious than the other children (p<0.001. The middle children were significantly more cooperative in comparison with the other child's position (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Single child may behave less cooperatively in dental setting. The order of child birth must also be considered in prediction of child’s behavior for behavioral management.

  12. Family matters: effects of birth order, culture, and family dynamics on surrogate decision-making. (United States)

    Su, Christopher T; McMahan, Ryan D; Williams, Brie A; Sharma, Rashmi K; Sudore, Rebecca L


    Cultural attitudes about medical decision-making and filial expectations may lead some surrogates to experience stress and family conflict. Thirteen focus groups with racially and ethnically diverse English and Spanish speakers from county and Veterans Affairs hospitals, senior centers, and cancer support groups were conducted to describe participants' experiences making serious or end-of-life decisions for others. Filial expectations and family dynamics related to birth order and surrogate decision-making were explored using qualitative, thematic content analysis, and overarching themes from focus group transcripts were identified. The mean age of the 69 participants was 69 ± 14, and 29% were African American, 26% were white, 26% were Asian or Pacific Islander, and 19% were Latino. Seventy percent of participants engaged in unprompted discussions about birth order and family dynamics. Six subthemes were identified within three overarching categories: communication (unspoken expectations and discussion of death as taboo), emotion (emotional stress and feelings of loneliness), and conflict (family conflict and potential solutions to prevent conflict). These findings suggest that birth order and family dynamics can have profound effects on surrogate stress and coping. Clinicians should be aware of potential unspoken filial expectations for firstborns and help facilitate communication between the patient, surrogate, and extended family to reduce stress and conflict.

  13. Relation of birth order and scores on measures of pathological narcissism. (United States)

    Curtis, J M; Cowell, D R


    To study the relationship between birth order and pathological narcissism, it was predicted that firstborn and only children would score significantly higher on standardized measures of pathological narcissism. Two such measures, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, were administered to 50 randomly selected subjects from a metropolitan mental health and family treatment agency. Subjects were asked to indicate their ordinal birth positions, e.g., first, middle, last, or only, and then were administered both instruments. Analysis supported the initial prediction by indicating that firstborn and only children had higher mean scores on the measures of pathological narcissism. It might be advisable for clinicians to identify patients' ordinal positions while appraising relevant diagnostic criteria and eventual treatment planning.

  14. Middleborns disadvantaged? Testing birth-order effects on fitness in pre-industrial Finns. (United States)

    Faurie, Charlotte; Russell, Andrew F; Lummaa, Virpi


    Parental investment is a limited resource for which offspring compete in order to increase their own survival and reproductive success. However, parents might be selected to influence the outcome of sibling competition through differential investment. While evidence for this is widespread in egg-laying species, whether or not this may also be the case in viviparous species is more difficult to determine. We use pre-industrial Finns as our model system and an equal investment model as our null hypothesis, which predicts that (all else being equal) middleborns should be disadvantaged through competition. We found no overall evidence to suggest that middleborns in a family are disadvantaged in terms of their survival, age at first reproduction or lifetime reproductive success. However, when considering birth-order only among same-sexed siblings, first-, middle- and lastborn sons significantly differed in the number of offspring they were able to rear to adulthood, although there was no similar effect among females. Middleborn sons appeared to produce significantly less offspring than first- or lastborn sons, but they did not significantly differ from lastborn sons in the number of offspring reared to adulthood. Our results thus show that taking sex differences into account is important when modelling birth-order effects. We found clear evidence of firstborn sons being advantaged over other sons in the family, and over firstborn daughters. Therefore, our results suggest that parents invest differentially in their offspring in order to both preferentially favour particular offspring or reduce offspring inequalities arising from sibling competition.

  15. The Effects of Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Separation and Crowding on the Academic Achievement of Boys and Girls (United States)

    Nuttall, Ena Vazquez; And Others


    Family constellation variables such as family size, birth order, spacing of children, and crowding were significantly associated with academic achievement when IQ was controlled. The effects of family constellation variables were found to be sex specific. (RC)

  16. Review and theory of handedness, birth order, and homosexuality in men. (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray


    Research has repeatedly shown that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later-born males. This phenomenon has been called the fraternal birth order effect. The most highly developed explanation of this phenomenon is the maternal immune hypothesis, which proposes that the fraternal birth order effect reflects the progressive immunisation of some mothers to male-specific antigens by each succeeding male foetus and the concomitantly increasing effects of anti-male antibodies on the sexual differentiation of the brain in each succeeding male foetus. Recent studies indicate that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in right-handed males but not in non-right-handed males. The present article explores how the maternal immune hypothesis might be extended or modified to account for the apparent interaction of older brothers and handedness. Two possibilities are considered: (1) non-right-handed foetuses are insensitive to the presence of maternal anti-male antibodies, and (2) mothers of non-right-handed foetuses do not produce anti-male antibodies.

  17. Birth order dependent growth cone segregation determines synaptic layer identity in the Drosophila visual system. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhishek; Ertekin, Deniz; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hummel, Thomas


    The precise recognition of appropriate synaptic partner neurons is a critical step during neural circuit assembly. However, little is known about the developmental context in which recognition specificity is important to establish synaptic contacts. We show that in the Drosophila visual system, sequential segregation of photoreceptor afferents, reflecting their birth order, lead to differential positioning of their growth cones in the early target region. By combining loss- and gain-of-function analyses we demonstrate that relative differences in the expression of the transcription factor Sequoia regulate R cell growth cone segregation. This initial growth cone positioning is consolidated via cell-adhesion molecule Capricious in R8 axons. Further, we show that the initial growth cone positioning determines synaptic layer selection through proximity-based axon-target interactions. Taken together, we demonstrate that birth order dependent pre-patterning of afferent growth cones is an essential pre-requisite for the identification of synaptic partner neurons during visual map formation in Drosophila.

  18. Middleborns disadvantaged? Testing birth-order effects on fitness in pre-industrial Finns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Faurie

    Full Text Available Parental investment is a limited resource for which offspring compete in order to increase their own survival and reproductive success. However, parents might be selected to influence the outcome of sibling competition through differential investment. While evidence for this is widespread in egg-laying species, whether or not this may also be the case in viviparous species is more difficult to determine. We use pre-industrial Finns as our model system and an equal investment model as our null hypothesis, which predicts that (all else being equal middleborns should be disadvantaged through competition. We found no overall evidence to suggest that middleborns in a family are disadvantaged in terms of their survival, age at first reproduction or lifetime reproductive success. However, when considering birth-order only among same-sexed siblings, first-, middle- and lastborn sons significantly differed in the number of offspring they were able to rear to adulthood, although there was no similar effect among females. Middleborn sons appeared to produce significantly less offspring than first- or lastborn sons, but they did not significantly differ from lastborn sons in the number of offspring reared to adulthood. Our results thus show that taking sex differences into account is important when modelling birth-order effects. We found clear evidence of firstborn sons being advantaged over other sons in the family, and over firstborn daughters. Therefore, our results suggest that parents invest differentially in their offspring in order to both preferentially favour particular offspring or reduce offspring inequalities arising from sibling competition.

  19. Biological and sociological interpretations of age-adjustment in studies of higher order birth rates

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    Niels Keiding


    Full Text Available Several studies of the effect of education on second or third birth rates (e.g. Hoem et al. (2001 have used the concept of relative age at previous birth (B.Hoem (1996. B.Hoem's idea was to focus on the social meaning of age at previous birth. We broaden the discussion by considering other interpretations of the explanatory power of the age at previous birth, particularly via known trends in biological fecundity. A mathematical analysis of the approach reveals side effects that have not been taken sufficiently into account. Our recommendation is not to use the relative age approach without supplementing it with the more traditional approach which includes the actual age at previous birth.

  20. Birth order and the dominance aspect of extraversion : Are firstborns more extraverted, in the sense of being dominant, than laterborns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P. H.; Buunk, Abraham P.


    The present study set out to examine the relationship between birth order and the dominance facet of extraversion in a community sample of around 1500 participants. In contrast, to Sulloway's (1995) predictions, the present study, using a between-family design, found firstborns to be less extraverte

  1. Birth Order and Sibling Gender Ratio of a Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Ahmad Ghanizadeh


    Full Text Available Objective: It is not clear whether sibling’s gender ratio is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This study examines whether inattentiveness severity and hyperactivity/impulsivity severity are associated with birth order of children with ADHD.Method: Participants are a clinical sample of 173 children and adolescents with ADHD and 43 ones without ADHD. Diagnoses were made using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders forth edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR, diagnostic criteria according to face-to-face interview with the children and their parents. ADHD DSM-IV checklist was used to measure inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores.Results: The association of birth order and diagnosis of ADHD was not statistically significant after adjusting for covariate factors. The gender ratio of siblings is not associated with ADHD.Conclusion: Birth order and siblings gender ratio are independent of ADHD diagnosis. The results of this study support the fact that genetic factors rather than environmental factor of birth order is associated with ADHD. Moreover, contrary to autism, the current results do not suggest the androgen theory for ADHD.

  2. Birth order and recalled childhood gender nonconformity in Samoan men and fa'afafine. (United States)

    Semenyna, Scott W; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L


    Having a greater than average number of older biological brothers is a robust correlate of male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction and arousal to adult males). Previous investigations have sought to understand whether this fraternal birth order (FBO) effect is also systematically related to recalled indicators of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). However, these investigations have relied on data from low-fertility Western populations in which expressions of femininity in male children are routinely stigmatized and consequently, suppressed. The present study examined the FBO effect (among other sibship characteristics) and recalled indicators of CGN in Samoa, a high-fertility population, whose members are relatively tolerant of male femininity. Indeed, Samoans identify feminine androphilic males as belonging to an alternative gender category, known locally as fa'afafine. The present study compared the sibship characteristics of 231 fa'afafine and 231 opposite-sex attracted men from Samoa, as well as how these characteristics related to recalled CGN. Results replicated the well-established FBO effect for predicting male sexual orientation, with each older brother increasing the odds of being androphilic by 21%. However, no relationship was found between the number of older brothers (or other siblings) a participant had and their recalled CGN. Although fa'afafine reported significantly more CGN than Samoan men, CGN did not mediate the FBO effect, nor did the FBO effect and CGN interact to predict male sexual orientation. These findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that the FBO effect is associated with male sexual orientation, but not childhood female-typical gender expression among androphilic males.

  3. Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population-based cross-sectional study in Japan

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    Ochiai Hirotaka


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several studies have investigated the relationship between the number of siblings or birth order and childhood overweight, the results are inconsistent. In addition, little is known about the impact of having older or younger siblings on overweight among elementary schoolchildren. The present population-based study investigated the relationship of the number of siblings and birth order with childhood overweight and evaluated the impact of having younger or older siblings on childhood overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. Methods Subjects comprised fourth-grade schoolchildren (age, 9–10 years in Ina Town during 1999–2009. Information about subjects’ sex, age, birth weight, birth order, number of siblings, lifestyle, and parents’ age, height, and weight was collected by a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of subjects’ height and weight were done at school. Childhood overweight was defined according to age- and sex-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of "number of siblings" or "birth order" for overweight. Results Data from 4026 children were analyzed. Only children (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.14 and youngest children (1.56, 1.13-2.16 significantly increased ORs for overweight compared with middle children. A larger number of siblings decreased the OR for overweight (P for trend P for trend  Conclusions Being an only or youngest child was associated with childhood overweight, and having a larger number of younger siblings was negatively associated with overweight. The present study suggests that public health interventions to prevent childhood overweight need to focus on children from these family backgrounds.

  4. Cohort birth order, parity progression ratio and parity distribution trends in developed countries

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    Jean-Paul Sardon


    Full Text Available Major changes in childbearing patterns are continuously taking place in the majority of low-fertility populations with postponement being virtually universal. Almost everywhere the two-child family became dominant. Proportions of childless women and one-child families were increasing recently. Changes in childbearing patterns in Central and Eastern Europe have been profound justifying the label of an historic transformation. Young women are bearing considerably fewer children compared to older cohorts. Especially proportions of women having second births in most CEE countries were declining rapidly and these were lower than in western countries. Postponement of childbearing might be nearing cessation in some western countries.

  5. Children's experiences of the repositioning of their psychological birth order in a reconstituted family / Lizelle van Jaarsveld.


    Van Jaarsveld, Lizelle


    The aim of this study is to explore and describe children’s experiences of the repositioning of their psychological birth order in a reconstituted family. The aim of this study is also to contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon to aid the parents of these children as well as professionals working with such families. The systems theory was used as the meta-theory of this study. Gestalt field theory formed the connection between the systems theory and Adlerian theory, to port...

  6. Evaluations of family by youth: do they vary as a function of family structure, gender, and birth order? (United States)

    Parish, T S


    In the present study, 334 youths evaluated their families by responding to the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. An analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects due to respondents' birth order or gender, but did find a significant main effect due to family structure and a significant two-way interaction effect between respondents' family structure and gender. Specifically, males from divorced remarried families and females from divorced nonremarried families were found to evaluate their respective families significantly more negatively than did their counterparts from other familial configurations. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Detecting and correcting for family size differences in the study of sexual orientation and fraternal birth order. (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray


    The term "fraternal birth order effect" denotes a statistical relation most commonly expressed in one of two ways: Older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in later born males or, alternatively, homosexual men tend to have more older brothers than do heterosexual men. The demonstrability of this effect depends partly on the adequate matching of the homosexual and heterosexual study groups with respect to mean family size. If the homosexual group has too many siblings, relative to the heterosexual group, the homosexual group will tend to show the expected excess of older brothers but may also show an excess of other sibling-types (most likely older sisters); if the homosexual group has too few siblings, it will tend not to show a difference in number of older brothers but instead may show a deficiency of other sibling-types (most likely younger brothers and younger sisters). In the first part of this article, these consequences are illustrated with deliberately mismatched groups selected from archived data sets. In the second part, two slightly different methods for transforming raw sibling data are presented. These are intended to produce family-size-corrected variables for each of the four original sibling parameters (older brothers, older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters). Both versions are shown to render the fraternal birth order effect observable in the deliberately mismatched groups. In the third part of the article, fraternal birth order studies published in the last 5 years were surveyed for failures to find a statistically significant excess of older brothers for the homosexual group. Two such studies were found in the nine examined. In both cases, the collective findings for older sisters, younger brothers, and younger sisters suggested that the mean family size of the homosexual groups was smaller than that of the heterosexual comparison groups. Furthermore, the individual findings for the four classes of siblings resembled those

  8. Birth order modifies the effect of IL13 gene polymorphisms on serum IgE at age 10 and skin prick test at ages 4, 10 and 18: a prospective birth cohort study

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    Ogbuanu Ikechukwu U


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. Objective To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. Methods Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18; skin prick test (SPT at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP, rs1800925 (promoter region and rs2066960 (intron 1. Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs. Results Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456; SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69. Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57 and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13. Conclusions This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

  9. Birth order and Personality (United States)

    Macdonald, A. P.


    It was found that (a) later borns from two-child families were more external than those from larger families; (b) later borns were more external than only children or firstborns; (c) only children and firstborns were more socially responsible than later borns; and (d) firstborns were more rigid than only-child and later-born Ss. (Author)

  10. Effects of gender difference and birth order on perceived parenting styles, measured by the EMBU scale, in Japanese two-sibling subjects. (United States)

    Someya, T; Uehara, T; Kadowaki, M; Tang, S W; Takahashi, S


    The relationship between Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppforstran (EMBU) scaling and gender, birth order and parents' gender was previously investigated in a large volunteer sample; significant interactions among the variables were found. In the present study, 730 Japanese volunteers with one sibling were used as subjects in order to control the number of siblings: the effect of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order on the perceived parenting style was examined. Based on gender and birth orders, 730 subjects were grouped into the following categories: (i) male with a younger brother; (ii) male with a younger sister; (iii) male with an older brother; (iv) male with an older sister; (v) female with a younger brother; (vi) female with a younger sister; (vii) female with an older brother; and (viii) female with an older sister. One-way ANOVA was performed with each EMBU subscale used as a dependent variable and these eight groups as independent variables. The scores for rejection and emotional warmth of father were influenced significantly by the pattern of siblings (Pparenting style as more rejecting than others, and female children (elder sisters with brother, or younger sisters with sister) recognized parenting style as more caring and demonstrated more warmth than others. The results confirmed a significant interaction of gender of subjects and siblings and birth order of perceived parental rearing behavior.

  11. Does birth order and academic proficiency influence perfectionistic self-presentation among undergraduate engineering students? A descriptive analysis

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    Preeti Tabitha Louis


    Full Text Available Background: Perfectionism is a multifaceted concept. It had both advantages and disadvantages. Perfectionistic traits have been associated with leadership and very intellectual people. The present study is an attempt to understand if engineering students possess perfectionistic orientation and whether it influences self-efficacy, social connectedness, and achievement motivation. Materials and Methods: The present study adopts a random sampling design to evaluate the presence of perfectionism as a personality trait among undergraduate engineering students (N = 320. Standardized inventories such as Almost Perfect Scale-Revised were administered first to identify perfectionists and second to differentiate the adaptive from the maladaptive perfectionists. Scheduled interviews were conducted with students to obtain information regarding birth order and family functioning. Results: Findings from the study reveal that there were a significant number of maladaptive perfectionists and that they experienced higher levels of personal and societal demands leading to a negative emotional well-being in comparison to the adaptive perfectionists. We also observed that first-born children were more likely to display a perfectionistic self-presentation and from scheduled interviews, we understood that paternal influences were stronger when it came to decision-making and display of conscientiousness. Conclusion: The study draws on important implications for helping students to understand perfectionism and to respond to demands of the family and societal subsystems in a positive and an adaptive manner.

  12. Birth order and risk taking in athletics: a meta-analysis and study of major league baseball. (United States)

    Sulloway, Frank J; Zweigenhaft, Richard L


    According to expectations derived from evolutionary theory, younger siblings are more likely than older siblings to participate in high-risk activities. The authors test this hypothesis by conducting a meta-analysis of 24 previous studies involving birth order and participation in dangerous sports. The odds of laterborns engaging in such activities were 1.48 times greater than for firstborns (N = 8,340). The authors also analyze performance data on 700 brothers who played major league baseball. Consistent with their greater expected propensity for risk taking, younger brothers were 10.6 times more likely to attempt the high-risk activity of base stealing and 3.2 times more likely to steal bases successfully (odds ratios). In addition, younger brothers were significantly superior to older brothers in overall batting success, including two measures associated with risk taking. As expected, significant heterogeneity among various performance measures for major league baseball players indicated that older and younger brothers excelled in different aspects of the game.

  13. Divergent Response Profile in Activated Cord Blood T cells from First-born Child Implies Birth-order-associated in Utero Immune Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich


    the association between birth-order and the functional response of stimulated cord blood T cells. Method: Purified cord blood T cells were polyclonally activated with anti-CD3/CD28-coated beads in a subgroup of 28 children enrolled in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort. Expression levels of seven activation markers...... on helper and cytotoxic T cells as well as the percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-10 was measured in supernatants. Results: IL-10 secretion (P = 0.007) and CD25 expression on CD4+ helper T cells (P = 0.......0003) in activated cord blood T cells were selectively reduced in first-born children, while the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cord blood T cells was independent of birth-order. Conclusion: First-born infants display a reduced anti-inflammatory profile in T cells at birth. This possible in utero ‘birth-order’ T cell...

  14. Biological markers of asexuality: Handedness, birth order, and finger length ratios in self-identified asexual men and women. (United States)

    Yule, Morag A; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B


    Human asexuality is defined as a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything and it has been suggested that it may be best conceptualized as a sexual orientation. Non-right-handedness, fraternal birth order, and finger length ratio (2D:4D) are early neurodevelopmental markers associated with sexual orientation. We conducted an Internet study investigating the relationship between self-identification as asexual, handedness, number of older siblings, and self-measured finger-lengths in comparison to individuals of other sexual orientation groups. A total of 325 asexuals (60 men and 265 women; M age, 24.8 years), 690 heterosexuals (190 men and 500 women; M age, 23.5 years), and 268 non-heterosexuals (homosexual and bisexual; 64 men and 204 women; M age, 29.0 years) completed online questionnaires. Asexual men and women were 2.4 and 2.5 times, respectively, more likely to be non-right-handed than their heterosexual counterparts and there were significant differences between sexual orientation groups in number of older brothers and older sisters, and this depended on handedness. Asexual and non-heterosexual men were more likely to be later-born than heterosexual men, and asexual women were more likely to be earlier-born than non-heterosexual women. We found no significant differences between sexual orientation groups on measurements of 2D:4D ratio. This is one of the first studies to test and provide preliminary empirical support for an underlying neurodevelopmental basis to account for the lack of sexual attraction characteristic of asexuality.

  15. 山西省食管癌患者出生顺序研究%Study on the birth order of patients with esophagus cancer in Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩斐; 范亚峰; 王国平; 丁悌; 李建民; 苏文; 高泽锋; 韩小友


    Objective To explore the relationship between esophagus cancer patients and both environmental and genetic factors,through analyzing the data on birth orders from esophagus cancer patients of Shanxi province.Methods Both Greenwood and Haldane methods on birth order were used to study the 1101 cases with esophagus cancer from Shanxi province.All the patients had received surgery and were diagnosed,by pathological evidence.First certificates of the patients were confirmed through the standard genetic epidemiologic investigation.Birth order was investigated on probands of the 1101 cases with esophagus cancer and their 44 siblings.Results Results form the Greenwood method showed that there was a tendency for cases with esophagus cancer in birth orders First to Third.However,the Haldane method showed that the results were quite different between actual value and the average theory value of 6A (6A(actual value)=17 118,(X)6A(average theory value) =19 290,X=∣6A-(X)6A∣/√V6A =7.63,X > 2) which suggested that the birth order had some effects on the occurrence of esophagus cancer.In addition,the actual value of 6A was lower than the theoretic average value,and the parents at younger productive age or baby at the first birth was easy to develop esophagus cancer.Conclusion Esophagus cancer was related with the birth order,especially at early order,which was not consistent with the national reports on esophagus cancer.Results from this study suggested that there were certain effects of environmental risk factors on esophagus cancer patients.%目的 分析山西省食管癌患者的出生顺序,探讨环境因素、遗传因素与食管癌的关系.方法 采用Greenwood和Haldane的出生顺序方法,以山西省肿瘤医院1101例住院食管癌手术患者为先证者进行遗传流行病学调查,并对1101例先证者及44例食管癌患病同胞进行出生顺序研究.结果 Greenwood法分析结果显示,食管癌患者较多发生在出生顺序1~3

  16. 大学生出生次序、自尊与人际关系%The Birth Order,Self -esteem and Interpersonal Relationship of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper aims to explore the differences between the birth order and relationships in considering the self -esteem acts as a personality factor.We have chosen 300 students in Zhengzhou University to investigate by using the self -esteem scale and interpersonal relationships assessment scale.The results show that there are not obvious differences in self -esteem in dif-ferent birth orders,including the differences between only one or non -only -child student.The extent of troubled relation-ships and its communication and interpersonal relationship factors between only one or non -only -child student is not signifi-cant,but it is significant between the students in different birth orders.%目的:结合自尊这一人格因素探讨不同出生次序的大学生人际关系之间的差异。方法:采用自尊量表、人际关系综合诊断量表对郑州大学300名大学生进行测查。结果:独生与非独生、非独生子女中不同出生次序的大学生自尊水平差异不显著。独生与非独生子女之间的人际交往困扰总分及各因子分之间差异不显著,在非独生子女中,不同出生次序大学生在与人交谈困扰因子、人际交往困扰因子及人际关系困扰总分上差异显著。

  17. Birth Control (United States)

    Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ... eggs that could be fertilized. Types include birth control pills, patches, shots, vaginal rings, and emergency contraceptive ...

  18. Birth order and memories of traumatic and family experiences in Greek patients with borderline personality disorder versus patients with other personality disorders. (United States)

    Karamanolaki, Hara; Spyropoulou, Areti C; Iliadou, Aggeliki; Vousoura, Eleni; Vondikaki, Stamatia; Pantazis, Nikos; Vaslamatzis, Grigoris


    The purpose of this study was to assess the possible effect of recalled traumatic experiences, perceived parental rearing styles, and family parameters on the occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) versus other personality disorders (other-PDs). A total of 88 adult outpatients with personality disorders completed the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran, which measures perceptions regarding parental rearing. Results indicated that incidence of traumatic childhood experiences was higher among those in the BPD group compared to those in the other-PD group. Firstborns were less likely to carry a diagnosis of BPD over other-PDs. Also, significantly more BPD compared to other-PD patients reported being the father's favorite child over siblings. Results suggest that traumatic experiences, birth order, and family interactions in the presence of siblings seem to differentially affect the formation of borderline diagnosis compared to other-PDs. Limitations and clinical implications of the study are discussed in detail.

  19. Rivalry, solidarity, and longevity among siblings: A life course approach to the impact of sibship composition and birth order on later life mortality risk, Antwerp (1846-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Donrovich


    Full Text Available Background: Family composition and household dynamics, both in early and in later life, influence individual health and longevity. Both positive and negative effects can be expected in terms of sibling size and composition. On one hand, siblings compete with each other, which may lead to resource dilution and increased adult mortality risks. On the other hand, siblings protect and care for each other, which may have a positive impact on longevity. Objective: To investigate the way in which sibling composition (with respect to sibship size, sex, and birth order in the family of orientation and the proximity of siblings in later life relates to adult mortality risks at ages 50+. Methods: Life courses of 258 men and 275 women from the Antwerp COR*-database were 'reconstructed' and analyzed by way of event history analysis using Gompertz shared frailty models. Results: Being higher in birth order related to significantly higher mortality risk after age 50 for men. Having older brothers, particularly those present in later life, was associated with very high excess mortality risk for both sexes, though men were more strongly disadvantaged. Having (more younger sisters present at RP (research person age 50 was related to significantly lower relative mortality risk for women. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the complex relationships between sibling and gender dynamics and mortality risk in later life. Evidence of a lasting impact of sibling competition on mortality risk over age 50 is found; and competition is only replaced by solidarity in critical times (e.g., widowhood, wherein older sibling presence dissimilarly impacts different social groups.

  20. A influência do gênero e ordem de nascimento sobre as práticas educativas parentais Gender and birth order as parenting moderators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Tissot Antunes Sampaio


    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o gênero e a ordem de nascimento como variáveis moderadoras das práticas educativas parentais e da percepção da preferência parental a partir do ponto de vista dos filhos. Participaram da pesquisa 322 adolescentes entre 13 e 17 anos. Foram utilizados dois instrumentos para a coleta de dados: Inventário de Estilos Parentais (IEP e um questionário desenvolvido pelos autores. Os dados foram analisados através da estatística não-paramétrica (Mann-Whitney e Kruskal-Wallis. Através da análise dos resultados, constatou-se que: (a o gênero dos filhos interfere significativamente nos índices de estilo parental; (b as primogênitas apresentaram significativamente maior risco de sofrer com as práticas parentais negativas e (c a percepção da preferência parental é influenciada pelo gênero e ordem de nascimento dos filhos.This study aimed at assessing gender and birth order influence on parenting and perceived parental favoritism from the children perspective. The participants were 322 adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Two instruments were used to collect data - Parenting Styles Inventory and a questionnaire developed by the authors. Non-parametrical statistics (Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis were used to analyze the obtained data. Results have shown that: (a child gender has significant influence on the score of parenting styles; (b firstborn girls present significantly higher risk of suffering negative parental practices and, (c the perceived parental favoritism is significantly modulated by both gender and birth order.

  1. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India. (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik


    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  2. 基于二孩政策的活产儿出生顺序与早产及低出生体质量关系研究%Relationship between birth order of live neonates and premature and low birth weight:a cross-sectional study due to the two-child policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计德永; 王君


    目的:探讨活产儿出生顺序与早产及低出生体质量的关系,为提高人口出生质量提供参考。方法选取2013年在某市妇幼保健院分娩的所有单胎活产儿为研究对象,资料收集于新生儿出生医学信息登记系统。结果活产儿出生顺序在1~8之间(1.4±0.6),出生顺序为1占65.9%(4055/6151),出生顺序为2占29.8%(1835/6151),出生顺序为3及以上占4.2%(261/6151)。出生顺序为1、2、3及以上的活产儿的早产检出率分别为8.2%、14.1%和27.2%(趋势χ2=113.620, P<0.05),低出生体质量检出率分别为6.2%、11.1%和26.8%(趋势χ2=132.228, P<0.05)。控制产妇年龄、文化程度及户口所在地后多因素分析显示,出生顺序为2、3及以上的活产儿出现早产的危险性分别是出生顺序1的1.546倍和3.186倍,出现低出生体质量的危险性分别是出生顺序1的1.991倍和5.530倍。结论高出生顺序为早产及低出生体质量发生的高危因素。%Objective To explore the relationship between birth order and premature, low birth weight among live neonates in order to provide the basis for improving birth quality. Methods All live neonates of single birth were selected from this hospital in 2013, and the data were collected from Medical Birth Register. Results The number of birth order was 1~8 (1. 4 ± 0. 6), the proportion of first birth or-der was 65. 9% (4 055/6 151), second birth order was 29. 8% (1 835/6 151), and third or more birth order was 4. 2% (261/6 151). The prevalence rate of premature birth was 8. 2% in first birth order, 14. 1% in second birth and 27. 2% in third or more birth (χ2 =113. 620, P<0. 05), and the prevalence rate of low birth weight was 6. 2 in first birth order, 11. 1% in second birth and 26. 8% in third or more birth (χ2 =132. 228, P<0. 05). The factors of maternal age, educational level and residence were controlled and multivariate analysis showed that, the risk of premature

  3. Preterm Birth (United States)

    ... is born too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy have been completed. In 2015, preterm birth affected about 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States. Preterm birth rates decreased from 2007 to 2014, and CDC research shows ...

  4. Birth Order and the Aviator. (United States)


    Testament and the works of William Shakespeare are replete with examples showing that the ordinal position of an individual in his or her family was of...presented him with the coat-of-many-colors. Of the tragic Shakespearean figures of Macbeth and his wife, both were firstborns and saw life as only a

  5. Birth Injury (United States)

    ... Commentary Recent News Scientists Working on Solar-Powered Prosthetic Limbs Exercise a Great Prescription to Help Older Hearts Bavencio Approved for Rare Skin Cancer Older Mothers May Raise Better-Behaved Kids, Study ... lying in an abnormal position in the uterus before birth. Overall, the rate of birth injuries is much lower now than in previous decades because of improved ...

  6. Birth Weight (United States)

    ... baby, taken just after he or she is born. A low birth weight is less than 5.5 pounds. A high ... weight is more than 8.8 pounds. A low birth weight baby can be born too small, too early (premature), or both. This ...

  7. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel


    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by obs

  8. Birth Control Methods (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods Birth control methods > A-Z Health Topics Birth control methods ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Birth control methods Birth control (contraception) is any method, medicine, ...

  9. Birth Plans (United States)

    ... These range from how you hope to handle pain relief to fetal monitoring. Think about the environment in which you ... include in your birth plan are preferences about fetal monitoring, extra ... during labor. Pain management. This is important for most women and ...

  10. Personality and birth order in monozygotic twins adopted apart: a test of Sulloway's theory; Research Reviews: twin births and cancer risk in mothers, male sexual dysfunction, twin study of ultimatum game behavior; Human Interest: 'The Land of Twins', twin-like reunion-I, twin-like reunion-II. (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L


    A brief overview of Sulloway's (1996) theory of birth order and personality is presented. A reared apart twin approach for testing his personality findings regarding openness to experience and conscientiousness in first borns and later borns is described. This is followed by summaries of three recent twin studies. The topics include cancer risk in mother of twins, sexual dysfunction in males and responder behavior during ultimatum games. This article concludes with a discussion of twinning rates and rituals among the Yoruba of western Nigeria, and descriptions of two unusual reunions between siblings and twins.

  11. Fractional Pure Birth Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Orsingher, Enzo; 10.3150/09-BEJ235


    We consider a fractional version of the classical non-linear birth process of which the Yule-Furry model is a particular case. Fractionality is obtained by replacing the first-order time derivative in the difference-differential equations which govern the probability law of the process, with the Dzherbashyan-Caputo fractional derivative. We derive the probability distribution of the number $ \\mathcal{N}_\

  12. Missing girls in India: infanticide, feticide and made-to-order pregnancies? Insights from hospital-based sex-ratio-at-birth over the last century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Sahni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are 44 million missing women in India. Gender bias; neglect of girls, infanticides and feticides are responsible. The sex ratio at birth can be used to examine the influence of antenatal sex selection on the sex ratio. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records from 321,991 deliveries at one hospital over 11 decades were utilized. The middle year in each decade was taken as representative of the decade. Data from 33,524 deliveries were then analyzed. Data for each decade was combined with that of previous decades and compared to the data of subsequent decades to look for any change in the trend. Sex ratio in the second children against sex of the first child was studied separately. RESULTS: The mean sex ratio for the 110 years examined was 910 girls to 1000 boys (95% CI; 891 to 930. The sex ratio dropped significantly from 935 (CI: 905 to 967 before 1979, to 892 (CI: 868 to 918 after 1980 (P = 0.04. The sex ratio in the second child was significantly lower if the first child was a girl [716 (CI: 672 to 762] (P<0.001. On the other hand, there was an excess of girls born to mothers whose first child was boy [1140 girls per 1000 boys (CI: 1072 to 1212 P<0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: The sex ratio fell significantly after 1980 when ultra sound machines for antenatal sex determination became available. The sex ratio in second children if the first was a girl was even lower. Sex selective abortions after antenatal sex determination are thus implicated. However data on second children especially the excess of girls born to mothers who have a previous boy seen in the decade before the advent of antenatal ultra sound machines, suggests that other means of sex selection are also used.

  13. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia


    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...... that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  15. CDC WONDER: Births (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  16. Birth Control Explorer (United States)

    ... STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 467 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective methods ... You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or if ...

  17. Birth control pills - combination (United States)

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  18. Essure Permanent Birth Control (United States)

    ... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... System Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...

  19. A Pleasing Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De Raymond


    Women have long searched for a pleasing birth-a birth with a minimum of fear and pain, in the company of supportive family, friends, and caregivers, a birth that ends with a healthy mother and baby gazing into each other's eyes. For women in the Netherlands, such a birth is defined as one at home un

  20. Birth Order on Personality Characteristics and Mental Health of College Students Empirical Study%出生顺序对大学生人格及心理健康的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳苹; 李玲


    Objective: Students of birth order on personality and mental health status. Methods: This study examined 11,183 students in a university in Guangzhou in the birth order of their personality characteristics and mental health. Conclusion: in terms of personality. the most outgoing child, second son of the second, the eldest son of the most introverted (F=9.215,P<0.01) ; on the neuroticism factor, most vulnerable to anxiety and tension eldest son, second son of the second, the most stable one-child emotional(F=3.194, P<0.05); the second, the most stable one-child emotional; the second son of the highest cover, that is most vulnerable to the impact of social desirability, and child to cover the lowest (F=7.545,P<0.01).ln mental health, the highest level of child mental health, the eldest son, second son and youngest son among the mental health there were no significant differences (F=7.575 , P<0.05) .%目的:了解出生顺序对大学生人格及心理健康的影响状况.方法:调查广州某高校11183名大学生的出生顺序,分析其对人格特征和心理健康的影响.结果:在人格特征方面,独生子女最为外向;长子最为内向(F=9.215,P<0.01),次子次之;在神经质因子上,长子最易焦虑与紧张,次子次之,独生子女情绪最稳定(F=3.194,P<0.05);次子的掩饰性最高,即最容易受社会赞许性的影响,而独生子女掩饰性最低(F=7.545,P<0.01);在心理健康方面,独生子女的心理健康水平最高,长子、次子和幼子的心理健康3者之间没有显著性差异(F=7.575,P<0.05).

  1. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.


    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  2. Birth control pill - slideshow (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  3. Preterm Labor and Birth (United States)

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  4. Encyclopedia of Birth Control. (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  5. Birth Control Patch (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch A A A What's in this article? ... Much Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  6. Birth Control Pill (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  7. Birth Control Ring (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Ring KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Ring A A A What's in this article? ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ring ...

  8. Birth Control Shot (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot A A A What's in this article? ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  9. Birth Control Pill (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  10. Birth Control Patch (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Patch KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Patch Print A A A What's in this ... Does It Cost? What Is It? The birth control patch is a thin, beige, 1¾-inch (4½- ...

  11. Birth Control Shot (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Shot KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Shot Print A A A What's in this ... La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of progesterone, ...

  12. Contraception and Birth Control (United States)

    ... to the NICHD Staff Directory Skip sharing on social media links Rollup Image Home > Health & Research > A-Z Topics > Contraception and Birth Control > About Page Content ​About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to ...

  13. Birth Defects (For Parents) (United States)

    ... this virus during pregnancy, her child may have low birth weight, intellectual disability (mental retardation) or learning disabilities, ... and central nervous system problems. A child with late congenital syphilis may have abnormalities of the ... Diagnosing Birth Defects Many birth defects are diagnosed even before ...

  14. at birth, at a birth, by birth, from birth, of... birth与give birth to

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    birth是中学英语教材中的一个常用词,也常见于birthday(生日)、birthplace(出生地)、birthrate(出生率)和birth control(计划生育)等一些复合名词或短语之中。从字面看,这些复合词和短语的意义容易理解,但下面一些含birth的介词短语和动词短语对于中学生来说就不那么容易理解了。

  15. From institutionalized birth to home birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Fróes de Oliveira Sanfelice


    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the experiences of a group of nurse-midwives from the city of Campinas, SP, Brasil, regarding the transition process from attending institutionalized births to attending home births, in the period 2011 – 2013. The study is of the experience report type; the reflections, perceptions and challenges experienced in this process were collected using the technique of brainstorming. Content analysis, as proposed by Bardin, was used, which yielded four thematic categories: a the hospital experience; b living with obstetric violence; c returning home and d the challenges of home care. It is concluded that attending home births offers greater satisfaction to the nurses, even in the face of various obstacles, as it is possible to offer a care to the woman and new-born which covers both the concept of comprehensiveness and the current scientific recommendations.

  16. Politics, power, and birth. (United States)

    Tillett, Jackie


    Politics is the process and method of decision making for individuals and groups. Politics may define the power relationships between women and their healthcare providers. Politics may shape the experience for the woman. Nurses and birthing women can learn to negotiate the politics and power relationships surrounding the birth experience.

  17. Labor and Birth (United States)

    ... pushing your baby down and out of the birth canal. In other words, labor pain has a purpose. Try the following to help ... Opioids don't get rid of all the pain, and they are short-acting. They can make ... birth. Epidural and spinal blocks – An epidural involves placing ...

  18. Traditional birth attendants in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. M. Smit


    Full Text Available Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs and traditional healers form an important link in the chain of health personnel providing primary health care in Malawi. In spite of the establishment of hospitals and health centres, it is to these traditional healers and TBAs that the majority of people turn in times of sickness and child-birth. Approximately 60 percent of all deliveries in Malawi occur in the villages. It is therefore important that due regard be paid to the activities of these traditional practitioners in order to ensure the achievement of the goal - "Health for all by the year 2000". The training of TBAs is seen as part of the Maternal and Child Health Services in the country.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  20. Wealthy Flou Birth Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China’s family planning policies have come under criticism for failing to con birth rates among wealthy families A ccording to the family planning policies, Hong Youfu, a restaurant owner in Fangcun District of

  1. Birth control after 1984. (United States)

    Djerassi, C


    1) Eric Blair (alias George Orwell) can rest easy in his grave, because birth control by governmentally imposed methods, such as incorporation of a contraceptive agent into drinking water, is totally unfeasible by 1984. 2) Fundamentally new birth control procedures in the female (for example, a once-a-month luteolytic or abortifacient agent) and a male contraceptive pill probably will not be developed until the 1980's at the earliest, and then only if major steps of the type outlined in this article are instituted in the early 1970's. Development during the next decade of practical new methods of birth control without important incentives for continued active participation by the pharmaceutical industry is highly unlikely. If none are developed, birth control in 1984 will not differ significantly from that of today.

  2. Birth control pills overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on ... the medicine was prescribed for the person Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached directly ...

  3. Accredited Birth Centers (United States)

    ... 9743 Accredited since January 2016 98 Bright Eyes Midwifery and Wild Rivers Women's Health Accredited 29135 Ellensburg ... Accredited since November 2015 96 Footprints in Time Midwifery Services and Birth Center Accredited 351 N. Water ...

  4. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S


    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  5. Determinants of birth intervals in Vietnam: a hazard model analysis. (United States)

    Swenson, I; Thang, N M


    There was absence of any regional differences in parity progressions and length of birth intervals, although urban-rural differences persisted at most birth orders, suggesting that, as in other studies, the urban-rural differentials are the primary source of variations in fertility between different areas of a country. The significantly higher probability of a subsequent birth after birth order 2 in areas with high infant mortality compared to those with low infant mortality suggests that women in the high-risk provinces may be more likely to advance beyond parity 2 and continue on into the advanced parities. The provinces identified as having high infant mortality had also been identified in other studies as the provinces with the highest crude birth rates and population growth rates, the least available family planning services, and highest crude death rates. Mothers' education was consistently related to the likelihood of another birth at each birth order, with the most-educated women experiencing a significantly lower probability of having a subsequent birth at every birth order. This concurs with results in other studies, suggesting that the woman's education is a prime determinant of fertility and that increasing the educational attainment of women is one of the most beneficial measures to reduce fertility. The significant relationship between the previous birth interval of the index child and the probability that the index child would be followed by a subsequent birth conforms with other studies of birth interval dynamics that suggest that pregnancy-spacing for a given woman remains constant throughout her reproductive career.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Birth Territory: a theory for midwifery practice. (United States)

    Fahy, Kathleen M; Parratt, Jenny Anne


    The theory of Birth Territory describes, explains and predicts the relationships between the environment of the individual birth room, issues of power and control, and the way the woman experiences labour physiologically and emotionally. The theory was synthesised inductively from empirical data generated by the authors in their roles as midwives and researchers. It takes a critical post-structural feminist perspective and expands on some of the ideas of Michel Foucault. Theory synthesis was also informed by current research about the embodied self and the authors' scholarship in the fields of midwifery, human biology, sociology and psychology. In order to demonstrate the significance of the theory, it is applied to two clinical stories that both occur in hospital but are otherwise different. This analysis supports the central proposition that when midwives use 'midwifery guardianship' to create and maintain the ideal Birth Territory then the woman is most likely to give birth naturally, be satisfied with the experience and adapt with ease in the post-birth period. These benefits together with the reduction in medical interventions also benefit the baby. In addition, a positive Birth Territory is posited to have a broader impact on the woman's partner, family and society in general.

  7. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen


    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  8. Genomics of Preterm Birth (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.


    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  9. Unsanctioned births in China. (United States)

    Li, L; Ballweg, J A


    This study hypothesizes that "unsanctioned" births (beyond the limit authorized by the government) in China are more likely among couples who have strong traditional fertility norms and less likely among couples who adopt new family planning norms. The theoretical framework is based on cultural conflict theory as developed by Sellin. Data are obtained from 6654 ever married women aged under 49 years from the 1987 In-Depth Fertility Survey for Guangdong province. Over 30% of the sample were married before 20 years of age. 20% had 1 child, 26.7% had 2 children, about 23% had 3 children, 13.9% had 4 children, and under 10% had 5 or more children. The average number of living children was 2.5. Findings reveal that socioeconomic status was significantly related to unsanctioned births; they were more common in less developed areas and among women of lower socioeconomic status (SES). Persons living in areas with a high monetary contribution per person in family planning efforts at the county level were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Women who lived in urban areas, worked in state enterprises, and had parents with high educational status were less likely to have unsanctioned births. They were more likely among women who married at an early age, lived with parents after the marriage, had female living children, and had failed pregnancies. They were also more likely among women who had arranged marriages, a traditional desire for large family sizes, an early marriage ideal, and a preference for sons. Knowledge of family planning and greater use of abortion were related to a lower incidence of unsanctioned births. Women who talked with their husbands about their family size desires were less likely to have unsanctioned births. Parental educational attainment only had an influence among rural women. Variables impacted on fertility differently in urban and rural areas.

  10. Birth Control Ring (United States)

    ... 5 of her menstrual cycle. It remains in place for 3 weeks in a row. At the end of the third week, on the same day of the week ... birth control until the ring has been in place for 7 days. If the ring is out for more than 3 hours during your third week wearing it, call your doctor to see ...

  11. Visual Memory at Birth. (United States)

    Slater, Alan; And Others


    Explored new-born babys' capacity for forming visual memories. Used an habituation procedure that accommodated individual differences by allowing each infant to control the time course of habituation trials. Found significant novelty preference, providing strong evidence that recognition memory can be reliably demonstrated from birth. (Author/JAC)

  12. The Birth of "Frankenstein" (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer


    Nobody shouts "It's alive!" in the novel that gave birth to Frankenstein's monster. "Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus," does not feature mad scientists messing around with beakers in laboratories, nor does it deliver any bug-eyed assistants named Igor. Hollywood has given people those stock images, but the story of the monster and his maker…

  13. 婴儿出生史相关因素与儿童急性白血病发病风险的Meta分析%Effects of birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery on childhood acute leukemia risk: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国斌; 沙霞


    Objective To evaluate the associations between birth order,maternal abortion and mode of delivery and childhood acute leukemia risk.Method Multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies up to March 2013 using the search terms " childhood leukemia"," acute lymphoblastic leukemia"," acute myeloid leukemia"," birth order"," abortion "," miscarriage ","cesarean","birth characteristics" and "prenatal risk factor".Data from cohort and case-control studies were analyzed using the Stata software.Result Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis according to the selection criteria.No significant associations were identified for birth order and mode of delivery (birth order =2:OR =0.97,95% CI:0.89-1.05 ; birth order =3:OR =1.00,95% CI:0.91-1.11 ; birth order ≥4:OR =1.02,95% CI:0.87-1.20; mode of delivery:OR =1.05,95% CI:0.96-1.15).However,there was a significant association between maternal abortion and childhood acute leukemia risk (spontaneous abortion:OR =1.21,95% CI:1.05-1.41 ; induced abortion:OR =1.23,95% CI:1.07-1.43).Furthermore,the stratified analysis by disease subtypes showed that spontaneous and induced abortions were significantly associated with the risks of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (OR =1.71,95% CI:1.09-2.70) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (OR =1.23,95% CI:1.05-1.42),respectively.Conclusion This meta-analysis revealed that maternal abortion might contribute to the childhood acute leukemia risk.%目的 综合评价患儿出生顺序、孕妇流产史及分娩方式与儿童急性白血病发病风险之间的关系.方法 在PubMed、Google学术搜索、中国知网(CNKI)、万方数据库中以“childhoodleukemia"、“acute lymphoblastic leukemia"、“acute myeloid leukemia"、“birth order"、“abortion”、“miscarriage”、“caesarean”、“birth characteristics”、“prenatal risk factor”或其对应的中文词目为检索词,收集2013年3月前有关患儿出生顺序

  14. Birth control and family planning (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control and family planning To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Your choice of a birth control method depends on a number of factors, including ...

  15. Birth control - slow release methods (United States)

    ... page: // Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These ...

  16. The piglet's behavior after birth according to the birth weight



    The aim of the work was the piglet's behavior observation till the fourteenth day after birth. We expected some differences in behavior between animal groups according to their birth weight. Thirty-five animals from five litters were included in the experiment. We divided the animals into two groups according to their birth weight: in the first group there were piglets with their birth weight over 1.45 kg; in the second group piglets with their birth weight to 1.35 kg were observ...

  17. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.


    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a l

  18. Birth Defects Research and Tracking (United States)

    ... used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) to examine maternal asthma medication use during pregnancy and the risk of certain birth defects. (Published October 22, 2014) World Down Syndrome Day Read one mother’s reflection on the birth ...

  19. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuyop-Butalid R


    Full Text Available Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents’ modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents’ personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn. Keywords: intrapartum and newborn care, modern birthing practices, traditional birthing practices 

  20. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    of recent research on this topic. Individual papers/studies Stewart, M et al: The Birthplace in England Study – maternal outcomes and issues of choice and equity Overgaard, C et al: Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units – outcomes, care perceptions, equity and access in maternity care...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...... countries, maternity care is provided free to women, through public financing of health care; universal access to care is therefore secured. Nevertheless, different models of care exist, and debates about the appropriateness of providing maternity care in different settings take place in both countries...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Ignatyuk


    Full Text Available In this article the stages of the birth and development of the industry markets theory were defined in order to have a full picture of its current goals, objectives and areas of study.

  2. Rural Birth Order and Gender Influence on Intergenerational Time Transfer Motivation in Anhui Province%农村孩次和性别对代际时间转移动机的影响——以安徽省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周律; 陈功; 徐铭蔚; 王佳


    在美国等西方国家,代际时间转移动机是公共转移项目和政策的关键决定因素。然而,在中国文化中,这一概念相对比较新颖。目前尚无子女的孩次、性别与中国农村老年人代际时间转移之间影响的研究。本文旨在从农村地区父母的角度,按子女的性别和孩次,探究时间转移的动机。本研究的数据为2009年从中国安徽省巢湖地区收集。研究结果显示从父母的视角分析,子女的孩次对代际时间转移动机有显著的影响,而子女性别的影响不显著。此外,本文讨论了对政府政策和未来研究的启示。%In the United States and other Western countries, the intergenerational transfer motivation is a key determinant of public transfer programs and policies. However, in Chinese culture, the concept is relatively new. Currently there is less research about rural birth order and gender influence on intergenerational time transfer in China. This article analyzed intergenerational time transfer motivation by the birth order and gender in perspective of rural parents. In this study, the data collected from Chaohu, Anhui Province, China in 2009. The results showed that from the perspective of parents, their children's birth order have a significant impact on intergenerational transfer motivation and children's gender had no significant effect. In addition, the article discusses the revelation of government policy and future research.

  3. Birth rites: redefining the visual language of birth. (United States)

    Uppal, Elaine


    This article provides a review of a Birth Rites organisation event to launch its new website and art competition. Birth Rites is the first and only collection of contemporary artwork dedicated to the subject of childbirth. The collection aims to redefine visual language in contemporary art around the subject of birth, making women the protagonists, with more choice and a greater understanding of the process. The organisation was founded by two women, Phoebe Mortimer and curator Helen Knowles.

  4. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia


    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  5. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia


    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  6. Social inequality in birth outcomes in Korea, 1995-2008. (United States)

    Park, Mi-Jin; Son, Mia; Kim, Young-Ju; Paek, Domyung


    Social inequality in adverse birth outcomes has been demonstrated in several countries. The present study examined the separate and joint effects of parental education and work in order to investigate the causal pathways of social class effects on adverse birth outcomes in Korea. The occurrence of low birth weight, preterm births, and intrauterine growth retardation was examined among 7,766,065 births in Korea from 1995 to 2008. The effect of social inequality, as represented by parental education and work, was examined against adverse birth outcomes using multivariate logistic regression after controlling for other covariates. Parental education had the most significant and greatest effect on all three adverse outcomes, followed by parental work and employment, which had lesser effects. For adverse birth outcomes, the gap between educational levels increased steadily in Korea from 1995 to 2008. Throughout the analysis, the effect of maternal manual work on adverse birth outcomes was apparent in the study results. Given this evidence of social inequality in education and employment, social interventions should aim at more in-depth and distal determinants of health.

  7. How menstrual shame affects birth. (United States)

    Moloney, Sharon


    In Western, industrialised culture, menstruation and birth are commonly seen as unstable, pathological processes requiring medical control. Girls learn to see menstruation as shameful and secretive. Menarche is a nodal event around which girls' beliefs and attitudes to being female are organised. The perception of menstruation as a liability has foundational implications for future female experiences, particularly birth. Other cultures have recognised menstruation and birth as spiritual phenomena, with menarche and childbirth experienced as powerful initiatory processes. My PhD research explored the links between cultural attitudes to menstruation and spirituality, and women's experiences of birth. My feminist perspective recognised the power imbalances, patriarchal controls and structural inequities that oppress women in their intimate body experiences. Menstrual shame was identified as a core patriarchal organising principle that inculcates and perpetuates male dominance and female subordination. Engendering the perception of female physiology - and thus womanhood - as inherently flawed, menstrual shame was a key factor that predisposed women to approach birth feeling fearful, disempowered and vulnerable to intervention. However, my research also unearthed a counter-cultural group of women who had transformed their relationship with both menstruation and birth. Redesignating menstruation as a spiritual phenomenon enabled these women to dismantle their menstrual shame, connect with their female spirituality and give birth fearlessly and powerfully. For others, the profound spirituality of birth transformed their understanding of menstruation. Contrary to cultural norms, both menstruation and birth can be sacred female experiences which are sources of authority and empowerment.

  8. Birth control over 30. (United States)

    Asnes, M


    Among 30-40 year old women, 40% of pregnancies are unplanned, which is indicative of the unreliability of the birth control methods they are using. The 1992 Ortho Birth Control Study interviewed almost 7000 women, of whom 8% listed withdrawal and 4% listed the rhythm method. These two methods have failure rates of 24% and 19%, respectively. Birth control methods often disappoint the users and increasingly they turn to sterilization. 48% of married women aged 15-44 had themselves been sterilized or had a sterilized partner in the Ortho survey. Although reversal of tubal ligation succeeds in 43-88% of cases, conception cannot be guaranteed. For women over the age of 30 who are healthy and do not smoke, low-estrogen or no-estrogen oral contraceptive pills are considered safe. Taking the pill also helps prevent ovarian and endometrial cancer. The failure rate is 6%. Barrier methods also offer protection from sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Condoms are favored by 33% of unmarried women and 19% of married women. Sexually active 40-44 year old unmarried women run a 14-19% risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) in a 12-month period. Diaphragms offer some protection against STDs, but their failure rate is 18%. IUDs are regaining popularity, but only 1% of women use them (ParaGard T380A or Progestasert). Pelvic inflammatory disease is the reason: a 1992 study showed that 0.97% of women developed it within 20 days of use. Norplant is a long-term implant containing levonorgestrel with a failure rate of 0.5%. A 1993 study followed 1253 implant users over 12 months and found a very low rate of pregnancy, but 75% experienced some side effects during the first year. About half of the women using Norplant removed it after 2.5 years because of irregular bleeding. Depo-Provera is an injectable administered every 3 months, but after removal it can take up to a year for ovulation to return. Side effects may include hair loss and weight gain; and links to

  9. Child Health USA 2014: Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight (United States)

    ... percent of infants born very preterm or at low birth weight. However, even babies born “late preterm” (34–36 weeks’ gestation) or at moderately low birth weight (1,500–2,499 grams) are more ...

  10. Coevolutionary dynamics of networks and games under birth-death and birth mechanisms (United States)

    Huang, Z.-G.; Wu, Z.-X.; Xu, X.-J.; Guan, J.-Y.; Wang, Y.-H.


    There is much interest in studying evolutionary games in structured populations, in order to understand how cooperation emerges in communities of egoistic agents. In this paper, we consider a new mechanism for cooperation to survive on networks. Agents are designed to reproduce offspring in proportion to their fitness, i.e., the aggregate payoffs they collected in the previous Prisoner's Dilemma game with neighbours. The population then evolves either by an individual giving birth to an offspring that takes over a random neighbour (birth-death process dynamics as the competition for resources already occupied by others) or by an individual constructing one new site from unexploited resources for its offspring (birth process dynamics as the competition for the unexploited resources which induces the extension of system). The underlying interaction network thus evolves and expands simultaneously with the population dynamics. The birth process dynamics is proved to be one new route that favours cooperators, under which cooperators can successfully resist the invasion of defectors in spite of large cost. Furthermore, under this “birth-death & birth” mechanism, the resulting network has a scale-free degree distribution, a small-world property, and hierarchical topology.

  11. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants. (United States)

    Maghuyop-Butalid, Roselyn; Mayo, Norhanifa A; Polangi, Hania T


    This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A questionnaire was developed by the researchers to identify the respondents' modern birthing practices utilizing the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care (EINC) Protocol. To determine their profile and traditional birthing practices, items from a previous study and the respondents' personal claims were adapted. This study shows that Maranao TBAs have less compliance to the EINC Protocol and they often practice the traditional birthing interventions, thus increasing the risk of complications to both mother and newborn.

  12. Predicting school failure from information available at birth. (United States)

    Ramey, C T; Stedman, D J; Borders-Patterson, A; Mengel, W


    Information available from birth certificates was used to predict the psychological and educational status of approximately 1,000 randomly sampled first-grade children. The purpose of the research was to explore the feasibility of using birth certificate information as a cost-effective mechanism to identify children who were likely to need special educational services at public school entry. Multiple-regression and discriminant-function analyses revealed the following factors to be important in predicting psychoeducational status: birth order, race, educational status of the mother, month prenatal care began, survivorship of older siblings, and the child's legitimacy.

  13. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents. (United States)

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K


    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  14. Life after Birth: the Klan and cinema, 1915-1928.


    Rice, T


    "Life after Birth" considers the relationship between the Ku Klux Klan and cinema during the 1920s, highlighting how the Klan used, produced and protested against film in order to recruit members, generate publicity, and define itself as a traditional Protestant American organisation. In my opening chapter I reassess the significance of The Birth of a Nation in the development of the Klan, and introduce a number of other overlooked films, such as The Face at Your Window that Kleagles (Klan re...

  15. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects (United States)

    ... some health problems for the baby, such as low birth weight. It’s never too late to quit smoking. Learn more about smoking during pregnancy » Avoid marijuana and other “street drugs”. A ... a baby who is born preterm, of low birth weight, or has other health problems, such as ...

  16. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien


    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  17. Exploring the association between short/long preceding birth intervals and child mortality: using reference birth interval children of the same mother as comparison


    Kozuki, Naoko; Walker, Neff


    Background This study used data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to examine the impact of short or long preceding birth intervals on neonatal and under-five mortality. In order to minimize the effect of selection issues, we examined child mortality outcomes of the same mother, comparing short or long interval births against births with what had previously been considered optimal intervals. Methods We analyzed 47 DHS datasets from low- and middle-income countries. For each data...

  18. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be seen ...

  19. Reference birthweight range for multiple birth neonates in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Noriko


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reference range for the birthweight of multiple births neonates is necessary for the assessment for intrauterine growth. Methods Pairs of multiple births were identified by birthplace, the ages of the parents, gestational age, and the year and month of birth. We studied a total of 32,232 livebirth-livebirth pairs of twins, 1894 triplet live births, and 206 quadruplet live births. Results The median birthweight of males, taking gestational age into account, was ca. 0.05 kg–0.1 kg heavier than that of females. Compared to singleton neonates, the median birthweight of twins was ca. 0.15 kg smaller at the gestational age of 34 weeks, increasing to ca. 0.5 kg at 42 weeks of gestation. As for birth order, the mean birthweight of the first-born twin was heavier than that of the second-born. The standard deviation of birthweight was larger for second-born twins. The birthweight of twins from multiparous mothers was greater than those from primiparous mothers. The median birthweight according to gestational age was found to be the greatest in twins, lower in triplets and the lowest in quadruplets. In triplets, the 50th percentile was 0.08 kg heavier in boys than for girls. Conclusion Our results can be used for assessment of birthweight of multiple births in Japan.

  20. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  1. Intrauterine Infections and Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  2. Cranial birth trauma; Kraniales Geburtstrauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [German] Als Geburtstrauma werden die Verletzungen des Saeuglings bezeichnet, die waehrend der Geburt stattfinden. Zu den Verletzungen, die am Schaedel auftreten koennen und hauptsaechlich durch mechanische Kraefte wie Kompression oder Traktion verursacht werden, gehoeren das Caput succedaneum, das Zephalhaematom, das subgaleale Haematom und die intrakranielle Blutung. Die hypoxisch-ischaemische Enzephalopathie ist die Folge einer systemischen Asphyxie waehrend der Geburt. (orig.)

  3. A dream birth? Try hypnobirthing! (United States)

    Graves, Katharine


    Hypnobirthing is often regarded as a method of pain relief without drugs. This is to miss the point, as it presupposes that pain is there in the first place. When a woman learns to release the preconceptions, fears and worries about birth that are endemic in our society, her experience of giving birth to her baby can be the most wonderful and empowering experience of her life. Mind and body working together can be a powerful and efficient combination. This is how birth is designed to be, as midwives and hospitals are beginning to discover. Thus hypnobirthing can provide a service that women want as well as save scarce NHS funds.

  4. Profile and birthing practices of Maranao traditional birth attendants


    Maghuyop-Butalid R; Mayo NA; Polangi HT


    Roselyn Maghuyop-Butalid, Norhanifa A Mayo, Hania T Polangi College of Nursing, Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines Abstract: This study determined the profile and birthing practices in both modern and traditional ways among Maranao traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in Lanao del Norte, Philippines. It employed a descriptive research design. The respondents were 50 Maranao TBAs selected through the snowball sampling technique. A quest...

  5. Birth Order Effects on Holland Type, Occupational Interests, and Values. (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Grotti, Shannon D.; Goh, David; Gaylor, Michael

    This investigation examined in two different samples, whether only children differ significantly from firstborn and later-born children in terms of their vocational personality type as described in Holland's RIASEC model, occupational interests, and work values. Literature on family configuration and vocational behavior is reviewed, and current…

  6. Birth Order, Gender and Affiliation in Various Situations. (United States)

    Fox, Shaul


    Administered two questionnaires to 800 Israeli subjects which examine the affiliation need in four groups of situations. No differences were found between first and later-borns in their tendency to associate with others. Results showed significant interaction between sex and specific situational factors. (Author/RC)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The changes occurred over time in the population have effects on the economy, especially the reductions in thebirth rate which may lead to disturbances in the population structure. The relationship between the economic growthand the birth rate in Romania is analysed over an 11-year period, in order to see its intensity. The presentation of theevolution of the gross domestic product and of the birth rate is completed by the calculation of the Spearmancoefficient for determining the intensity of the relationship between the two indicators. The decrease of the birth rate isdetermined, to a modest extent, by the economic growth, with a wide range of factors that influence it. In this situation,the establishment and implementation of a birth rate recovery strategy is highly necessary to reduce the imbalancecreated in the population structure.

  8. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yu; Zhiguang Ping; Shuiping Zhang; Yuying He; Rui Dong; Xiong Guo


    Background:To investigate the surveillance trend of birth defects,incidence,distribution,occurrence regularity,and their relevant factors in Xi'an City in the last 10 years for proposing control measures.Methods:The birth defects monitoring data of infants during perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) were collected from obstetrics departments of all hospitals during 2003-2012.Microsoft Excel 2003 was used for data input,and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0 (International Business Machines Corporation,New York,NY,USA) was used for descriptive analysis.x2 test,Spearman correlation and linear-by-linear association trend test were used for statistical analyses.Results:The birth defect rate declined from 9.18% in 2003 to 7.00% in 2012 (x2 =45.00 l,P < 0.01) with a mean value of 7.85%,which is below the Chinese national average level (x2 =20.451,P < 0.01).The order of five most common birth defects has changed.The incidence of congenital heart disease (CHD) increased with time,particularly after 2012,it became the most frequent type (rs =0.808,P < 0.001).Till then,the number of neural tube defects (NTDs) declined significantly (x2 =76.254,P < 0.01).The average birth defects rate of 8.11% in rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (7.56%,x2 =7.919,P < 0.01) and much higher in males (8.28%) than that in females (7.18%,x2 =32.397,P < 0.0 1).Maternal age older than 35 years (x2 =35.298,P < 0.01) is the most dangerous age bracket of birth defects than maternal age younger than 20 years (x2 =7.128,P < 0.0l).Conclusions:A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi'an City from 2003 to 2012.NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention,while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  9. Especially for Teens: Birth Control (United States)

    ... at the same time each day. It contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. There are many types of birth control pills. ... arm or buttock every 3 months. It contains hormones that prevent pregnancy. What is the implant? The implant is a ...

  10. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  11. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  12. Children born with very low birth weight show difficulties with sustained attention but not response inhibition. (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Healy, Elaine; Dooley, Barbara; Kelly, Simon P; McNicholas, Fiona


    Children born with very low birth weight perform poorly on executive function and attention measures. Any difficulties with sustained attention may underpin impairments in performance on tasks measuring higher order cognitive control. Previous sustained attention research in very low birth weight cohorts has used tasks that involve arousing stimuli, potentially spoiling the measure of sustained attention. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of very low birth weight and normal birth weight children on a well-controlled task of sustained attention. The Fixed and Random versions of the Sustained Attention to Response Task were given to 17 very low birth weight and 18 normal birth weight children. The very low birth weight group performed the Fixed and Random Sustained Attention to Response Tasks in a similar manner as the normal birth weight group on all measures except for the omission error and Slow Frequency Area under the Spectra variables on the Fixed Sustained Attention to Response Task. These measures index lapses in sustained attention that may be underpinned by declining arousal. The very low birth weight group showed no response inhibition deficits. Omission errors and slow-timescale response-time variability on predictable tasks may thus present sensitive indices of difficulties with sustained attention and arousal associated with premature birth and low birth weight.

  13. 28 CFR 551.21 - Birth control. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Birth control. 551.21 Section 551.21... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.21 Birth control. Medical staff shall provide an inmate with advice and consultation about methods for birth control and, where...

  14. Impact of family planning programs in reducing high-risk births due to younger and older maternal age, short birth intervals, and high parity. (United States)

    Brown, Win; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Roche, Neil; Sonneveldt, Emily; Darmstadt, Gary L


    Several studies show that maternal and neonatal/infant mortality risks increase with younger and older maternal age (34 years), high parity (birth order >3), and short birth intervals (Oaxaca decomposition technique, we then examine the contributions of family planning program, economic development (GDP per capita), and educational improvement (secondary school completion rate) on the progress of MCPR in order to link the net contribution of family planning program to the reduction of high-risk births mediated through contraceptive use. Countries that had the fastest progress in improving MCPR experienced the greatest declines in high-risk births due to short birth intervals (3), and older maternal age (>35 years). Births among younger women <18 years, however, did not decline significantly during this period. The decomposition analysis suggests that 63% of the increase in MCPR was due to family planning program efforts, 21% due to economic development, and 17% due to social advancement through women's education. Improvement in MCPR, predominately due to family planning programs, is a major driver of the decline in the burden of high-risk births due to high parity, shorter birth intervals, and older maternal age in developing countries. The lack of progress in the decline of births in younger women <18 years of age underscores the need for more attention to ensure that quality contraceptive methods are available to adolescent women in order to delay first births. This study substantiates the significance of family planning programming as a major health intervention for preventing high-risk births and associated maternal and child mortality, but it highlights the need for concerted efforts to strengthen service provision for adolescents.

  15. Liberalization of Birth Control and the Unmarried Share of Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; Knowles, John

    Half of unmarried births are to women who are already mothers, and a quarter to women who were previously married. We develop a model of equilibrium matching and fertility to replicate these facts. We use the model to revisit the hypothesis that liberalization of the Pill and abortion caused...... the massive increase since 1960 in the share of US births to unmarried women. Our results suggest that liberalization alone is ineffective; what matters are interactions between liberalization and the decline in the stability of marriage, and, secondarily, the rising status of single mothers....

  16. Birth in Brazil: national survey into labour and birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    do Carmo Leal Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caesarean section rates in Brazil have been steadily increasing. In 2009, for the first time, the number of children born by this type of procedure was greater than the number of vaginal births. Caesarean section is associated with a series of adverse effects on the women and newborn, and recent evidence suggests that the increasing rates of prematurity and low birth weight in Brazil are associated to the increasing rates of Caesarean section and labour induction. Methods Nationwide hospital-based cohort study of postnatal women and their offspring with follow-up at 45 to 60 days after birth. The sample was stratified by geographic macro-region, type of the municipality and by type of hospital governance. The number of postnatal women sampled was 23,940, distributed in 191 municipalities throughout Brazil. Two electronic questionnaires were applied to the postnatal women, one baseline face-to-face and one follow-up telephone interview. Two other questionnaires were filled with information on patients’ medical records and to assess hospital facilities. The primary outcome was the percentage of Caesarean sections (total, elective and according to Robson’s groups. Secondary outcomes were: post-partum pain; breastfeeding initiation; severe/near miss maternal morbidity; reasons for maternal mortality; prematurity; low birth weight; use of oxygen use after birth and mechanical ventilation; admission to neonatal ICU; stillbirths; neonatal mortality; readmission in hospital; use of surfactant; asphyxia; severe/near miss neonatal morbidity. The association between variables were investigated using bivariate, stratified and multivariate model analyses. Statistical tests were applied according to data distribution and homogeneity of variances of groups to be compared. All analyses were taken into consideration for the complex sample design. Discussion This study, for the first time, depicts a national panorama of labour and birth

  17. Diabetes mellitus and birth defects (United States)

    Correa, Adolfo; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Besser, Lilah M.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Cleves, Mario A.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany J.; Waller, D. Kim; Reece, E. Albert


    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to examine associations between diabetes mellitus and 39 birth defects. STUDY DESIGN This was a multicenter case-control study of mothers of infants who were born with (n = 13,030) and without (n = 4895) birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997–2003). RESULTS Pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) was associated significantly with noncardiac defects (isolated, 7/23 defects; multiples, 13/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 11/16 defects; multiples, 8/16 defects). Adjusted odds ratios for PGDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 3.17 (95% CI, 2.20–4.99) and 8.62 (95% CI, 5.27–14.10), respectively. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was associated with fewer noncardiac defects (isolated, 3/23 defects; multiples, 3/23 defects) and cardiac defects (isolated, 3/16 defects; multiples, 2/16 defects). Odds ratios between GDM and all isolated and multiple defects were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.17–1.73) and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.13–2.00), respectively. These associations were limited generally to offspring of women with prepregnancy body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. CONCLUSION PGDM was associated with a wide range of birth defects; GDM was associated with a limited group of birth defects. PMID:18674752

  18. Urinary System anomalies at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharada B. Menasinkai


    Full Text Available Background: Congenital anomalies of urinary system are common and are found in 3-4% of population, and lethal urinary anomalies account for 10% of termination of pregnancy. Methods: A study was done to know the incidence of congenital anomalies at birth for the period of 4 months from May 99 - Sept 99 at Cheluvamba hospital attached to Mysore medical college. Congenital anomalies in the still births, live births and aborted fetuses >20 weeks were studied along with the case history and ultrasound reports. Aborted fetuses and still born babies were collected for autopsy after the consent of parents. These babies were fixed in 10% formalin and autopsy was done after fixing, and anomalies were noted. Results: Total births during study period were 3000. There were 61 babies with congenital anomalies and 6 babies had anomalies of urinary system. Among the urinary system anomalies 1 baby had bilateral renal agenesis, 1 baby had unilateral renal agenesis with anophthalmia (Fraser syndrome, 2 babies had Multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCDK and 1 live baby had hydronephrosis due to obstruction at pelvi ureteric junction, and 1 live female baby had polycystic kidneys. Conclusion: Incidence of urinary system anomalies in the present study was 2 per 1000 births. U/S detection of urinary anomalies varies with period of gestation, amniotic fluid volume and visualisation of urinary bladder. Autopsy helps to detect renal agenesis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 743-748

  19. Validity of recalled v. recorded birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Shenkin, S D; Zhang, M G; Der, G; Mathur, S; Mina, T H; Reynolds, R M


    Low birth weight is associated with adverse health outcomes. If birth weight records are not available, studies may use recalled birth weight. It is unclear whether this is reliable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing recalled with recorded birth weights. We followed the Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) statement and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to May 2015. We included studies that reported recalled birth weight and recorded birth weight. We excluded studies investigating a clinical population. Two reviewers independently reviewed citations, extracted data, assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled in a random effects meta-analysis for correlation and mean difference. In total, 40 studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis (n=78,997 births from 78,196 parents). Agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight was high: pooled estimate of correlation in 23 samples from 19 studies (n=7406) was 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.93]. The difference between recalled and recorded birth weight in 29 samples from 26 studies (n=29,293) was small [range -86-129 g; random effects estimate 1.4 g (95% CI -4.0-6.9 g)]. Studies were heterogeneous, with no evidence for an effect of time since birth, person reporting, recall bias, or birth order. In post-hoc subgroup analysis, recall was higher than recorded birth weight by 80 g (95% CI 57-103 g) in low and middle income countries. In conclusion, there is high agreement between recalled and recorded birth weight. If birth weight is recalled, it is suitable for use in epidemiological studies, at least in high income countries.

  20. Alarming Rise In Birth Defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A rapid rise in birth defects has prompted China to look for causes and solutionsEvery 60 seconds two children are born in China with a handicap.It’s an alarming fact,but one that young adults across the country who hope to have children face every day. At a conference on the prevention of birth defects in Chengdu of Sichuan Province in September,Vice Minister of the National Population and Family Planning Commission Jiang Fan revealed this inconvenient truth, supported by shocking statistics.

  1. Team training for safer birth. (United States)

    Cornthwaite, Katie; Alvarez, Mary; Siassakos, Dimitrios


    Effective and coordinated teamworking is key to achieving safe birth for mothers and babies. Confidential enquiries have repeatedly identified deficiencies in teamwork as factors contributing to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. The ingredients of a successful multi-professional team are varied, but research has identified some fundamental teamwork behaviours, with good communication, proficient leadership and situational awareness at the heart. Simple, evidence-based methods in teamwork training can be seamlessly integrated into a core, mandatory obstetric emergency training. Training should be an enjoyable, inclusive and beneficial experience for members of staff. Training in teamwork can lead to improved clinical outcomes and better birth experience for women.

  2. Traditional Birth Attendant Training and Local Birthing Practices in India (United States)

    Saravanan, Sheela; Turrell, Gavin; Johnson, Helen; Fraser, Jenny; Patterson, Carla


    Training birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential maternal and infant health care services during delivery and ongoing community care in developing countries. Despite inadequate evidence of relevance and effectiveness of TBA training programmes, there has been a policy shift since the 1990s in that many donor agencies funding TBA training…

  3. Suburban Legend: School Cutoff Dates and the Timing of Births (United States)

    Dickert-Conlin, Stacy; Elder, Todd


    Many states require children to reach age 5 by a specified date in the calendar year in order to begin kindergarten. We use birth certificate records from 1999 to 2004 to assess whether parents systematically time childbirth before these eligibility cutoff dates to capture the option value of sending their child to school at a relatively young…

  4. Community Factors Influencing Birth Spacing among Married Women in Uganda and Zimbabwe. (United States)

    McGuire, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob


    Short birth spacing continues to be a problem in Uganda and Zimbabwe, resulting in negative infant, child, and maternal health outcomes. This study investigates community-level influences on birth spacing outcomes among women aged 15-49 in Uganda and Zimbabwe, using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011 (Uganda) and 2010-2011 (Zimbabwe). Women living in communities with higher mean maternal age, mean age at marriage, and mean parity were significantly more likely to have longer birth spacing. Women living in communities with higher levels of contraceptive use and low levels of unmet contraceptive need were more likely to have short birth spacing. The significance of community-level demographic and fertility norms, gender norms, economic prosperity, and family planning behaviors demonstrate the broad influence of community variables on birth spacing outcomes. This analysis highlights the importance of moving beyond individual and household-level interventions in order to harness the power of contextual influences on birth spacing.

  5. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G;


    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  6. The Birth of a Torpedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin


    Full Text Available The article describes the history of the birth of a torpedo, the roles of Robert Whitehead and Giovanni Lupis, specifies the technical characteristics of the first samples, and analyzes the difficul-ties faced in their development, and gives some samples of alternative products of this purpose.

  7. Preterm birth and its outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhin Radhanpuri


    Conclusions: In our population preterm birth is more common in poor socio economic status, women with anaemia, malnutrition and these factors can be eliminated by proper nutrition and health education by health workers. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 153-157

  8. Particulate matter and preterm birth (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  9. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood (United States)

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina


    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  10. Births: Final Data for 2012 (United States)

    ... 9, December 30, 2013 Table 25. Preterm and low birthweight births, by age and race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, 2012 Age and race and Hispanic origin of mother Preterm 1 Percent Number Total Early 3 Late 4 Total Early 3 Late 4 Unknown Total ...

  11. Intertwining and commutation relations for birth-death processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chafai, Djalil


    Given a birth-death process on N with semigroup P_t and a discrete gradient D depending on a positive weight u, we establish intertwining relations of the form D P_t = Q_t D, where Q_t is the Feynman-Kac semigroup with potential V_u of another birth-death process. We provide applications when V_u is positive and uniformly bounded from below, including Lipschitz contraction and Wasserstein curvature, various functional inequalities, and stochastic orderings. The proofs are remarkably simple and rely on interpolation, commutation, and convexity.

  12. The ideology and politics of birth control in inter-war England. (United States)

    Lewis, J


    examine why the official response was so limited and the implications this had for the relationship of women to welfare policy. When the government took the first steps toward granting access to birth control information, it did so on health grounds. No further liberalization of the law occurred and the argument that all women had the right of access to birth control information in order to space and limit the number of births was ignored. The population scare outweighted the case for birth control as a maternal and a racial measure by the mid 1930s.

  13. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan. (United States)

    Haarsager, Mary


    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  14. Microcephaly and Other Birth Defects: Zika (United States)

    ... ol Português Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Zika and Microcephaly Microcephaly is a birth defect in ... pregnancy or has stopped growing after birth. Congenital Zika Syndrome Congenital Zika syndrome is a pattern of ...

  15. Births and deaths including fetal deaths (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...


    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  17. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...


    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  19. Infant Development: Birth to 3 Months (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Infant development begins at birth. Consider major infant development milestones from birth to 3 months — and know what to do when something's not right. By ...

  20. Promotion of birth spacing on Idjwi Island, Zaire. (United States)

    Caraël, M; Stanbury, J B


    Idjwi Island in Lake Kivu in eastern Zaire supports approximately 50,000 largely subsistence farmers, the Bani-Iju. Rapid population growth, a declining economy, and a deteriorating environment have already converged to produce significant malnutrition in this isolated community. The highly structured and traditional social order, particularly regarding reproductive mores, is examined here in its relevance to an intervention program for reducing the demographic pressure by increasing birth spacing. The mean birth interval of approximately three years appears to be shrinking, and is far too brief to prevent rapid population growth. The program, which included films about contraception, did not lead to a longer birth interval among the Bani-Iju, but did succeed in informing women about family planning. It is concluded that no intervention program for promotion of family planning is likely to be effective without substantial improvement in the economy.

  1. Birth in prison: pregnancy and birth behind bars in Brazil. (United States)

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Ayres, Barbara Vasques da Silva; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Sánchez, Alexandra Roma; Larouzé, Bernard


    The high vulnerability of incarcerated women is worsened when they are pregnant and give birth during imprisonment. This article traces the profile of incarcerated women living with their children in female prison units of the capitals and metropolitan regions of Brazil and describes pregnancy and childbirth conditions and healthcare practices while in incarceration. This study is an analysis of a series of cases resultant from a national census conducted between August 2012 and January 2014. This analysis included 241 mothers. Of these, 45% were younger than 25 years old, 57% were dark skinned, 53% had studied less than eight years and 83% were multiparous. At the time of incarceration, 89% were already pregnant and two thirds did not want the current pregnancy. Access to prenatal care was inadequate for 36% of the women. During their hospital stay, 15% referred to having suffered some type of violence (verbal, psychological, or physical). Only 15% of the mothers rated the care received during their hospital stay as excellent. They had low social/familial support and more than one third reported the use of handcuffs during their hospital stay. Incarcerated mothers received poorer healthcare during pregnancy and birth when compared with non-incarcerated users of the public sector. This study also found violations of human rights, especially during birth.

  2. Factors Influencing Positive Birth Experiences of First-Time Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Nilsson


    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe first-time mothers’ experiences and reflections of their first birth. Study Design. This study is a part of a larger study which was carried out in southwestern Sweden in 2008. A qualitative method with content analysis was chosen for this study. The unit of data was 14 written narratives from the first-time mothers. Results. The theme “To be empowered increases first-time mothers’ chances for a positive birth experience” crossed over into all the three categories: “To trust the body and to face the pain,” “Interaction between body and mind in giving birth,” and “Consistency of support.” Conclusion. In order to feel confident in their first childbirth, the women wanted to be confirmed and seen as unique individuals by the professionals and their partner. If professionals responded to the individual woman’s needs of support, the woman more often had a positive birth experience, even if the birth was protracted or with medical complications.

  3. Birth-death processes and associated polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van Erik A.


    We consider birth-death processes on the nonnegative integers and the corresponding sequences of orthogonal polynomials called birth-death polynomials. The sequence of associated polynomials linked with a sequence of birth-death polynomials and its orthogonalizing measure can be used in the analysis

  4. Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services (United States)

    ... necessary to treat sick babies and moms. A birth center can provide natural pain control and pain control with mild narcotic medications, ... be an option. Women who want a natural birth with minimal medical intervention or pain control may feel more comfortable in a birth ...

  5. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F;


    component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...... bank has been set up with blood taken from the mother twice during pregnancy and blood from the umbilical cord taken shortly after birth. Data collection started in 1996 and the project covered all regions in Denmark in 1999. By August 2000. a total of 60,000 pregnant women had been recruited...... to the study. It is expected that a large number of gene-environmental hypotheses need to be based on case-control analyses within a cohort like this....

  6. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Olson


    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk.

  7. Latitude, birth date, and allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wjst


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The space and time distribution of risk factors for allergic diseases may provide insights into disease mechanisms. Allergy is believed to vary by month of birth, but multinational studies taking into account latitude have not been conducted. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A questionnaire was distributed in 54 centres to a representative sample of 20- to 44-y-old men and women mainly in Europe but also including regions in North Africa, India, North America, Australia, and New Zealand. Data from 200,682 participants were analyzed. The median prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 22%, with a substantial variation across centres. Overall, allergic rhinitis decreased with geographical latitude, but there were many exceptions. No increase in prevalence during certain winters could be observed. Also, no altered risk by birth month was found, except borderline reduced risks in September and October. Effect estimates obtained by a multivariate analysis of total and specific IgE values in 18,085 individuals also excluded major birth month effects and confirmed the independent effect of language grouping. CONCLUSION: Neither time point of first exposure to certain allergens nor early infections during winter months seems to be a major factor for adult allergy. Although there might be effects of climate or environmental UV exposure by latitude, influences within language groups seem to be more important, reflecting so far unknown genetic or cultural risk factors.

  8. The multisensory approach to birth and aromatherapy. (United States)

    Gutteridge, Kathryn


    The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves to be fascinating. By examining other health models of care we can incorporate simple but powerful methods that can shape clinical outcomes. There is still more that midwives can do by using aromatherapy in the context of a multisensory approach to make birth environments synchronise with women's potential to birth in a positive way.

  9. Levels and correlates of non-adherence to WHO recommended inter-birth intervals in Rufiji, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Exavery Amon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poorly spaced pregnancies have been documented worldwide to result in adverse maternal and child health outcomes. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends a minimum inter-birth interval of 33 months between two consecutive live births in order to reduce the risk of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. However, birth spacing practices in many developing countries, including Tanzania, remain scantly addressed. Methods Longitudinal data collected in the Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS from January 1999 to December 2010 were analyzed to investigate birth spacing practices among women of childbearing age. The outcome variable, non-adherence to the minimum inter-birth interval, constituted all inter-birth intervals Results A total of 15,373 inter-birth intervals were recorded from 8,980 women aged 15–49 years in Rufiji district over the follow-up period of 11 years. The median inter-birth interval was 33.4 months. Of the 15,373 inter-birth intervals, 48.4% were below the WHO recommended minimum length of 33 months between two live births. Non-adherence was associated with younger maternal age, low maternal education, multiple births from the preceding pregnancy, non-health facility delivery of the preceding birth, being an in-migrant resident, multi-parity and being married. Conclusion Generally, one in every two inter-birth intervals among 15–49 year-old women in Rufiji district is poorly spaced, with significant variations by socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics of mothers and newborns. Maternal, newborn and child health services should be improved with a special emphasis on community- and health facility-based optimum birth spacing education in order to enhance health outcomes of mothers and their babies, especially in rural settings.

  10. Multiple births and maternal mental health from pregnancy to 5 years after birth: A longitudinal population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Ystrom


    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of population-based studies on multiple births and maternal mental health. Having a high-risk pregnancy by bearing two or more children is a stressful life event, and the challenges of parenting two or more children probably also lead to a high level of parental stress. There are a few results on multiple births and maternal mental health from studies on in vitro fertilization samples. The only previous cohort study on multiple birth and maternal mental health included a single measure of depressive symptoms at 9 months postpartum. We aim to estimate the relative risk for depression and anxiety after multiple birth in a population-based prospective cohort study while adjusting for factors prior and subsequent to fertilization.Methods: We used data from 87,807 pregnancies included in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Information on multiple birth was retrieved from the Norwegian Medical Birth Registry, and maternal mental health was assessed at 17th and 30th week of gestation and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. There were 1,842 plural births included in the study (i.e. 1,821 twin births and 21 higher order births. We predicted maternal mental health at each time point, subsequently adjusting for 1 factors prior to fertilization (e.g. maternal age and in vitro fertilization; 2 factors during pregnancy (e.g. hypertensive states; 3 factors at delivery (e.g. cesarean section; 4 child-related postnatal complications (e.g. intracranial hemorrhage; and 5 concurrent depression or anxiety after pregnancy.Results: Adjusted for antecedents of plural birth, mothers expecting a plural birth had a normal risk for anxiety (RR=1.05; 95% CI 0.92-1.20 and depression (RR=1.02; 95% CI 0.89-1.16 at 17th week of gestation. However, plural birth was associated with maternal depression at 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum and maternal anxiety at 3 years postpartum. The trend was for the association to increase across time, and

  11. Reasons Why Women Choose Home Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Angelie P. Andrino


    Full Text Available Maternal deaths in the Philippines remain high. These deaths are mostly due to the large proportion of home births, complications of pregnancy and delivery, and lack of access to facilities and competently trained staff. Utilizing a descriptive, one-shot survey design, the study aimed to determine the reasons why women in a municipality in Iloilo prefer home birth. The respondents were interviewed using a validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze and interpret the findings. The study revealed that the proportion of home births progressively declined from 2012 to 2014. Birth being imminent or inevitable is the number one reason that supports home birth. Autonomy, safety, affordability, readily available birthing equipment and supplies, accessibility of birth attendant, remote access by going to the birthing center, lack of transportation, and bad weather conditions also led women to give birth at home. Women from the rural areas of the municipality utilized available resources in the community which prompted the predominance of home deliveries assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs and even midwives, who were readily available nearby. This study recommends continuous improvement in existing maternal health interventions and strategies through engagement of women in policy planning, improvement of health service delivery, infrastructural enhancement, better care practices and continuous health education.

  12. Birth of a new galaxy

    CERN Multimedia

    Rodgers, L


    Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).

  13. The domestication of human birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofija Stefanović


    Full Text Available Observations of the burial places of newborns at the prehistoric site at Lepenski Vir (Serbia revealed the possibility that deliveries took place inside houses that were heated. Warm houses provided a thermally stable environment which, in turn, could solve the problem of thermoregulation, that is critical for the survival of babies. In this study it is shown that the creation of these good conditions for giving birth could have been an important step in human evolution that could have led to a demographic expansion.

  14. Relationship between Periodontal Diseases and Preterm Birth: Recent Epidemiological and Biological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Huck


    Full Text Available For ten years, the incidence of preterm birth does not decrease in developed countries despite the promotion of public health programs. Many risk factors have been identified including ethnicity, age, tobacco, and infection. However, almost 50% of preterm birth causes remain unknown. The periodontal diseases are highly prevalent inflammatory and infectious diseases of tooth supporting tissues leading to an oral disability. They influence negatively general health worsening cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Periodontal diseases have been also suspected to increase the rate of preterm birth, but data remain contradictory. The objective of this review is to present the principal results of epidemiological, biological, and interventional studies on the link between periodontal diseases and preterm birth. The conclusions of this work underline the importance for the physician/obstetrician to identify women at risk for preterm birth and to address these patients to dentist for periodontal examination and treatment in order to limit adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik


    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  16. Associations of birth defects with adult intellectual performance, disability and mortality: population-based cohort study. (United States)

    Eide, Martha G; Skjaerven, Rolv; Irgens, Lorentz M; Bjerkedal, Tor; Oyen, Nina


    Infants born with birth defects have poorer outcomes in terms of mortality and disability, but the long-term intellectual outcome in children with birth defects is generally unknown. We assessed the long-term associations of various birth defects with mortality and disability, and evaluated whether high mortality and disability were reflected in impaired intellectual performance at age 18. In this nationwide cohort study, records of 9,186 males with and 384,384 without birth defects, registered in the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (1967-1979) were linked to the National Conscript Service (1984-1999). Mortality and disability before military draft, and intelligence test score at conscription were the main outcome measures. Males with birth defects had a relative risk for disability of 6.0 compared with males without defects. Disability was low within categories of birth defects associated with low mortality, and high within defect categories associated with high mortality. The relative risk for not being drafted was highest if maternal educational level was low. Heart defects and cleft palate were the only subgroups in which intellectual performance was lower after adjustment for maternal education, maternal age, marital status and birth order. In particular, intellectual performance was not impaired among those with multiple compared with single defects. We conclude that for the majority of birth defect categories in the present birth cohort, our hypothesis that intellectual performance would be impaired was not confirmed. Thus, there seems to be little reason to fear an adverse intellectual outcome in non-disabled surviving infants with birth defects.

  17. Purulent Bacterial Meningitis at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Karimi


    Full Text Available Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, which are known as the meninges. This infection may be caused by Streptococcus pneumonia bacteria. In this study, we presented the case of a female newborn with meningitis secondary to Streptococcus pneumonia. Her birth weight and height were normal. After 24 hours of birth, the neonate was diagnosed with tachypnea, without presenting any signs of fever or respiratory distress. The newborn was referred to Sheikh Children's Hospital, where chest X-ray showed clear lungs with no evidence of abnormality. Furthermore, the cardiothoracic ratio was normal. A complete blood count demonstrated white blood cell (WBC count of 5400/uL. In Blood/Culcture ratio (B/C test, Streptococcus pneumonia was reported, and the results of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis confirmed this result. Following 14 days of receiving antibiotic therapy, the results of CSF analysis were within the normal range. Her visual and hearing examinations were normal, and demonstrated improved situation. The infant was discharged with exclusive breastfeeding.

  18. Vaginal birth after cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar B Bangal


    Full Text Available Background: The rate of primary cesarean section (CS is on the rise. More and more women report with a history of a previous CS. A trial of vaginal delivery can save these women from the risk of repeat CS. Aims: The study was conducted to assess the safety and success rate of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC in selected cases of one previous lower segment CS (LSCS. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of two years. One hundred pregnant women with a history of one previous LSCS were enrolled in the study. Results: In the present study, 85% cases had a successful VBAC and 15% underwent a repeat emergency LSCS for failed trial of vaginal delivery. Cervical dilatation of more than 3 cm at the time of admission was a significant factor in favor of a successful VBAC. Birth weight of more than 3,000 g was associated with a lower success rate of VBAC. The incidence of scar dehiscence was 2% in the present study. There was no maternal or neonatal mortality. Conclusion: Trial of VBAC in selected cases has great importance in the present era of the rising rate of primary CS especially in rural areas.

  19. Impact of doulas on healthy birth outcomes. (United States)

    Gruber, Kenneth J; Cupito, Susan H; Dobson, Christina F


    Birth outcomes of two groups of socially disadvantaged mothers at risk for adverse birth outcomes, one receiving prebirth assistance from a certified doula and the other representing a sample of birthing mothers who elected to not work with a doula, were compared. All of the mothers were participants in a prenatal health and childbirth education program. Expectant mothers matched with a doula had better birth outcomes. Doula-assisted mothers were four times less likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) baby, two times less likely to experience a birth complication involving themselves or their baby, and significantly more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Communication with and encouragement from a doula throughout the pregnancy may have increased the mother's self-efficacy regarding her ability to impact her own pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Coffee Consumption During Pregnancy and Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Frydenberg, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink


    Background: A previous randomized trial demonstrated an association between coffee intake and birth weight in smokers only. This could be a chance finding or because smoking interferes with caffeine metabolism. This study assessed the association between coffee intake during pregnancy and birth...... weight and whether it was modified by the mothers' smoking habits. Methods: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, coffee intake and smoking during pregnancy were recorded prospectively in 89,539 pregnancies that ended with live born singletons. Information on birth weight was obtained from the Danish...... Medical Birth Register. For a total of 71,000 pregnancies, complete information was available on coffee intake and all covariates for the second trimester. Results: Second-trimester coffee intake was associated with reduced birth weight in a dose–response pattern for non-smokers and smokers (9 g...

  1. Literary Gestations: Giving Birth to Writing, 1722-1831



    This study employs a feminist theoretical lens in order to correct the commonplace critical notion that male Romantic poets embraced the metaphors of gestation and birth for their literary productions. By tracing the development of obstetric medicine and copyright law in eighteenth-century England, I demonstrate the ways in which eighteenth-century and Romantic male authors (including Samuel Richardson, Tobias Smollett, Laurence Sterne, William Blake, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Colerid...

  2. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiang; ZHI Qi-Jun; ZHANG Xiao-ping; REN Zhong-Zhou


    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessary to induce the Entanglement Sudden Birth of the system qubits A and B, and the initial states of the system qubits and the qurit C are also important to control its Entanglement Sudden Birth.

  3. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section


    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev; Andrey Gayday; Bibigul Karimsakova; Saule Bermagambetova; Lunara Uteniyazova; Guldana Iztleuova; Gulkhanym Kusherbayeva; Meruyert Konakbayeva; Assylzada Merekeyeva; Zamira Imangaliyeva


    Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC) remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administra...

  4. Introducing Midwifery-led Birth Centres to Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A. Mattison


    Full Text Available In Ontario, maternal health systems are changing, with an increasing variety of childbirth options being offered to low-risk pregnant women. Midwifery became a regulated profession in the province in 1994: providing primary care throughout pregnancy, labour and for up to six weeks postpartum. Currently there are three midwifery-led birth centres operating in Ontario, two of which opened in early 2014. The Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care (MoHLTC has launched these new birth centres in order to offer women more choice in health care provider and birth setting. This shift is representative of the MoHLTC’s push to move services out of hospitals and into community-based settings. While the birth centre initiative is in its early stages and a formal program evaluation is needed, it has the potential, if scaled up, to decrease the need for hospital beds as well as reduce health care costs through more appropriate care for low-risk pregnancies, leading to fewer interventions.

  5. Fertility change in Egypt: From second to third birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vignoli


    Full Text Available This work focuses on Egypt, a country that notwithstanding its advanced stage of socio-demographic transition has shown near stagnation in the reduction of fertility levels in the last decade. The progression from second to third birth is a crucial component in fertility change, since the reduction especially of third and higher-order births maintains the fertility decline. For this reason, the study aims at analyzing the main determinants of the third-birth intensities of Egyptian two-child mothers, applying an event-history analysis to the 2000 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey. The study's results show that fertility differentials among the country's social groups continue to persist. Moreover, the difficult change in the fertility of women with high educational standards seems to be responsible for the stalling fertility decline during recent years. The analysis, however, has demonstrated that within the framework of the ongoing process of modernization in the country, even the most laggard groups of women showed a decrease in third-birth intensity during the 1990s. The study also reveals that the preference for at least one son in the family on the progression to the third child is weakening among women who have completed secondary education.

  6. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen


    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together with a f......A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  7. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.


    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  8. Neonatal outcomes after preterm birth by mothers’ health insurance status at birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einarsdóttir Kristjana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. Methods The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32–36 weeks gestation from Western Australia during 1998–2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time until establishment of unassisted breathing (>1 minute, neonatal resuscitation (endotracheal intubation or external cardiac massage and admission to a neonatal special care unit. Results Compared with infants of privately insured women, infants of publicly insured women were more likely to receive a low Apgar score (ARR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.06-6.52 and take longer to establish unassisted breathing (ARR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.25-2.07, yet, they were less likely to be admitted to a special care unit (ARR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.80-0.87. No significant differences were evident in neonatal resuscitation between the groups (ARR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.54-2.67. Conclusions The underlying reasons for the lower rate of special care admissions in infants of publicly insured women compared with privately insured women despite the higher rate of low Apgar scores is yet to be determined. Future research is

  9. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study


    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A H; Shapira, S K; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; LIN, S.; Olshan, A.F.


    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation and birth defects in a case–control study of cases comprising over 60 different types of birth defects (n=9998) and non-malformed controls (n=4066) with dates of delivery between 1997 and 2004. Me...

  10. Alcohol Taxes and Birth Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang


    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between alcohol taxation, drinking during pregnancy, and infant health. Merged data from the US Natality Detailed Files, as well as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1985–2002, data regarding state taxes on beer, wine, and liquor, a state- and year-fixed-effect reduced-form regression were used. Results indicate that a one-cent ($0.01 increase in beer taxes decreased the incidence of low-birth-weight by about 1–2 percentage points. The binge drinking participation tax elasticity is −2.5 for beer and wine taxes and −9 for liquor taxes. These results demonstrate the potential intergenerational impact of increasing alcohol taxes.

  11. Retrospective Birth Dating of Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Spalding, K; Bhardwaj, R D; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Frisen, J


    The generation of cells in the human body has been difficult to study and our understanding of cell turnover is limited. Extensive testing of nuclear weapons resulted in a dramatic global increase in the levels of the isotope {sup 14}C in the atmosphere, followed by an exponential decrease after the test ban treaty in 1963. We show that the level of {sup 14}C in genomic DNA closely parallels atmospheric levels, and can be used to establish the time point when the DNA was synthesized and cells were born. We use this strategy to determine the age of cells in the cortex of the adult human brain, and show that whereas non-neuronal cells are exchanged, occipital neurons are as old as the individual, supporting the view that postnatal neurogenesis does not take place in this region. Retrospective birth dating is a generally applicable strategy that can be used to measure cell turnover in man under physiological and pathological conditions.

  12. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill


    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  13. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.


    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  14. Meconium microbiome analysis identifies bacteria correlated with premature birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N Ardissone

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the second leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide, but the etiology of many cases remains enigmatic. The dogma that the fetus resides in a sterile environment is being challenged by recent findings and the question has arisen whether microbes that colonize the fetus may be related to preterm birth. It has been posited that meconium reflects the in-utero microbial environment. In this study, correlations between fetal intestinal bacteria from meconium and gestational age were examined in order to suggest underlying mechanisms that may contribute to preterm birth.Meconium from 52 infants ranging in gestational age from 23 to 41 weeks was collected, the DNA extracted, and 16S rRNA analysis performed. Resulting taxa of microbes were correlated to clinical variables and also compared to previous studies of amniotic fluid and other human microbiome niches.Increased detection of bacterial 16S rRNA in meconium of infants of <33 weeks gestational age was observed. Approximately 61·1% of reads sequenced were classified to genera that have been reported in amniotic fluid. Gestational age had the largest influence on microbial community structure (R = 0·161; p = 0·029, while mode of delivery (C-section versus vaginal delivery had an effect as well (R = 0·100; p = 0·044. Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Photorhabdus, and Tannerella, were negatively correlated with gestational age and have been reported to incite inflammatory responses, suggesting a causative role in premature birth.This provides the first evidence to support the hypothesis that the fetal intestinal microbiome derived from swallowed amniotic fluid may be involved in the inflammatory response that leads to premature birth.

  15. Human sex ratio at birth in South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeez M


    Full Text Available Background: Human sex ratio at birth differs from one population to the other. This variation has been attributed to cultural practices, seasonal variation, small-family size policy and sex selective technology. Information on secondary sex ratio in Nigeria is limited. Aims and Objective: To analyzed human sex ratio at birth for samples of the Nigerian population in 4 urban settings in Southwest Nigeria, in order to know the trend and to compare the findings with those of previous reports. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU teaching hospital at Ile Ife and Wesley Guild hospital at Ilesa, Osun state; General hospital at Ogbomoso, Oyo state and Ekiti state specialist hospital at Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti state. The data consisted of 35 209 live single births recorded between 1995 and 2004. Each set of data was analyzed to determine the sex ratio by year, month and quarterly values. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the deviation of the sex ratios for the years from the average value. Results: The annual average ratios of 104.7:100, 102.8:100, 98.9:100 and 100.8:100 were recorded for OAU teaching hospital, Wesley Guild Hospital, General Hospital and Ekiti State specialist hospital, respectively. When pooled together, the average ratio was 102.7:100. This shows some bias for male births. Data also indicates more male birth in the rainy season, suggesting a seasonal variation of sex ratio. Conclusion: These findings are representative of the populations in southwest Nigeria and are comparable to values obtained for other regions in Nigeria and other populations of African origin.

  16. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria


    complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents.......Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary...

  17. Risk factors for PTSD after birth in a normal population: A meta-analysis


    Ayers, S; Bond, R.; Wijma, K


    Evidence suggests that a proportion of women report posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth, with between 1 and 3% of women developing the disorder as a direct result of birth (Alcorn, O'Donovan, Patrick, Creedy, & Devilly). A range of factors are associated with postpartum PTSD, including prepartum, birth and postpartum factors. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on posttraumatic stress symptoms after childbirth in order to identify key vulnerability and risk factors. ...

  18. Mothers' Repartnering after a Nonmarital Birth (United States)

    Bzostek, Sharon H.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Carlson, Marcia J.


    This article examines the prevalence, predictors and outcomes of unmarried mothers' repartnering patterns following a nonmarital birth. Results indicate that, within five years after a birth, approximately two-thirds of unmarried mothers end their relationship with the focal child's biological father, and more than half of these mothers enter new…

  19. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ


    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association betwe

  20. Barrier methods of birth control - slideshow (United States)

    ... gov/ency/presentations/100107.htm Barrier methods of birth control - series—Female normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Birth Control A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  1. Student Volunteers as Birth Control Educators (United States)

    Sanders, Raymond S.; And Others


    A one-year project on birth control education that used students as birth control educators was initiated to increase student awareness of the need for contraception. Support for this method of disseminating information was demonstrated. The project facilitated student use of the Gynecological Clinic of the Student Health Center. (Author)

  2. Catholics vs. Protestants - Birth and Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, Michael


    Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July......Danish Supreme Court Decision, Protestant State Church, Religious Minority, Birth Registration, Family Law, Taxation System, Discrimination, European Human Rights Law, Constitutional Law, Law and Religion Udgivelsesdato: 28. July...

  3. Does fish oil prevent preterm birth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen


    A literature review was performed on the effect of fish oil on preterm birth in observational and randomized studies. The only weak effect on preterm birth found in meta-analyses could be caused by the low compliance, and the fact that many women stop supplementation before term together...... with a fast acting effect on fish oil....

  4. What Is Preterm Labor and Birth? (United States)

    ... 70% of preterm infants are born during the late-preterm time frame. 3 Preterm birth is the most common cause of infant death ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  5. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure. (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur


    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  6. The Relationship between Barriers to Birth Control Use and Actual Birth Control Use among Mexican-American Adolescents. (United States)

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Mathews, Jeff


    Examines the relationship between barriers to using birth control and actual use of birth control among Mexican American adolescents (N=26,666). Results show that nonusers had significantly higher barrier scores compared with users of birth control. These results indicate that attitudes toward birth control are associated with actual birth control…

  7. Swaziland's Traditional Birth Attendants Survey. (United States)

    Lech, M M; Mngadi, T P


    The Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) Survey in Swaziland was undertaken between March 27th 1996 and April 8th 1996. The objective of the survey was to generate reliable information regarding activities of TBAs in Swaziland. The survey was conducted in 25 Chiefdoms sampled out of a total of 206 Chiefdoms registered in Swaziland. The total number of sampled respondents in the 25 Chiefdoms was 721. From the survey, it is estimated that there were probably 3000 TBAs in the country, and in the majority of cases such TBAs would be a 51-year old woman who herself had delivered six children and had worked as a TBA for at least 10 years. Between 9,000 and 12,000 deliveries are estimated to take place out of health facilities. Of these many, nearly 43.5% are assisted by "TBAs"; 16.3% of woman interviewed deliver relative/family member and 15.1% are assisted by friends/neighbours, etc. Some of TBAs carry out procedures which are considered to be potentially harmful. Nearly 30% of TBAs have administered herbs; 45% attend to abnormal deliveries (breech and multiple pregnancies); 26.7% re-use their cord cutting tools and in the case of haemorrhage 23.4% do manual procedures within reproductive tract of delivering women.

  8. Birth delivery trauma and malocclusion. (United States)

    Cattaneo, Ruggero; Monaco, Annalisa; Streni, Oriana; Serafino, Vittorio; Giannoni, Mario


    The aim of the investigation was to determine the dynamic of birth delivery and relate to dental occlusion among a group of adult subjects. The group studied was made up of 106 subjects (57 females and 49 males) referred for dental diagnosis and treatment. The average age was 26 with a range 22 to 30 years. In data collection and analysis the following were used as measures: dental occlusion (Angle Class I, II div 1, II div 2 and III) and type of delivery (normal, short, long, caesarean and other). Results showed that among 106 subjects 72 (68%) had malocclusion versus 34 (32%) with normal occlusion; 24 subjects (22.6%) have been normal delivery versus 82 (77.4%) with non-normal delivery. Class I is present in 34 subjects (32%), class II division 1 in 26 (24%), class II division 2 in 22. (20%), class III in 16 (14%), and 8 subjects (6%) fall in the section "other". Among 24 subjects with normal delivery 100% presented class I occlusion. However, among 82 subjects with non-normal delivery 10 subjects had a class I (12.2%) and the 72 (87.8%) had in the other classes, are distributed in the various subgroups of non-normal labor/delivery. None of the subjects with a malocclusion have a normal labor/delivery. Better understanding of the connections among osteopathic theory, craniosacral treatment and the outcomes upon dental occlusion, more rigorous evaluations are warranted.

  9. Prediction of preterm birth in twins. (United States)

    Makrydimas, George; Sotiriadis, Alexandros


    About 13% of twins are born before 34 weeks and 7% before 32 weeks. The prediction of preterm birth in twins is based on the same tests as in singleton pregnancies. In twin pregnancies, the cut-off for short cervix at the second trimester scan is less than 25 mm (compared with 15 mm in singletons); length less than 20 mm is associated with 42% risk for birth before 32 weeks and cervical length less than 25 mm is associated with 28% risk for birth before 28 weeks. The measurement of cervical length in pregnancies with symptoms of preterm labour may have limited accuracy in predicting preterm birth. In asymptomatic women, a positive fetal fibronectin test seems to be associated with 35% risk for birth before 32 weeks and 40% risk for birth less than 34 weeks, whereas a negative test decreases the risk to 6% and 17%, respectively. The differences in the predictive value of tests between twins and singletons reflect the diverse pathophysiology of preterm birth between the two groups.

  10. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity. Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types. Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:177-80.].

  11. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality.Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing.Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity.Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types.Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence.

  12. Brazilian multicenter study on prevalence of preterm birth and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinsburg Ruth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of preterm birth remains a complex public health condition. It is considered the main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, resulting in a high likelihood of sequelae in surviving children. With variable incidence in several countries, it has grown markedly in the last decades. In Brazil, however, there are still difficulties to estimate its real occurrence. Therefore, it is essential to establish the prevalence and causes of this condition in order to propose prevention actions. This study intend to collect information from hospitals nationwide on the prevalence of preterm births, their associated socioeconomic and environmental factors, diagnostic and treatment methods resulting from causes such as spontaneous preterm labor, prelabor rupture of membranes, and therapeutic preterm birth, as well as neonatal results. Methods/Design This proposal is a multicenter cross-sectional study plus a nested case-control study, to be implemented in 27 reference obstetric centers in several regions of Brazil (North: 1; Northeast: 10; Central-west: 1; Southeast: 13; South: 2. For the cross sectional component, the participating centers should perform, during a period of six months, a prospective surveillance of all patients hospitalized to give birth, in order to identify preterm birth cases and their main causes. In the first three months of the study, an analysis of the factors associated with preterm birth will also be carried out, comparing women who have preterm birth with those who deliver at term. For the prevalence study, 37,000 births will be evaluated (at term and preterm, corresponding to approximately half the deliveries of all participating centers in 12 months. For the case-control study component, the estimated sample size is 1,055 women in each group (cases and controls. The total number of preterm births estimated to be followed in both components of the study is around 3,600. Data will be collected

  13. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte Brix; Flems, Christina; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler


    AIM OF THE DATABASE: The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB) is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. STUDY POPULATION: The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. MAIN VARIABLES: Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous...... support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree), cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia), delivery of a healthy...

  14. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt;


    by maternal educational attainment and analysed in 5-year intervals from 1981 to 2000. Compared with mothers with >12 years of education, mothers with years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient...... increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm...

  15. Pudendal nerve block for vaginal birth. (United States)

    Anderson, Deborah


    Pudendal nerve block is a safe and effective pain relief method for vaginal birth. Providing analgesia to the vulva and anus, it is used for operative vaginal birth and subsequent repair, late second stage pain relief with spontaneous vaginal birth, repair of complex lacerations, or repair of lacerations in women who are unable to achieve adequate or satisfactory pain relief during perineal repair with local anesthesia. Key to its efficacy is the knowledge of pudendal nerve anatomy, the optimal point of infiltration of local anesthetic, and an understanding of the amount of time necessary to effect adequate analgesia.

  16. Women's perceptions of caesarean birth: a Roy international study. (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aber, Cynthia; Haussler, Susan; Weiss, Marianne; Myers, Sheila Taylor; Hall, Jaye L; Waters, V Lynn; King, Charlette; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu; Rantanen, Anja; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Newton, Jennifer; Silva, Virginia


    The purpose of this Roy adaptation model-based multi-site international mixed method study was to examine the relations of type of caesarean birth (unplanned/planned), number of caesarean births (primary/repeat), and preparation for caesarean birth to women's perceptions of and responses to caesarean birth. The sample included 488 women from the United States (n = 253), Finland (n = 213), and Australia (n = 22). Path analysis revealed direct effects for type of and preparation for caesarean birth on responses to caesarean birth, and an indirect effect for preparation on responses to caesarean birth through perception of birth the experience.

  17. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))


    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  18. Birth characteristics and Wilms tumors in children in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Kogner, Per


    -for-gestational age girls also had a higher risk (2.48, 1.51-4.05), whereas no effect was seen for boys (1.12, 0.60-2.07). An association was seen with Apgar score at 5 min parental age and birth order. In our large-scale, registry......Little is known about causes of Wilms tumor. Because of the young age at diagnosis, several studies have looked at various birth characteristics. We conducted a registry-based case-control study involving 690 cases of Wilms tumor aged 0-14 years, occurring in Denmark, Finland, Norway or Sweden...... during 1985-2006, individually matched to five controls drawn randomly from the Nordic childhood population. Information on birth characteristics was obtained from the population-based medical birth registries. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic...

  19. Links between environmental geochemistry and rate of birth defects: Shanxi Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Haiying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya' an, Sichuan 625014 (China); Zhang Keli, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)


    The rate of birth defects in Shanxi Province is among the highest worldwide. In order to identify the impacts of geochemical and environmental factors on birth defect risk, samples of soil, water and food were collected from an area with an unusually high rate of birth defects (study area) and an area with a low rate of birth defects (control area) in Shanxi Province, China. Element contents were determined by ICP-OES, and the results were analyzed using a non-parametric test and stepwise regression. Differences in the level and distribution of 14 geochemical elements, namely arsenic (As), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr), iron (Fe), tin (Sn), magnesium (Mg), vanadium (V), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), aluminum (Al), potassium (K) and sulfur (S) were thus compared between the study and control areas. The results reveal that the geochemical element contents in soil, water and food show a significant difference between the study area and control area, and suggest that the study area was characterized by higher S and lower Sr and Al contents. These findings, based on statistical analysis, may be useful in directing further epidemiological investigations identifying the leading causes of birth defects. - Research Highlights: {yields} Environmental geochemistry has an significant impact on birth defects in the regions with an unusually high rate of birth defects. {yields} An excess of S and deficiency of Sr and Al are the distinctive environmental features associated with the high rate of birth defects in the Shanxi Province of China. {yields} Geochemical anomalies is a non-medical basis for effective prevention and cure of birth defects.

  20. The Birth Environment of the Solar System

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Fred C


    This paper reviews our current understanding of the possible birth environments of our Solar System. Since most stars form within groups and clusters, the question becomes one of determining the nature of the birth aggregate of the Sun. This discussion starts by reviewing Solar System properties that provide constraints on our environmental history. We then outline the range of star-forming environments that are available in the Galaxy, and discuss how they affect star and planet formation. The nature of the solar birth cluster is constrained by many physical considerations, including radiation fields provided by the background environment, dynamical scattering interactions, and by the necessity of producing the short-lived radioactive nuclear species inferred from meteoritic measurements. Working scenarios for the solar birth aggregate can be constructed, as discussed herein, although significant uncertainties remain.

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births (United States)

    ... text version SOURCE: Adapted from Trussell J in Contraceptive Technology, 2011, and FDA Office of Women’s Health ... about how to avoid repeat births with both male and female teens. ...

  2. IOC Rescinds Ban on Birth Control Drug. (United States)

    Duda, Marty


    A review of the International Olympic Committee's ban and subsequent reinstatement of a certain drug found in birth-control pills points out the need for careful analysis of drugs and their effects before they are banned. (CB)

  3. Live birth in an archosauromorph reptile (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Organ, Chris L.; Benton, Michael J.; Brandley, Matthew C.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.


    Live birth has evolved many times independently in vertebrates, such as mammals and diverse groups of lizards and snakes. However, live birth is unknown in the major clade Archosauromorpha, a group that first evolved some 260 million years ago and is represented today by birds and crocodilians. Here we report the discovery of a pregnant long-necked marine reptile (Dinocephalosaurus) from the Middle Triassic (∼245 million years ago) of southwest China showing live birth in archosauromorphs. Our discovery pushes back evidence of reproductive biology in the clade by roughly 50 million years, and shows that there is no fundamental reason that archosauromorphs could not achieve live birth. Our phylogenetic models indicate that Dinocephalosaurus determined the sex of their offspring by sex chromosomes rather than by environmental temperature like crocodilians. Our results provide crucial evidence for genotypic sex determination facilitating land-water transitions in amniotes. PMID:28195584

  4. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women. (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice


    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  5. Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk (United States)

    ... Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk Bad 'bugs' tied ... Feb. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain types of bacteria in a pregnant woman's cervix and vagina can ...

  6. Impact of Adoption on Birth Parents (United States)

    ... best interests ahead of their own when they make the decision to place the child for adoption (Child Welfare Information Gateway, 2007). Other reasons birth parents place their children for adoption include societal and ...

  7. Birth Weight, Gestational Age, and Infantile Colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milidou, Ioanna; Søndregaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard;

    Background Infantile colic is a condition of unknown origin characterized by paroxysms of crying during the first months of life. A few studies have identified low birth weight (BW) as a risk factor among infants born at term, while the association between gestational age (GA) and infantile colic......, low BW was associated with infantile colic only in infants born at term (gestational weeks 37-41), but not in pre- or post-term infants. Conclusion The results indicate that low birth weight and preterm birth are independently associated with infantile colic. After adjusting for gestational age, low...... birth weight increased the risk of infantile colic in children born at term (gestational weeks 37-41)....

  8. Commission for the Accreditation of Birth Centers (United States)

    ... center staff and your chosen family and friends Music therapy Massage or therapeutic touch Sterile water papules ... CABC accredited birth center does not use certain interventions, such as vacuum assisted delivery, medication to speed ...


    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  10. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna;


    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  11. Birth and Evolution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Faucher-Giguere, C A


    We investigate the birth and evolution of Galactic isolated radio pulsars. We begin by estimating their birth space velocity distribution from proper motion measurements of Brisken et al. (2002, 2003). We find no evidence for multimodality of the distribution and favor one in which the absolute one-dimensional velocity components are exponentially distributed and with a three-dimensional mean velocity of 380^{+40}_{-60} km s^-1. We then proceed with a Monte Carlo-based population synthesis, modelling the birth properties of the pulsars, their time evolution, and their detection in the Parkes and Swinburne Multibeam surveys. We present a population model that appears generally consistent with the observations. Our results suggest that pulsars are born in the spiral arms, with a Galactocentric radial distribution that is well described by the functional form proposed by Yusifov & Kucuk (2004), in which the pulsar surface density peaks at radius ~3 kpc. The birth spin period distribution extends to several h...

  12. Birth defects monitoring in underdeveloped countries: an example from Uruguay. (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Dutra, G P; Paz, J E


    Medical authorities in developing countries are primarily interested in nutritional and infectious diseases. Therefore, activities directed to the prevention and control of low priority illnesses, such as birth defects, need to be particularly effective, simple, and economical. Monitoring of congenital anomalies is one of the preventive activities which can be efficiently performed at very low cost. Guidelines for this are given, and their application exemplified by the case of Uruguay. Uruguay has recently attained an infant mortality rate of 20/1,000, with the congenital anomalies ranking as its second cause. The government of Uruguay, through the Pan American Health Organisation/World Health Organisation (PARO/WHO) called the Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) for advice in order to plan a program for the prevention of birth defects. The recommendations given were based on conclusions drawn from the analysis of data the ECLAMC program has been accumulating, from Uruguay and other Latin-American countries, since 1967. The case of Uruguay clearly indicates that sensible guidelines for birth defects prevention can be provided, after working with this "low priority and uninteresting" group of illnesses for more than twenty years.

  13. Birth-death processes on trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we consider birth-death processes on a tree T and we are interested when it is regular, recurrent and ergodic (strongly, exponentially). By constructing two corresponding birth death processes on Z+, we obtain computable conditions sufficient or necessary for that (in many cases, these two conditions coincide). With the help of these constructions, we give explicit upper and lower bounds for the Dirichlet eigenvalue λ0. At last, some examples are investigated to justify our results.

  14. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight (United States)

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.


    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  15. Birth Control and Family Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    THIS year, Women of China asked two 30-year-old women from the Yimeng mountain area in Shandong Province about their chosen methods of birth control. Both women reported using intrauterine devices (IUDs), which they had placed by local gynecologists at the hospital 40 days after giving birth. Are these women aware of other contraceptive methods? Some rural women tell us they know of other methods such as oral contraception, contraceptive implants and tubal ligation.

  16. Kids having kids: the teen birth rate. (United States)

    Noonan, S S


    This article focuses on adolescent pregnancy and birth issues in the US. Although the birth rate among adolescents aged 10-19 years in New Jersey declined to 9609 infants per year in 1994, a decline of 7% from 1990, there remain concerns about the welfare of the mother and fetal development. Adolescent birth rates in New Jersey are higher for Black youths compared to White youths (100/1000 births vs. 25.4/1000). During 1990-94, births to girls aged 10-14 years increased from 241 to 284. There are many reasons for teenage pregnancy: abuse or coercion, peer pressure, misinformation, defiant behavior, person whims, and need for success through pregnancy. Pregnant teens frequently do not receive adequate prenatal care, maintain good nutrition, and/or refrain from unhealthy habits such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and/or drug use. The lack of prenatal care until late pregnancy may be due to lack of health insurance coverage or money for transportation. Teenagers have higher rates of premature births. Fetal development may be impaired due to lack of a proper maternal diet with a sufficient amount of folic acid, iron and protein, or food intake. Teenagers have twice the rate of spina bifida. Girls need to know the facts about the risk of premature birth and low birth weight associated with their cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Girls should be asked to reduce smoking to 3-5 cigarettes per week by the next visit and to stop entirely by the following visit. Teenagers need reinforcement in adopting the right eating patterns and curbing undesirable habits. Prenatal care should be comprehensive. The evidence suggests that fetal development is hampered by the competition for resources between the mother and fetus. Health care professionals must provide contraceptives and education; most hope that the repetitive cycle of repeat pregnancy and poverty does not continue.

  17. [Parenthood and the birth of the family]. (United States)

    Andro, Gwenaëlle; Baleyte, Jean-Marc


    A project to start a family can be knocked off course by a couple's infertility. While medical intervention frequently leads to the birth of a baby, it is not always enough to ensure that the child is "born" psychologically. This article presents a clinical situation which highlights issues surrounding unattainable parenthood then the birth of the family, the impossible weaning from the mother's body and family transmission.

  18. Size at birth and preterm birth in women with lifetime eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micali, N; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Strandberg-Larsen, K;


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eating disorders are associated with lower size at birth, symmetric growth restriction, and preterm birth; and whether pregnancy smoking explains the association between anorexia nervosa and fetal growth. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SETTING......: Maternal anorexia nervosa (both active and past) is associated with lower size at birth and symmetric growth restriction, with evidence of worse outcomes in women with active disorder. Women with anorexia nervosa should be advised about achieving full recovery before conceiving. Similarly, targeting...

  19. Challenges and Consequences of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami


    Full Text Available Preterm births have been a challenge to obstetricians and paediatricians. Preterm births affect all population irrespective of age, race and economic status due to lack of seriousness and awareness among the pregnant women. Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality, amounting to billions of dollars each year, thus increasing the cost for health care. Proper awareness programs about preterm birth may help the women population to know and understand better the signs and symptoms of preterm labour. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality through this study.

  20. Auspicious birth dates among Chinese in California. (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan


    The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th.

  1. Brazilian multicentre study on preterm birth (EMIP: prevalence and factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Passini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30-4.43, multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43-100.2, cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07-8.05, foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43-4.85, polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17-4.54, vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50-3.11, and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08-1.78. High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91-0.97 and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89-0.95 were found to be protective factors. CONCLUSIONS: The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm births

  2. Exploratory spatial data analysis for the identification of risk factors to birth defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xinming


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth defects, which are the major cause of infant mortality and a leading cause of disability, refer to "Any anomaly, functional or structural, that presents in infancy or later in life and is caused by events preceding birth, whether inherited, or acquired (ICBDMS". However, the risk factors associated with heredity and/or environment are very difficult to filter out accurately. This study selected an area with the highest ratio of neural-tube birth defect (NTBD occurrences worldwide to identify the scale of environmental risk factors for birth defects using exploratory spatial data analysis methods. Methods By birth defect registers based on hospital records and investigation in villages, the number of birth defects cases within a four-year period was acquired and classified by organ system. The neural-tube birth defect ratio was calculated according to the number of births planned for each village in the study area, as the family planning policy is strictly adhered to in China. The Bayesian modeling method was used to estimate the ratio in order to remove the dependence of variance caused by different populations in each village. A recently developed statistical spatial method for detecting hotspots, Getis's 7, was used to detect the high-risk regions for neural-tube birth defects in the study area. Results After the Bayesian modeling method was used to calculate the ratio of neural-tube birth defects occurrences, Getis's statistics method was used in different distance scales. Two typical clustering phenomena were present in the study area. One was related to socioeconomic activities, and the other was related to soil type distributions. Conclusion The fact that there were two typical hotspot clustering phenomena provides evidence that the risk for neural-tube birth defect exists on two different scales (a socioeconomic scale at 6.84 km and a soil type scale at 22.8 km for the area studied. Although our study has limited

  3. Birth control for new parents. (United States)

    Jimenez, S L


    The author describes a range of contraceptive methods, and their side effects, which may be acceptable for new parents. The methods are the oral contraceptive pill, Norplant, Depo-Provera, and intrauterine devices (IUD). Natural methods and permanent contraception are options described in insets. The author notes that differences in the effectiveness rates among available types of oral contraceptive pills are small enough not to merit consideration when deciding which kind of pill may be appropriate. Combination birth control pills are taken daily at the same time for 21 out of 28 days. Combination pills are not recommended for women with a history of hypertension or other cardiovascular diseases, thrombophlebitis, migraine headaches, diabetes, active gallbladder disease, or mononucleosis. Any hormonal method may be particularly risky for smokers over age 35. The mini-pill, containing a smaller amount of progesterone and no estrogen, is taken every day and is also on a 28-day cycle. Containing no estrogen, the mini-pill is often recommended for women who are nursing, who are over age 35, or who suffer from hypertension or migraines. Both adverse and positive side effects may be experienced from use. Norplant is the brand name of a contraceptive system which releases progesterone from under the skin of a woman's upper arm over the course of a five-year period. The system has a theoretical effectiveness rate of more than 99%, although the duration of effectiveness may be less than five years in overweight women. The most common side effect is irregular bleeding, and removal is often a longer and more difficult procedure than insertion. The most commonly used injectable hormonal contraceptive is Depo-Provera, a progesterone solution which works for up to three months. The majority of users experience some side effects. Finally, IUDs are highly effective and need to be replaced only every 1-10 years depending upon how they are made. Women typically experience

  4. Successful live birth after rescue ICSI following failed fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Singh


    Full Text Available In a conventional IVF cycle unexpected complete fertilization failure may occur in 10-25% of infertile women. To overcome this barrier of fertilization failure, some investigators have suggested intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI on day 1 of an unfertilized mature oocyte, the so called "rescue ICSI". We report a case of fertilization failure followed by rescue ICSI resulting in a live birth. Although the success of rescue ICSI is still questionable, this procedure is worth an attempt in order to give the best chance to the couple in that cycle.

  5. Successful live birth after rescue ICSI following failed fertilization. (United States)

    Singh, Neeta; Malhotra, Neena; Shende, Unnati; Tiwari, Abanish


    In a conventional IVF cycle unexpected complete fertilization failure may occur in 10-25% of infertile women. To overcome this barrier of fertilization failure, some investigators have suggested intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on day 1 of an unfertilized mature oocyte, the so called "rescue ICSI". We report a case of fertilization failure followed by rescue ICSI resulting in a live birth. Although the success of rescue ICSI is still questionable, this procedure is worth an attempt in order to give the best chance to the couple in that cycle.

  6. Confronting Rhetorical Disability: A Critical Analysis of Women's Birth Plans (United States)

    Owens, Kim Hensley


    Through its analysis of birth plans, documents some women create to guide their birth attendants' actions during hospital births, this article reveals the rhetorical complexity of childbirth and analyzes women's attempts to harness birth plans as tools of resistance and self-education. Asserting that technologies can both silence and give voice,…

  7. Birth/death process model (United States)

    Solloway, C. B.; Wakeland, W.


    First-order Markov model developed on digital computer for population with specific characteristics. System is user interactive, self-documenting, and does not require user to have complete understanding of underlying model details. Contains thorough error-checking algorithms on input and default capabilities.

  8. Obstetric Care Consensus No. 4: Periviable Birth. (United States)


    Approximately 0.5% of all births occur before the third trimester of pregnancy, and these very early deliveries result in the majority of neonatal deaths and more than 40% of infant deaths. A recent executive summary of proceedings from a joint workshop defined periviable birth as delivery occurring from 20 0/7 weeks to 25 6/7 weeks of gestation. When delivery is anticipated near the limit of viability, families and health care teams are faced with complex and ethically challenging decisions. Multiple factors have been found to be associated with short-term and long-term outcomes of periviable births in addition to gestational age at birth. These include, but are not limited to, nonmodifiable factors (eg, fetal sex, weight, plurality), potentially modifiable antepartum and intrapartum factors (eg, location of delivery, intent to intervene by cesarean delivery or induction for delivery, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulfate), and postnatal management (eg, starting or withholding and continuing or withdrawing intensive care after birth). Antepartum and intrapartum management options vary depending upon the specific circumstances but may include short-term tocolytic therapy for preterm labor to allow time for administration of antenatal steroids, antibiotics to prolong latency after preterm premature rupture of membranes or for intrapartum group B streptococci prophylaxis, and delivery, including cesarean delivery, for concern regarding fetal well-being or fetal malpresentation. Whenever possible, periviable births for which maternal or neonatal intervention is planned should occur in centers that offer expertise in maternal and neonatal care and the needed infrastructure, including intensive care units, to support such services. This document describes newborn outcomes after periviable birth, provides current evidence and recommendations regarding interventions in this setting, and provides an outline for family counseling with the goal of

  9. The Danish National Quality Database for Births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson CB


    Full Text Available Charlotte Brix Andersson,1 Christina Flems,2 Ulrik Schiøler Kesmodel3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hvidovre Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Herlev University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim of the database: The aim of the Danish National Quality Database for Births (DNQDB is to measure the quality of the care provided during birth through specific indicators. Study population: The database includes all hospital births in Denmark. Main variables: Anesthesia/pain relief, continuous support for women in the delivery room, lacerations (third and fourth degree, cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, establishment of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the newborn infant, severe fetal hypoxia (proportion of live-born children with neonatal hypoxia, delivery of a healthy child after an uncomplicated birth, and anesthesia in case of cesarean section. Descriptive data: Data have been collected since 2010. As of August 2015, data on women and children representing 269,597 births and 274,153 children have been collected. All data for the DNQDB is collected from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Registration to the Danish Medical Birth Registry is mandatory for all maternity units in Denmark. During the 5 years, performance has improved in the areas covered by the process indicators and for some of the outcome indicators. Conclusion: Measuring quality of care during childbirth has inspired and enabled staff to attend to the quality of the care they provide and has led to improvements in most of the areas covered. Keywords: DNQDB, Denmark, childbirth, anesthesia

  10. Age, relationship status, and the planning status of births

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hayford


    Full Text Available In the United States historically, births to older mothers have been more likely to be planned than births to younger mothers, and births to unmarried women have been less likely to be planned than births to married women. As the average age of mothers has increased and more births have occurred outside of marriage in the United States, the intersection of these trends may have weakened the traditional linkage between age and birth planning status. In this article, we examine differences by maternal age in planning status of births using The 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. We find that age is strongly associated with planning status, but the association is reduced in magnitude when controlling for relationship status and is stronger for first and second births than for higher-parity births. Further, the association between union status and the planning status of births varies by race-ethnicity.

  11. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.


    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth Defe

  12. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Bahl Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland


    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW, as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4.

  13. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael;


    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...


    Black–white disparity in preterm birth (PTB) is persistent and not explained by individual factors. Given that exposure to inequality is associated with increased risk of adverse health, we examined PTB risk (birth <37 weeks gestational age) explained by living in U.S. census tra...

  15. Home birth or short-stay hospital birth in a low risk population in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegers, T.A.; Zee, J. van der; Kerssens, J.J.; Keirse, M.J.N.C.


    In the Netherlands women with low risk pregnancies can choose whether they want to give birth at home or in hospital, under the care of their own primary caregiver. The majority of these women prefer to give birth at home, but over the last few decades an increasing number of low risk women have cho

  16. Twin-singleton differences in intelligence: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males. (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian


    The aim was to determine the difference in intelligence between singletons and twins in young adulthood. Data from the Medical Birth Register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service. The study base consisted of data on the 445,463 males who were born alive in either single or twin births in Norway during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20). Within this study base, there were data on 1,653 sibships of full brothers that included at least one man born in single birth and at least one man born in twin birth (4,307 persons, including 2,378 twins and 1,929 singletons). The intelligence scores of the singletons were 11% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9-14%) of a standard deviation higher than those of the twins, after adjustment for birth year, birth order, parental ages at delivery, parental education levels, and other factors. The adjusted within-family difference was also 11% (95 % CI: 6-16%) of a standard deviation, indicating that unmeasured factors shared by siblings (e.g., maternal body height) have not influenced the estimate in important ways. When gestational age at birth was added to the model, the estimate for the difference in intelligence score was approximately the same. Including birth weight in the model strongly reduced the estimate. In conclusion, twins born in Norway during 1967-1984 had slightly lower intelligence in early adulthood compared with the singletons.

  17. Low birth weight in Kuala Lumpur. (United States)

    Tahir, H M; Ismail, N N; Gebbie, D A


    Low birth weight babies are defined as those weighing under 2,500 g. They make 13.5% of all births at the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur but contribute to 74.8% of all deaths. They are most likely to be Indian babies and least likely to be Chinese. Among all 3 communities, the primigravidae tend to produce smaller babies than multiparae but this is also true for the Indian of parity more than 3. The Malay teenager is more likely to produce small babies than their older counterparts but not so with the Indian and Chinese. There are definite clinical factors associated with or causing the births of small babies and the lighter the baby, the more influential are these factors. Maternal hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage, multiple pregnancy and unexplained intrauterine death are the 4 outstanding associations with both low birth weight and perinatal death. Although the spontaneous (often premature) onset of labour was the commonest preceding factor, it was much less important in the lowest birth weight groups of babies and was a less important contributor to perinatal death.

  18. Season of birth of breast cancer patients and its relation to patients' reproductive history in Tokyo, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Seasonal distribution of the birth dates of 405 pre-menopausal and 285 post-menopausal breast cancer patients was investigated in order to determine whether or not the season of their birth was related to various reproductive risk factors of breast cancer, including nulliparity, late age at first birth, early age at menarche, late age at menopause, and a history of benign breast diseases. The seasonal distributions of births were compared between groups of patients categorized according to whether they possessed each risk factor or not, separately for pre- and post-menopausal patients. Patients with the same menopausal status generally had the same seasonal distribution of births, irrespective of whether or not they possessed a risk factor. Moreover, low-risk patients exhibited more deviation in the seasonal distribution of birth from general births than the high-risk patients. These results suggest that the distinctive seasonal distribution of birth observed in breast cancer patients is basically a phenomenon independent from the effect of the reproductive history on the occurrence of breast cancer, and that specific seasonal factors are involved at the fetal or neonatal stage in the etiology of breast cancer.

  19. Inverted Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper discusses the issue related to Inverted Order. There are two forms of Inversion, which are Partial Inversion and Complete Inversion. I analyze three main reasons of Inversion and its usages in details. And what’s more, under what conditions should we use Inverted construction? How can we distinguish the different usages of Complete Inversion and Partial Inversion? In this paper, I will talk more details about Inversion.%本篇论文讨论有关倒装语序的问题。倒装有两种形式,即部分倒装和完全倒装。文中分析了倒装的三个原因及其用法。具体的,在什么情况下需要使用倒装结构?我们如何区分完全倒装和部分倒装的不同用法?本篇论文将作具体阐述。

  20. Replicating Cardiovascular Condition-Birth Month Associations (United States)

    Li, Li; Boland, Mary Regina; Miotto, Riccardo; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Dudley, Joel T.


    Independent replication is vital for study findings drawn from Electronic Health Records (EHR). This replication study evaluates the relationship between seasonal effects at birth and lifetime cardiovascular condition risk. We performed a Season-wide Association Study on 1,169,599 patients from Mount Sinai Hospital (MSH) to compute phenome-wide associations between birth month and CVD. We then evaluated if seasonal patterns found at MSH matched those reported at Columbia University Medical Center. Coronary arteriosclerosis, essential hypertension, angina, and pre-infarction syndrome passed phenome-wide significance and their seasonal patterns matched those previously reported. Atrial fibrillation, cardiomyopathy, and chronic myocardial ischemia had consistent patterns but were not phenome-wide significant. We confirm that CVD risk peaks for those born in the late winter/early spring among the evaluated patient populations. The replication findings bolster evidence for a seasonal birth month effect in CVD. Further study is required to identify the environmental and developmental mechanisms. PMID:27624541

  1. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi


    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated...... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...

  2. Antimicrobials for Preterm Birth Prevention: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akila Subramaniam


    Full Text Available Objective. Preterm birth (PTB remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The association between PTB and infection is clear. The purpose of this report is to present a focused review of information on the use of antibiotics to prevent PTB. Methods. We performed a search of the PubMed database restricted to clinical trials or meta-analyses published in English from 1990 through May 2011 using keywords “antibiotics or antimicrobials” and “preterm.” Results. The search yielded 67 abstracts for review. We selected 31 clinical trials (n=26 or meta-analysis (n=5 for further full-text review. Discussion of each eligible clinical trial, its specific inclusion criteria, antibiotic regimen used, and study results are presented. Overall, trials evaluating antibiotic treatment to prevent preterm birth have yielded mixed results regarding any benefit. Conclusion. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for prevention of preterm birth.

  3. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore;


    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... was collected around gestational week 16. We established a JEM based on information from women, who were still pregnant when interviewed. The JEM provided mean total loads lifted per day within homogeneous exposure groups as informed by job and industry codes. All women were assigned an exposure estimate from...

  4. Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: a clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a Gender Identity Service. (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Garzon, Luisa C; Zucker, Kenneth J


    This study tested predictions regarding two hypothesized maternal immune responses influencing sexual orientation: one affecting homosexual males with high fraternal birth order and another affecting firstborn homosexual individuals whose mothers experience repeated miscarriage after the birth of the first child. Low birth weight was treated as a marker of possible exposure to a maternal immune response during gestation. Birth weight was examined relative to sibship characteristics in a clinical sample of youth (N = 1,722) classified as heterosexual or homosexual based on self-reported or probable sexual orientation. No female sexual orientation differences in birth weight were found. Homosexual, compared to heterosexual, males showed lower birth weight if they had one or more older brothers--and especially two or more older brothers--or if they were an only-child. These findings support the existence of two maternal immune responses influencing male sexual orientation and possibly also cross-gender behavior and identity.

  5. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H; Ehrenstein, Vera


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18...

  6. The Birth and Death of a Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, H M


    This letter is meant to be a brief survey of several recent publications providing a simple, sequential explanation of Dark Energy, Inflation and Dark Matter, which leads to a simple picture of the why and the how of the Big Bang, and thence to a possible understanding of the birth and death of a Universe.

  7. Model checking Quasi Birth Death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, A.K.I.


    Quasi-Birth Death processes (QBDs) are a special class of infinite state CTMCs that combines a large degree of modeling expressiveness with efficient solution methods. This work adapts the well-known stochastic logic CSL for use on QBDs as CSL and presents model checking algorithms for so-called lev

  8. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley


    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross...

  9. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana


    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  10. Maastricht essential fatty acid birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; De Groot, Renate; Stratakis, Nikos; Gielen, Marij; Hornstra, Gerard; Zeegers, Maurice


    The Maastricht Essential Fatty Acid Birth cohort (MEFAB) was established in 1989 to study the changes in fatty acid concentration during pregnancy and how this related to the fatty acid concentrations of the neonate. The original sample contains data of 1203 subjects. Some participants whom particip




  12. Cesarean Births and Attachment Behaviors of Fathers. (United States)


    Apgar scores are 7 or greater at both 1 and 5...status, indications for cesarean delivery, anesthesis, and infant’s gestational age, birth weight, and apgar scores . Prior to meeting the father, and attachment score ; highest school grade completed and attachment score ; and age and child care experience of the father and attachment score

  13. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect (United States)

    ... places to get information include: books written for parents of children with birth defects national organizations such as the March of Dimes, the National Information Center for Children and Youth With Disabilities, and those ... groups or other parents Keep a file with a running list of ...

  14. Characterization of Live Birth with Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Acosta Batista


    Full Text Available Background: the congenital malformations constitute the first cause of infantile death in developed countries, as well as the second cause of death in Cuba, in younger children of an elderly year. Objective: characterizing the live birth newborns with congenital malformations at Marianao municipality during the year 2011. Methods: descriptive, cross-section study of 30- live birth with congenital malformations at Marianao municipality in Havana, during the year 2011. Some of analyzed variables were: sex, affected system, congenital malformation, type of malformation, severity, birth weight, gestational age, prenatal diagnosis, family history of congenital malformation, maternal age, among others. Results: the masculine sex was the more affected, with 18 cases that represented the 60 %. The Polydactyl was the malformation further frequent, with 23.3 %, followed by the pre-aural appendix, with 10 %. The 20 % was born pre-term and only in the 10 % of the cases was obtained a positive result in the tests of prenatal diagnosis. Conclusions: the live birth with MC were characterized to be males with isolated MC and less severe, full term, normopeso, without family history of the aforementioned affection and with a negative prenatal diagnosis. The majority of mothers belonged to 20-35's age group years, they suffered from hypertension and during pregnancy, the principal diseases that they presented were the sepsis and anemia.

  15. Season of birth shapes neonatal immune function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil


    displayed high levels of activated T cells and mucosal IL-12p70, TNF-α, IL-13, IL-10, and IL-2; and winter newborns had the highest levels of innate immune cells, IL-5, type 17-related immune mediators, and activated T cells. Birth season fluctuations seem to affect neonatal immune development and result...

  16. 38 CFR 3.209 - Birth. (United States)


    ... attendance at birth. (e) Copy of Bible or other family record certified to by a notary public or other officer with authority to administer oaths, who should state in what year the Bible or other book in which... establish the facts in issue, including census records, original baptismal records, hospital...

  17. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  18. Magnesium for neuroprotection in birth asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Gathwala


    Full Text Available Background : Magnesium ion gates the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and may protect the brain from NMDA receptor-mediated asphyxial injury. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective role of magnesium in birth asphyxia. Material and Methods : Forty term neonates with severe birth asphyxia were randomized to either the study group or the control group. Neonates in the study group received magnesium sulfate in a dose of 250 mg/kg initially within half an hour of birth followed by 125 mg/kg at 24 and 48 h of birth. Cranial computed tomography (CT scan and electroencephalography (EEG were performed for all the babies. Denver II was used for developmental assessment at the age of 6 months. Results : Two babies in each group died of severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. EEG abnormalities occurred in 43.75% of the cases in the control group compared with 31.25% in the study group. CT scan abnormalities were present in 62.5% of the control group compared with 37.5% of the cases in the study group. The Denver II assessment at 6 months revealed that there were five babies that were either abnormal or suspect in the control group compared with three in the study group. Conclusion : Magnesium is well tolerated and does appear to have beneficial effects in babies with severe asphyxia. More data is however needed and a large multicenter trial should be conducted.

  19. Intrauterine perineal tear: a rare birth injury. (United States)

    Bhat, B V; Jagdish, S; Srinivasan, S; Pandey, K K; Chatterjee, H


    A rare case of birth injury having intrauterine complete perineal tear is presented. Defunctioning sigmoid colostomy was undertaken because of bad perineal condition. The baby died of Pseudomonas septicemia on the 15th day before definitive surgical procedure could be undertaken.

  20. Birth and evolution of visionics (United States)

    Wiseman, Robert S.


    The success of the U.S. Army's Night Vision Program at Fort Belvoir, VA was significantly influenced by the evolution and timely culmination of Visionics technology which was initiated by Mr. John Johnson. In the late 1950's, Visionics technology started with concern for Near Infrared (NIR) and Image Intensifier (II) Night Vision developments. It resulted in the Johnson Criteria which coupled system physical characteristics to visual performance by using resolution of line pairs across the minimum dimension of a target. This led to development of image evaluation procedures and standardized laboratory testing. Later the Visionics team addressed the Far Infrared (FIR) system performance and developed a series of FLIR Performance Models. The Visionic's Static Performance Model computer code was accepted and proliferated widely by the mid-70's. Visionics moved from static viewing to address the problems of search effectiveness. Then came more work on target signatures and the consideration of the effects of fog, rain, snow, artillery barrages, and realistic battlefield conditions on system performance in order to assure the utility of fielded equipments for all theaters of interest. The general use of the various Visionics models and methodology throughout Government and Industry is recognition of the contributions made by Mr. John Johnson and his Visionics staff.

  1. [Paradise lost - Reflexion of preterm birth from the perspective after a brain injury. A case study]. (United States)

    Cignacco, Eva; Zuñiga, Franziska; Kurth, Elisabeth


    This case study describes the history of an older person, born in 1942 preterminally, who suffered from a brain injury in 2005. Problems in rehabilitation elicited the search for a new meaning in life. In analysing and interpreting the brain injury, preterm birth played a crucial role. The theme of lifelong compensation of deficits, caused by preterm birth, gained new importance. The consequences of brain injury left unsuccessful his former modes of compensation. He was confronted with finding new strategies in order to counterbalance the growing decompensation. This report is based on and was developed through respect for the principles of user involvement in research.

  2. Birth Weight in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemyn Yves


    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate whether birth weight in mothers with diabetes mellitus type 1 is higher as compared to nondiabetic controls. Methods. A retrospective study was performed using an existing database covering the region of Flanders, Belgium. Data included the presence of diabetes type 1, hypertension, parity, maternal age, the use artificial reproductive technology, fetal- neonatal death, congenital anomalies, admission to a neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery by Caesarean section or vaginally. Results. In the period studied, 354 women with diabetes type 1 gave birth and were compared with 177.471 controls. Women with type 1 diabetes more often had a maternal age of over 35 years (16.7% versus 12.0%, P=.008, OR 1.46; 95% CI 1.09–1.95. They more frequently suffered hypertension in pregnancy (19.5% versus 4.7%, P<.0001, OR 4.91; 95% CI 3.73–6.44. Perinatal death was significantly higher in the diabetes mellitus group (3.05% versus 0.73%, P<.0001, OR 4.28; 95% CI 2.22–8.01. Caesarean section was performed almost 5 times as frequently in the diabetes versus the control group (OR 4.57; 95% CI 3.70–5.65. Birth weight was significantly higher in diabetic pregnant women from 33 until 38 weeks included, but those reaching 39 weeks and later were not different with control groups. Conclusion. In Belgium, diabetic pregnancy still carries a high risk for fetal and maternal complications; in general birth weight is significantly higher but for those reaching term there is no significant difference in birth weight.

  3. Mother's occupation and sex ratio at birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Volodymyr


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women are working outside of the home, occupying a multitude of jobs with varying degrees of responsibilities and levels of psychological stress. We investigated whether different job types in women are associated with child sex at birth, with the hypothesis that women in job types, which are categorized as "high psychological stress" jobs, would be more likely to give birth to a daughter than a son, as females are less vulnerable to unfavourable conditions during conception, pregnancy and after parturition, and are less costly to carry to term. Methods We investigated the effects of mother's age, maternal and paternal job type (and associated psychological stress levels and paternal income on sex ratio at birth. Our analyses were based on 16,384 incidences of birth from a six-year (2000 to 2005 inclusive childbirth dataset from Addenbrooke's Hospital in Cambridge, UK. We obtained a restricted data set from Addenbrooke's hospital with: maternal age, maternal and paternal occupations, and whether or not the child was first-born. Results Women in job types that were categorized as "high stress" were more likely to give birth to daughters, whereas women in job types that were categorized as "low stress" had equal sex ratios or a slight male bias in offspring. We also investigated whether maternal age, and her partner's income could be associated with reversed offspring sex ratio. We found no association between mother's age, her partner's job stress category or partner income on child sex. However, there was an important interaction between job stress category and partner income in some of the analyses. Partner income appears to attenuate the association between maternal job stress and sex ratios at moderate-income levels, and reverse it at high-income levels. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first report on the association between women's job type stress categories and offspring sex ratio in humans, and the

  4. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.


    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. The Survey of Birth Defects Rate Based on Birth Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu


    Conclusions: A downward trend of birth defects was observed in Xi′an City from 2003 to 2012. NTDs significantly decreased after large-scale supplemental folic acid intervention, while the incidence rate of CHD significantly increased.

  6. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiza Cesar Nhoncanse


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants, cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047. A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001 and cesarean delivery (p=0.004 was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001. Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs.

  7. Effects of Second Trimester Maternal Hemoglobin Levels on Birth Weight and Birth Time


    DÜNDAR, Özgür; ÇİFTPINAR, Tolga; TÜTÜNCÜ, Levent; ERGÜR, Ali Rüştü; ATAY, Mehmet Vedat; MÜNGEN, Ercüment; YERGÖK, Yusuf Ziya


    Objectives: The aim of our study is to investigate the effects of anemia at the second trimester on birth weight and birth time. Patients and Methods: The medical reports of 1116 pregnant women who attended and delivered at our clinic between January 2005 and October 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups as having <9 gr/dl hemoglobin or ≥9 gr/dl hemoglobin levels. The gestational and the perinatal outcomes of the normal a...

  8. Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC (United States)

    ... page: Zika-Linked Birth Defects Surge in Colombia: CDC Study ... born with devastating birth defects linked to the Zika virus is no longer confined to Brazil, a ...

  9. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Birth Defects? (United States)

    ... main types of prenatal tests for birth defects. Amniocentesis 1 Amniocentesis (pronounced am-nee-oh-sen-TEE-sis ) is ... Some birth defects that can be detected with amniocentesis are Down syndrome and certain types of muscular ...

  10. Prevalence and Predictors of Antibiotic Administration during Pregnancy and Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jakob; Schjørring, Susanne; Pedersen, Louise


    Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy and birth is very common. In this study, we describe the estimated prevalence of antibiotic administration during pregnancy and birth in the COPSAC2010 pregnancy cohort, and analyze dependence on social and lifestyle-related factors....

  11. Training traditional birth attendants to use misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat in home births. (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Passano, Paige; Bell, Suzanne; Bohl, Daniel D; Hossain, Shahed; Azmi, Ashrafi Jahan; Begum, Mohsina


    A 50-fold disparity in maternal mortality exists between high- and low-income countries, and in most contexts, the single most common cause of maternal death is postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). In Bangladesh, as in many other low-income countries, the majority of deliveries are conducted at home by traditional birth attendants (TBAs) or family members. In the absence of skilled birth attendants, training TBAs in the use of misoprostol and an absorbent delivery mat to measure postpartum blood loss may strengthen the ability of TBAs to manage PPH. These complementary interventions were tested in operations research among 77,337 home births in rural Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to evaluate TBAs' knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, and changes in attitudes and practices related to PPH management in home births after undergoing training on the use of misoprostol and the blood collection delivery mat. We conclude that the training was highly effective and that the two interventions were safely and correctly used by TBAs at home births. Data on TBA practices indicate adherence to protocol, and 18 months after the interventions were implemented, TBA knowledge retention remained high. This program strengthens the case for community-based use of misoprostol and warrants consideration of this intervention as a potential model for scale-up in settings where complete coverage of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) remains a distant goal.

  12. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah


    BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... genetic effects directly linked with maternal illness, lifestyle factors (diet, smoking, alcohol and drugs), poor antenatal care, psychotropic medication toxicity, and gene-environment interactions. Further research is needed to elucidate the causal mechanisms......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...

  13. The influence of rearing order on personality development within two adoption cohorts. (United States)

    Beer, J M; Horn, J M


    There is an extensive literature on the relationship between birth order and psychological traits, but no previous study has investigated the influence of ordinal position on personality development within adoptive siblings. Such a design is important because it effectively separates the effects of biological birth order and rearing order. Here we report data from two adoption cohorts in which subjects were biological first-borns reared in various ordinal positions. Data were analyzed with reference to Sulloway's (1996) evolutionarily based sibling rivalry theory of birth order effects. Between- and within-family analyses indicated that rearing order's influence on personality was very weak. The only clear difference was for conscientiousness, on which first-reared siblings scored higher. We draw possible implications for Sulloway's theory and speculate upon an alternative, prenatal biological process that may produce birth order differences.

  14. Emergency contraception – a neglected option for birth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka R. Gunardi


    Full Text Available Emergency contraception (EC is any method of contraception which is used after intercourse and before the potential time of implantation, in order to prevent pregnancy after an unprotected or inadequately protected sexual intercourse, or cases of rape. Use of emergency contraception could halve the number of unintended pregnancies and the consequent need for abortion, but unfortunately many medical professionals and the public are not aware of it. Two methods are available for emergency contraception, namely emergency contraception pills (ECPs and copper-bearing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs. There are two regimens of ECP, the levonorgestrel regimen and combined regimen. The levonorgestrel regimen is preferred as it is more effective and causes less side effects. ECPs should be administered as soon as possible after unprotected or inadequately protected sex, being most effective if initiated within 24 hours. Cu-IUDs can be inserted up to 5 days after unprotected sexual intercourse. Emergency contraception mainly works by preventing fertilization, and does not interrupt and established pregnancy. Emergency contraception is very safe, therefore can be offered to women who have had unprotected intercourse and wish to prevent pregnancy. It must only be used as a backup method of birth control. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:248-52. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i4.609Keywords: Birth control, copper-IUD, emergency contraception, emergency contraceptive pills, levonorgestrel

  15. Radiodiagnosis of pelvic birth injuries and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konycheva, E.A.; Loskutova, L.A. (Bashkirskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR))

    A study was made of the changes in the pelvic articulations in women with birth injuries 2-5 years following birth on the basis of the clinicoroentgenological findings. Pathological adhesion of birth injuries of the pelvic bones, that manifested itself in the formation of callus and arthrosis of the public and sacroiliac articulations, was noted. The study confirmed incomplete rehabilitation in this group of women. For prognosis of subsequent parturition roentgenopelvimetry is recommended for women with birth injuries of the pelvic girdle.

  16. Beating Birth Defects (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Each year in the U.S., one in 33 babies is affected by a major birth defect. Women can greatly improve their chances of giving birth to a healthy baby by avoiding some of the risk factors for birth defects before and during pregnancy. In this podcast, Dr. Stuart Shapira discusses ways to improve the chances of giving birth to a healthy baby.  Created: 1/17/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/17/2013.

  17. Planned Home Births in Iceland: Premise, Outcome, and Influential Factors


    Berglind Hálfdánsdóttir 1973


    Background: Hospitalization of childbirth in Iceland in the 20th century reduced home birth rates to less than 0.1% in 1990. Icelandic home birth rates have risen rapidly in the new millennium and were 2.2% in 2014. Recent studies in other Western countries have consistently shown lower rates of interventions and maternal morbidity in planned home births than in planned hospital births, while neonatal outcomes are dissimilar in different countries. These study results have been met with scept...

  18. Effect of maternal nutritional status on the birth weight among women of tea tribe in Dibrugarh district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogoi Gourangie


    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the influence of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight? Objective: To assess the effect of maternal nutritional status during pregnancy on the birth weight of the baby among tea tribe women in Dibrugarh district. Study Design: Field-based cohort study. Setting: Five tea estates in Dibrugarh District, Assam. Period of Study: One year (April 1998 to April 1999. Participants: A cohort of non-pregnant currently married tea garden women of reproductive age group (15-44 years from similar socio-economic background. Materials and Methods: Oral questionnaire for age, family structure, obstetric history, annual income, and period of gestation. Anthropometric measurements of weight and height were recorded using bathroom scales and the anthropometric rod. Measurements of weight were repeated during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Birth weight of the baby was recorded at delivery, irrespective of the period of gestation and mode of delivery. Statistical Analysis: Correlation co-efficient, standard deviation, and regression analysis. Results and Conclusions: Of all, 88% mothers had pre-pregnant weight of < 45 kg, and 61% babies had birth weight < 2500 gm. Subjects with better pre-pregnant weight had corresponding favorable total weight gain, resulting in better birth weight of the babies. Pre-pregnant weight had direct positive linear relationship with the birth weight. There is a need to improve the nutritional status of the adolescent girl in order to build up her pre-pregnant weight for a favorable birth weight.

  19. Extension of the preceding birth technique. (United States)

    Aguirre, A


    The Brass-inspired Preceding Birth Technique (PBT), is an indirect estimation technique with low costs of administration. PBT involves asking women at a time close to delivery about the survival of the preceding births. The proportion dead is close to the probability of dying between the birth and the second birthday or an index of early childhood mortality (II or Q). Brass and Macrae have determined that II is an estimate of mortality between birth and an age lower than the birth interval or around 4/5 of the birth interval. Hospital and clinic data are likely to include a concentration of women with lower risks of disease because of higher educational levels and socioeconomic status. A simulation of PBT data from the World Fertility Survey for Mexico and Peru found that the proportions of previously dead children were 0.156 in Peru and 0.092 in Mexican home deliveries. Maternity clinic proportions were 0.088 in Peru and 0.066 in Mexico. Use of clinic and hospital data collection underestimated mortality by 32% in Peru and 15% in Mexico. Another alternative was proposed: interviewing women at some other time than delivery. If the interview was during a child/infant intervention after delivery, the subsample would still be subject to a bias, but this problem could be overcome by computing the weighted average of the actual probability of the older child being dead and the conditional probability of the younger child being dead or both younger and older children being dead. Correction factors could be applied using the general standard of the logit life table system of Brass. Calculation of a simple average of the ages of the younger children could provide enough information to help decide which tables to use. Five surveys were selected for testing the factors of dependence between probabilities of death of successive siblings: Bangladesh, Lesotho, Kenya, Ghana, and Guyana. Higher mortality was related to lower dependency factors between the probabilities of death

  20. Higher-Order Fertility among Urban Fathers: An Overlooked Issue for a Neglected Population (United States)

    Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Manlove, Jennifer; Lilja, Emily


    The study includes a longitudinal sample of 1,989 fathers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and examines factors associated with fathering a higher-order birth (three or more children) and compares these factors to those predicting any subsequent birth. Also, the article examines differences by marital status. Logistic regression…

  1. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth... condition. Note, too, that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either...

  2. Formative Evaluation of a University Birth Control Education Program. (United States)

    Huettman, Julie K. Doidge; Sarvela, Paul D.


    A university birth control education program was created to improve student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Students attended a birth control class before visiting the health clinic for prescriptions. Pre- and posttest questionnaires and clinician assessments indicated knowledge of birth control improved significantly, and students became…

  3. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management (United States)

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest


    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  4. Maternal occupation during pregnancy, birth weight, and length of gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Martínez, David


    OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether maternal employment during pregnancy - overall and in selected occupational sectors - is associated with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), term low birth weight (LBW), length of gestation, and preterm delivery in a population-based birth cohort design....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Kumar


    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  6. Cluster analysis of spontaneous preterm birth phenotypes identifies potential associations among preterm birth mechanisms (United States)

    Esplin, M Sean; Manuck, Tracy A.; Varner, Michael W.; Christensen, Bryce; Biggio, Joseph; Bukowski, Radek; Parry, Samuel; Zhang, Heping; Huang, Hao; Andrews, William; Saade, George; Sadovsky, Yoel; Reddy, Uma M.; Ilekis, John


    Objective We sought to employ an innovative tool based on common biological pathways to identify specific phenotypes among women with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB), in order to enhance investigators' ability to identify to highlight common mechanisms and underlying genetic factors responsible for SPTB. Study Design A secondary analysis of a prospective case-control multicenter study of SPTB. All cases delivered a preterm singleton at SPTB ≤34.0 weeks gestation. Each woman was assessed for the presence of underlying SPTB etiologies. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify groups of women with homogeneous phenotypic profiles. One of the phenotypic clusters was selected for candidate gene association analysis using VEGAS software. Results 1028 women with SPTB were assigned phenotypes. Hierarchical clustering of the phenotypes revealed five major clusters. Cluster 1 (N=445) was characterized by maternal stress, cluster 2 (N=294) by premature membrane rupture, cluster 3 (N=120) by familial factors, and cluster 4 (N=63) by maternal comorbidities. Cluster 5 (N=106) was multifactorial, characterized by infection (INF), decidual hemorrhage (DH) and placental dysfunction (PD). These three phenotypes were highly correlated by Chi-square analysis [PD and DH (p<2.2e-6); PD and INF (p=6.2e-10); INF and DH (p=0.0036)]. Gene-based testing identified the INS (insulin) gene as significantly associated with cluster 3 of SPTB. Conclusion We identified 5 major clusters of SPTB based on a phenotype tool and hierarchal clustering. There was significant correlation between several of the phenotypes. The INS gene was associated with familial factors underlying SPTB. PMID:26070700

  7. Helping mothers survive bleeding after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelissen, Ellen; Ersdal, Hege; Ostergaard, Doris


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants, and ambul......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate "Helping Mothers Survive Bleeding After Birth" (HMS BAB) simulation-based training in a low-resource setting. DESIGN: Educational intervention study. SETTING: Rural referral hospital in Northern Tanzania. POPULATION: Clinicians, nurse-midwives, medical attendants...... and feasible, although more time should be allocated for training, and teaching materials should be translated into the local language. Knowledge, skills, and confidence of learners increased significantly immediately after training. However, overall pass rates for skills tests of learners after training were...

  8. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália de Lima Pereira Coelho


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1 prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver, which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2 traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3 Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg, which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4 snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix, which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04 in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight.

  9. Remembering Coyolxauhqui as a Birthing Text


    Luna, Jennie; Galeana, Martha


    This article examines several interpretations of the stone image of Coyolxauhqui: 1) the Early Academic interpretation established by anthropologists; 2) the Xicana Feminist interpretation; and 3) a Partera/Midwife perspective which re-envisions Coyolxauhqui as a birthing diagram or guide for women in labor. Historically, Coyolxauhqui has been referred to as the “dis-membered woman” and used as evidence of the victimization of women in Mesoameri- can society. This article challenges t...

  10. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev


    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  11. Refractive status at birth: its relation to newborn physical parameters at birth and gestational age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Mathew Varghese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Refractive status at birth is related to gestational age. Preterm babies have myopia which decreases as gestational age increases and term babies are known to be hypermetropic. This study looked at the correlation of refractive status with birth weight in term and preterm babies, and with physical indicators of intra-uterine growth such as the head circumference and length of the baby at birth. METHODS: All babies delivered at St. Stephens Hospital and admitted in the nursery were eligible for the study. Refraction was performed within the first week of life. 0.8% tropicamide with 0.5% phenylephrine was used to achieve cycloplegia and paralysis of accommodation. 599 newborn babies participated in the study. Data pertaining to the right eye is utilized for all the analyses except that for anisometropia where the two eyes were compared. Growth parameters were measured soon after birth. Simple linear regression analysis was performed to see the association of refractive status, (mean spherical equivalent (MSE, astigmatism and anisometropia with each of the study variables, namely gestation, length, weight and head circumference. Subsequently, multiple linear regression was carried out to identify the independent predictors for each of the outcome parameters. RESULTS: Simple linear regression showed a significant relation between all 4 study variables and refractive error but in multiple regression only gestational age and weight were related to refractive error. The partial correlation of weight with MSE adjusted for gestation was 0.28 and that of gestation with MSE adjusted for weight was 0.10. Birth weight had a higher correlation to MSE than gestational age. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to look at refractive error against all these growth parameters, in preterm and term babies at birth. It would appear from this study that birth weight rather than gestation should be used as criteria for screening for refractive error

  12. Offspring preterm birth and birth size are related to long-term risk of maternal diabetes. (United States)

    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Ovesen, Per Glud; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Nilas, Lisbeth


    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between gestational age, birth size, and the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. We conducted a nation-wide prospective follow-up study of the cohort of all Danish women with a singleton delivery in 1982/1983 (index delivery) and no history of diabetes (n = 100,669). Registries were used to extract information on patients with a hospital or outpatient diagnosis of diabetes, subsequent deliveries, and death/emigration in the period from the index delivery until the end of 2006. The association between the maternal risk of diabetes and the index gestational age and index offspring birth size (birth weight adjusted for gestational age) was investigated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified according to young (≤33 years) and old age (>33 years). During a median follow-up period of 24 years, 2,021 women (2.0 %) were diagnosed as having diabetes. The risk of maternal diabetes was positively associated with increasing index birth size and negatively associated with increasing duration of index gestation in both age strata. Among young women, the highest hazard ratios were found for the exposure category of large index offspring birth size (adjusted HR 9.0, 95 % CI 6.17-13.12) and a preterm delivery at 32-37 weeks (adjusted HR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.46-3.40). Offspring preterm birth and large size for gestational age at birth are associated with increased risk of maternal diabetes.

  13. On Variation of Single Birth Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ping Li


    Suppose {X(t); t≥0} is a single birth process with birth rate qii+1 (i≥0) and death rate qij (i >j≥ 0). It is proved in this paper that (i) if there exists a constant c ≥ 0 such that b(i) - a(i) + ci is nondecreasing with respect to i and a(i) + u(i) - ci ≥ 0 (i ≥ 0), then VarX(t) - EX(t)≥-X(0)e-2ct, t ≥ 0,or (ii) if there exists a constant c ≥ 0 such that b(i) - a(i) + ci is non-increasing with respect to i and a(i)+u(i) - ci ≤ 0 (i ≥ 0), then VarX(t) - EX(t)≤-X(0)e-2ct, t ≥ 0.Here b(i) = qii+1, a(0) =0, a(i) =i∑j=1qii-j (i≥1), u(0) =u(1) =0 and u(i)=1/2i∑j=2j(j - 1)qii-j (i ≥ 2).This result covers the results for birth-death processes obtained in [7].

  14. Premature birth: An Enigma for the Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami


    Full Text Available Infants born preterm are at greater risk than infants born at term for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Complications include acute respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunologic, central nervous system, hearing, and vision problems, as well as longer-term motor, cognitive, visual, hearing, behavioral, social-emotional, health, and growth problems. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. The greatest risk of mortality and morbidity is for those infants born at the earliest gestational ages. However, those infants born nearer to term represent the greatest number of infants born preterm and also experience more complications than infants born at term. Preterm birth is a complex cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposures, medical conditions, infertility treatments, biological factors and genetics. Many of these factors occur in combination, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The empirical investigation was carried out to draw correlation between preterm birth and eventuality. This paper deals with various issues related to the premature deliveries from socio-biological perspectives.

  15. Impact of Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Interventions on Birth with a Skilled Attendant : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miltenburg, Andrea Solnes; Roggeveen, Yadira; Shields, Laura; van Elteren, Marianne; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Portela, Anayda


    Background Increased preparedness for birth and complications is an essential part of antenatal care and has the potential to increase birth with a skilled attendant. We conducted a systematic review of studies to assess the effect of birth preparedness and complication readiness interventions on in

  16. A comparison of labour and birth experiences of women delivering in a birthing centre and at home in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borquez, H.A.; Wiegers, T.A.


    OBJECTIVE: to compare the labour and birth experiences of women who delivered at home without complications with the experiences of women who delivered in a birth centre without complications. DESIGN: a descriptive study using postal questionnaires at 1-6 months after birth of a consecutive sample o

  17. ["I swear on Apollus Medicus...": the birth of medical deontology]. (United States)

    Ceccobelli, Sandro


    In the Oath, Hippocrates does not cite Dionisus at all. In Greek mythology, Apollus and Dionisus are, in some way, absolutely conflicting gods, nonetheless complementary each to the other; both are devoted to healing practices, one through his téchne founded on scientific knowledge, the other throught collective cathartic processes. The author conjectures that the exclusion of Dionisus from the medical Hippocratic scene means the birth of a medical deontology founded on the contrast between profecy and extasis, knowledge and happiness, order and change, health and disease. Balancing these cultural different aspects of therapy and cure, Bioethics could reunify the concepts of health, sickness and disease in the idea of Life, continuosly changing and developing. The curing process needs synthesis--invoking Apollus to rescover Dionisus mask.

  18. Transition to skilled birth attendance: is there a future role for trained traditional birth attendants? (United States)

    Sibley, Lynn M; Sipe, Theresa Ann


    A brief history of training of traditional birth attendants (TBAs), summary of evidence for effectiveness of TBA training, and consideration of the future role of trained TBAs in an environment that emphasizes transition to skilled birth attendance are provided. Evidence of the effectiveness of TBA training, based on 60 studies and standard meta-analytic procedures, includes moderate-to-large improvements in behaviours of TBAs relating to selected intrapartum and postnatal care practices, small significant increases in women's use of antenatal care and emergency obstetric care, and small significant decreases in perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality due to birth asphyxia and pneumonia. Such findings are consistent with the historical focus of TBA training on extending the reach of primary healthcare and a few programmes that have included home-based management of complications of births and the newborns, such as birth asphyxia and pneumonia. Evidence suggests that, in settings characterized by high mortality and weak health systems, trained TBAs can contribute to the Millennium Development Goal 4--a two-thirds reduction in the rate of mortality of children aged less than 14 years by 2015--through participation in key evidence-based interventions.

  19. Delivery practices of traditional birth attendants in Dhaka slums, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Fronczak, N; Arifeen, S E; Moran, A C; Caulfield, L E; Baqui, A H


    This paper describes associations among delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, and early postpartum morbidity in women in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During November 1993-May 1995, data on delivery-location, training of birth attendants, birthing practices, delivery-related complications, and postpartum morbidity were collected through interviews with 1,506 women, 489 home-based birth attendants, and audits in 20 facilities where the women from this study gave birth. Associations among maternal characteristics, birth practices, delivery-location, and early postpartum morbidity were specifically explored. Self-reported postpartum morbidity was associated with maternal characteristics, delivery-related complications, and some birthing practices. Dais with more experience were more likely to use potentially-harmful birthing practices which increased the risk of postpartum morbidity among women with births at home. Postpartum morbidity did not differ by birth-location. Safe motherhood programmes must develop effective strategies to discourage potentially-harmful home-based delivery practices demonstrated to contribute to morbidity.

  20. Spatiotemporal Property Analysis of Birth Defects in Wuxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To describe the temporal trends and spatial patterns of birth defects occurring in Wuxi, a developed region of China. Methods Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the temporal trends of birth defect prevalence based on the birth defect rates over the past 16 years. Birth defect cases with detailed personal and family information were geo-coded and the relative risk in each village was calculated. General G statistic was used to test the spatial property with different scales. Results Wavelet analysis showed an increasing temporal trend of birth defects in this region. Clustering analysis revealed that changes continued in the spatial patterns with different scales. Conclusion Wuxi is confronted with severe challenges to reduce birth defect prevalence. The risk factors are stable and show no change with spatial scale but an increasing temporal trend. Interventions should be focused on villages with a higher prevalence of birth defects.

  1. The BirthPlace collaborative practice model: results from the San Diego Birth Center Study. (United States)

    Swartz; Jackson; Lang; Ecker; Ganiats; Dickinson; Nguyen


    Objective: The search for quality, cost-effective health care programs in the United States is now a major focus in the era of health care reform. New programs need to be evaluated as alternatives are developed in the health care system. The BirthPlace program provides comprehensive perinatal services with certified nurse-midwives and obstetricians working together in an integrated collaborative practice serving a primarily low-income population. Low-risk women are delivered by nurse-midwives in a freestanding birth center (The BirthPlace), which is one component of a larger integrated health network. All others are delivered by team obstetricians at the affiliated tertiary hospital. Wellness, preventive measures, early intervention, and family involvement are emphasized. The San Diego Birth Center Study is a 4-year research project funded by the U.S. Federal Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (#R01-HS07161) to evaluate this program. The National Birth Center Study (NEJM, 1989; 321(26): 1801-11) described the advantages and safety of freestanding birth centers. However, a prospective cohort study with a concurrent comparison group of comparable risk had not been conducted on a collaborative practice-freestanding birth center model to address questions of safety, cost, and patient satisfaction.Methods: The specific aims of this study are to compare this collaborative practice model to the traditional model of perinatal health care (physician providers and hospital delivery). A prospective cohort study comparing these two health care models was conducted with a final expected sample size of approximately 2,000 birth center and 1,350 traditional care subjects. Women were recruited from both the birth center and traditional care programs (private physicians offices and hospital based clinics) at the beginning of prenatal care and followed through the end of the perinatal period. Prenatal, intrapartum, postpartum and infant morbidity and mortality are being

  2. Offspring preterm birth and birth size are related to long-term risk of maternal diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Ovesen, Per Glud;


    of diabetes (n = 100,669). Registries were used to extract information on patients with a hospital or outpatient diagnosis of diabetes, subsequent deliveries, and death/emigration in the period from the index delivery until the end of 2006. The association between the maternal risk of diabetes and the index...... gestational age and index offspring birth size (birth weight adjusted for gestational age) was investigated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified according to young (≤33 years) and old age (>33 years). During a median follow-up period of 24 years, 2,021 women (2.0 %) were diagnosed...... as having diabetes. The risk of maternal diabetes was positively associated with increasing index birth size and negatively associated with increasing duration of index gestation in both age strata. Among young women, the highest hazard ratios were found for the exposure category of large index offspring...

  3. Trends of preterm birth and low birth weight in Japan: a one hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorifuji Takashi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportions of preterm birth (PTB, ie., delivered before 37 gestational weeks and low birth weight (LBW, ie., birth weight less than 2500 g at delivery have been rising in developed countries. We sought to examine the factors contributing to the rise in Japan, with particular focus on the effects of obstetric interventions. Methods We used a database maintained by one large regional hospital in Shizuoka, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers who delivered live singleton births from 1997 to 2010 (n = 19,221. We assessed the temporal trends in PTB and LBW, then divided the study period into four intervals and compared the proportions of PTB and LBW. We also compared the newborns’ outcomes between the intervals. Results PTB, in particular medically indicated PTB, increased considerably. The increase was largely explained by changes in caesarean sections. The neonatal outcomes did not worsen, and instead the Apgar scores and proportions requiring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission improved. In particular, the risks of NICU admission in the interval from 2007 to 2010 were decreased among all births [odds ratio (OR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.75, 0.95] and medically indicated births (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68 compared with the interval from 1997 to 2000. Conclusions Despite the increases in PTB as well as LBW, the present study suggests benefits of obstetric interventions. Rather than simple categorization of PTB or LBW, indicators such as perinatal mortality or other outcomes may be more appropriate for evaluation of perinatal health in developed countries.

  4. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna


    BACKGROUND: Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. OBJECTIVES: We assessed associations between multiple correlated....... These results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. CITATION: Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP, Heederik D, Rylander L, Vermeulen R. 2016. Prenatal phthalate, perfluoroalkyl acid, and organochlorine exposures and term birth weight in three birth cohorts...

  5. [Does shift work cause spontaneous abortion, preterm birth or low birth weight?]. (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Viskum, Sven; Omland, Øyvind; Bonde, Jens Peter


    In Denmark 30% of females in the reproductive age regularly have shift work. 22 epidemiological papers were studied looking at associations between shift work and abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth weight. No convincing associations were observed between rotating shift work or fixed nightshift and negative pregnancy outcome. Some epidemiological support was found for a relation between fixed nightshift and late abortions/stillbirth. If fixed night work for all pregnant women is avoided, seven late abortion/stillbirths a year can be prevented. Fixed night work for pregnant women should be avoided.

  6. [Risk factors for low birth weight]. (United States)

    Bortman, M


    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  7. Phenomenon of insufficient birth and educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana


    Full Text Available The most important problem of demographic development of Serbia is the fact that individual strivings, aspirations and responses accompanying the process of giving birth to children are not rational from the aspect of the needs of the society. Reproductive norms are low. The society did not even try, via its institutions, to exert influence on the formation of attitude about the desired number of children, or to largely alleviate a number of obstacles to their realization. Facing the consequences of reproductive behavior is a reality and definitely follows in the upcoming time as well. Is there a space for action undertaken by educational system as a part of political response with the aim of rehabilitation of giving birth? It seems that this space exists and that at least two measures impose themselves in that sense. Reduction of individual age at the end of school and population education. Postponing giving birth for later and later age is a very important cause of a very low fertility level in Serbia today. The reform of educational system might influence an earlier entering of parenthood by reducing the individual age at the end of schooling. Population education is imposed as a new direction of population policy, bearing in mind that an individual does not have enough specific knowledge. More or less, the relation between individual behavior and macro-processes is not perceived, the consequences of unsatisfactory population tendencies, slow pace of demographic changes and their postponed effect are not recognized, one does not think about the preservation of national identity, culture and duration.

  8. Season of birth and handedness in Serbian high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although behavioural dominance of the right hand in humans is likely to be under genetic control, departures from this population norm, i.e. left- or non-right-handedness, are believed to be influenced by environmental factors. Among many such environmental factors including, for example, low birth weight, testosterone level, and maternal age at birth, season of birth has occasionally been investigated. The overall empirical evidence for the season of birth effect is mixed. Methods We have investigated the effect of season of birth in an epidemiologically robust sample of randomly selected young people (n = 977, all born in the same year. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov type statistical test was used to determine season of birth. Results Neither the right-handed nor the non-right-handed groups demonstrated birth asymmetry relative to the normal population birth distribution. There was no between-group difference in the seasonal distribution of birth when comparing the right-handed to the non-right-handed groups. Conclusion The present study failed to provide support for a season of birth effect on atypical lateralisation of handedness in humans.

  9. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births. (United States)

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon


    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth.

  10. Cervical mucus properties stratify risk for preterm birth.

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    Agatha S Critchfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascending infection from the colonized vagina to the normally sterile intrauterine cavity is a well-documented cause of preterm birth. The primary physical barrier to microbial ascension is the cervical canal, which is filled with a dense and protective mucus plug. Despite its central role in separating the vaginal from the intrauterine tract, the barrier properties of cervical mucus have not been studied in preterm birth. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To study the protective function of the cervical mucus in preterm birth we performed a pilot case-control study to measure the viscoelasticity and permeability properties of mucus obtained from pregnant women at high-risk and low-risk for preterm birth. Using extensional and shear rheology we found that cervical mucus from women at high-risk for preterm birth was more extensible and forms significantly weaker gels compared to cervical mucus from women at low-risk of preterm birth. Moreover, permeability measurements using fluorescent microbeads show that high-risk mucus was more permeable compared with low-risk mucus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that critical biophysical barrier properties of cervical mucus in women at high-risk for preterm birth are compromised compared to women with healthy pregnancy. We hypothesize that impaired barrier properties of cervical mucus could contribute to increased rates of intrauterine infection seen in women with preterm birth. We furthermore suggest that a robust association of spinnbarkeit and preterm birth could be an effectively exploited biomarker for preterm birth prediction.

  11. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth. (United States)

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E


    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers.

  12. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak


    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  13. Positively essential: traditional birth attendants in Malawi. (United States)

    Stronge, Shirley


    One of the biggest challenges for healthcare professionals working in developing countries is the lack of trained personnel to carry out much needed health care provision. Shirley Stronge worked as a nurse/midwife tutor in a rural area in the north of Malawi. Millennium Development Goals four and five have focused our attention on the care required by mothers and newborns. Shirley has chosen to reflect on the role of Traditional Birth Attendants in the north of Malawi and their positive impact on maternity services in this area.

  14. An instability in neutron stars at birth (United States)

    Burrows, Adam; Fryxell, Bruce A.


    Calculations with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation show that a generic Raleigh-Taylor-like instability occurs in the mantles of nascent neutron stars, that it is possibly violent, and that the standard spherically symmetric models of neutron star birth and supernova explosion may be inadequate. Whether this 'convective' instability is pivotal to the supernova mechanism, pulsar nagnetic fields, or a host of other important issues that attend stellar collapse remains to be seen, but its existence promises to modify all questions concerning this most energetic of astronomical phenomena.

  15. The birth of the fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Don


    Everyone knows that Thomas Alva Edison invented the light bulb, Alexander Graham Bell the telephone and that the Otto and Diesel engines were invented by two Germans bearing those names. But who invented the fuel cell? Fuel cells generate electricity with virtually zero pollution by combining gaseous fuels and air. There are different types generally described as high temperature or low temperature fuel cells. Here, Don Prohaska delves into a recently published book: The Birth of the Fuel Cell, by a descendant of one of the fathers of the fuel cell, and sheds new light on the early days of this technology. (Author)

  16. Divorce and the birth control pill




    This paper explores the role of the birth control pill on divorce. To identify its effect, we use a quasi experiment exploiting the differences in the language of the Comstock anti-obscenity statutes approved in the 1800s and early 1900s in the US. Results suggest that banning the sales of oral contraceptive methods has a negative impact on divorce. These findings are robust to alternative specifications and controls for observed (such as female labour force participation, or changes in the e...

  17. Second Birth--Biography: Kalashnikov, M. T. (United States)


    ADAO 1 SECOND BIRTH-.- BIOGRAPHY : KALASHNIKOV, M. T. V V Zhukov Army Foreign Science and Technology Center Charlottesville, Virginia DISTRIBUTED BY...I.ajc 6/14/74 0 1 I 1 i1I I IP, 1, Se,,or d birtl!- Biography : Kalashnikov, H~. T. ’d ’I R* oscow, Voycnizdat. 󈨃, 136 pp. Vtoroye,Posndeniye \\N(I xI...Zoya says: symphony and classical without fail. Handel, Bach, Mozart . She even says that when she seeit the admiralty she can hear the sounds of an

  18. Reenacting the birth of an intron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Aspden, Julie L.; Rio, Donald C.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.


    An intron is an extended genomic feature whose function requires multiple constrained positions - donor and acceptor splice sites, a branch point, a polypyrimidine tract and suitable splicing enhancers - that may be distributed over hundreds or thousands of nucleotides. New introns are therefore unlikely to emerge by incremental accumulation of functional sub-elements. Here we demonstrate that a functional intron can be created de novo in a single step by a segmental genomic duplication. This experiment recapitulates in vivo the birth of an intron that arose in the ancestral jawed vertebrate lineage nearly half a billion years ago.

  19. The birth of a multicultural funeral home. (United States)

    van der Pijl, Yvon


    In 2014, the Dutch Funeral Organization Yarden started with the participatory preparations for a multicultural funeral home. The project aims at a 24/7 service for the super-diverse population of Amsterdam and beyond. This article gives an ethnographic account of Yarden's efforts to capture cultural diversity. It explores how a multicultural gaze creates a power/knowledge dynamic producing new discourses and shaping new layers of significance. The study then turns into arguing that the birth of the multicultural home is, above all, a cultural, collaborative search leaving (counter-discursive) space for creativity, change, and cultural renewal of all actors involved.

  20. Birth of a nanoscience building block. (United States)

    Alivisatos, A Paul


    The first Kavli Prize in Nanoscience has recognized two giants of the field, Louis Brus and Sumio Ijima, who have helped to lay the foundation of the field of nanoscience through their efforts to develop two of the most fundamental nanoscience building blocks: colloidal quantum dots and the carbon nanotube. In this Focus, I provide a brief history on the birth of the field of semiconductor nanoparticles, or quantum dots, and outline the contributions that Louis Brus has made in this area, which have served to advance the field of nanoscience in vast and far-reaching ways.

  1. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh


    Introduction Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. Methods The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500–4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother’s Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother’s job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother’s poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. Results The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother’s job style had the most adverse effect (B=−0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother’s level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother’s job style and household income (B=−0.17). Conclusion According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother’s job situation in order to

  2. Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins%Controllable entanglement sudden birth of Heisenberg spins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiang; ZHI Qi-Jun; ZHANG Xiao-Ping; REN Zhong-Zhou


    We investigate the Entanglement Sudden Birth (ESB) of two Heisenberg spins A and B. The third controller, qutrit C is introduced, which only has the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction with qubit B. We find that the DM interaction is necessa

  3. Oxidative stress markers at birth: Analyses of a neonatal population. (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Rizzo, Manfredi; Scaturro, Giusy; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Cappello, Francesco; Corsello, Giovanni; Li Volti, Giovanni


    In order to further understand neonatal stress and, thus, control it efficaciously, there is a need for more information on the manifestations of stress at the molecular level in the newborn, with particular regard to oxidants, and anti-oxidant and anti-stress mechanisms, including mitochondrial heat shock protein-chaperones such as Hsp60. We investigated patterns of anti-oxidants, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and Hsp60 levels in sera from newborns and found significant associations between glutathione (GSH) levels and gestational age, delivery modality, and lipid hydroperoxydes (LOOH) level. LOOH levels and spontaneous (vaginal) delivery were independently associated with increased GSH levels when these were above the median. Hsp60 and LOOH levels were positively correlated whereas Hsp60 and GSH levels were inversely correlated in spontaneously delivered newborns; in contrast, Hsp60 and GSH levels were positively correlated in newborns delivered by cesarea. Our results point to new directions in the search for definite patterns of GSH, LOOH, and Hsp60 in the newborn's serum that might have functional and diagnostic significance and that could help in the monitoring of newborn health during and after delivery. In addition, the data provide a starting basis for investigating the precise roles and interplay of GSH and Hsp60 in the maintenance of an optimal redox balance at birth to cope with the stress inherent to delivery, and also for investigating the predictive value of any given pattern of GSH, LOOH, and Hsp60 at birth with regard to health status and risk of disease in adult life.

  4. [Postpartum birth control: state-of-the-art]. (United States)

    Robin, G; Massart, P; Graizeau, F; Guérin du Masgenet, B


    It takes some six weeks for menstrual flow to come back after delivery, but an ovulation may occur from the twenty-fifth day, especially in the absence of bottle feeding. That is the reason why postpartum birth control must be gets onto in maternity wards. Obstetricians and midwives are supposed to deliver update information about variant contraceptive means. They have to be able to diagnose any risk factor and to prescribe an efficient contraceptive option to every woman who wishes for it, before she leaves the maternity ward. Recent studies incite us to amend our medical behaviour regarding postpartum contraception, even if there is no consensus at present. In a normal context, without any add on risk factor, it is possible to prescribe a birth control pill containing low dosage of combined oral contraceptives. Doing that, you will not expose the patient to an increased risk of deep venous thrombosis nor to significant breastfeeding disruption. Low-dose progestin-only pills are also a good choice because there are no risks during the lactation. When the patient suffers from some disease which stops you from giving combined oral contraceptives, it is still possible to resort to progestin-only. It is now admitted to insert an intra-uterine device from the fourth or sixth week following the delivery. In certain conditions, it can be inserted over the 48 hours following a delivery, some obstetrician would even insert it during the caesarean section. The main purpose of these recent references is to simplify the contraceptive outline in order to ease its prescription and to avoid unwanted pregnancies.

  5. Order aggressiveness and order book dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Anthony D.; Hautsch, Nikolaus


    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders’ order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Applying an order classification scheme, we model the most aggressive market orders, limit orders as well as cancellations on both sides of the market...... employing a six-dimensional autoregressive conditional intensity model. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we find that market depth, the queued volume, the bid-ask spread, recent volatility, as well as recent changes in both the order flow and the price play an important role...... in explaining the determinants of order aggressiveness. Overall, our empirical results broadly confirm theoretical predictions on limit order book trading. However, we also find evidence for behavior that can be attributed to particular liquidity and volatility effects...

  6. Paternity acknowledgment in 2 million birth records from Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Almond

    Full Text Available Out-of-wedlock childbearing is more common in the U.S. than in other countries and becoming more so. A growing share of such non-marital births identify the father, which can create a legal entitlement to child support. Relatively little is known about individual determinants of the decision to establish paternity, in part because of data limitations. In this paper, we evaluate all birth records in Michigan from 1993 to 2006, which have been merged to the paternity registry. In 2006, 30,231 Michigan children, almost one quarter of all Michigan births, were born to unmarried mothers and had paternity acknowledged. We find that births with paternity acknowledged have worse outcomes along various health and socio-economic dimensions relative to births to married parents, but better outcomes relative to births to unmarried parents without paternity acknowledgement. Furthermore, unmarried men who father sons are significantly more likely to acknowledge paternity than fathers of daughters.

  7. Birth dimensions and risk of depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Nordentoft, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo


    BACKGROUND: Two British cohort studies have reported birth weight to be associated with self-reported depression in adulthood, even after adjustment for socio-economic factors. AIMS: To examine the relationship between birth dimensions and discharge from a psychiatric ward with a depression...... of depression. RESULTS: A total of 190 men, corresponding to 1.8% of the cohort, had a discharge diagnosis of depression. The Cox's regression analyses failed to show any association between birth dimensions (birth weight and ponderal index) and risk of psychiatric ward diagnosis of depression in adult life......, before or after adjustment for social indicators at birth. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not support the existence of a relation between birth dimensions and psychiatric ward admission for depression in adult men....

  8. Epigenetic signature of birth weight discordance in adult twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Heijmans, Bastiaan T


    Background: A low birth weight has been extensively related to poor adult health outcomes. Birth weight can be seen as a proxy for environmental conditions during prenatal development. Identical twin pairs discordant for birth weight provide an extraordinary model for investigating the association...... between birth weight and adult life health while controlling for not only genetics but also postnatal rearing environment. We performed an epigenome-wide profiling on blood samples from 150 pairs of adult monozygotic twins discordant for birth weight to look for molecular evidence of epigenetic signatures...... in association with birth weight discordance. Results: Our association analysis revealed no CpG site with genome-wide statistical significance (FDR twin...

  9. Birth weight and systolic blood pressure in adolescence and adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Michael; Byberg, Liisa; Rasmussen, Finn


    The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random-effects m......The authors investigated the shape, sex- and age-dependency, and possible confounding of the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in 197,954 adults from 20 Nordic cohorts (birth years 1910-1987), one of which included 166,249 Swedish male conscripts. Random...... with a birth weight greater than 4 kg, SBP increased with birth weight (p groups (p

  10. Birth order and childhood type 1 diabetes risk: a pooled analysis of 31 observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Stene, Lars C; Joner, Geir;


    of previous studies. METHODS: Relevant studies published before January 2010 were identified from MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE. Authors of studies provided individual patient data or conducted pre-specified analyses. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined odds ratios (ORs), before...

  11. Birth Order Effects on Early Language Development: Do Secondborn Children Learn from Overheard Speech? (United States)

    Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; And Others


    Compared language development of 16 firstborn and 16 secondborn children at 21 months to investigate whether secondborn children benefit from overheard conversations between caregivers and older siblings. Found that secondborn children were more advanced that firstborn in pronoun production, while not differing general language development,…

  12. Intelligence and Birth Order among Children and Adolescents in Psychiatric Care (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, Bruce; Furnham, Adrian; Siefen, Georg


    A sample of around 2,500 adolescents in a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic in the region of Munster, Germany had their intelligence assessed. Family size (total number of siblings within a family) was significantly correlated with intelligence score categories (-0.08 and -0.19 for males and females). First borns and only children displayed…



    NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) has captured a flurry of star birth near the heart of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1808. On the left are two images, one superimposed over the other. The black-and-white picture is a ground-based view of the entire galaxy. The color inset image, taken with the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), provides a close-up view of the galaxy's center, the hotbed of vigorous star formation. The ground-based image shows that the galaxy has an unusual, warped shape. Most spiral galaxies are flat disks, but this one has curls of dust and gas at its outer spiral arms (upper right-hand corner and lower left-hand corner). This peculiar shape is evidence that NGC 1808 may have had a close interaction with another nearby galaxy, NGC 1792, which is not in the picture Such an interaction could have hurled gas towards the nucleus of NGC 1808, triggering the exceptionally high rate of star birth seen in the WFPC2 inset image. The WFPC2 inset picture is a composite of images using colored filters that isolate red and infrared light as well as light from glowing hydrogen. The red and infrared light (seen as yellow) highlight older stars, while hydrogen (seen as blue) reveals areas of star birth. Colors were assigned to this false-color image to emphasize the vigorous star formation taking place around the galaxy's center. NGC 1808 is called a barred spiral galaxy because of the straight lines of star formation on both sides of the bright nucleus. This star formation may have been triggered by the rotation of the bar, or by matter which is streaming along the bar towards the central region (and feeding the star burst). Filaments of dust are being ejected from the core into a faint halo of stars surrounding the galaxy's disk (towards the upper left corner) by massive stars that have exploded as supernovae in the star burst region. The portion of the galaxy seen in this 'wide-field' image is

  14. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth (United States)

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto


    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  15. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F;


    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  16. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunbar, J.B.


    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  17. Ergodicity of Quasi-birth and Death Processes (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Ting HOU; Xiao Hua LI


    Quasi-birth and death processes with block tridiagonal matrices find many applications in various areas. Neuts gave the necessary and sufficient conditions for the ordinary ergodicity and found an expression of the stationary distribution for a class of quasi-birth and death processes. In this paper we obtain the explicit necessary and sufficient conditions for l-ergodicity and geometric ergodicity for the class of quasi-birth and death processes, and prove that they are not strongly ergodic.

  18. Birth weight, breast cancer and the potential mediating hormonal environment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bukowski, Radek


    Previous studies have shown that woman\\'s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother\\'s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer.

  19. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran (United States)

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.


    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…


    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  1. The effect of war on marriage, divorce and birth rates. (United States)

    Lester, D


    The impact of war on marriage, divorce, and birth rates in the United States from 1933 to 1986 is explored. The author concludes that "the involvement of the nation in military activities was accompanied by a decrease in marriage and birth rates but not by any change in divorce rates. Mobilization of the armed forces and demobilization had no discernible impact on divorce, marriage or birth rates."

  2. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuit, Ewoud; Stock, Sarah; Groenwold, Rolf H H;


    Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential b...... benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix) or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death....

  3. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study (United States)

    Nhoncanse, Geiza César; Germano, Carla Maria R.; de Avó, Lucimar Retto da S.; Melo, Débora Gusmão


    Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants), cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant pApgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs. PMID:24676186

  4. Trends in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among birth cohorts of 1926-1970 in Germany. (United States)

    Schulze, A; Mons, U


    This study examines temporal differences in cigarette smoking initiation and cessation among male and female birth cohorts of 1926-1970 born in Germany. Based on the German Federal Health Survey 1998 the sample is divided into a series of 5-year sex-birth cohorts, beginning with those born between 1926 and 1930 and extending to those born between 1966 and 1970. The final data file consists of a sample of 5110 people. Ever-smoking prevalence among men varies from 60 to 70% between the birth cohorts, while in women born 1926-1930 ever-smoking increases from 20 to about 50% in those born 1966-1970. A reduction of the median age at starting smoking also takes place between the cohorts. With 8.5 years this decrease is more incisive among women, compared with a drop of 2 years among men. Regarding cessation patterns the analysis shows a shift towards a shorter duration of smoking with succeeding birth cohorts, again this shift is more incisive in women. But even in the youngest cohort still more than 50% of ever-smokers smoke regularly for more than 25 years. In Germany tobacco-control activities are required in order to take antismoking actions that especially prevent youth from starting to smoke and that support smokers in quitting.

  5. [Factors related to perineal trauma in normal births in nulliparous]. (United States)

    Scarabotto, Leila Barreto; Riesco, Maria Luiza Gonzalez


    Many studies have been undertaken with the purpose of contributing towards the prevention of perineal trauma in normal birth. The objective of this study was to relate height of the perineum, duration of the second stage of labor, variation of the position of the head detaching, kind of effort, presence of the umbilical cord around the babies' neck, birth weight and vulva's ardor to urinate with the occurrence of perineal laceration. The study was undertaken in 2003 at the Normal Birth Center of the Amparo Maternal, with a sample consisting of 67 women in labor without previous vaginal births. The results demonstrated that there were no significant statistical differences between the variables verified.

  6. Seasonality of births: stability and change in a developing country. (United States)

    Holland, B


    A marked seasonality of births for the two main ethnic groups of peninsular Malaysia, far exceeding the cyclic fluctuations in births in the United States and Canada, was reported for the 1960s. A 36% excess of births over the average monthly number was observed among Malays each January. Among the ethnic Chinese in Malaysia a regular periodicity in the numbers of births was also found, but it was far less marked and the peak occurred in October or November. The peaks in both groups were due in large measure to conceptions that correlate with religious observances or holidays. Here I report on cyclic birth patterns in peninsular Malaysia for the period 1970-1985. Rapid economic development has occurred during this time and has brought with it demographic changes, such as a massive rise in contraceptive use and a decline in birth rates. These demographic changes have been accompanied by the loss of the pronounced seasonal pattern of births among the Malays. The seasonality of Malay births is now of roughly the same magnitude as the seasonality in the United States and Canada, whereas seasonality of births among the Chinese in Malaysia remains essentially unchanged.

  7. Narratives of traumatic birth: Quality and changes over time. (United States)

    Ayers, Susan; Radoš, Sandra Nakić; Balouch, Sara


    Childbirth is a highly emotive event that can involve complications. Around 1% of births in the United Kingdom involve life-threatening complications to the mother (Waterstone, Bewley, & Wolfe, 2001) and 0.8% result in stillbirth or perinatal death (Confidential Enquiry into Maternal and Child Health [CEMACH], 2009). A review found that 3.1% of women report posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after birth (Grekin & O'Hara, 2014). The aim of this study was to examine whether narrative characteristics of traumatic birth were specific to women with PTSD or observed in all women who experience a highly emotive and potentially traumatic birth. Parturient women were matched for birth events, but either had severe PTSD symptoms (n = 22) or no, or very low, PTSD symptoms (n = 22). Women were interviewed about the birth 3 and 6 months postpartum, and their birth narratives were examined for content, coherence, and cognitive and perceptual processing. Results showed birth narratives became shorter and more coherent over time. Consistent with PTSD literature, birth memories were more likely to be recalled and involuntarily triggered in women with PTSD symptoms. However, women with PTSD symptoms had more coherent narratives, used more causal and fewer tentative words. These latter findings are inconsistent with research finding that PTSD is associated with fragmented or incoherent memories but are consistent with the view that highly emotive events result in improved memory (e.g., Berntsen, Willert, & Rubin, 2003). Possible reasons for this are discussed.

  8. Birth tourism: socio-demographic and statistical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to research birth tourism issue. The article gives the socio-demographic and statistical aspects of research problems of birth inbound tourism in the Russian Federation. Following the literature analysis, the degree of study for birth tourism lags behind its actual size. Currently, the media has accumulated a significant amount of information on birth tourism in Russia, that requires processing, systematization and understanding that can and should become an independent area of study of sociologists and demographers to develop recommendations for the management of socio-demographic processes in birth tourism in our country. It is necessary to identify the problems that will inevitably arise. At present, this process is almost not regulated.These problems are complex, it requires the joint efforts of sociologists and demographers. However, it is impossible to obtain reliable results and to develop management decisions without attention to the statistical aspect of this problem. It is necessary to create methodological support for collecting and information processing and model development of the birth tourism. At the initial stage it is necessary to identify the direction and objectives of the analysis to determine the factors in the development of this process, to develop a hierarchical system of statistical indicators, to receive the information, needed for calculating of specific indicators.The complex research of the birth tourism issues should be based on the methodology of sociology, demography and statistics, including statistical observation, interviews with residents, structure analysis and birth tourism concentration in the country, the analysis of the dynamics, classification of factors and reasons, the grouping of regions for the development of the studied processes and, of course, the development of economic-statistical indicators.The article reveals the problem of the significant influence of the

  9. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth. (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C


    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  10. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin


    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  11. Low Birth Rate and Women’s Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    CHINA has achieved remarkable results in birth control since adopting a basic state policy of family planning to control the birth rate and increase the population quality. According to the "1997 Statistic Bulletin for National Economy and Social Development," a document recently issued by the State Statistics Bureau, China maintained a low birth rate of 16.57 per thousand in 1997—a natural population growth of one percent. Women of child-bearing age now average about two births each, a decrease from six in 1970.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU


    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to assess the effect of the birth month on some meat production characters such as live weight at the age of 180 days, live weight at the age of 365 days and daily gain during the fattening period in progeny testing for bulls' breeding value estimation in order to correct the biases determined by this environmental factor. In this purpose, the following linear mathematical model was used: xij=m . ai . eij, where xij - the live record of the "j" steer in the month "i" (i=1,2,....12, m- geometrical average of the meat production characters taken into account, ai- the multiplicative effect of the birth month "i" and eij – the residual multiplicative effect. A number of 1,705 half-brothers belonging to 105 Friesian bulls from Romania was included in this progeny testing. In order to eliminate the biases âi, adequate multiplicative adjusting factors were calculated as 1/âi.. The conclusion was that the effects of birth month on the meat production in terms of live weight at the age of 180 days, live weight at the age of 365 days and daily gain during the fattening period should not be ignored, on the contrary, they should be eliminated by correcting the real data using corresponding adjusting factors. Therefore, adjusting factors are justifed to be used in order to improve the accuracy of the bulls' breeding value estimation for meat production.

  13. Systems Biology and Birth Defects Prevention: Blockade of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Prevents Arsenic-Induced Birth Defects


    Ahir, Bhavesh K.; Sanders, Alison P.; Julia E. Rager; Fry, Rebecca C.


    Background: The biological mechanisms by which environmental metals are associated with birth defects are largely unknown. Systems biology–based approaches may help to identify key pathways that mediate metal-induced birth defects as well as potential targets for prevention. Objectives: First, we applied a novel computational approach to identify a prioritized biological pathway that associates metals with birth defects. Second, in a laboratory setting, we sought to determine whether inhibiti...

  14. Life-Course Relationship between Socioeconomic Circumstances and Timing of First Birth in a Birth Cohort (United States)

    van Roode, Thea; Sharples, Katrina; Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte


    Objectives This study examines the influence of socioeconomic circumstances in childhood (childhood SES) and adulthood (adult SES) on timing of first birth by age 37. Methods A longitudinal study of a 1972–1973 New Zealand birth cohort collected information on socioeconomic characteristics from age 3–32 and reproductive histories at 21, 26, 32 and 38; information on first birth was available from 978 of the original 1037. Relative Risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated using Poisson regression to examine first live birth prior to age 21, from 21–25, from 26–31, and from 32–37, by socioeconomic characteristics at different ages. Results Overall, 68.5% of men had fathered a child and 75.9% of women had given birth, by age 37; with overall differences in parenthood to age 31 for men, and 37 for women evident by childhood SES. While parenthood by age 20 was strongly associated with lower childhood SES for both sexes, first entry into motherhood from 32–37 was more likely with higher adult SES at age 32 (RR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0 for medium and RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1–3.3 for high compared with low). Education also differientated age at parenthood, with those with higher education more likely to defer fatherhood past age 31, and motherhood past age 25 followed by a period of increased likelihood of motherhood for women with higher levels of education from age 32–37 (RR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.87–2.2 and RR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6 for medium and high respectively compared with low). Conclusions SES varies across the lifecourse, and SES at the time has the strongest association with first births at that time. Low childhood SES drives adolescent parenthood, with resulting cumulative differences in parenthood past age 30. Those with more education and higher adult SES are deferring parenthood but attempt to catch up in the mid to late thirties. PMID:28085935

  15. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal

  16. Risk Factors for Birth Defects:A Conditional Logistic Regression Analysis of a Case-Control Study in Guang-dong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志瑾; 穆荔


    In order to study risk factors and their association with birth defects,data were collected from 329 cases and 329 controls in 38 hospitals in Guangdong Province of China in 1988.Information was obtained from the same questionnaire(23 risk factors listed)of cases and controls.We used a multivariate logistic model,which described variables significantly increased risk of birth defects.The risk factors included maternal educa-tional levels,medicine taken during pregnancy and antenatal care.It was suggested to strengthen antenatal care was the main preventive measure against birth defects.

  17. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  18. Birth outcomes of women with celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Fonager, Kirsten; Sørensen, Henrik Toft


    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine birthweight, low birthweight (celiac disease in relation to their first hospitalization for the disease. METHODS: This was a historical cohort study based on The Danish Medical Birth Registry...... data of celiac women discharged from Danish hospitals from 1977-1992. The study included 211 newborns to 127 mothers with celiac disease, and 1260 control deliveries. RESULTS: Before celiac women were first hospitalized the mean birthweight of their newborns was 238 g (95% confidence interval [95% CI......] = 150, 325 g) lower than that of the control women, after adjustment for potential confounders. After the first hospitalization the mean birthweight for newborns of diseased women was higher than that of controls, by 67 g (95% CI = -88, 223 g) after adjustment for potential confounders. Before celiac...

  19. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C


    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies...... are limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...... pubertal development, testicular hormone production or sperm quality, available evidence points towards a subtle impairment of both Sertoli cell and Leydig cell function. Animal studies support the hypothesis that impaired perinatal growth restriction, depending on the timing, can affect postnatal testis...

  20. Growth and carcass composition from birth to matusity in relation to feeding level and sex in Dutch landrace pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, P.


    An experiment was carried out to study growth from birth to maturity in Dutch Landrace pigs based on complete anatomical dissection. The assessment of a detailed description of the compositional changes during growth was the primary objective of this study. In order to examine whether growth pattern

  1. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.


    Large White×Meishan F2 crossbred gilts (n=57) were observed continuously during farrowing while the placentae of their offspring were labeled in order to examine the duration of farrowing and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal-, piglet- and placental traits and the duration of birth interval

  2. Order-specific fertility rates for Germany: Estimates from perinatal statistics for the period 2001-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kreyenfeld (Michaela); Scholz, R. (Rembrandt); F. Peters (Frederick); Wlosnewski, I. (Ines)


    textabstractUntil 2008, Germany's vital statistics did not include information on the biological order of each birth. This resulted in a dearth of important demographic indicators, such as the mean age at first birth and the level of childlessness. Researchers have tried to fill this gap by generati

  3. Weight-for-length relationship at birth to predict neonatal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Intrauterine growth curves are extremely useful for classifying newborn children and predicting neonatal diseases. However, such curves rely on knowledge of the gestational age, which is not always easily obtained. Therefore, the study of other anthropometric measurements and their interrelationship is always desirable, in order to attain such objectives. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether newborns' birth weight and length can identify neonatal diseases, independent of knowledge of the gestational age. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective study. SETTING: Institute of Teaching and Research of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: During the period from February 1995 to January 1998, 8,397 live newborns were studied in the hospital's maternity ward. PROCEDURES: The weight and length of live newborns were obtained at birth, thus allowing the analysis of weight-for-length adequacy, i.e. the distribution of birth weight for each class of birth lenght. These measurements were determined for the first 4,634 live newborns and the 10th and 90th percentiles were established. These parameters were applied to the next 3,763 consecutive newborns of the same population. The relationships between these variables and some neonatal diseases were investigated. The significance level adopted was p < 0.05. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Birth weight and length, weight-for-length adequacy (10th and 90th percentiles for weight distribution in each 1-cm length class, weight/length index (10th and 90th percentiles of newborn's weight divided by the length and frequent neonatal diseases in this population. RESULTS: There was a significant association of adequacy and index with the following affections: asphyxia, jaundice, hypoglycemia, hypomagnesemia, congenital pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension and sepsis. Additionally, there was a relationship between the index and respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea and persistent ductus arteriosus

  4. Is there a link between blastomere contact surfaces of day 3 embryos and live birth rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paternot Goedele


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-cell communication and adhesion are essential for the compaction process of early stage embryos. The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive objective calculation system of embryo compaction in order to test the hypothesis that embryos with a larger mean contact surface result in a higher live birth rate compared to embryos with a lower mean contact surface. Methods Multilevel images of 474 embryos transferred on day 3 were evaluated by the Cellify software. This software calculates the contact surfaces between the blastomeres. The primary outcome of this study was live birth. An ideal range of contact surface was determined and the positive and negative predictive value, the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the curve for this new characteristic were calculated. Results In total, 115 (24% transferred embryos resulted in a live birth. Selection of an embryo for transfer on its mean contact surface could predict live birth with a high sensitivity (80% and high negative predicting value (83% but with a low positive predictive value (27%, a low specificity (31% and low area under the ROC curve (0.56. The mean contact surface of embryos cultured in a single medium was significantly higher compared to the mean contact surface of embryos cultured in a sequential medium (p = 0.0003. Conclusions Neither the mean contact surface nor the number of contact surfaces of a day 3 embryo had an additional value in the prediction of live birth. The type of culture medium, however, had an impact on the contact surface of an embryo. Embryos cultured in a single medium had a significant larger contact surface compared to embryos cultured in the sequential medium.

  5. Ventilation before Umbilical Cord Clamping improves the physiological transition at birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmira eBhatt


    Full Text Available The transition from a fetus to a neonate at birth represents a critical phase in our life. Most infants make this transition without complications, but preterm infants usually require some form of assistance due to immature cardiopulmonary systems that predispose them to lifelong sequelae. As the incidence of preterm birth is increasing, there is now an urgent need for the development of management strategies that facilitate this transition, which will likely include improved strategies for the management of the maternal third stage of labour. For instance, recent studies on the physiological transition at birth have led to the discovery that establishing ventilation in the infant before the umbilical cord is clamped greatly stabilizes the cardiovascular transition at birth. While most benefits of delayed clamping have previously been attributed to an increase in placenta to infant blood transfusion, clearly there are other significant benefits for the infant, which are not well understood. Nevertheless, if ventilation can be established before cord clamping in a preterm infant, the large adverse changes in cardiac function that normally accompanies umbilical cord clamping can be avoided. As preterm infants have an immature cerebral vascular bed, large swings in cardiovascular function places them at high risk of cerebral vascular rupture and the associated increased risk of mortality and morbidity. In view of the impact that cord clamping has on the cardiovascular transition at birth, it is also time to re-examine some of the strategies used in the management of the third stage of labour. These include the appropriate timing of uterotonic administration in relation to delivery of the infant and placenta. As there is a lack of evidence on the effects these individual practices have on the infant, there is a necessity to improve our understanding of their impact in order to develop strategies that facilitate the transition to newborn life.

  6. Maternal intake of vitamin E and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005 (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Lee, Kyung A.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Traven, Flavia K.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Correa, Adolfo; Boyle, Coleen A.


    Background In a recent study, high maternal periconceptional intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). To explore this association further, we investigated the association between total daily vitamin E intake and selected birth defects. Methods We analyzed data from 4,525 controls and 8,665 cases from the 1997–2005 National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We categorized estimated periconceptional energy-adjusted total daily vitamin E intake from diet and supplements into quartiles (referent, lowest quartile). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin E intake and selected birth defects were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors. Results We observed a statistically significant association with the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.35) and all CHDs combined. Among CHD sub-types, we observed associations with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects, and its sub-type, coarctation of the aorta and the third quartile of vitamin E intake. Among defects other than CHDs, we observed associations between anorectal atresia and the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.72) and hypospadias and the fourth quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.09 – 1.87). Conclusions Selected quartiles of energy-adjusted estimated total daily vitamin E intake were associated with selected birth defects. However, because these few associations did not exhibit exposure-response patterns consistent with increasing risk associated with increasing intake of vitamin E, further studies are warranted to corroborate our findings. PMID:24740457

  7. The birth of Kaiser William II (1859-1941) and his birth injury. (United States)

    Jacoby, M G


    This paper describes the events leading up to the birth of Kaiser William II in 1859. There is a full description of the clinical aspects of his breech delivery that resulted in an Erb-Duchenne palsy. The later physical and psychological effects of his paralysed left arm are discussed fully, as are the comments about Dr Eduard Arnold Martin (1799-1875), the obstetrician who delivered him.

  8. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho


    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  9. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C


    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  10. Malaria has no effect on birth weight in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulisa, S.; Mens, P.F.; Karema, C.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Kaligirwa, N.; Vyankandondera, J.; de Vries, P.J.


    Background: Malaria has a negative effect on pregnancy outcome, causing low birth weight, premature birth and stillbirths, particularly in areas with high malaria transmission. In Rwanda, malaria transmission intensity ranges from high to nil, probably associated with variable altitudes. Overall, th

  11. Birth Weight and Length as Predictors for Adult Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J.;


    Adult height has been found to be inversely associated with mortality. Recently, it has been suggested that growth in utero is linked with adult risk of several chronic diseases. The authors examined possible associations between birth weight, birth length, and adult height in young Danish men. T...

  12. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills (United States)

    ... that women who use high-dose birth control pills (oral contraceptives) are more likely to have a heart attack or stroke because blood clots are more likely to form in the blood vessels. These risks are lessened once the birth control pill is stopped. Using the pill also may worsen ...

  13. Ethics and professional responsibility: Essential dimensions of planned home birth. (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B; Grünebaum, Amos; Arabin, Birgit; Brent, Robert L; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A


    Planned home birth is a paradigmatic case study of the importance of ethics and professionalism in contemporary perinatology. In this article we provide a summary of recent analyses of the Centers for Disease Control database on attendants and birth outcomes in the United States. This summary documents the increased risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity of planned home birth as well as bias in Apgar scoring. We then describe the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, which is based on the professional medical ethics of two major figures in the history of medical ethics, Drs. John Gregory of Scotland and Thomas Percival of England. This model emphasizes the identification and careful balancing of the perinatologist's ethical obligations to pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients. This model stands in sharp contrast to one-dimensional maternal-rights-based reductionist model of obstetric ethics, which is based solely on the pregnant woman's rights. We then identify the implications of the professional responsibility model for the perinatologist's role in directive counseling of women who express an interest in or ask about planned home birth. Perinatologists should explain the evidence of the increased, preventable perinatal risks of planned home birth, recommend against it, and recommend planned hospital birth. Perinatologists have the professional responsibility to create and sustain a strong culture of safety committed to a home-birth-like experience in the hospital. By routinely fulfilling these professional responsibilities perinatologists can help to prevent the documented, increased risks planned home birth.

  14. A Prescription for the Prevention of Birth Defects. (United States)

    Slavkin, Harold C.


    Factors influencing birth defects include maternal age (teenagers and women over 32 are at risk), genetics, drug use, diet habits, and environmental hazards. The physical, social, and economic costs of birth defects are extreme. Prevention must involve efforts to change some of these factors. (Author/CS)

  15. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony


    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  16. Weight at Birth and All-Cause Mortality in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.


    was constant for all ages investigated and did not differ between men and women. Compared with subjects having birth weights in the reference category (3251-3750 g), those with the lowest birth weights (2000-2750 g) had 17% higher mortality (95% confidence interval = 1.11-1.22), and those with the highest...

  17. Prediction and prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y


    Rates of preterm birth have continued to rise despite intensive research efforts over the last several decades. A woman who has a spontaneous preterm birth is at high risk for a subsequent preterm birth. Studies have identified clinical, sonographic, and biochemical markers that help to identify the women at highest risk. Determining cervical length and measuring cervicovaginal fibronectin have been proposed as useful tools for evaluating women at risk of preterm birth and may identify those who might benefit from a timely course of antenatal corticosteroids, but effective interventions to prevent preterm birth remain elusive. In the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth, recent trials have confirmed the use of progesterone beginning in the second trimester as an effective intervention. Optimal management of women with a history of spontaneous preterm birth includes a thorough review of the obstetric, medical, and social history, with attention to potentially reversible causes of preterm birth (eg, smoking cessation, acute infections, strenuous activities), accurate ultrasound dating, consideration of progesterone therapy beginning at 16-20 weeks of gestation, and close surveillance during the pregnancy for evolving findings. Results from the ongoing trials of cerclage as an interventional therapy and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation as a preventive therapy will provide additional knowledge for the optimal management of these high-risk women.

  18. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection (United States)

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing pregnancy? • What are progestin-only ...

  19. Trends in occurrence of twin births in Japan. (United States)

    Kurosawa, Kenji; Masuno, Mitsuo; Kuroki, Yoshikazu


    The rise in the rate of multiple births since the 1980s is due to the effect of advanced maternal age and increased use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). To determine the trends of prevalence in twin births, we studied the data of a population-based birth defects monitoring system during 26 years in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. A total of 15,380 twins from 7,690 deliveries were ascertained from 990,978 births in the Kanagawa Birth Defects Monitoring Program (KAMP) during 1981-2008. From the start of KAMP in 1981, the incidence of twin births had been consistently increasing from 57.0 to 98.6 per 10,000 deliveries until 2003, but after this time, the incidence declined to 78.5 in 2007. While the rate of monozygotic twins has been stable (∼40 per 10,000 deliveries) after 1990, that of dizygotic twins increased from 25.3 to 57.3 per 10,000 deliveries until 2002, and recovered to 40.1 in 2007. These results showed the most recent tendency of twin births and indicated that the single embryo transfer method can provide protection and reduction of perinatal risk caused by multiple births.

  20. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A;


    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been ...

  1. Second-birth rates in Denmark from 1980 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Thygesen, Lau Caspar;


    A statistical age-period-cohort model was used to depict second-time birth rates and the spacing between the first and second child in Denmark, including 524,316 one-child mothers who gave birth to 296,923 second children 1980-1994. The spacing between the first and second child varies according...

  2. Mathematics deficiencies in children with very low birth weight or very preterm birth. (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J


    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, >2500 g and >36 weeks GA). MD are found even in children without global disorders in cognition or neurosensory status and when IQ is controlled, and they are associated with other learning problems and weaknesses in perceptual motor abilities and executive function. Factors related to poorer mathematics outcomes include lower birth weight and GA, neonatal complications, and possible abnormalities in brain structure. While little is known about the nature of MD in these children, studies of MLD in other neurodevelopmental disorders and in children with learning disabilities provide useful models for further investigation. Further investigation of the neuropsychological and neuropathological correlates of distinct types of mathematics difficulties is also needed. Studies along these lines will yield information about the unique features of MD in children with VLBW/VPTB and about the nature and origins of poor mathematics achievement more generally.

  3. A Study of Surrogate Parameters of Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Y


    Full Text Available Research question : Which anthropometric parameter is correlating highly with birth weight? Can we use this parameter as a screening test for predicting birth weight? What is their cut-off value? Hypothesis: Various anthropometric parameters of newborn correlate each other positively. Objective : To find out the most effective anthropometric parameter in the newborn to assess birth weight so that newborn with LBW can be identified.. Study design: Hospital based cross-sectional study. Participants : Newborn babies born in KIMS, Karad. Results : Relatively highest correlation was observed between birth weight & thigh circumfirence (T.C. (r = 0.8637 & next with chest circumfirence (C.C.. (r = 0.8247 Cut-off values of T.C. & C.C. had better sensitivity, specificity & predictive value for identifying LBW babies. Conclusion : T.C. is the best effective parameter to predict birth weight. Next to it is C.C.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vasilenko


    Full Text Available Retrospectively studied following and outcome of pregnancy, women with non carrying of pregnancy, women that give birth to children with development delay (1 group and women that give birth in proper time (2 group. Premature birth arranged 4,4% of 2962 delivery. Fetus development delay was established by 38,1% of premature babies and by 10,5% of borne in proper time. Non carrying of pregnancy stipulated by motherґs urogenital infection, high expressed gestosis and others obsterical and extra genital complications. Each third of women that give birth to premature babies with development delay, have inflammatory overpatching in placenta, each fifth have morphological proved FPI. Realized researches allowed to conclude, that for decreasing frequencies of premature births and fetus development delay is necessary doing opportunely urogenital tract sonation, pre-clinical diagnostics of gestosis Noncarryng of pregnancy and treat this disease preventive.

  5. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count. (United States)

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter


    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults.

  6. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E;


    AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...... for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term...

  7. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck;


    .002 (-0.010 to 0.014); P = 0.77]. When restricting the analysis to twin pairs with a within-pair difference in birth weight of 500 g or greater or to twin pairs born 4 wk or more before term, the regression coefficients were almost unchanged. Controlling for potential confounders (sex, zygosity......CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight...

  8. Birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumm, Hanne; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;


    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between birth weight and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in adult life in Danish women born 1973-1991. DESIGN: Register study. SETTING: Data were extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish National Patient Register (NPR). PATIENT(S): All...... female children born of Danish mothers in Denmark between 1973 and 1991 were included (n = 523,757) and followed for a total of 4,739,547 person-years at risk. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Information on birth weight was extracted from the Danish Medical Birth Register. The cohort...... was followed up in the NPR for PCOS diagnoses from age 15 years until the end of 2006. Furthermore, information on maternal diabetes diagnoses was extracted from the NPR. RESULT(S): The risk of PCOS was significantly increased in women with birth weight =4,500 g (incidence rate ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence...

  9. Gestational age, birth weight, and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, K. M.; Wisborg, K; Agerbo, E


    for socioeconomic status of the parents, family history of psychiatric disorders, conduct disorders, comorbidity, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Results related to birth weight were unchanged after adjusting for differences in gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: Children born preterm, also close to term......AIMS: To study the association between gestational age and birth weight and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder. METHODS: Nested case-control study of 834 cases and 20 100 controls with incidence density sampling. RESULTS: Compared with children born at term, children born...... with birth weights of 1500-2499 g had a 90% increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder (RR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.9), and children with birth weights of 2500-2999 g had a 50% increased risk (RR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) compared with children born at term with birth weights above 2999 g. The results were adjusted...

  10. Postplacement relationships between birth mothers and their romantic partners. (United States)

    Henney, Susan M; French, Cynthia A; Ayers-Lopez, Susan; McRoy, Ruth G; Grotevant, Harold D


    Using a mixed-methods approach, the understudied population of birth mothers who placed their infants for adoption 12-20 years ago was explored in the context of their romantic relationships. In a semistructured interview, 104 birth mothers answered detailed questions about their romantic relationships and adoption-related experiences. All birth mothers had disclosed the adoption placement to their romantic partners, and most had done so early because they wanted to be truthful about their past. On average, the birth mothers were satisfied with their romantic relationships and almost half did not believe that the adoption had affected it. Regarding contact in the adoption, a majority of the birth mothers' romantic partners (63.5%) were not directly involved in contact with the adoptive family or adopted youth. Implications about how adoption is perceived and processed within intimate relationships are discussed.

  11. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control



    Anita NelsonHarbor-UCLA Hospital, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USAAim: To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills.Methods: This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical tri...

  12. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. METHOD: In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model. RESULTS: Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  13. Which factors could explain the low birth weight paradox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight children are unusual among well-off families. However, in Brazil, low birth weight rate was higher in a more developed city than in a less developed one. The study objective was to find out the reasons to explain this paradox. METHODS: A study was carried out in two municipalities, Ribeirão Preto (Southeastern Brazil and São Luís (Northeastern Brazil, which low birth weight rates were 10.7% and 7.6% respectively. Data from two birth cohorts were analyzed: 2,839 newborns in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and 2,439 births in São Luís in 1997-1998. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Low birth weight risk factors in São Luís were primiparity, maternal smoking and maternal age less than 18 years. In Ribeirão Preto, the associated variables were family income between one and three minimum wages, maternal age less than 18 and equal to or more than 35 years, maternal smoking and cesarean section. In a combined model including both cohorts, Ribeirão Preto presented a 45% higher risk of low birth weight than São Luís. When adjusted for maternal smoking habit, the excess risk for low birth weight in Ribeirão Preto compared to São Luís was reduced by 49%, but the confidence interval was marginally significant. Differences in cesarean section rates between both cities contributed to partially explain the paradox. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking was the most important risk factor for explaining the difference in low birth weight between both cities. The other factors contributed little to explain the difference in low birth weight rates.

  14. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology (United States)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  15. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  16. A birth-weight questionnaire indicated that life style modifies the birth weight and metabolic syndrome relationship at age 36

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, S.J. te; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, van W.; Kemper, H.C.G.


    OBJECTIVE: Investigating the relationship between birth weight and the metabolic syndrome and the modifying effects of lifestyle in adults (36.5 years). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 273 subjects completed a birth-weight questionnaire; waist circumference, HDL and triglyceride concentrations, blood pres

  17. [Multifactorial analysis of risk factors for low birth weight in Salvador, Bahia]. (United States)

    Solla, J J; Pereira, R A; Medina, M G; Pinto, L L; Mota, E


    This study is a multifactorial analysis of the risk factors for low birthweight in a group of newborns in an urban area of Brazil. A total of 1023 infants born in four maternity units in Salvador, Bahia, between July 1987 and February 1988 were included in the study. The sources of information were clinical histories and interviews with the mothers in the maternity units. The analysis was by means of logistic regression. In the final model the risk factors were the following: maternal age less than 21 years or more than 35; gestational age less than 38 weeks; unfavorable outcome of an earlier pregnancy; interval of 12 months or less since prior birth; tobacco smoking; and hypertension. The population attributable risk values for the risk factors included in the final model are presented. These factors should be used to identify pregnant women at high risk of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby, in order to provide them with more prenatal care.

  18. Births per U.S. woman? Depends on race, ethnicity. (United States)

    Haub, C


    A profile of mothers giving birth is presented for the US for 1990 based on race and ethnicity. Some of the complexities involved in compiling racial and ethnic data are described. The total fertility rate was 2.1 for all American women, 1.1 for Japanese Americans, and 3.2 for Hawaiians and Mexican Americans. The number of births per woman was derived from state birth registration data, which culls data from preadmission hospital forms filled out by the mother. The denominator of the birth rate comes from the number of women in the specified age group as determined by the Census. The problem arises from self-reports themselves. Consistency between recording systems has been improved since 1989 when births were counted based on mother's race and ethnicity. There have been greater percentages of interracial births for which race of both parents were known, and the trend was for 15% of the births for race of the father not to be reported in 1990. The data revealed that in 1990, Mexican Americans and Hawaiians had the highest birth rate of 3.2, which was comparable to developing countries in Latin America. The other Hispanic group was another high fertility group for a developed country. Low fertility was found among Japanese, Chinese, and Cuban Americans. The actual numbers revealed that non-Hispanic whites constitute 2.6 million out of 4.2 million children born in the US. 595,100 were Hispanics, 661,700 were non-Hispanic blacks, 142,000 were Asian or Pacific Islander, and less than 40,000 were American Indian. Teenage pregnancy was considerable among the ethnic populations: nearly 25% of African Americans, and about 20% of American Indians, Puerto Ricans, Hawaiians, and Mexican Americans having births to women under 20 years of age. The birthing patterns were different among minority groups. Hispanic women had early childbearing and continued childbearing throughout the reproductive years. Black and American Indian women tended to complete childbearing early. Asian

  19. The association between Placental T2* measured by MRI in dichorionic twin pregnancies and intertwin birth weight differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard Weidemann; Sinding, Marianne Munk; Peters, David Alberg;

    ABSTRACT FINAL ID: P22.06 TITLE: The association between Placental T2* measured by MRI in dichorionic twin pregnancies and intertwin birth weight differences AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Anne Sørensen1, 2, Marianne Sinding1, David Peters3, Jens B. Frøkjær4, 2, Astrid Petersen6, Niels Uldbjerg5...... the association between the intertwin placental T2* difference and the intertwin birth weight difference Methods: A total of 21 dichorionic twin pregnancies (gestational age 20.1 – 34.1 weeks) were included in this study and placental T2* was measured using a gradient recalled echo MRI sequence with readout at 16......: Intertwin placental T2* difference is strongly related to intertwin birthweight difference, even when performed several weeks before birth. Placental T2* might be a future method to predict intertwin birthweight difference in dichorionic twin pregnancies. Further studies should be performed in order...

  20. Medicolegal file. Tell everything you know about birth control pills. (United States)

    Winkelaar, P G


    This paper presents a case in Quebec in 1976 concerning the alleged failure of the doctor to divulge everything he knew about the use of birth control pills to the patient. Nearly every oral contraceptive monograph in the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties contains a statement that the pill should be stopped for a month before a major elective surgery. This information was available to the doctor, but evidence revealed he did not pass it on to the patient. The judge found that the doctor had failed to meet the standard required of him when did not advise the patient about this warning. The doctrine of informed consent requires that patients be given all the reasonable information a person would want in order to decide on a course of action. The case did not raise new issues of law, but should serve to raise awareness of the need to inform patients fully not only about the specific procedures patients would undergo but also about the effects that coexist with the conditions or medications.

  1. Watching the Birth of a Galaxy Cluster? (United States)


    about 10,000 million light-years from the Earth (the redshift is 2.2), the VLT sees it as it was when the Universe was only about 20% of its present age. Previous observations of this galaxy by the same team of astronomers showed that its radio, X-ray and optical emission had many extreme characteristics that would be expected from a giant galaxy, forming at the centre of a rich cluster. However, because the galaxy is so distant, the cluster could not be seen directly. Radio data obtained by the Very Large Array (VLA) in the USA and X-ray data with the ROSAT satellite both indicated that the galaxy is surrounded by a hot gas similar to that observed at the centres of nearby rich clusters of galaxies. Most telling was a picture taken by the Hubble Space Telescope that revealed that the galaxy comprises a large number of clumps, and which bore a remarkable resemblance to computer models of the birth of giant galaxies in clusters. From these observations, it was concluded that 1138-262 is likely to be a massive galaxy in the final stage of assemblage through merging with many smaller galaxies in an infant rich cluster and the most distant known X-ray cluster. VLT obtains Lyman-alpha images ESO PR Photo 33a/99 ESO PR Photo 33a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 483 x 400 pix - 86k] [Normal - JPEG: 966 x 800 pix - 230k] [High-Res - JPEG: 2894 x 2396 pix - 1.1M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 33a/99 : False-colour picture of the ionized hydrogen gas surrounding 1138-262 (Lyman-alpha). The size of this cloud is about 5 times larger than the optical extent of the Milky Way Galaxy. A contour plot, as observed with VLT ANTU + FORS1 in a narrow-band filter around the wavelength of the redshifted Lyman-alpha line, is superposed on a false-colour representation of the same image. The contour levels are a geometric progression in steps of 2 1/2. The image has not been flux calibrated, so the first contour level is arbitrary. The field measures 35 x 25 arcsec 2 , corresponding to about 910,000 x 650

  2. Birth of the Universe from the Multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura


    It is fair to say that the deepest mystery in our understanding of nature is the birth of our universe. Much of the dilemma over the last decades comes from the extraordinarily small probability that the universe started with the high energy Big Bang as compared to the chance of nucleating any other event. How can Big Bang cosmology be $10^{10^{123}}$ times less likely than nucleating the present cold universe, while accumulating such exquisite agreement with astrophysical data? Why don't we see the other nucleations that, if left to chance, seem to overwhelmingly outnumber us? Here I discuss the point of view that the selection of the initial conditions can be meaningfully addressed only within the framework of the multiverse and that the reason why Big Bang inflation was preferred over other events lies in the quantum dynamics of the landscape of the initial patches. The out-of-equilibrium dynamics selected the 'survivor' universes be born at high energies and the 'terminal' universes at low energies. I bri...

  3. Genetic Influences on Preterm Birth in Argentina (United States)

    Mann, Paul C.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Comas, Belén; Gili, Juan; Crumley, Suzanne; Bream, Elise N.A.; Byers, Heather M.; Piester, Travis; Schaefer, Amanda; Christine, Paul J.; Lawrence, Amy; Schaa, Kendra L.; Kelsey, Keegan J.P.; Berends, Susan K.; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Camelo, Jorge López; Saleme, Cesar; Day, Lori J.; England, Sarah K.; Marazita, Mary L.; Dagle, John M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.


    Objective To investigate genetic etiologies of preterm birth (PTB) in Argentina through evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes and population genetic admixture. Study Design Genotyping was performed in 389 families. Maternal, paternal, and fetal effects were studied separately. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced in 50 males and 50 females. Y-chromosome anthropological markers were evaluated in 50 males. Results Fetal association with PTB was found in the progesterone receptor (PGR, rs1942836; p= 0.004). Maternal association with PTB was found in small conductance calcium activated potassium channel isoform 3 (KCNN3, rs883319; p= 0.01). Gestational age associated with PTB in PGR rs1942836 at 32 –36 weeks (p= 0.0004). MtDNA sequencing determined 88 individuals had Amerindian consistent haplogroups. Two individuals had Amerindian Y-chromosome consistent haplotypes. Conclusions This study replicates single locus fetal associations with PTB in PGR, maternal association in KCNN3, and demonstrates possible effects for divergent racial admixture on PTB. PMID:23018797

  4. There's good news about birth control pills. (United States)


    Some scientists have shown that the oral contraceptive pill can cause breast cancer and heart disease. But no one is really quite sure about the negative side effects of the pill. Experts are sure that the pill can even prevent some forms of cancer. Studies have shown that users will be more protected from cancer of the ovaries than women who do not take the pill. And the protection lasts even after one stops taking the pill. Through the chemical hormones estrogen and progestogen, the pill sends a message to the ovaries not to produce an egg. When a woman is on the pill, her ovaries get a rest. For that reason, there is less chance for problems like cancer to develop. Also, a woman who takes the pill will be more protected from cancer of the endometrium, because the pill causes her to have lighter periods. In addition, with lighter periods, she will probably have less painful periods, too. Taking the pill also will decrease the risk for getting ovary and breast cysts. Pill users have less chance of developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which, if left untreated, can cause damage to the reproductive organs. The best way to ease any concerns about taking the pill is to talk with health care providers about all the issues of birth control pills and other contraception.

  5. The birth of the (gay) clinic. (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Knopp, Larry


    We apply and extend Philo (2000)׳s arguments about Foucault׳s Birth of the Clinic as an inspiration for health geography and the study of governance of gays. Philo identified three spaces through which he argued disease is framed: disease tabled, embodied, and institutionalized. These focus attention on the spatialities through which the medical gaze is power-laden. We adopt this framework empirically through an historical geography of an urban public health system engaged with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the "homosexual" population of Seattle, Washington in the 1970s. It reveals the interaction of homophobia, heteronormativity and resistances across places typically understudied in queer historical geography. Our findings also extend this framework, however, by revealing other spaces that were important in the urban politics of sexual health: the gay city, the gay doctor, and the gay community. We suggest, therefore, that these and other spaces may be helpful in other health geographies interested in the dynamics of sexuality, governmentality, and urban public health.

  6. Witnessing the Birth of a Quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Takamitsu; Menou, Kristen


    The coalescence of a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) is thought to be accompanied by an electromagnetic (EM) afterglow, produced by the viscous infall of the surrounding circumbinary gas disk after the merger. It has been proposed that once the merger has been detected in gravitational waves (GWs) by LISA, follow-up EM searches for this afterglow can help identify the EM counterpart of the LISA source. Here we study whether the afterglows may be sufficiently bright and numerous to be detectable in EM surveys alone. The viscous afterglow, which lasts for years to decades for SMBHBs in LISA's sensitivity window, is characterized by rapid increases in both the bolometric luminosity and in the spectral hardness of the source. If quasar activity is triggered by the same major galaxy mergers that produce SMBHBs, then the afterglow could be interpreted as a signature of the birth of a quasar. Using an idealized model for the post-merger viscous spreading of the circumbinary disk and the resulting light curve,...

  7. An experimental study of human birth models (United States)

    Baumer, Alexa; Gossmann, Roseanna; Fauci, Lisa J.; Leftwich, Megan C.


    The laboring uterus is a complex and dynamic fluid system. Relatively little is known about the fluid properties in this system. However, the two primary fluids of interest, amniotic fluid and vernix caseosa, likely play integral roles in the force transferred to the fetus during the final stages of parturition. This investigation probes the role of fluid in the force transfer during delivery by considering physical models that determine the role of various components of the full system. The first experimental model represents the fetus passing through the birth canal as concentric cylinders with a fluid filled gap. The rigid, inner cylinder moves through the highly flexible outer cylinder at a prescribed velocity. The geometry of the inner cylinder is varied by aspect ratio and length. A total of five different inner geometries are used to fully investigate the parameter space. As the inner cylinder moves through the outer cylinder, strain measurements are taken. These measurements are converted to force measurements as a function of time and position in the outer cylinder. The results of these experiments are compared with numerical results to form a more complete picture of force transfer. This model can be used as the foundation for predicting the force needed to deliver a fetus in the final stages of parturition. Additionally, more complex models, that incorporate uterine contraction forces, are being developed.

  8. Documenting the birth of a financial economy. (United States)

    Suri, Tavneet; Jack, William; Stoker, Thomas M


    The birth and explosive growth of mobile money in Kenya has provided economists with an opportunity to study the evolution and impact of a new financial system. Mobile money is an innovation that allows individuals to store, send, and receive money on their mobile phone via text message. This system has opened up basic financial services to many who were previously excluded, and has had real and measurable impacts on the ability of households to protect themselves against health risks. Using a unique survey instrument covering nearly 2,300 households over 2008-2010, we first document the lightning-fast adoption of mobile money in Kenya, which was faster than most documented modern technologies in the United States. We then present evidence on how this innovation allows households to respond better to unexpected adverse health events. We find that in the face of these events, users of mobile money are better able to tap into remittances to finance additional health care costs without having to forego necessary expenditures on education, food, and other consumption needs.

  9. The Diversity of Transients from Magnetar Birth

    CERN Document Server

    Metzger, Brian D; Kasen, Daniel; Quataert, Eliot


    Strongly-magnetized, rapidly-rotating neutron stars are contenders for the central engines of both long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) and hydrogen-poor super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe-I). Models for typical (~minute long) LGRBs invoke magnetars with high dipole magnetic fields (Bd > 1e15 G) and short spin-down times, while models for SLSNe-I invoke neutron stars with weaker fields and longer spin-down times of weeks. Here we identify a transition region in the space of Bd and birth period for which a magnetar can power both a long GRB and a luminous SN. In particular, we show that a 2 ms period magnetar with a spin-down time of ~1e4 s can explain the observations of both the ultra-long GRB 111209 and its associated luminous SN2011kl. For magnetars with longer spin down times, we predict even longer duration (~1e6 s) GRBs and brighter supernovae, a correlation that extends to Swift J2058+05 (commonly interpreted as a tidal disruption event). We further show that previous estimates of the maximum rotationa...

  10. Risk Factors for premature birth in a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita E. Ahumada-Barrios

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to determine the risk factors for premature birth. Methods: retrospective case-control study of 600 pregnant women assisted in a hospital, with 298 pregnant women in the case group (who gave birth prematurely <37 weeks and 302 pregnant women who gave birth to a full-term newborn in the control group. Stata software version 12.2 was used. The Chi-square test was used in bivariate analysis and logistic regression was used in multivariate analysis, from which Odds Ratios (OR and Confidence Intervals (CI of 95% were derived. Results: risk factors associated with premature birth were current twin pregnancy (adjusted OR= 2.4; p= 0.02, inadequate prenatal care (< 6 controls (adjusted OR= 3.2; p <0.001, absent prenatal care (adjusted OR= 3.0; p <0.001, history of premature birth (adjusted OR= 3.7; p <0.001 and preeclampsia (adjusted OR= 1.9; p= 0.005. Conclusion: history of premature birth, preeclampsia, not receiving prenatal care and receiving inadequate prenatal care were risk factors for premature birth.

  11. Determinants of low birth weight in rural Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzur Kader


    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is an important public health concern. The study was aimed to identify the important socioeconomic, anthropometric and nutritional determinants associated with LBW. Factors included maternal household wealth status, age, literacy, nutritional status, parity, stature, gestational age and chewing betel nut or tobacco. Methods: The study included data of 4436 enrolled pregnant women in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention Matlab (MINIMat trial from November 2001 to October 2003. A random subset of (n= 3267 single live birth infants born between May 2002 and June 2004 with complete information on birth weight was analyzed. Pearson’s chi square test and logistic regression analysis were done to assess the association between the factors and LBW. Results: Almost one third of the infants were born with LBW and mean birth weight was 2693 g. Maternal poor wealth status, BMI less than 18.5, short stature (height < 152 cm and preterm (<37 weeks birth were found to be strong predictors of LBW. Women’s age, hemoglobin status and chewing tobacco or betel nut were not found to be associated with LBW. Conclusion: Women’s wealth status, literacy, maternal nutrition and prevention of preterm birth are the key factors that need to be considered to improve birth weight of infants. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 130-134

  12. Disparities in perinatal medicine: preterm birth, stillbirth, and infant mortality. (United States)

    Spong, Catherine Y; Iams, Jay; Goldenberg, Robert; Hauck, Fern R; Willinger, Marian


    Infant mortality, stillbirths, and preterm births are major public health priorities with significant disparities based on race and ethnicity. Interestingly, when evaluating the rates over the past 30 to 50 years, the disparity persists in all three and is remarkably consistent. In the United States, the infant mortality rate is 6.7 deaths per 1,000 live births, the stillbirth rate is 6.2 per 1,000 deliveries, and the preterm birth rate is 12.8% of live births. The rates among non-Hispanic African Americans are dramatically higher, nearly double the infant mortality at 13.4 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, nearly double the stillbirth rate at 11.1 stillbirths per 1,000 deliveries, and one third higher with preterm births at 18.4% of live births. Despite numerous conferences, workshops, articles, and investigators focusing on this line of work, the disparities persist and, in some cases, are growing. In this article, we summarize a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop that focused on these disparities to identify the associated factors to determine their relative contributions, identify gaps in knowledge, and develop specific strategies to address the disparities in the short-term and long-term.

  13. Autonomy in place of birth: a concept analysis. (United States)

    Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Wilson, Margaret E; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Sveinsdottir, Herdis


    This article examines one of the relevant concepts in the current debate on home birth-autonomy in place of birth-and its uses in general language, ethics, and childbirth health care literature. International discussion on childbirth services. A concept analysis guided by the model of Walker and Avant. The authors suggest that autonomy in the context of choosing place of birth is defined by three main attributes: information, capacity and freedom; given the antecedent of not harming others, and the consequences of accountability for the outcome. Model, borderline and contrary cases of autonomy in place of birth are presented. A woman choosing place of birth is autonomous if she receives all relevant information on available choices, risks and benefits, is capable of understanding and processing the information and choosing place of birth in the absence of coercion, provided she intends no harm to others and is accountable for the outcome. The attributes of the definition can serve as a useful tool for pregnant women, midwives, and other health professionals in contemplating their moral status and discussing place of birth.

  14. Epidemiology of hyperbilirubinemia in the first 24 hours after birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrinkoub F


    Full Text Available   Background: Jaundice is one of the most frequent problems observed in newborns. Our purpose was to investigate the incidence and the risk factors on jaundice noted in the first 24 hours after birth.Methods: All newborns observed to have jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth were enrolled prospectively in this study. Laboratory evaluations included blood group typing of mother and newborn, hemoglobin and hematocrit, complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, reticulocyte count, G6PD activity, maternal indirect and neonatal direct Coombs test, and serum total, conjugated, and unconjugated bilirubin. In all cases, gender, birth weight, Apgar scores, gestational age, mode of delivery, birth trauma, cephalhematoma, maternal age, parity, or any siblings with neonatal jaundice were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student's t-, and chi-square tests.Results: Of a total of 2096 newborns delivered in one year, 122 (5.8% developed jaundice within the first 24 hours after birth. Risk factors for hyperbilirubinemia were ABO incompatibility, prematurity, infection, G6PD deficiency, cephalhematoma, asphyxia, and Rh disease. There were no statistically significant relationships between jaundice and maternal age, parity, mode of delivery, neonatal gender or previous siblings with jaundice (p>0.05.Conclusions: Jaundice observed in the initial 24 hours after birth was infrequent, but clinically significant. All newborns should be followed by repeated exams within the first 24 hours after birth and before discharge, especially if the maternal blood group is O.


    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.


    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  16. The role of progesterone in prevention of preterm birth

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    Jodie M Dodd


    Full Text Available Jodie M Dodd, Caroline A CrowtherDiscipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Preterm birth continues to provide an enormous challenge in the delivery of perinatal health care, and is associated with considerable short and long-term health consequences for surviving infants. Progesterone has a role in maintaining pregnancy, by suppression of the calcium–calmodulin–myosin light chain kinase system. Additionally, progesterone has recognized anti-inflammatory properties, raising a possible link between inflammatory processes, alterations in progesterone receptor expression and the onset of preterm labor. Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone in women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth have been published, with primary outcomes of perinatal death, preterm birth <34 weeks, and neurodevelopmental handicap in childhood. Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the systematic review, involving 2714 women and 3452 infants, with results presented according to the reason women were considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth. While there is a potential beneficial effect in the use of progesterone for some women considered to be at increased risk of preterm birth, primarily in the reduction in the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks gestation, it remains unclear if the observed prolongation of pregnancy translates into improved health outcomes for the infant.Keywords: progesterone, preterm birth, systematic review, randomized trial

  17. Predictors of birth weight and gestational age among adolescents. (United States)

    Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong


    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994-1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24-32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context.

  18. Birth-death prior on phylogeny and speed dating

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    Sennblad Bengt


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years there has been a trend of leaving the strict molecular clock in order to infer dating of speciations and other evolutionary events. Explicit modeling of substitution rates and divergence times makes formulation of informative prior distributions for branch lengths possible. Models with birth-death priors on tree branching and auto-correlated or iid substitution rates among lineages have been proposed, enabling simultaneous inference of substitution rates and divergence times. This problem has, however, mainly been analysed in the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC framework, an approach requiring computation times of hours or days when applied to large phylogenies. Results We demonstrate that a hill-climbing maximum a posteriori (MAP adaptation of the MCMC scheme results in considerable gain in computational efficiency. We demonstrate also that a novel dynamic programming (DP algorithm for branch length factorization, useful both in the hill-climbing and in the MCMC setting, further reduces computation time. For the problem of inferring rates and times parameters on a fixed tree, we perform simulations, comparisons between hill-climbing and MCMC on a plant rbcL gene dataset, and dating analysis on an animal mtDNA dataset, showing that our methodology enables efficient, highly accurate analysis of very large trees. Datasets requiring a computation time of several days with MCMC can with our MAP algorithm be accurately analysed in less than a minute. From the results of our example analyses, we conclude that our methodology generally avoids getting trapped early in local optima. For the cases where this nevertheless can be a problem, for instance when we in addition to the parameters also infer the tree topology, we show that the problem can be evaded by using a simulated-annealing like (SAL method in which we favour tree swaps early in the inference while biasing our focus towards rate and time parameter changes

  19. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011. (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota


    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  20. Making birthing safe for Pakistan women: a cluster randomized trial

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    Khan Muhammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two out of three neonatal deaths occur in just 10 countries and Pakistan stands third among them. Maternal mortality is also high with most deaths occurring during labor, birth, and first few hours after birth. Enhanced access and utilization of skilled delivery and emergency obstetric care is the demonstrated strategy in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. This trial aims to compare reduction in neonate mortality and utilization of available safe birthing and Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care services among pregnant mothers receiving ‘structured birth planning’, and/or ‘transport facilitation’ compared to routine care. Methods A pragmatic cluster randomized trial, with qualitative and economic studies, will be conducted in Jhang, Chiniot and Khanewal districts of Punjab, Pakistan, from February 2011 to May 2013. At least 29,295 pregnancies will be registered in the three arms, seven clusters per arm; 1 structured birth planning and travel facilitation, 2 structured birth planning, and 3 control arm. Trial will be conducted through the Lady Health Worker program. Main outcomes are difference in neonatal mortality and service utilization; maternal mortality being the secondary outcome. Cluster level analysis will be done according to intention-to-treat. Discussion A nationwide network of about 100,000 lady health workers is already involved in antenatal and postnatal care of pregnant women. They also act as “gatekeepers” for the child birthing services. This gate keeping role mainly includes counseling and referral for skill birth attendance and travel arrangements for emergency obstetric care (if required. The review of current arrangements and practices show that the care delivery process needs enhancement to include adequate information provision as well as informed “decision” making and planned “action” by the pregnant women. The proposed three-year research is to develop, through national

  1. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail


    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; PMID:27128028

  2. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine


    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  3. Cardiac asystole at birth: Is hypovolemic shock the cause? (United States)

    Mercer, J; Erickson-Owens, D; Skovgaard, R


    A birth involving shoulder dystocia can rapidly deteriorate-from a fetus with a reassuring tracing in the minutes before birth, to a neonate needing aggressive resuscitation. Infants experiencing a traumatic birth involving shoulder dystocia may be severely compromised, even when the preceding labor was uncomplicated. This paper presents two cases in which infants had normal heart beats recorded 5-10min before birth and were born with cardiac asystole following shoulder dystocia. Often, in cases of shoulder dystocia, infants shift blood to the placenta due to the tight compressive squeeze of the body in the birth canal (along with cord compression) and thereby may be born hypovolemic. Our hypothesis is that the occurrence of sudden cardiac asystole at birth is due to extreme hypovolemic shock secondary to the loss of blood. At birth, the sudden release of pressure on the infant's body results in hypoperfusion resulting in low central circulation and blood pressure. Severe hypovolemic shock from these effects leads to sudden cardiac arrest. Immediate cord clamping maintains the hypovolemic state by preventing the physiologic and readily available placental blood from returning to the infant. Loss of this blood initiates an inflammatory response leading to seizures, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and brain damage or death. Animal studies have shown that human umbilical stem cells injected into a rat's abdomen after induced brain damage, can protect the rat's brain from developing permanent injury. To prevent damage to newborns, the infant must receive the blood volume and stem cells lost at the time of descent and immediate cord clamping. Recommended countermeasures for research include: (1) resuscitation at the perineum with intact cord; or (2) milking the cord before clamping; or (3) autologous transfusion of placenta blood after the birth; or (4) rapid transfusion of O negative blood after birth and before seizures begin.

  4. Order-theoretical connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Richmond


    Full Text Available Order-theoretically connected posets are introduced and applied to create the notion of T-connectivity in ordered topological spaces. As special cases T-connectivity contains classical connectivity, order-connectivity, and link-connectivity.

  5. Characteristics of extramarital births in Serbia in the second half of the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Goran


    Full Text Available Over the last five decades the share of extramarital births in the total number of live births has been increasing in all European countries. This is also true for Serbia (excluding Kosovo, where the share of extramarital births in the period of 1950-2009 increased by 3 times (from 8.0% to 23.2%, and their number increased by a fifth (from 13,141 to 16,294. Women under 25 years of age and over 40-49 years have a substantially higher share in extramarital births than in the total number of births. Almost every second extramarital child's mother is younger than 25, and changes in the period of 1961-2008 developed in the direction of a decreasing share of women under the age of 30, and especially under 25, as well as an increased share of women above 30. According to the latest data, more than a half of extramarital children are first, although their share is decreasing. At the same time, the percentage of births of second and especially of third and higher orders is increasing. The share of extramarital births is increasing with all women, regardless of their education level. The highest and constantly growing share of extramarital births is recorded with women without education and the lowest share with women with university education. According to activity, the most represented are unemployed and dependant women, who also have significantly higher shares of extramarital births than employed women. From an ethnic aspect, it is noticeable that the highest and constantly increasing share of extramarital births is present with ethnic Roma women, which reached over four fifths of the total number of children born by Roma women in 2008. Among the ethnic Serbian women the share of extramarital births is significantly below the average for Serbia. According to the type of settlements the share of extramarital births is lower in urban than in other (non-urban settlements, and in the largest urban agglomerations, including Belgrade, it is even below the

  6. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight.

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    Karoliina Wehkalampi

    Full Text Available People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development.We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2 locus (IGF2/H19 in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We studied 158 VLBW and 161 control subjects aged 18 to 27 years from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Methylation fraction at two IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs - IGF2 antisense transcript (IGF2AS, also known as IGF2 DMR0 and last exon of IGF2 (IGF2_05, also known as IGF2 DMR2 - were measured with Sequenom Epityper. We used linear regression and adjustment for covariates to compare methylation fractions at these DMRs between VLBW and control subjects.At one IGF2AS CpG site, methylation was significantly lower in VLBW than in control subjects, mean difference -0.017 (95% CI; -0.028, -0.005, P = 0.004. Methylation at IGF2_05 was not different between the groups.Methylation of IGF2AS is altered 20 years after preterm birth at VLBW. Altered methylation may be a mechanism of later increased disease risk but more data are needed to indicate causality.

  7. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants


    Lefebvre, Francine


    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  8. Exchange-Driven Growth with Birth Rate Less Than Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhen-Quan; KE Jian-Hong; YE Gao-Xiang


    We further study the kinetic behavior of the exchange-driven growth with birth and death for the case of birth rate kernel being less than that of death based on the mean-field theory. The symmetric exchange rate kernel is K(k,j) = K'(k,j) = Ikjv, and the birth and death rates are proportional to the aggregate's size. The long time asymptotic behavior of the aggregate size distribution ak(t) is found to obey a much unusual scaling law with an exponentially growing scaling function φ(x) = exp(x).

  9. On the genetic bias of the quarter of birth instrument. (United States)

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Webbink, Dinand


    Many studies in economics use quarter of birth as an instrument for identifying the causal effect of schooling on outcomes such as earnings and health. The key assumption in these studies is that people born in different quarters of the year do not differ systematically in their unobserved abilities. This study uses genetic data from the US Health and Retirement Study to analyze the validity of the quarter of birth instrument. We find some evidence that genetic factors influencing education are not randomly distributed over the year. However, these factors only slightly change the effect of quarter of birth on schooling.

  10. Seasonality in birth defects, agricultural production and urban location. (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Rees, Daniel I; Langlois, Peter H


    This paper tests whether the strength of the "spring spike" in birth defects is related to agricultural production and urban location using Texas Birth Defects Registry data for the period 1996-2007. We find evidence of a spike in birth defects among children conceived in the spring and summer, but it is more pronounced in urban non-agricultural counties than in other types of counties. Furthermore, the spike lasts longer in urban non-agricultural counties as compared to other types of counties.

  11. Changes in LDL and HDL subclasses in normal pregnancy and associations with birth weight, birth length and head circumference. (United States)

    Zeljkovic, Aleksandra; Vekic, Jelena; Spasic, Slavica; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana; Spasojevic-Kalimanovska, Vesna; Gojkovic, Tamara; Ardalic, Daniela; Mandic-Markovic, Vesna; Cerovic, Nikola; Mikovic, Zeljko


    Pregnancy is associated with alterations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses, but the exact pattern of these variations remains controversial. This study investigates longitudinal changes of plasma LDL and HDL particles distributions during the course of normal pregnancy, as well as associations of maternal LDL and HDL subclasses distributions before delivery with parameters of newborn size. Blood samples were collected from 41 healthy pregnant women throughout entire pregnancy, before delivery and 7 weeks postpartum. LDL and HDL subclasses were determined by gradient gel electrophoresis, while other biochemical parameters were measured by standard laboratory methods. During gestation LDL size significantly decreased (P LDL I (P LDL II (P HDL size and proportions of HDL 2a particles significantly decreased (P HDL 3b and 3c subclasses (P LDL subclasses distribution during gestation was transient, while postpartum HDL subclasses distribution remained shifted toward smaller particles. Higher proportion of LDL IVB in maternal plasma before delivery was an independent predictor of smaller birth weights and lengths, while higher proportions of LDL IVB and HDL 2a subclasses were independent determinants of newborns' smaller head circumferences. Routine gestational and prenatal care in otherwise normal pregnancy could be complemented with evaluation of LDL and HDL particles distribution in order to ensure an adequate size of the newborn.

  12. Dental Infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis Induces Preterm Birth in Mice.

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    Min Ao

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have revealed a link between dental infection and preterm birth or low birth weight (PTB/LBW, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Progress in understanding the associated mechanisms has been limited in part by lack of an animal model for chronic infection-induced PTB/LBW, mimicking pregnancy under conditions of periodontitis. We aimed to establish a mouse model of chronic periodontitis in order to investigate the link between periodontitis and PTB/LBW.To establish chronic inflammation beginning with dental infection, we surgically opened mouse (female, 8 weeks old 1st molar pulp chambers and directly infected with w83 strain Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g., a keystone periodontal pathogen. Mating was initiated at 6 wks post-infection, by which time dental granuloma tissue had developed and live P.g. was cultured from extracted tooth root, which serves as a persistent source of P.g. The gestational day (gd and birth weight were recorded during for P.g.-infected and control mice, and serum and placental tissues were collected at gd 15 to evaluate the systemic and local conditions during pregnancy.Dental infection with P.g. significantly increased circulating TNF-α (2.5-fold, IL-17 (2-fold, IL-6 (2-fold and IL-1β (2-fold. The P.g.-infected group delivered at gd 18.25 vs. gd 20.45 in the non-infected control (NC group (p < 0.01, and pups exhibited LBW compared to controls (p < 0.01. P.g. was localized to placental tissues by immunohistochemistry and PCR, and defects in placental tissues of P.g. infected mice included premature rupture of membrane, placental detachment, degenerative changes in trophoblasts and endothelial cells, including necrotic areas. P.g. infection caused significantly increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs and macrophages in placental tissues, associated with increased local expression of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α and COX-2. Further placental tissue

  13. The Birth of Disks Around Protostars (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The dusty disks around young stars make the news regularly due to their appeal as the birthplace of early exoplanets. But how do disks like these first form and evolve around their newly born protostars? New observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) are helping us to better understand this process.Formation from CollapseStars are born from the gravitational collapse of a dense cloud of molecular gas. Long before they start fusing hydrogen at their centers when they are still just hot overdensities in the process of contracting we call them protostars. These low-mass cores are hidden at the hearts of the clouds of molecular gas from which they are born.Aerial image of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. [EFE/Ariel Marinkovic]During this contraction phase, before a protostar transitions to a pre-main-sequence star (which it does by blowing away its outer gas envelope, halting the stars growth), much of the collapsing material will spin into a centrifugally supported Keplerian disk that surrounds the young protostar. Later, these circumstellar disks will become the birthplace for young planets something for which weve seen observational evidence in recent years.But how do these Keplerian disks which eventually have scales of hundreds of AU first form and grow around protostars? We need observations of these disks in their early stages of formation to understand their birth and evolution a challenging prospect, given the obscuring molecular gas that hides them at these stages. ALMA, however, is up to the task: it can peer through to the center of the gas clouds to see the emission from protostellar cores and their surroundings.ALMA observations of the protostar Lupus 3 MMS. The molecular outflows from the protostar are shown in panel a. Panel b shows the continuum emission, which has a compact component that likely traces a disk surrounding the protostar. [Adapted from Yen et al. 2017]New Disks Revealed?In a recent

  14. Role of Maternal Periodontitis in Preterm Birth (United States)

    Ren, Hongyu; Du, Minquan


    In the last two decades, many studies have focused on whether periodontitis is a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB). However, both epidemiological investigation and intervention trials have reached contradictory results from different studies. What explains the different findings, and how should future studies be conducted to better assess this risk factor? This article reviews recent epidemiological, animal, and in vitro studies as well as intervention trials that evaluate the link between periodontitis and PTB. Periodontitis may act as a distant reservoir of microbes and inflammatory mediators and contribute to the induction of PTB. Animal studies revealed that maternal infections with periodontal pathogens increase levels of circulating IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and TNF-α and induce PTB. In vitro models showed that periodontal pathogens/byproducts induce COX-2, IL-8, IFN-γ, and TNF-α secretion and/or apoptosis in placental tissues/cells. The effectiveness of periodontal treatment to prevent PTB is influenced by the diagnostic criteria of periodontitis, microbial community composition, severity of periodontitis, treatment strategy, treatment efficiency, and the period of treatment during pregnancy. Although intervention trials reported contradictory results, oral health maintenance is an important part of preventive care that is both effective and safe throughout pregnancy and should be supported before and during pregnancy. As contradictory epidemiological and intervention studies continue to be published, two new ideas are proposed here: (1) severe and/or generalized periodontitis promotes PTB and (2) periodontitis only promotes PTB for pregnant women who are young or HIV-infected or have preeclampsia, pre-pregnancy obesity, or susceptible genotypes.

  15. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald


    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  16. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn


    According to many national recommendations, women should be physically active during pregnancy, but empirical evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the relation between physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth. Self......-reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week...

  17. VSRR - Provisional monthly number of live births by state (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Monthly provisional counts of births are provided by state of residence (50 states, District of...

  18. Status of Women in Society and Life Expectancy at Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anica Novak


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of the status of women in society over life expectancy at birth. Based on the data of some of the socio-economic variables for 187 countries worldwide, collected by the United Nations within United Nations Development Programme – Human Development Report, we developed a regression model of life expectancy factors. Through empirical testing of the three hypotheses which refer to different aspects of the status of women in society, we found that the employment ratio between women and men has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth, which is, at least at first glance, unexpected. At the same time, the number of teenage births per 100 women aged 15–19 as well as gender inequality has a statistically significant negative impact on life expectancy at birth.

  19. Neonatal skeletal fractures. Birth trauma or child abuse? (United States)

    Cumming, W A


    When a fracture is discovered in a newborn infant, it is important to decide whether it occurred at birth or after birth. Calcification around the fracture site gives a useful estimate of the age of the fracture. We reviewed films of 23 patients with fractures resulting from delivery. The fractures occurred at three different sites: the clavicle, the humerus, and the femur. Calcification could be seen as early as seven days after birth and was absent for as long as 11 days after birth. Six of seven femoral fractures occurred in infants with neuromuscular problems. Fracture at an unusual site or absence of calcification after 11 days should alert the radiologist to the possibility of abuse.

  20. New Guidelines Reaffirm Prenatal Folic Acid to Curb Birth Defects (United States)

    ... New Guidelines Reaffirm Prenatal Folic Acid to Curb Birth Defects ... HealthDay News) -- In a recommendation that reaffirms previous guidelines, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force said that ...